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Sample records for combustion turbine ct

  1. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2003-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. Such systems would interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to the machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, forward projections of servicing intervals, estimate remaining component life, and identify faults. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical

  2. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  3. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  4. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  5. Pressure Gain Combustion for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    downstream of a large  diesel  engine, they tested three turbine geometries the best experienced  a drop in efficiency of 10%.   A few people have  looked...Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo 1995 [3] Heffer, J., 2010, Integration of Pressure Gain Combustion with Gas Turbines, Ph.D. Thesis...investigated  an  axial  turbocharger  designed  for  use  downstream  of  a  large  diesel   engine,  they  tested  three  turbine geometries the best

  6. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  7. Construction of a power plant with prototype DLN combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.L. [CSW Energy, Dallas, TX (United States); Drummond, L.J. [Zurn NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Design and construction of a power plant is always a difficult process and this is especially true when the main keystone, the combustion turbine engine, is being modified by the manufacturer resulting in numerous changes in the design interfaces. The development of the design and construction of the Orange Cogeneration Facility has been in parallel with major modification of the LM6000 to DLE technology (a Dry Low NO{sub x} combustion system). The Dry Low NO{sub x} Combustion System for a combustion turbine offered a means to reduce water usage, lower Zero Liquid Discharge System operating costs and reduce emissions to meet Florida Department of Environmental Protection requirements. This development was successfully accomplished by Owner, EPC contractor and Combustion Turbine Manufacturer by maintaining flexibility in the design and construction while the design interfaces and performance of the combustion turbines were being finalized.

  8. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  9. Gas turbines with complete continuous combustion of the fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns a gas turbine plant with complete continuous combustion of the fuel. The fuel is taken to a gas generator in which the preheated fuel is catalytically converted at high temperature in a fuel mixture using an oxygen carrier. Heating of the fuel takes place in a heat exchanger which is situated in the outlet pipe of the turbine. The efficiency is increased and the emission of noxious gas is kept as low as possible using the heat exchanger as a fuel evaporator and by using part of the waste formed in the combustion chamber to carry oxygen to the gas generator via an outlet pipe.

  10. Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirignano, William A; Liu, Feng; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid...

  11. Flashback mechanisms in lean premixed gas turbine combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Benim, Ali Cemal

    2014-01-01

    Blending fuels with hydrogen offers the potential to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions in gas turbines, but doing so introduces potential new problems such as flashback.  Flashback can lead to thermal overload and destruction of hardware in the turbine engine, with potentially expensive consequences. The little research on flashback that is available is fragmented. Flashback Mechanisms in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustion by Ali Cemal Benim will address not only the overall issue of the flashback phenomenon, but also the issue of fragmented and incomplete research.Presents a coherent review of f

  12. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  13. Experimental study of biogas combustion using a gas turbine configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafay, Y.; Taupin, B.; Martins, G.; Cabot, G.; Renou, B.; Boukhalfa, A. [CNRS UMR 6614, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of the present work is to compare stability combustion domains, flame structures and dynamics between CH{sub 4}/air flames and a biogas/air flames (issued from waste methanisation) in a lean gas turbine premixed combustion conditions. Velocity profiles are obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements. CH* chemiluminescence measurements and temporal acquisition of chamber pressure are performed in order to describe flame structure and instabilities. Changes in flame structure and dynamics when fuel composition is varying are found to strongly depend on laminar flame speed. No clear correlation between the unstable flame and the reaction zone penetration in the corner recirculation can be found. (orig.)

  14. Combustion and Fuels in Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    English and French) AGARD Advisory Report 150. Results of WG 09 (February 1980) Through Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachines AGARD Advisory Report 175...Averaging Techniques in Non-Uniform Internal Flows AGARD Advisory Report 182 (in English and French). Results of WG 14 (June/August 1983) Producibility...A linear regression was used to develop an expression for the change in combustion efficiency relatice to Aoa. 1 an O4 a 0.t T, 0.0274 aTar f:a

  15. Gas turbine structural mounting arrangement between combustion gas duct annular chamber and turbine vane carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Charron, Richard C.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2016-10-18

    A gas turbine engine ducting arrangement (10), including: an annular chamber (14) configured to receive a plurality of discrete flows of combustion gases originating in respective can combustors and to deliver the discrete flows to a turbine inlet annulus, wherein the annular chamber includes an inner diameter (52) and an outer diameter (60); an outer diameter mounting arrangement (34) configured to permit relative radial movement and to prevent relative axial and circumferential movement between the outer diameter and a turbine vane carrier (20); and an inner diameter mounting arrangement (36) including a bracket (64) secured to the turbine vane carrier, wherein the bracket is configured to permit the inner diameter to move radially with the outer diameter and prevent axial deflection of the inner diameter with respect to the outer diameter.

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stationary Combustion Turbines 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Pt. 60, Subpt. KKKK, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60—Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines Combustion...

  17. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of a test combustor suitable for studying combustion oscillations caused by a commercial-scale gas turbine fuel nozzle. Aside from the need to be conducted at elevated pressures and temperatures, it is desirable for the experimental device to be flexible in its geometry so as to provide an acoustic environment representative of the commercial device. The combustor design, capabilities, and relevant instrumentation for such a device are presented, along with initial operating experience and preliminary data that suggests the importance of nozzle reference velocity and air temperature.

  18. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  19. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  1. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of the...

  2. Influence of moist combustion gas on performance of a sub-critical turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenbin; Su Ming

    2005-01-01

    In the HAT cycle, as the absolute humidity of the moist combustion gas increases, the performance of the turbine will also change. In this paper, one model to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the moist combustion gas is introduced, and another model to calculate the performance of the turbine is formulated based on the equations of one dimensional flow. Using these models with the geometric parameters of the turbine fixed, at the design working condition, the performance of the turbine is calculated and analyzed for different absolute humidities. Finally, some conclusions about the turbine performance are presented

  3. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  4. Chemical Kinetics in Support of Syngas Turbine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick

    2007-07-31

    This document is the final report on an overall program formulated to extend our prior work in developing and validating kinetic models for the CO/hydrogen/oxygen reaction by carefully analyzing the individual and interactive behavior of specific elementary and subsets of elementary reactions at conditions of interest to syngas combustion in gas turbines. A summary of the tasks performed under this work are: 1. Determine experimentally the third body efficiencies in H+O{sub 2}+M = HO{sub 2}+M (R1) for CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. 2. Using published literature data and the results in this program, further develop the present H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent and CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mechanisms for dilution with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} through comparisons with new experimental validation targets for H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} reaction kinetics in the presence of significant diluent fractions of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}O, at high pressures. (task amplified to especially address ignition delay issues, see below). 3. Analyze and demonstrate issues related to NOx interactions with syngas combustion chemistry (task amplified to include interactions of iron pentacarbonyl with syngas combustion chemistry, see below). 4. Publish results, including updated syngas kinetic model. Results are summarized in this document and its appendices. Three archival papers which contain a majority of the research results have appeared. Those results not published elsewhere are highlighted here, and will appear as part of future publications. Portions of the work appearing in the above publications were also supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER-13503. As a result of and during the research under the present contract, we became aware of other reported results that revealed substantial differences between experimental characterizations of ignition delays for syngas mixtures and ignition delay predictions based upon homogenous kinetic modeling. We

  5. Investigation of combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Juan; Weng Yiwu

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this research were to investigate the combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine. The characteristics of lean burn catalytic combustion were investigated by utilising 1D heterogeneous plug flow model which was validated by experiments. The effects of operating parameters on catalytic combustion were numerically analysed. The system models were built in ASPEN Plus and three independent design variables, i.e. compressor pressure ratio (PR), regenerator effectiveness (RE) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) were selected to analyse the thermodynamic performance of the thermal cycle. The main results show that: simulations from 1D heterogeneous plug flow model can capture the trend of catalytic combustion and describe the behavior of the catalytic monolith in detail. Inlet temperature is the most significant parameter that impacts operation of the catalytic combustor. When TIT and RE are constant, the increase of PR results in lowering the inlet temperature of the catalytic combustor, which results in decreasing methane conversion. The peak thermal efficiency and the optimal PR at a constant TIT increase with the increase of TIT; and at the constant PR, the thermal efficiency increases with the increase of TIT. However, with lower TIT conditions, the optimal PR and the peak efficiency at a constant TIT of the LBCCGT cycle are relative low to that of the conventional cycle. When TIT and PR are constant, the decrease of RE may result in lower methane conversion. The influences of RE on the methane conversion and the thermal efficiency are more significant at higher PRs. The higher thermal efficiency for the lower RE is achieved at lower PR.

  6. Accuracy improvement of the modified EDM model for non-premixed turbulent combustion in gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight bluff body and swirl turbulent diffusion flames resembling the flow field and combustion inside gas turbine combustors are simulated and the simulation results are compared with experimental data. It is revealed that the original modified EDM model could not predict the temperature profile accurately. A more accurate model is developed and validated for gas turbine combustion application. However, this model under predicts the flame temperature for the regular round jet flames indicating that no universal form of the modified EDM model could be achieved for the combustion simulation of both gas furnaces and gas turbines.

  7. Stationary Combustion Turbines: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for stationary combustion turbines by reading the rule history, the rule summary, additional resources, docket folder documents, the economic impact analysis, fact sheet and more

  8. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  9. Turbulent combustion modeling using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds for Gas Turbine applications in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fancello, A.; Panek, L.; Lammel, O.; Krebs, W.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous interest in reducing pollutions and developing both an efficient and clean combustion system require large attention in the design requirements, especially when related to industrial gas turbine application. Although in recent years the advancements in modelling have increased

  10. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  11. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were that the flame geometry be maintained and acoustic losses be minimized; this was achieved by using a Helmholtz resonator as the combustor geometry. Surprisingly, the combustor oscillated strongly at several frequencies, without modification of the resonator. Brief survey of operating conditions suggests that it may be helpful to characterize oscillating behavior in terms of reference velocity and inlet air temperature with the rig backpressure playing a smaller role. The preliminary results do not guarantee that the single-nozzle test device will reproduce arbitrary oscillations that occur on a complete engine test. Nozzle/nozzle interactions may complicate the response, and oscillations controlled by acoustic velocities transverse to the nozzle axis may not be reproduced in a test device that relies on a bulk Helmholtz mode. Nevertheless, some oscillations can be reproduced, and the single-nozzle test device allows both active and passive control strategies to be tested relatively inexpensively.

  12. Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.

  13. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.

    2013-07-01

    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  15. Thermodynamic characteristics of a low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Juan; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang; Weng, Yiwu

    2010-01-01

    Low concentration methane, emitted from coal mines, landfill, animal waste, etc. into the atmosphere, is not only a greenhouse gas, but also a waste energy source if not utilised. Methane is 23 times more potent than CO 2 in terms of trapping heat in the atmosphere over a timeframe of 100 years. This paper studies a novel lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine, which can be powered with about 1% methane (volume) in air. When this technology is successfully developed, it can be used not only to mitigate the methane for greenhouse gas reduction, but also to utilise such methane as a clean energy source. This paper presents our study results on the thermodynamic characteristics of this new lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system by conducting thermal performance analysis of the turbine cycle. The thermodynamic data including thermal efficiencies and exergy loss of main components of the turbine system are presented under different pressure ratios, turbine inlet temperatures and methane concentrations.

  16. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandsburger, U.; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Roe, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1995 progress was made in all three funded subject areas of the project as well as in a new area. Work in the area of mixing and combustion management through flow actuation was transferred into an enclosed facility. Jet mixing in a ducted co-flow was examined. The same jets were also subjected to a strong acoustic field established in the duct. Excitation of the jet with static spatial modes was shown to be effective even in the presence of co-flow and the acoustic field. Only when a wall is placed at the jet exit plane did the acoustic field dominate the jet dispersion (as expected due to reflective boundary conditions and the jet shear layer receptivity). This case is, however, not the most relevant to gas turbine combustors since it precludes co-flow. In the area of combustor testing, the design, fabrication, and assembly of a modular combustor test rig for project has been completed at the University of Arkansas. In the area of high temperature piezoceramic actuator materials development, Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} powders have been synthesized, and bulk samples and thick films sintered. These materials have a curie temperature of about 1400{degrees}C compared with 300{degrees}C for the commercially available PZT. While at room temperature the new materials show a piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) which is a factor of 100 lower than PZT, at high temperatures they can exhibit significant action. A new area of non-linear, neural-net based, controllers for mixing and combustion control has been added during the second contract year. This work is not funded by the contract. Significant progress was made in this area. Neural nets with up to 15 neurons in the hidden layer were trained with experimental data and also with data generated using linear stability theory. System ID was performed successfully. The network was then used to predict the behavior of jets excited at other modes not used for the training.

  17. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  18. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  19. Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos D. Isvoranu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of a numerical algorithm for the computation of flow and combustion in a turbine combustor. The flow and combustion are modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the species-conservation equations. The chemistry model used herein is a two-step, global, finite-rate combustion model for methane and combustion gases. The governing equations are written in the strong conservation form and solved using a fully implicit, finite-difference approximation. The gas dynamics and chemistry equations are fully decoupled. A correction technique has been developed to enforce the conservation of mass fractions. The numerical algorithm developed herein has been used to investigate the flow and combustion in a one-stage turbine combustor.

  20. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  1. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  2. Improved correlations of hydrogen content versus combustion performance related properties of aviation turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Sharma, R.L.; Sagu, M.L.; Tiwari, G.B. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the hydrogen content of Aviation Fuels has generated considerable interest. Various investigators have suggested correlation of hydrogen content with combustion related properties of aviation turbine fuel (ATF). A suitable threshold value of hydrogen content 13.8 wt% is being considered as a waiver of specifications such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point, aromatic content, naphthalenes and luminometer number. In the present paper relationship between the hydrogen content and combustion related properties has been examined and improved correlations of hydrogen content with several combustion related properties have been developed by incorporating a characterization factor in the equations. The supporting threshold value of a hydrogen content of 13.8wt% is verified with 25 data points for waiving of combustion properties such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point and aromatic content from aviation turbine fuel. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle Reliability, Availability & Maintainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2005-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established Operation and Maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that, in real time, interpret data to assess the 'total health' of combustion turbines. The 'Combustion Turbine Health Management System' (CTHMS) will consist of a series of 'Dynamic Link Library' (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. CTHMS interprets sensor and instrument outputs, correlates them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, the CTHMS enables real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  4. The generation of electricity by gas turbines using the catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, O.P.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    Various systems for the generation of electricity by gas turbines using catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases have been investigated. Parametric studies of three configurations that are deemed to be practically feasible have been completed. It is shown that thermodynamic efficiency of these systems...... may be quite high. The system design has been made to comply with generally accepted limitations on the operation of the compressors, turbines and heat exchangers. The heat catalyst has been investigated experimentally in order to establish design information. The system design has been carried out...... on the basis of these experiments and of commonly accepted limits on the operation of the compressors, turbines, and heat exchangers...

  5. The analysis of mechanical integrity in gas turbine engines subjected to combustion instabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altunlu, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Stringent regulations have been introduced towards reducing pollutant emissions and preserving our environment. Lowering NOx emissions is one of the main targets of industrial gas turbine engines for power generation. The combustion zone temperature is one of the critical parameters, which is

  6. Conjugated heat transfer and temperature distributions in a gas turbine combustion liner under base-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Yun, Nam Geon; Jeon, Yun Heung; Lee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yung Hee

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of temperature distributions on hot components is important in development of a gas turbine combustion liner. The present study investigated conjugated heat transfer to obtain temperature distributions in a combustion liner with six combustion nozzles. 3D numerical simulations using FVM commercial codes, Fluent and CFX were performed to calculate combustion and heat transfer distributions. The temperature distributions in the combustor liner were calculated by conjugation of conduction and convection (heat transfer coefficients) obtained by combustion and cooling flow analysis. The wall temperature was the highest on the attachment points of the combustion gas from combustion nozzles, but the temperature gradient was high at the after shell section with low wall temperature

  7. Experimental study of slight temperature rise combustion in trapped vortex combustors for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.C.; Fan, W.J.; Xing, F.; Song, S.W.; Shi, Q.; Tian, G.H.; Tan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Interstage turbine combustion used for improving efficiency of gas turbine was a new type of combustion mode. Operating conditions and technical requirements for this type of combustor were different from those of traditional combustor. It was expected to achieve engineering application in both ground-based and aviation gas turbine in the near future. In this study, a number of modifications in a base design were applied and examined experimentally. The trapped-vortex combustion technology was adopted for flame stability under high velocity conditions, and the preheating-fuel injection technology was used to improve the atomization and evaporation performance of liquid fuel. The experimental results indicated that stable and efficient combustion with slight temperature-rise can be achieved under the high velocity conditions of combustor inlet. Under all experimental conditions, the excess air coefficients of ignition and lean blow-out were larger than 7 and 20, respectively; pollutant emission index of NO x and the maximum wall temperature were below 2.5 g/(kg fuel) and 1050 K, respectively. Moreover, the effects of fuel injection and overall configuration on the combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail. The number increase, area increase and depth increase of fuel injectors had different influences on the stability, combustion characteristic and temperature distribution. - Highlights: • The combustion mode of slight temperature-rise (200 K) was achieved. • Effect of fuel and air injection on stability characteristic was investigated. • Impact of overall configuration on combustion performance was analyzed. • The feasibility of scheme was determined.

  8. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Thiago Koichi; Fontes, Carlo Eduardo; Ropelato, Karolline [Engineering Simulation and Scientic Software Ltda. (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: anzai, carlos.fontes, ropelato@esss.com.br; Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Huapaya, Luis Enrique Alva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: luisfer.luisalva@esp.puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The accurate determination of pollutant emission from gas turbine combustors is a crucial problem in situations when such equipment is subject to long periods of operation away from the design point. In such operating conditions, the flow field structure may also drastically differ from the design point one, leading to the presence of undesirable hot spots or combustion instabilities, for instance. A priori experiments on all possible operation conditions is economically unfeasible, therefore, models that allow for the prediction of combustion behavior in the full operation range could be used to instruct power plant operators on the best strategies to be adopted. Since the direct numerical simulation of industrial combustors is beyond reach of the foreseeable computational resources, simplified models should be used for such purpose. This works presents the results of the application to an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber of the CFD technique to the prediction of the reactive flow field. This is the first step on the coupling of reactive CFD results with detailed chemical kinetics modeling using chemical reactor networks, toward the goal of accurately predicting pollutant emissions. The CFD model considers the detailed geometrical information of such a combustion chamber and uses actual operating conditions, calibrated via an overall gas turbine thermodynamical simulation, as boundary conditions. This model retains the basic information on combustion staging, which occurs both in diffusion and lean premixed modes. The turbulence has been modeled using the SST-CC model, which is characterized by a well established regime of accurate predictive capability. Combustion and turbulence interaction is accounted for by using the Zimont et al. model, which makes use of on empirical expression for the turbulent combustion velocity for the closure of the progress variable transport equation. A high resolution scheme is used to solve the advection terms of the

  10. Status of Westinghouse coal-fueled combustion turbine programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Amos, D.J.; Bannister, R.L.; Garland, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Developing clean, efficient, cost effective coal utilization technologies for future power generation is an essential part of our National Energy Strategy. Westinghouse is actively developing power plants utilizing advanced gasification, atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds (PFB), and direct firing technology through programs sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is sponsoring the Direct Coal-Fired Turbine program. This paper presents the status of current and potential Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit advanced coal-fueled power generation programs as well as commercial plans

  11. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  12. Apparatus and method for temperature mapping a turbine component in a high temperature combustion environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleine, Erwan; Sheldon, Danny M

    2014-06-10

    Method and system for calibrating a thermal radiance map of a turbine component in a combustion environment. At least one spot (18) of material is disposed on a surface of the component. An infrared (IR) imager (14) is arranged so that the spot is within a field of view of the imager to acquire imaging data of the spot. A processor (30) is configured to process the imaging data to generate a sequence of images as a temperature of the combustion environment is increased. A monitor (42, 44) may be coupled to the processor to monitor the sequence of images of to determine an occurrence of a physical change of the spot as the temperature is increased. A calibration module (46) may be configured to assign a first temperature value to the surface of the turbine component when the occurrence of the physical change of the spot is determined.

  13. Stochastic modelling of turbulent combustion for design optimization of gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna Ismail, Mohammed Ali

    The present work covers the development and the implementation of an efficient algorithm for the design optimization of gas turbine combustors. The purpose is to explore the possibilities and indicate constructive suggestions for optimization techniques as alternative methods for designing gas turbine combustors. The algorithm is general to the extent that no constraints are imposed on the combustion phenomena or on the combustor configuration. The optimization problem is broken down into two elementary problems: the first is the optimum search algorithm, and the second is the turbulent combustion model used to determine the combustor performance parameters. These performance parameters constitute the objective and physical constraints in the optimization problem formulation. The examination of both turbulent combustion phenomena and the gas turbine design process suggests that the turbulent combustion model represents a crucial part of the optimization algorithm. The basic requirements needed for a turbulent combustion model to be successfully used in a practical optimization algorithm are discussed. In principle, the combustion model should comply with the conflicting requirements of high fidelity, robustness and computational efficiency. To that end, the problem of turbulent combustion is discussed and the current state of the art of turbulent combustion modelling is reviewed. According to this review, turbulent combustion models based on the composition PDF transport equation are found to be good candidates for application in the present context. However, these models are computationally expensive. To overcome this difficulty, two different models based on the composition PDF transport equation were developed: an improved Lagrangian Monte Carlo composition PDF algorithm and the generalized stochastic reactor model. Improvements in the Lagrangian Monte Carlo composition PDF model performance and its computational efficiency were achieved through the

  14. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to

  15. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  16. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  17. A 25 kWe low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shi; Yu, Xinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Low concentration methane, emitted from various industries e.g. coal mines and landfills into atmosphere, is not only an important greenhouse gas, but also a wasted energy resource if not utilized. In the past decade, we have been developing a novel VAMCAT (ventilation air methane catalytic combustion gas turbine) technology. This turbine technology can be used to mitigate methane emissions for greenhouse gas reduction, and also to utilize the low concentration methane as an energy source. This paper presents our latest research results on the development and demonstration of a 25 kWe lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit. Recent experimental results show that the unit can be operated with 0.8 vol% of methane in air, producing about 19–21 kWe of electricity output. - Highlights: • A novel low concentration methane catalytic turbine prototype unit was developed. • The 25 kWe unit can be operated with ∼0.8 vol.% CH 4 in air with 19–21 kWe output. • A new start-up method was developed for the prototype unit

  18. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATED HIGH TEMPERATURE MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT MULTIMODE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  19. Quantitative measurement of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction by multidetector CT in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadir, Osman; Kosucu, Polat

    2012-12-01

    To objectively assess the efficacy of radiofrequency thermal ablation of inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Thirty-five patients with nasal obstruction secondary to inferior turbinate hypertrophy were prospectively enrolled. Radiofrequency energy was delivered to four sites in each inferior turbinate. Patients were evaluated before and 8 weeks after intervention. Subjective evaluation of nasal obstruction was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and objective evaluation of the turbinate volume reduction was calculated using multidetector CT. Volumetric measurements of the preoperative inferior turbinate were compared with postoperative values on both sides. The great majority of patients (91.4%) exhibited subjective postoperative improvement. Mean obstruction (VAS) improved significantly from 7.45±1.48 to 3.54±1.96. Significant turbinate volume reduction was achieved by the surgery on both right and left sides [(preoperative vs. postoperative, right: 6.55±1.62cm(3) vs. 5.10±1.47cm(3), (PRadiofrequency is a safe and effective surgical procedure in reducing turbinate volume in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Multidetector CT is an objective method of assessment in detecting radiofrequency turbinate volume reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combustion of oil shale, fluidized coal and pyrolysis fuel oil in a gas turbine for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosi, A; Basler, B; Pepper, M W

    1984-04-01

    A combustion test programme has been carried out with a Brown, Boveri and Cie. (BBC) type 9, gas turbine, at the BBC works in Muenchenstein, Switzerland, in order to clarify the combustion possibilities of three unconventional fuels. The programme has been organized and financed by BBC, Stone and Webster and Exxon. Approximately 95,000 litres of each fuel at various turbine load conditions have been burned. At certain points water was injected for NOsub(x) reduction. The tests show that the commercially available gas turbine can be used without modification with these tested, unconventional fuels. They also show that direct application of inferior petrochemical materials, which are produced today, is possible.

  1. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  2. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  3. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  4. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young

    2016-01-01

    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor

  5. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young [Environment and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor.

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  7. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  8. Effect of Simulated High Hydrogen Content Combustion Environments on Abradable Properties of Ceramic Turbine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Majumder, Madhura

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) abradable coatings are used in the turbine hot section to reduce the stator-rotor gap, minimizing gas leakage. These coatings are designed to exhibit controlled removal of material in thin layers when the turbine blades sweep through the coating, which protects the mechanical integrity of the turbine blade. In an effort to lower CO2 emissions, high H2 content fuel is being explored. This change in chemical composition of the fuel may affect the microstructure, abradability and durability of the coatings at turbine operational temperatures. The presence of high water vapor in the combustion chamber leads to accelerated degradation of the sacrificial coating materials. In this work, zirconia based composite materials with a machinable phase and varied porosity have been used to study microstructural evolution, thermal and chemical stability of the phases and abradable characteristics of baseline coating systems in both humid and dry environments. Investigation of the mechanisms that control the removal of materials and performance of abradable coatings through thermo-mechanical tests will be discussed.

  9. Improved PFB operations: 400-hour turbine test results. [coal combustion products and hot corrosion in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal-burning reactor was used to provide hot effluent gases for operation of a small gas turbine. Preliminary tests determined the optimum operating conditions that would result in minimum bed particle carryover in the combustion gases. Solids were removed from the gases before they could be transported into the test turbine by use of a modified two stage cyclone separator. Design changes and refined operation procedures resulted in a significant decrease in particle carryover, from 2800 to 93 ppm (1.5 to 0.05 grains/std cu ft), with minimal drop in gas temperature and pressure. The achievement of stable burn conditions and low solids loadings made possible a 400 hr test of small superalloy rotor, 15 cm (6 in.) in diameter, operating in the effluent. Blades removed and examined metallographically after 200 hr exhibited accelerated oxidation over most of the blade surface, with subsurface alumina penetration to 20 micron m. After 400 hours, average erosion loss was about 25 micron m (1 mil). Sulfide particles, indicating hot corrosion, were present in depletion zones, and their presence corresponded in general to the areas of adherent solids deposit. Sulfidation appears to be a materials problem equal in importance to erosion.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of combustion turbines: recommendations for reliability, maintainability, supportability and maintenance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwisse, C.; Despujols, A. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Chatou (France); Givaudan, B. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division - SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Lafage, L. [Electricite de France, Engineering and Construction Division - CNET, Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The profitability of combustion turbines intended for export is of extreme importance for Electricite de France. It is principally during the development phase of a project that one can ensure resect of two indissociable factors, essential to the per-kWh production cost: global operating costs and performance in terms of reliability and availability. The approach proposed here advocates the global acquisition of the installation and its logistic support. Generally applicable recommendations are given. They enable integrating in the future plant specifications all requirements relative to plant reliability, availability, maintainability and logistic support. They are structured according to type: expression of needs and management factors. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Robust, Reliable Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret Stacy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Im, Hong Geum [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The effects of high hydrogen content fuels were studied using experimental, computational and theoretical approaches to understand the effects of mixture and state conditions on the ignition behavior of the fuels. A rapid compression facility (RCF) was used to measure the ignition delay time of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures. The data were combined with results of previous studies to develop ignition regime criteria. Analytical theory and direct numerical simulation were used to validate and interpret the RCF ignition data. Based on the integrated information the ignition regime criteria were extended to non-dimensional metrics which enable application of the results to practical gas turbine combustion systems.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of combustion turbines: recommendations for reliability, maintainability, supportability and maintenance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwisse, C; Despujols, A [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Chatou (France); Givaudan, B [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division - SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Lafage, L [Electricite de France, Engineering and Construction Division - CNET, Paris (France)

    1999-12-31

    The profitability of combustion turbines intended for export is of extreme importance for Electricite de France. It is principally during the development phase of a project that one can ensure resect of two indissociable factors, essential to the per-kWh production cost: global operating costs and performance in terms of reliability and availability. The approach proposed here advocates the global acquisition of the installation and its logistic support. Generally applicable recommendations are given. They enable integrating in the future plant specifications all requirements relative to plant reliability, availability, maintainability and logistic support. They are structured according to type: expression of needs and management factors. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Investigation of Methane Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Swirl-Stabilised Gas Turbine Model Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 has a strong impact on both operability and emission behaviours in gas turbine combustors. In the present study, an atmospheric, preheated, swirl-stabilised optical gas turbine model combustor rig was employed. The primary objectives were to analyse the influence of CO2 on the fundamental characteristics of combustion, lean blowout (LBO limits, CO emission and flame structures. CO2 dilution effects were examined with three preheating temperatures (396.15, 431.15, and 466.15 K. The fundamental combustion characteristics were studied utilising chemical kinetic simulations. To study the influence of CO2 on the operational range of the combustor, equivalence ratio (Ф was varied from stoichiometric conditions to the LBO limits. CO emissions were measured at the exit of the combustor using a water-cooled probe over the entire operational range. The flame structures and locations were characterised by performing CH chemiluminescence imaging. The inverse Abel transformation was used to analyse the CH distribution on the axisymmetric plane of the combustor. Chemical kinetic modelling indicated that the CO2 resulted in a lower reaction rate compared with the CH4/air flame. Fundamental combustion properties such as laminar flame speed, ignition delay time and blowout residence time were found to be affected by CO2. The experimental results revealed that CO2 dilution resulted in a narrower operational range for the equivalence ratio. It was also found that CO2 had a strong inhibiting effect on CO burnout, which led to a higher concentration of CO in the combustion exhaust. CH chemiluminescence showed that the CO2 dilution did not have a significant impact on the flame structure.

  14. Fuel flexible distributed combustion for efficient and clean gas turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Ahmed E.E.; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Examined distributed combustion for gas turbines applications using HiTAC. • Gaseous, liquid, conventional and bio-fuels are examined with ultra-low emissions. • Novel design of fuel flexibility without any atomizer for liquid fuel sprays. • Demonstrated fuel flexibility with emissions x and CO, low noise, enhanced stability, higher efficiency and alleviation of combustion instability. Distributed reaction conditions were achieved using swirl for desirable controlled mixing between the injected air, fuel and hot reactive gases from within the combustor prior to mixture ignition. In this paper, distributed combustion is further investigated using a variety of fuels. Gaseous (methane, diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane and propane) and liquid fuels, including both traditional (kerosene) and alternate fuels (ethanol) that cover a wide range of calorific values are investigated with emphasis on pollutants emission and combustor performance with each fuel. For liquid fuels, no atomization or spray device was used. Performance evaluation with the different fuels was established to outline the flexibility of the combustor using a wide range of fuels of different composition, phase and calorific value with specific focus on ultra-low pollutants emission. Results obtained on pollutants emission and OH * chemiluminescence for the specific fuels at various equivalence ratios are presented. Near distributed combustion conditions with less than 8 PPM of NO emission were demonstrated under novel premixed conditions for the various fuels tested at heat (energy) release intensity (HRI) of 27 MW/m 3 -atm. and a rather high equivalence ratio of 0.6. Higher equivalence ratios lacked favorable distributed combustion conditions. For the same conditions, CO emission varied for each fuel; less than 10 ppm were demonstrated for methane based fuels, while heavier liquid fuels provided less than 40 ppm CO emissions. Lower emissions of NO ( x can be possible by

  15. Review of modern low emissions combustion technologies for aero gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yize; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Sethi, Vishal; Nalianda, Devaiah; Li, Yi-Guang; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Pollutant emissions from aircraft in the vicinity of airports and at altitude are of great public concern due to their impact on environment and human health. The legislations aimed at limiting aircraft emissions have become more stringent over the past few decades. This has resulted in an urgent need to develop low emissions combustors in order to meet legislative requirements and reduce the impact of civil aviation on the environment. This article provides a comprehensive review of low emissions combustion technologies for modern aero gas turbines. The review considers current high Technologies Readiness Level (TRL) technologies including Rich-Burn Quick-quench Lean-burn (RQL), Double Annular Combustor (DAC), Twin Annular Premixing Swirler combustors (TAPS), Lean Direct Injection (LDI). It further reviews some of the advanced technologies at lower TRL. These include NASA multi-point LDI, Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP), Axially Staged Combustors (ASC) and Variable Geometry Combustors (VGC). The focus of the review is placed on working principles, a review of the key technologies (includes the key technology features, methods of realising the technology, associated technology advantages and design challenges, progress in development), technology application and emissions mitigation potential. The article concludes the technology review by providing a technology evaluation matrix based on a number of combustion performance criteria including altitude relight auto-ignition flashback, combustion stability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, size and weight, liner life and exit temperature distribution.

  16. Experimental Combustion Dynamics Behavior of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Waldo A.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion dynamic characteristics of a research multi-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor under simulated gas turbine conditions was conducted. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the physical phenomena inside a pressurized flametube combustion chamber under acoustically isolated conditions. A nine-point swirl venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) geometry was evaluated at inlet pressures up to 2,413 kPa and non-vitiated air temperatures up to 867 K. The equivalence ratio was varied to obtain adiabatic flame temperatures between 1388 K and 1905 K. Dynamic pressure measurements were taken upstream of the SV-LDI, in the combustion zone and downstream of the exit nozzle. The measurements showed that combustion dynamics were fairly small when the fuel was distributed uniformly and mostly due to fluid dynamics effects. Dynamic pressure fluctuations larger than 40 kPa at low frequencies were measured at 653 K inlet temperature and 1117 kPa inlet pressure when fuel was shifted and the pilot fuel injector equivalence ratio was increased to 0.72.

  17. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  18. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  19. The atomization and burning of biofuels in the combustion chambers of gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorova, A. I.; Vasil'ev, A. Yu; Sviridenkov, A. A.; Chelebyan, O. G.

    2017-11-01

    The present work analyzes the effect of physical properties of liquid fuels with high viscosity (including biofuels) on the spray and burning characteristics. The study showed that the spray characteristics behind devices well atomized fuel oil, may significantly deteriorate when using biofuels, until the collapse of the fuel bubble. To avoid this phenomenon it is necessary to carry out the calculation of the fuel film form when designing the nozzles. As a result of this calculation boundary curves in the coordinates of the Reynolds number on fuel - the Laplace number are built, characterizing the transition from sheet breakup to spraying. It is shown that these curves are described by a power function with the same exponent for nozzles of various designs. The swirl of air surrounding the nozzle in the same direction, as the swirl of fuel film, can significantly improve the performance of atomization of highly viscous fuel. Moreover the value of the tangential air velocity has the determining influence on the film shape. For carrying out of hot tests in aviation combustor some embodiments of liquid fuels were proved and the most preferred one was chosen. Fire tests of combustion chamber compartment at conventional fuel has shown comprehensible characteristics, in particular wide side-altars of the stable combustion. The blended biofuel application makes worse combustion stability in comparison with kerosene. A number of measures was recommended to modernize the conventional combustors when using biofuels in gas turbine engines.

  20. Numerical simulations of stationary and transient spray combustion for aircraft gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fossi, Athanase Alain

    2017-01-01

    Le développement des turbines à gaz d’aviation actuelles et futures est principalement axé sur la sécurité, la performance, la minimisation de la consommation de l’énergie, et de plus en plus sur la réduction des émissions d’espèces polluantes. Ainsi, les phases de design de moteurs sont soumises auxaméliorations continues par des études expérimentales et numériques. La présente thèse se consacre à l’étude numérique des phases transitoires et stationnaires de la combustion au sein d’une turbi...

  1. Reduced Order Modeling of Combustion Instability in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold-Medabalimi, Nicholas; Huang, Cheng; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel based propulsion systems are expected to remain relevant in aerospace vehicles for the foreseeable future. Design of these devices is complicated by combustion instabilities. The capability to model and predict these effects at reduced computational cost is a requirement for both design and control of these devices. This work focuses on computational studies on a dual swirl model gas turbine combustor in the context of reduced order model development. Full fidelity simulations are performed utilizing URANS and Hybrid RANS-LES with finite rate chemistry. Following this, data decomposition techniques are used to extract a reduced basis representation of the unsteady flow field. These bases are first used to identify sensor locations to guide experimental interrogations and controller feedback. Following this, initial results on developing a control-oriented reduced order model (ROM) will be presented. The capability of the ROM will be further assessed based on different operating conditions and geometric configurations.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  3. LED-induced fluorescence diagnostics for turbine and combustion engine thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence from phosphor coatings is the basis of an established technique for measuring temperature in a wide variety of turbine and combustion engine applications. Example surfaces include blades, vanes, combustors, intake valves, pistons, and rotors. Many situations that are remote and noncontact require the high intensity of a laser to illuminate the phosphor, especially if the surface is moving. Thermometric resolutions of 0.1 C are obtainable, and some laboratory versions of these systems have been calibrated against NIST standards to even higher precision. To improve the measurement signal-to-noise ratio, synchronous detection timing has been used to repeatedly interrogate the same blade in a high speed rotating turbine. High spatial resolution can be obtained by tightly focusing the interrogation beam in measurements of static surfaces, and by precise differential timing of the laser pulses on rotating surfaces. We report here the use of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a n illumination source for producing useable fluorescence from phosphors for temperature measurements. An LED can excite most of the same phosphors used to cover the temperature range from 8 to 1400 C. The advantages of using LEDs are obvious in terms of size, power requirements, space requirements and cost. There can also be advantages associated with very long operating lifetimes, wide range of available colors, and their broader emission bandwidths as compared to laser diodes. Temperature may be inferred either from phase or time-decay determinations

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-05

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  5. Concept for premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines; Konzept zur vorgemischten Verbrennung wasserstoffhaltiger Brennstoffe in Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-07-19

    One of the main challenges for future gas turbines and their combustion systems is to provide fuel flexibility. The fuel range is expected to reach from the lowly reactive natural gas to highly reactive hydrogen-containing syngases. The objective of the project in which this work was pursued is to develop such a combustion system. The burner has to ensure premixed operation with an aerodynamically stabilized flame. The focus of this work is on characterizing and optimizing the operational safety of the system, but also on ensuring sufficientmixing and lowemissions. A burner and fuel injection design is achieved that leads not only to emissions far below the permissible values, but also to flashback safety for hydrogen combustion that comes close to the theoretically achievable maximum at atmospheric pressure conditions. In this design flashback due to combustion-induced vortex breakdown and wall boundary layer flashback is avoided. Flashback only takes place when the flow velocity reaches the flame velocity.

  6. Experimental study of cyclone combustion of wood powder for gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, J; Kallner, P [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the present project is to study to what extent various elements in the ash, in particular Na and K, can be separated in the first stage of a two-stage combustor, with the first stage being a separation cyclone. Mass balances for the elements in the ash are determined from the fuel flow, the char collected from the cyclone bottom and particles in the combustor outlet gas. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure for wood powder feeding rates of 5-21 kg/h. The conditions in the cyclone have been kept fuel rich. The gas outlet temperature from this stage has been varied from 750 to 1150 deg C through control of the air/fuel ratio. Second stage combustion is achieved in a separate combustor. The results show that significant separation of Na and K is possible, and that the separation is improved when the cyclone temperature is kept low. At an outlet temperature of around 800 deg C about 60% of the input alkali is found in the char residue. At 1000 deg C, only 30% is separated. Mass balances show that about 80% of the ash elements in the fuel input are identified in char and fly ash. With 60% separation of Na and K the content of these elements in the gas would be less than 7 mg/kg gas for a turbine inlet temperature of 850 deg C. The total dust load would be 30-60 mg/kg gas. Ash sticking temperature tests on bottom char and fly ash show no ash sticking up to 1040 deg C. It is therefore concluded that the ash may pass through the turbine as solid particles and cause minimal deposits or corrosion. 15 refs

  7. Experimental study of cyclone combustion of wood powder for gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, J.; Kallner, P. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1993-12-31

    The objective of the present project is to study to what extent various elements in the ash, in particular Na and K, can be separated in the first stage of a two-stage combustor, with the first stage being a separation cyclone. Mass balances for the elements in the ash are determined from the fuel flow, the char collected from the cyclone bottom and particles in the combustor outlet gas. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure for wood powder feeding rates of 5-21 kg/h. The conditions in the cyclone have been kept fuel rich. The gas outlet temperature from this stage has been varied from 750 to 1150 deg C through control of the air/fuel ratio. Second stage combustion is achieved in a separate combustor. The results show that significant separation of Na and K is possible, and that the separation is improved when the cyclone temperature is kept low. At an outlet temperature of around 800 deg C about 60% of the input alkali is found in the char residue. At 1000 deg C, only 30% is separated. Mass balances show that about 80% of the ash elements in the fuel input are identified in char and fly ash. With 60% separation of Na and K the content of these elements in the gas would be less than 7 mg/kg gas for a turbine inlet temperature of 850 deg C. The total dust load would be 30-60 mg/kg gas. Ash sticking temperature tests on bottom char and fly ash show no ash sticking up to 1040 deg C. It is therefore concluded that the ash may pass through the turbine as solid particles and cause minimal deposits or corrosion. 15 refs

  8. CFD analysis of combustion of natural gas and syngas from biomass pyrolysis in the combustion chamber of a micro gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Laranci, Paolo; D' Alessandro, Bruno [University of Perugia (DII/UNIPG) (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, paolo.laranci@unipg.it, dalessandro@bio-net.it

    2009-07-01

    Micro gas turbines (MGT) can be profitably used for the production of distributed energy (DE), with the possibility to use gaseous fuels with low BTU derived from biomass or waste through the pyrolysis or gasification processes. These synthesis gases (SG) show significant differences with respect to natural gas (NG), in terms of composition, calorific value, content of hydrogen, tar and particulate matter content; such differences can be turn into problems of ignition, instability burning, difficulties in controlling the emissions and fouling. CFD analysis of the combustion process is an essential tool for identifying the main critical arising in using these gases, in order to modify existing geometries and to develop new generation of combustor for use with low BTU gases. This paper describes the activities of experimental and numerical analysis carried out to study the combustion process occurring inside an existing annular Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) Combustion Chamber (CC) of a 80 kW MGT. In the paper some results of a CFD study of the combustion process performed with an original developed chemical models are reported in terms of temperature and velocity distributions inside the CC and in terms of compositions of turbine inlet gas and of its thermodynamic parameters (mass flow, temperature, pressure). An evaluation of pollutant emissions of CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx and a comparison with the available experimental data relating to the case of combustion of NG is also provided in the paper. Moreover, the carried out investigation concerns the case of operation with a SG fuel derived from biomass in an Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant (IPRP). (author)

  9. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Combustion in a Model Swirl Gas Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cemal Benim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent reacting flows in a generic swirl gas turbine combustor are investigated numerically. Turbulence is modelled by a URANS formulation in combination with the SST turbulence model, as the basic modelling approach. For comparison, URANS is applied also in combination with the RSM turbulence model to one of the investigated cases. For this case, LES is also used for turbulence modelling. For modelling turbulence-chemistry interaction, a laminar flamelet model is used, which is based on the mixture fraction and the reaction progress variable. This model is implemented in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM, which has been used as the basis for the present investigation. For validation purposes, predictions are compared with the measurements for a natural gas flame with external flue gas recirculation. A good agreement with the experimental data is observed. Subsequently, the numerical study is extended to syngas, for comparing its combustion behavior with that of natural gas. Here, the analysis is carried out for cases without external flue gas recirculation. The computational model is observed to provide a fair prediction of the experimental data and predict the increased flashback propensity of syngas.

  11. Thermodynamic performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    This communication presents thermodynamic methodology for the performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been defined. The effects of process steam pressure and pinch point temperature used in the design of heat recovery steam generator, and reheat on energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been investigated. From the results obtained in graphs it is observed that the power to heat ratio increases with an increase in pinch point, but the first-law efficiency and second-law efficiency decreases with an increase in pinch point. The power to heat ratio and second-law efficiency increases significantly with increase in process steam pressure, but the first-law efficiency decreases with the same. Results also show that inclusion of reheat, provide significant improvement in electrical power output, process heat production, fuel-utilization (energetic) efficiency and second-law (exergetic) efficiency. This methodology may be quite useful in the selection and comparison of combined energy production systems from thermodynamic performance point of view

  12. Laser diagnostics of combustion phenomena related to engines/gas turbines. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, Marcus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Combustion

    2000-05-01

    The following project has been a one year project bridging the time between the NUTEK program in 'Motorrelaterad foerbraenning' and the new STEM program in 'Energisystem i vaegfordon. The activities has included three Ph. D students and the project has been directed towards two main areas. The first area is the development and application of a new laser diagnostic technique based on laser-induced fluorescence from atomic species for measurements of two-dimensional temperatures in combustion systems. The technique has shown to have distinct advantages compared to more commonly used laser techniques and it has been applied both in engines (VOLVO PV) as well as in gas turbines (VOLVO Aero Corp.) A major advantage is the potential, recently investigated, to make measurements in sooty environments. The second area is in the area of development and application of a technique for measurements of two-dimensional soot volume fractions and particle sizes. The technique is called Laser-induced Incandescence, LII, and here a laser beam is heating the particle considerably above the flame temperature and by detecting the increased blackbody radiation, the parameters above can be inferred. During the year most work has been to develop the technique, but distinct applications in burners, engines and model fires are planned.

  13. Performance of candidate gas turbine abradeable seal materials in high temperature combustion atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, N.J. [Cranfield University, Power Generation Technology Centre, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Norton, J.F. [Cranfield University, Power Generation Technology Centre, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Consultant in Corrosion Science and Technology, Hemel Hempstead, Herts HP1 1SR (United Kingdom); McColvin, G. [Siemens Industrial Turbines Ltd., Lincoln, LN5 7FD (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The development of abradeable gas turbine seals for higher temperature duties has been the target of an EU-funded R and D project, ADSEALS, with the aim of moving towards seals that can withstand surface temperatures as high as {proportional_to} 1100 C for periods of at least 24,000 h. The ADSEALS project has investigated the manufacturing and performance of a number of alternative materials for the traditional honeycomb seal design and novel alternative designs. This paper reports results from two series of exposure tests carried out to evaluate the oxidation performance of the seal structures in combustion gases and under thermal cycling conditions. These investigations formed one part of the evaluation of seal materials that has been carried out within the ADSEALS project. The first series of three tests, carried out for screening purposes, exposed candidate abradeable seal materials to a simulated natural gas combustion environment at temperatures within the range 1050-1150 C in controlled atmosphere furnaces for periods of up to {proportional_to} 2,500 h with fifteen thermal cycles. The samples were thermally cycled to room temperature on a weekly basis to enable the progress of the degradation to be monitored by mass change and visual observation, as well as allowing samples to be exchanged at planned intervals. The honeycombs were manufactured from PM2000 and Haynes 214. The backing plates for the seal constructions were manufactured from Haynes 214. Some seals contained fillers or had been surface treated (e.g. aluminised). The second series of three tests were carried out in a natural gas fired ribbon furnace facility that allowed up to sixty samples of candidate seal structures (including honeycombs, hollow sphere structures and porous ceramics manufactured from an extended range of materials including Aluchrom YHf, PM2Hf, Haynes 230, IN738LC and MarM247) to be exposed simultaneously to a stream of hot combustion gas. In this case the samples were cooled

  14. Numerical Investigation of Methane Combustion under Mixed Air-Steam Turbine Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevis, G.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Goussis, D.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Derksen, M.A.F.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Lowering emissions from power generating gas turbines, while retaining efficiency and power output, constitutes a formidable task, both at fundamental and technical levels. Combined gas turbine cycles involving air humidification are particularly attractive, since they provide additional power with

  15. Three-step approach for prediction of limit cycle pressure oscillations in combustion chambers of gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurashev, Dmytro; Campa, Giovanni; Anisimov, Vyacheslav V.; Cosatto, Ezio

    2017-11-01

    Currently, gas turbine manufacturers frequently face the problem of strong acoustic combustion driven oscillations inside combustion chambers. These combustion instabilities can cause extensive wear and sometimes even catastrophic damages to combustion hardware. This requires prevention of combustion instabilities, which, in turn, requires reliable and fast predictive tools. This work presents a three-step method to find stability margins within which gas turbines can be operated without going into self-excited pressure oscillations. As a first step, a set of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations with the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model implemented in the OpenFOAM® environment are performed to obtain the flame describing function of the combustor set-up. The standard FSC model is extended in this work to take into account the combined effect of strain and heat losses on the flame. As a second step, a linear three-time-lag-distributed model for a perfectly premixed swirl-stabilized flame is extended to the nonlinear regime. The factors causing changes in the model parameters when applying high-amplitude velocity perturbations are analysed. As a third step, time-domain simulations employing a low-order network model implemented in Simulink® are performed. In this work, the proposed method is applied to a laboratory test rig. The proposed method permits not only the unsteady frequencies of acoustic oscillations to be computed, but the amplitudes of such oscillations as well. Knowing the amplitudes of unstable pressure oscillations, it is possible to determine how these oscillations are harmful to the combustor equipment. The proposed method has a low cost because it does not require any license for computational fluid dynamics software.

  16. CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Psammomatoid Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma of the Middle Turbinate: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Ossifying fibroma of the middle turbinate is extremely rare. We report a case of psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma (PsJOF) of the middle turbinate in an 18-year-old adolescent female along with its CT, MRI and pathologic features. PsJOF of the middle turbinate may present a well-demarcated, expansile, solidly enhancing mass with focal bony destruction, which may mimic various benign and malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal area. A combination of clinical, imaging and pathologic findings is prerequisite for establishing an accurate diagnosis.

  17. Active control of combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, B.T.; Neumeier, Y. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This 3-year research program was initiated in September, 1995, to investigate active control of detrimental combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines (LNGT), which burn natural gas in a lean premixed mode to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. The program will investigate the mechanisms that drive these instabilities. Furthermore, it will study active control systems (ACS) that can effectively prevent the onset of such instabilities and/or reduce their amplitudes to acceptable levels. An understanding of the driving mechanisms will not only guide the development of effective ACS for LNGT but may also lead to combustor design changes (i.e., passive control) that will fully or partially resolve the problem. Initial attempts to stabilize combustors (i.e., chemical rockets) by ACS were reported more than 40 years ago, but were unsuccessful due to lack of adequate sensors, electronics, and actuators for performing the needed control actions. Progress made in recent years in sensor and actuator technology, electronics, and control theory has rekindled interest in developing ACS for unstable combustors. While initial efforts in this area, which focused on active control of instabilities in air breathing combustors, have demonstrated the considerable potential of active control, they have also indicated that more effective observers, controllers, and actuators are needed for practical applications. Considerable progress has been made in the observer and actuator areas by the principal investigators of this program during the past 2 years under an AFOSR program. The developed observer is based upon wavelets theory, and can identify the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of the five most dominant combustor modes in (virtually) real time. The developed actuator is a fuel injector that uses a novel magneto-strictive material to modulate the fuel flow rate into the combustor.

  18. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  19. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  20. Transition duct system with arcuate ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-11-07

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include an arcuate connecting segment (36). An arcuate ceramic liner (60) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the arcuate connecting segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  1. Fretting fatigue cracking of a center guide bolt supporting the combustion chamber in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Fischer, Boromir; Gaedicke, Tobias [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor

    2018-04-01

    The slotted center guide bolt of the center guide feature of the lower part of the outer shell of an annular combustion chamber was found fractured in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine used for power generation, after approximately 5.500 operating hours. The incident was a one-off event and not a recurring incident. No similar events were reported from the fleet; hence the failure was not considered a field issue. The metallurgical root cause investigation that was ordered to determine the failure mechanism revealed that the incident center guide bolt failed by fretting fatigue cracking, a high cycle fatigue (HCF) phenomenon.

  2. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  3. Modelling the effects of heat loss and fuel/air mixing on turbulent combustion in gas turbine combustion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gövert, S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development and validation of a simulation framework for the accurate prediction of turbulent reacting flows at reduced computational costs. Therefore, a combustion model based on the tabulation of laminar premixed flamelets is employed. By compilation of

  4. An investigation of volute cross-sectional shape on turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions in internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Rajoo, Srithar; Yokoyama, Takao; Ibaraki, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycle averaged efficiency is higher for the volute A (low aspect ratio). • More distorted flow in volute B is the reason for performance deterioration. • Flow in volute B (high aspect ratio) is more sensitive to pulsating flow. - Abstract: Engine downsizing is a proven method for CO_2 reduction in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). A turbocharger, which reclaims the energy from the exhaust gas to boost the intake air, can effectively improve the power density of the engine thus is one of the key enablers to achieve the engine downsizing. Acknowledging its importance, many research efforts have gone into improving a turbocharger performance, which includes turbine volute. The cross-section design of a turbine volute in a turbocharger is usually a compromise between the engine level packaging and desired performance. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate the effects of cross-sectional shape on a turbine performance. This paper presents experimental and computational investigation of the influence of volute cross-sectional shape on the performance of a radial turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions. The cross-sectional shape of the baseline volute (denoted as Volute B) was optimized (Volute A) while the annulus distribution of area-to-radius ratio (A/R) for the two volute configurations are kept the same. Experimental results show that the turbine with the optimized volute A has better cycle averaged efficiency under pulsating flow conditions, for different loadings and frequencies. The advantage of performance is influenced by the operational conditions. After the experiment, a validated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was employed to investigate the mechanism by which performance differs between the baseline volute and the optimized version. Computational results show a stronger flow distortion in spanwise direction at the rotor inlet with the baseline volute. Furthermore, compared with the optimized volute, the flow

  5. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  6. Influence of the combustion chamber during the transient performance of gas turbines; Influencias da camara de combustao durante o transitorio de turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha Alves, M.A. da [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

    1991-12-31

    It has been realised that heat transfer and others secondary effects have an important influence on the transient performance of a gas turbine, but until very recently, modelling was carried out either assuming adiabatic conditions, or using expedient but unrealistic models to simulate these effects. This work describes the effects of combustion chamber heat storage and of dead time lag of the combustion process, during a gas turbine transient. These effects have been investigated and the analysis has indicated that these effects do not play an important role in the transient performance of the engine analysed, but in certain circumstances they may become important. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Modeling and simulation of combustion dynamics in lean-premixed swirl-stabilized gas-turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    This research focuses on the modeling and simulation of combustion dynamics in lean-premixed gas-turbines engines. The primary objectives are: (1) to establish an efficient and accurate numerical framework for the treatment of unsteady flame dynamics; and (2) to investigate the parameters and mechanisms responsible for driving flow oscillations in a lean-premixed gas-turbine combustor. The energy transfer mechanisms among mean flow motions, periodic motions and background turbulent motions in turbulent reacting flow are first explored using a triple decomposition technique. Then a comprehensive numerical study of the combustion dynamics in a lean-premixed swirl-stabilized combustor is performed. The analysis treats the conservation equations in three dimensions and takes into account finite-rate chemical reactions and variable thermophysical properties. Turbulence closure is achieved using a large-eddy-simulation (LES) technique. The compressible-flow version of the Smagorinsky model is employed to describe subgrid-scale turbulent motions and their effect on large-scale structures. A level-set flamelet library approach is used to simulate premixed turbulent combustion. In this approach, the mean flame location is modeled using a level-set G-equation, where G is defined as a distance function. Thermophysical properties are obtained using a presumed probability density function (PDF) along with a laminar flamelet library. The governing equations and the associated boundary conditions are solved by means of a four-step Runge-Kutta scheme along with the implementation of the message passing interface (MPI) parallel computing architecture. The analysis allows for a detailed investigation into the interaction between turbulent flow motions and oscillatory combustion of a swirl-stabilized injector. Results show good agreement with an analytical solution and experimental data in terms of acoustic properties and flame evolution. A study of flame bifurcation from a stable

  8. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Cervello, C. [Conselleria de Cultura, Educacion y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation. (author)

  9. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A.; Cervello, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation

  10. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason

  11. Study on mechanism of combustion instability in a dump gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Lee, Jong Ho; Jeon, Chong Hwan; Chang, Yonng June

    2002-01-01

    Combustion instabilities are an important concern associated with lean premixed combustion. Laboratory-scale dump combustor was used to understand the underlying mechanisms causing combustion instabilities. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure and sound level meter was used to track the pressure fluctuations inside the combustor. Instability maps and phase-resolved OH chemiluminescence images were obtained at several conditions to investigate the mechanism of combustion instability and relations between pressure wave and heat release rate. It showed that combustion instability was susceptible to occur at higher value of equivalence ratio (>0.6) as the mean velocity was decreased. Instabilities exhibited a longitudinal mode with a dominant frequency of ∼341.8 Hz, which corresponded to a quarter wave mode of combustor. Heat release and pressure waves were in-phase when instabilities occurred. Rayleigh index distribution gave a hint about the location where the strong coherence of pressure and heat release existed. These results also give an insight to the control scheme of combustion instabilities. Emission test revealed that NO x emissions were affected by not only equivalence but also combustion instability

  12. Noise from wind turbines. Final report of project JOU2-CT92-0124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Borg, N.; Andersen, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Klug, H.; Theofiloyannakos, D.

    1995-04-01

    Part of the planning procedure for the erection of a wind turbine or a wind farm is the prediction of the acoustic noise due to the wind turbine(s) at the nearest dwelling. The noise is normally predicted using the acoustic characteristics of the regarded wind turbine as measured on a wind turbine of equal make and model and using a general noise propagation model. Both inputs introduce uncertainties in the predicted noise level: (a) turbines of equal make and model may have different acoustic characteristics; (b) the acoustic characteristics of a turbine may change in time - from day to day (repeatability of the measurement), - during the years (ageing of the turbine); (c) the general propagation model does not take into account the effects of source elevation and wind. The project aimed at the quantification of these uncertainties and at the development of a wind turbine noise propagation model. Statistical information has been collected on the individual differences of the sound power and tonality of turbines of equal make and model by measuring 6 different types of wind turbines. Of each type 5 individual turbines have been measured (total 30 turbines). Additionally the sound power of a series of 4 wind turbines and of a series of 29 wind turbines (from earlier measurements) have been introduced into the project. Statistical information has been collected on the day to day variations of the sound power and tonality of wind turbines by measuring 3 different turbines 5 times (total 15 measurements). Statistical information has been collected on the effect of ageing on the sound power and tonality of wind turbines by the repeated measurement of 5 wind turbines that have been measured in an identical situation 3 to 7 years earlier. A method for the prediction of wind turbine noise propagation has been developed based on measurements of sound propagation from an elevated noise source and theoretical calculations. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Computational Investigation of Combustion Dynamics in a Lean-Direct Injection Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    variable vector which includes turbulence kinetic energy and specific dissipation, k and w; In the viscous flux, D is the molecular diffusion coefficient...for the liquid particle. This equation assumes the uniform temperature inside the liquid particle. The source term consist of the net sensible ...Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission, SAE 980131, 1998 24 Fu, Y., “Aerodynamics and Combustion of Axial Swirlers,” Ph . D. dissertation from the University of Cincinnati, 2008.

  14. Transition duct system with straight ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-05-16

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include a straight path segment (26) for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor. A straight ceramic liner (40) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the straight path segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  15. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners... subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and duct burners regulated under this subpart are exempted from the requirements of subparts Da, Db, and Dc...

  16. Numerical study of pyrolysis oil combustion in an industrial gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for the use of biofuels for decentralized power generation initiates new research in gas turbine technology. However, development of new combustors for low calorific fuels is costly in terms of time and money. To give momentum to biofuels application for power generation robust

  17. Two-stage combustion for reducing pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. M.; Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion and emission results are presented for a premix combustor fueled with admixtures of JP5 with neat H2 and of JP5 with simulated partial-oxidation product gas. The combustor was operated with inlet-air state conditions typical of cruise power for high performance aviation engines. Ultralow NOx, CO and HC emissions and extended lean burning limits were achieved simultaneously. Laboratory scale studies of the non-catalyzed rich-burning characteristics of several paraffin-series hydrocarbon fuels and of JP5 showed sooting limits at equivalence ratios of about 2.0 and that in order to achieve very rich sootless burning it is necessary to premix the reactants thoroughly and to use high levels of air preheat. The application of two-stage combustion for the reduction of fuel NOx was reviewed. An experimental combustor designed and constructed for two-stage combustion experiments is described.

  18. Experience Gained from Construction of Low-Emission Combustion Chambers for On-Land Large-Capacity Gas-Turbine Units: GT24/26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.; Gutnik, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    This article is the third in a planned series of articles devoted to the experience gained around the world in constructing low-emission combustion chambers for on-land large-capacity (above 250 MW) gas-turbine units (GTUs). The aim of this study is to generalize and analyze the ways in which different designers apply the fuel flow and combustion arrangement principles and the fuel feed control methods. The considered here GT24 and GT26 (GT24/26) gas-turbine units generating electric power at the 60 and 50 Hz frequencies, respectively, are fitted with burners of identical designs. Designed by ABB, these GTUs were previously manufactured by Alstom, and now they are produced by Ansaldo Energia. The efficiency of these GTUs reaches 41% at the 354 MW power output during operation in the simple cycle and 60.5% at the 505MW power output during operation in the combined cycle. Both GTUs comply with all requirements for harmful emissions. The compression ratio is equal to 35. In this article, a system is considered for two-stage fuel combustion in two sequentially arranged low-emission combustion chambers, one of which is placed upstream of the high-pressure turbine (CC1) and the other upstream of the low-pressure turbine (CC2). The article places the main focus on the CC2, which operates with a decreased content of oxygen in the oxidizer supplied to the burner inlets. The original designs of vortex generators and nozzles placed in the flow of hot combustion products going out from the high-pressure turbine are described in detail. The article also presents an original CC2 front plate cooling system, due to which a significantly smaller amount of air fed for cooling has been reached. The article also presents the pressure damping devices incorporated in the chamber, the use of which made it possible to obtain a significantly wider range of CC loads at which its low-emission operation is ensured. The fuel feed adjustment principles and the combustion control methods

  19. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  20. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  1. Thermally accurate LES of the stability-emission performance of staged gas-turbine combustion; Simulation aux grandes echelles de la combustion etagee dans les turbines a gaz et son interaction stabilite-polluants-thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, P.

    2005-06-15

    Modern gas turbines use turbulent lean partially premixed combustion in order to minimise nitrous oxide (NO{sub X}) emissions while ensuring flashback safety. The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of such a device is the goal of this work. Focus is laid on correctly predicting the NO{sub X} emissions, which are influenced by four factors: heat transfer, mixing quality, combustion modelling and thermo-acoustic stability. As NO{sub X} reaction rates are strongly influenced by temperature, heat transfer by radiation and convection is included. Radiation is predicted by a model, which assumes that the gases are optically thin. Convective heat transfer is included via a newly developed and validated wall-function approach based on the logarithmic law of the wall for temperature. An optimised 2-step reduced chemical reaction scheme for lean methane combustion is presented. This scheme is used for the LES in conjunction with an additional third reaction, fitted to produce the same NO{sub X} reaction rates as in the complete reaction mechanism. Turbulence is accounted for with the thickened flame model in a form, which is optimised for changing equivalence ratios and mesh-resolutions. Mixing is essential not only for predicting flame stabilisation, but also for pollutant emissions as NO{sub X} reaction rates depend exponentially on equivalence ratio. Therefore the full burner geometry, including 16 fuel injections is resolved in LES. Additionally, effusion cooling and film cooling is accounted for in a simplified manner. The non-reacting flow is extensively validated with experimental results. As mixture-fraction fluctuations do not only arise from turbulence, but also from thermo-acoustic instabilities, care was taken to provide acoustic boundary conditions that come close to reality. The resulting LES shows a strong thermo-acoustic instability, comparing well with experimental observations. By making the boundaries completely anechoic it is shown that when the instability

  2. Reliability centered maintenance applied to gas turbines, a deeper methodological study; Optimisation de la maintenance par la fiabilite appliquee aux turbines a combustion: approfondissement methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despujols, A; Delbos, J P; Zuliani, G

    1996-12-31

    The 9000E`combustion turbine study is unique in that it applied he RCM procedure to a power station before construction had begun on it. This has resulted in a maintenance programme being determined from the outset, rather than an existing programme being improved. The analysis begins with a search of the functions required by the unit, its operating states and its failure modes, then moves on to look at different systems to establish functional trees followed by failure trees. The lowest leaves on these graphs correspond respectively to functions carried out by important equipment nd their failure modes. Following on from this hierarchical procedure, each of the items of equipment are studies in an analysis of the failures modes, their effects and their criticality. The absence of feedback on this machine, the lack of data on the technology and the small size of the equipment (by comparison with those encountered in a nuclear unit), all contribute to limiting the level of decomposition. Tables are thus obtained which show the failure modes of an item of equipment, their origin, their effects on a system and unit level, the potential damage they cause, their severity, expert estimates of the frequency with they are likely to appear, their criticality and their evidence. The next step is a crucial one since it produces the results expected from the previous stages. It relies on task selection logic which has been honed to better take account of the obvious or hidden character of the failures. Not only must preventive operations to stop critical failure modes from occurring be suggested, but certain operations must be prescribed in order for breakdowns to be revealed. In practice, the state of the redundant or protective equipment has to be known when some of their failure modes remain hidden from the operator. The risk of a double failure with serious consequences becomes a probability when their breakdown state is not detected. (authors) 15 refs.

  3. Reliability centered maintenance applied to gas turbines, a deeper methodological study; Optimisation de la maintenance par la fiabilite appliquee aux turbines a combustion: approfondissement methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despujols, A.; Delbos, J.P.; Zuliani, G.

    1995-12-31

    The 9000E`combustion turbine study is unique in that it applied he RCM procedure to a power station before construction had begun on it. This has resulted in a maintenance programme being determined from the outset, rather than an existing programme being improved. The analysis begins with a search of the functions required by the unit, its operating states and its failure modes, then moves on to look at different systems to establish functional trees followed by failure trees. The lowest leaves on these graphs correspond respectively to functions carried out by important equipment nd their failure modes. Following on from this hierarchical procedure, each of the items of equipment are studies in an analysis of the failures modes, their effects and their criticality. The absence of feedback on this machine, the lack of data on the technology and the small size of the equipment (by comparison with those encountered in a nuclear unit), all contribute to limiting the level of decomposition. Tables are thus obtained which show the failure modes of an item of equipment, their origin, their effects on a system and unit level, the potential damage they cause, their severity, expert estimates of the frequency with they are likely to appear, their criticality and their evidence. The next step is a crucial one since it produces the results expected from the previous stages. It relies on task selection logic which has been honed to better take account of the obvious or hidden character of the failures. Not only must preventive operations to stop critical failure modes from occurring be suggested, but certain operations must be prescribed in order for breakdowns to be revealed. In practice, the state of the redundant or protective equipment has to be known when some of their failure modes remain hidden from the operator. The risk of a double failure with serious consequences becomes a probability when their breakdown state is not detected. (authors) 15 refs.

  4. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2018-04-10

    A gas turbine including a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus, and a third radial wall formed about the outer radial wall that forms an outer flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section corresponding to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section corresponding to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may include a switchback coolant flowpath to direct air from the compressor discharge cavity to the staged injector. The switchback coolant flowpath may include an upstream section through the flow annulus, and a downstream section through the outer flow annulus.

  5. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2018-04-17

    A gas turbine that includes a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section that corresponds to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section that corresponds to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may be configured to: direct air entering through the aftward intake section through the aftward annulus section in a forward direction to the staged injector; and direct air entering through the forward intake section through the forward annulus section in a forward direction to the forward injector.

  6. Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieuwen, Tim [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santavicca, Dom [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yang, Vigor [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    During the duration of this sponsorship, we broadened our understanding of combustion instabilities through both analytical and experimental work. Predictive models were developed for flame response to transverse acoustic instabilities and for quantifying how a turbulent flame responds to velocity and fuel/air ratio forcing. Analysis was performed on the key instability mechanisms controlling heat release response for flames over a wide range of instability frequencies. Importantly, work was done closely with industrial partners to transition existing models into internal instability prediction codes. Experimentally, the forced response of hydrogen-enriched natural gas/air premixed and partially premixed flames were measured. The response of a lean premixed flame was investigated, subjected to velocity, equivalence ratio, and both forcing mechanisms simultaneously. In addition, important physical mechanisms controlling the response of partially premixed flames to inlet velocity and equivalence ratio oscillations were analyzed. This final technical report summarizes our findings and major publications stemming from this program.

  7. Spatially distributed flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A. [Center for Advanced Power Generation, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)

  8. Combustion phenomenon, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with aviation turbine JP-8 fuel and rapeseed biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The 5 vol% RME added to JP-8 fuel improved lubricity 1.7 times according corrected wear scar diameter, μm. • The reverse trends revealed in the autoignition delay when operating with identical fuel blends J10 and B10. • The brake thermal efficiency increased by 1.0–3.6% when running on bio-fuels J5–J30 at speed of 2200 rpm. • The NO_x emissions increased by 5.2% when operating on bio-jet fuel J30 at full load and speed of 2200 rpm. • CO, HC emissions and smoke decreased with biofuel J20 and higher blends at both speeds of 1400 and 2200 rpm. - Abstract: The article presents the test results of an engine operating with diesel fuel (B5), turbine type JP-8 fuel and its 5 vol%, 10 vol%, 20 vol%, and 30 vol% blends with rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME). Additional fuel blend B10 was prepared by pouring 10 vol% of RME to diesel fuel to extend interpretation of the test results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using jet-biodiesel fuel blends J5, J10, J20, J30, and B10 on the start of injection, ignition delay, combustion history, heat release, engine performance, and exhaust emissions. The engine performance parameters were examined at light 15% (1400 rpm) and 10% (2200 rpm), medium 50%, and high 100% loads and the two speeds: 1400 rpm at which maximum torque occurs and a rated speed of 2200 rpm. The autoignition delay and maximum heat release rate decreased, maximum cylinder pressure, and pressure gradients increased, whereas brake specific fuel consumption changed little and brake thermal efficiency was 1.0–3.6% higher when running with fuel blends J5 to J30 at rated speed compared with the data measured with neat jet fuel. The NO_x emissions increased slightly, but the CO, THC emissions, and smoke opacity boosted up significantly when using jet fuel blend J10 with a smooth reduction of unburned hydrocarbons for jet-biodiesel fuel blends with higher CN ratings. Operation at a full (100%) load with fuel blend J10

  9. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1998. Hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (development of major components such as turbine blades and rotors); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to establish the fundamental technologies required to develop a pilot plant, by investigating development of such major component devices as turbine blades and rotors in a hydrogen combustion turbine. In the turbine moving and stator blade cooling technology, it is intended to achieve the power plant efficiency of 60% (based on HHV) as established in the interim evaluation performed in fiscal 1996. Therefore, the necessary element tests, detailed blade design, and partial fabrication were moved forward on the three kinds of the selected blade cooling systems as the cooling systems that can deal with the steam temperature condition as high as 1,700 degrees C. Fiscal 1998 will execute the design and fabrication of test blades and testing devices for blade cooling evaluation tests to be performed at Tashiro Township in Akita Prefecture. At the same time, evaluation and selection will be made on the three kinds of the cooling blades. In the rotor cooling technology, for the purpose of analyzing the rolling-in phenomenon of steam in the main turbine flow, a method will be developed to analyze rotor disk cavity temperatures based on CFD, the basic sealing conditions based thereon will be discussed, and generalization will be made on the rotor cooling technology. (NEDO)

  10. Combustion and regulations. Impacts of new regulations on medium-power thermal equipment (boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces); Combustion et reglementation. Incidences des nouvelles reglementations sur les equipements thermiques de moyenne puissance (chaudieres, moteurs, turbines, secheurs et fours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference is composed of 20 papers on the influence of French and European new pollution regulations on medium size thermal equipment such as boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces. It is discussed what is going to change with new regulations, how they will apply to existing plants, what will be the impact on future equipment costs. The evolution of energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers facing these new regulations is also examined: fuel substitution, improvements in turbines and engines with water injection and special chambers, diesel engine control, lean mixtures and electronic control for gas engines... Means for reducing SOx, NOx and ash emission levels in boilers are also examined

  11. New Metamaterials with Combined Subnano - and Mesoscale Topology for High-efficiency Catalytic Combustion Chambers of Innovative Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knysh, Yu A.; Xanthopoulou, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a catalytic combustion chamber that provides a highly efficient combustion process through the use of effects: heat recovery from combustion, microvortex heat transfer, catalytic reaction and acoustic resonance. High efficiency is provided by a complex of related technologies: technologies for combustion products heat transfer (recuperation) to initial mixture, catalytic processes technology, technology for calculating effective combustion processes based on microvortex matrices, technology for designing metamaterials structures and technology for obtaining the required topology product by laser fusion of metal powder compositions. The mesoscale level structure provides combustion process with the use of a microvortex effect with a high intensity of heat and mass transfer. High surface area (extremely high area-to-volume ratio) created due to nanoscale periodic structure and ensures catalytic reactions efficiency. Produced metamaterial is the first multiscale product of new concept which due to combination of different scale level periodic topologies provides qualitatively new set of product properties. This research is aimed at solving simultaneously two global problems of the present: ensure environmental safety of transport systems and power industry, as well as the economy and rational use of energy resources, providing humanity with energy now and in the foreseeable future.

  12. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  13. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion chamber of an industrial gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2015-09-01

    The study reveals great potential for the successful application of numerical flow simulation to predict flame structure and NOx emission level of micromix hydrogen combustion, help understanding the flow phenomena related with the micromixing, reaction zone and NOx formation and support further optimization of the burner performance.

  15. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of combustion control technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the development of hydrogen combustion turbines, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. As a hydrogen/oxygen combustor, the annular combustor was studied. Based on the results obtained by the last fiscal year, a combustor for the evaluation test was designed/fabricated. Oxygen is mixed with vapor at the portion of the burner, rotated/jetted (flame held by the circulation flow generated) and made to burn with hydrogen (porous injection). The smooth ignition and equilibrium wall temperature distribution were made possible. Concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were both less than 1%. Further, can type combustor I is a type in which hydrogen and oxygen are burned near the burner and then are diluted by vapor. Improved of the burner structure and diluted vapor hole, it was tested. In can type combustor II, a mixture of oxygen and vapor is supplied and burned with hydrogen. The appropriate supply of oxygen was 20% distribution to the primary scoop and 80% to secondary. In both combustors, smooth ignition was possible, and concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were controlled at minimum (approximately 1%). The evaluation method for the optimum hydrogen/oxygen combustor was studied. 142 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. An Experimental and Modeling Study of NOx-CO Formation in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) Fuels Combustion in Gas Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farouk, Tanvir [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Padak, Bihter [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Species concentration measurements specifically those associated with NOx can act as important validation targets for developing kinetic models to predict NOx emissions under syngas as well as natural gas combustion accurately. In this collaborative research effort that included both experimental measurements, model development and simulations a comprehensive kinetic model and a multiphysics computational fluid dynamics platform has been developed and validated against the experimental data available in the literature as well as those acquired under this project. The experimental data provide the necessary NOx and speciation data for conditions relevant to gas turbine operations but are not readily available in the literature. The comprehensive chemical kinetic model consists of CO/H2/NOx oxidation with the full implementation of NOx evolution pathways, including thermal, prompt, N2O and NNH paths. The experiments conducted included NOx perturbed oxidation of natural gas at elevated pressure in laminar flow reactor and syngas/air combustion in a McKenna Burner – Flow Tube setup. A wide range of equivalence ratio, operating pressure as well as H2/CO ratio (for syngas only) was investigated. Temperature and NOx concentrations were measured in the flame and post-combustion zone. Experiments were also conducted for seeded syngas where trace hydrocarbon was introduced. The proposed model has been extensively tested. Predictions from the model are compared against multiple experimental datasets over a wide range of venues and operating conditions. The experimental venues include shock tube, plug flow reactor, and stirred reactor experiments that cover pressures from 1 to 100 bar and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.5. In general, the overall model predictions are in good agreement with global combustion targets, such as ignition delay time, as well as with more

  17. 18th national meeting for energy saving promotion (prize winning case awarded by Ministry of International Trade and Industry). ; Development of air cooling equipment for gas turbine combustion. Dai 18 kai sho energy suishin zenkoku taikai (tsusho sangyo daijinsho jusho jirei). ; Gas turbine nenshoyo kuki reikyaku sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-30

    This paper describes a development of air cooling equipment for gas turbine combustion in a 1090-MW combined plant and a discussion on its cooling effect. An open-type gas turbine reduces its output when suction temperature rises. This is a characteristic for a combined plant with high heat efficiency not capable of exhibiting its ability in summer. As a result of testing cooling methods, water spraying nozzles utilizing latent evaporation heat of water were installed at a gas turbine suction opening. Effects of cooling the gas turbine combustion air resulted in reducing the gas turbine suction temperature by 1.8[degree]C as a result of water spray at an ambient temperature of 30[degree]C and a relative humidity of 60%, increasing the plant output by 12 MW as a result of cooling the suction air, and improving the heat efficiency by about 0.035%. The amount of ammonia used for reducing nitrogen oxide generation was reduced by 10.8 kg/hr. Under an assumption of experimenting the water spray in summer on a 15-hour per day basis for 50 days, a calculation indicates an annual economic effect of about 13.5 million yen. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  19. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of the main component devices such as turbine blades and rotors); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development relating to hydrogen combustion turbines, as one of the hydrogen utilization technologies, which have excellent environmentality and are expected of remarkably high efficiency. In the film cooling system of first-stage moving/stationary blades, the smaller the pitch of film pore is, the higher the mean cooling efficiency becomes, indicating 0.7 at maximum. As compared with the conventional shower head type, the metal temperature can be reduced 30-40degC. In the recovery type inner (convection) cooling system, by reducing the blade number, the consumption amount of coolant can be reduced 6% in stationary blade and 13% in moving blade, as compared with the result of the preceding year. In the element test of the hybrid cooling system, film cooling efficiency was actually measured by the porous module test equipment, and the result well agreed with the calculation result. In the water cooling system, studied were water (stationary blade) and vapor (moving blade) of the closed cooling structure for realization of a cycle efficiency of 60%. In rotor/disk cooling, analyses were made of seal characteristic grasp tests and characteristics of the rotor. The effect of deflection in the mainstream was small. Besides, proper value of the seal overlapping amount could be obtained. 6 refs., 368 figs., 55 tabs.

  20. Experimental investigation of aerodynamics, combustion, and emissions characteristics within the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ahmed M.

    2006-04-01

    The present work investigates pollutant emissions production, mainly nitric oxides and carbon monoxide, within the primary zone of a highly swirling combustion and methods with which to reduce their formation. A baseline study was executed at different equivalence ratios and different inlet air temperatures. The study was then extended to investigate the effects of utilizing transverse air jets on pollutant emission characteristics at different jet locations, jet mass ratio, and overall equivalence ratio as well as to investigate the jets' overall interactions with the recirculation zone. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was employed to measure emissions concentrations generated during combustion of Jet-A fuel in a swirl-cup assembly. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was employed to investigate the mean flow aerodynamics within the combustor. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to capture the instantaneous aerodynamic behavior of the non-reacting primary zone. Results illustrate that NOx production is a function of both the recirculation zone and the flame length. At low overall equivalence ratios, the recirculation zone is found to be the main producer of NOx. At near stoichiometric conditions, the post recirculation zone appears to be responsible for the majority of NOx produced. Results reveal the possibility of injecting air into the recirculation zone without altering flame stability to improve emission characteristics. Depending on the jet location and strength, nitric oxides as well as carbon monoxide can be reduced simultaneously. Placing the primary air jet just downstream of the fuel rich recirculation zone can lead to a significant reduction in both nitric oxides and carbon monoxide. In the case of fuel lean recirculation zone, reduction of nitric oxides can occur by placing the jets below the location of maximum radius of the recirculation zone.

  1. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  2. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of combustion control technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1996 developmental results of hydrogen burning turbine combustion technology in the hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET) project. A test was conducted on an annular type combustor where oxygen is mixed with steam (inert gas) at burner and fired with hydrogen. Appropriate flame shape and cooling/dilution vapor distribution were attempted, and various data on combustion were measured for improvement. Mixture and flame holding were improved by developing a can type combustor (1) where oxygen is diluted with steam after firing oxygen and hydrogen around burner and by strengthening circulation in the combustor. Improvement such as appropriate steam distribution, etc. is needed. A can type combustor (2) was tested in which the premixed oxygen and hydrogen is supplied from scoop and fired with hydrogen. By supplying part of oxygen from the primary scoop, the residual hydrogen and oxygen concentration around the stoichiometric ratio can be reduced. Concentration of the residual oxygen can be measured by the absorption light method, but it is difficult to adopt the non-contact measuring method to hydrogen. An outlook for the gas temperature measuring method was obtained. 12 refs., 121 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Focusing millimeter wave radar for radial gap measurements in power plant combustion turbines; Fokussierendes Radarverfahren im Millimeterwellenbereich zur Radialspaltmessung in Kraftwerksturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicht, Andreas

    2011-07-11

    In this work a method for spatially resolved radial gap measurements in power plant combustion turbines by means of an autofocusing imaging radar technique in the millimeter wave range was developed and verified experimentally. The radial gap measurement has been subject of engineering studies for many years, as a reliable, simple solution does not seem to be possible due to the given boundary conditions. These include on the one hand the adverse measurement conditions such as high temperature and pressure, corrosive atmosphere and high speed of motion. On the other hand, the geometrical structure of the rotor blades at their tips turns out to be a key problem for the distance measurement. In particular, the blade tip is composed of small extended portions forming thin ribs of only a few millimeters width. Many established distance sensors like e. g. capacitive sensors cannot detect the correct tip clearance of the blade edge independently from other structures on the blade end only due to their large surface area and thus their lack of spatial resolution. The problem of small structure sizes is overcome by choosing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the millimeter wave range capable of resolving the edges of a typical blade tip. The clearance is determined by measuring the reflection at the blade tip while passing by the antenna, subsequently focusing the data by means of a matched filter operation and interpreting the phase of the blade edge reflection according to the CW radar principle. For this, an autofocus approach was developed, which provides an estimate of the clearance as a first result, which is utilized to overcome the phase ambiguity and thus to increase the measurement range. The autofocus algorithm applies a weighted phase gradient of the point-like blade edge reflection as cost function and sensitive indicator for the focal quality.

  4. KEROMIX. Sub-project: Basic experimental studies on mixing in swirl flow in gas turbine combustion chambers. Final report; KEROMIX. Arbeitspaket: Grundlegende experimentelle Untersuchungen der Mischungsvorgaenge drallbehafteter Stroemungen in Gasturbinenbrennkammern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, D K

    2000-07-01

    This report describes investigations on advanced lean fuel combustion technologies with stable and low-pollution combustion in an aircraft gas turbine in all load stages. The key factors, i.e. stability and low pollutant concentrations, are closely related to the mixing characteristic of the combustion chamber. Lean fuel combustion does not go well with stable combustion which is indispensable inan aircraft engine. Further, the lean mixture must be maintained throughout the combustion chamber as local stoichiometries would automatically result in higher concentrations of nitric oxides. To solve the problems related to these processes, detailed knowledge of the mixing processes is required. [German] Als Teilprojekt des Vorhabens 'KEROMIX, stabile, schadstoffarme Magerverbrennung' leistet die vorliegende Arbeit einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Beherrschung fortschrittlicher Verbrennungstechniken unter Anwendung des Mager-Konzeptes. Im Rahmen des Verbundprogrammes zum Technologieprogramm ENGINE 3E steht die Entwicklung von Verbrennungskonzepten, die eine stabile und schadstoffarme Verbrennung ueber den gesamten Lastbereich einer Flugzeug-Gasturbine hinweg gewaehrleisten. Die hier entscheidenden Attribute der Verbrennung, naemlich Stabilitaet und Schadstoffarmut sind eng mit der Mischungscharakteristik einer Brennkammer verbunden. Hier gilt es, die zum Teil gegenlaeufigen Effekte, die in einer Brennkammer auftreten, kontrollierbar zu machen. So steht die zur Verminderung der Stickoxidproduktion geforderte magere Verbrennung im ausgesprochenen Gegensatz zur Forderung einer in allen Betriebsbereichen stabilen Verbrennung, die allein schon aus Flugsicherheitsgruenden unabdingbar ist. Desweiteren muss der magere Gemischzustand unbedingt in der gesamten Brennkammer eingehalten werden, da lokale stoechiometrische Zustaende sofort zum Anstieg der Stickoxidproduktion fuehren. Um diese Prozesse beherrschen zu koennen, ist eine detaillierte Kenntnis der Mischungsvorgaenge bezueglich

  5. Review of light water reactor regulatory requirements: Assessment of selected regulatory requirements that may have marginal importance to risk: Postaccident sampling system, Turbine missiles, Combustible gas control, Charcoal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.B.; Jamison, J.D.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Vo, T.V.

    1987-05-01

    In a study commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the costs and benefits of modifying regulatory requirements in the areas of the postaccident sampling system, turbine rotor design reviews and inspections, combustible gas control for inerted Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, and impregnated charcoal filters in certain plant ventilation systems. The basic framework for the analyses was that presented in the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines (NUREG/BR-0058) and in the Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (NUREG/CR-3568). The effects of selected modifications to regulations were evaluated in terms of such factors as public risk and costs to industry and NRC. The results indicate that potential modifications of the regulatory requirements in three of the four areas would have little impact on public risk. In the fourth area, impregnated charcoal filters in building ventilation systems do appear to limit risks to the public and plant staff. Revisions in the severe accident source term assumptions, however, may reduce the theoretical value of charcoal filters. The cost analysis indicated that substantial savings in operating costs may be realized by changing the interval of turbine rotor inspections. Small to moderate operating cost savings may be realized through postulated modifications to the postaccident sampling system requirements and to the requirements for combustible gas control in inerted BWR containments. Finally, the use of impregnated charcoal filters in ventilation systems appears to be the most cost-effective method of reducing radioiodine concentrations

  6. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  7. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  8. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  9. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  10. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  11. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  12. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  13. NOx reduction and NO2 emission characteristics in rich-lean combustion of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Omori, Kento; Hiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels, but it is very important to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generated by hydrogen combustion. The rich-lean combustion or staged combustion is known to reduce NOx emissions from continuous combustion burners such as gas turbines and boilers, and NOx reduction effects have been demonstrated for hydrocarbon fuels. The authors applied rich-lean combustion to a hydrogen gas turbine and showed its NOx reduction effect in...

  14. Gas turbine requirements for a carbon constrained environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M.; Lacy, B.P.; Yilmaz, E.; (and others) [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    With carbon capture, the pre-combustion decarbonization of natural gas, or syngas derived from coal gasification results in gas turbines fuels that consist of 90% or higher hydrogen content. This paper discusses the challenge of low CO{sub 2} processes for advanced gas turbines with particular focus on high hydrogen combustion. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Modeling and simulating combustion and generation of NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of combustion processes and generation of NO x in a combustion chamber and boiler, with supplementary combustion in a gas turbine installation. The fuel burned in the combustion chamber was rich gas with a chemical composition more complex than natural gas. Pitcoal was used in the regenerative boiler. From the resulting combustion products, 17 compounds were retained, including nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Using the developed model, the simulation resulted in excess air for a temperature imposed at the combustion chamber exhaust. These simulations made it possible to determine the concentrations of combustion compounds with a variation in excess combustion. (author)

  16. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  17. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  18. Method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2018-02-06

    A method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100) is provided. A combustor outer casing (68) is removed from an existing aero gas turbine engine (60). An annular combustor (84) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A first row of turbine vanes (38) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly (122) is installed within the existing aero gas turbine engine. The can annular combustor assembly is configured to accelerate and orient combustion gasses directly onto a first row of turbine blades of the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly outer casing (108) is installed to produce the aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100). The can annular combustor assembly is installed within an axial span (85) of the existing aero gas turbine engine vacated by the annular combustor and the first row of turbine vanes.

  19. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  20. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  1. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  2. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  3. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  4. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  5. SMART POWER TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  7. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  8. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  9. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  10. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of ultra-high temperature materials); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development of ultra-high temperature materials for parts of hydrogen combustion turbines, as part of the hydrogen utilization technology, which have excellent environmental protectivity and remarkably high efficiency. By the optimized solution heat treatment of monocrystal alloy developed in the previous fiscal year, obtained was strength property the same as the existing super alloys. As to FRC, pore size and strength property of SiC organic hybrid were made clear. ODS alloy cooling blades and heat insulation coating were studied, and YSZ was found to be most excellent as coating material. Concerning intermetallic compounds, the applicability to ultra-high temperatures up to 1700degC was not obtained. For improvement of heat resistance and environment resistance, adopted were highly compacting SiC matrix and BN coatings. Al2O3 was excellent in long-time stability. In the 1600degC steam corrosion test on multiplex structural materials with Al2O3 as surface material, chemical stability was confirmed. Three-dimensional woven fiber reinforced composite materials of C/C{center_dot}CMC were trially produced by changing the fiber orientation, and improvement in ultra-high temperature thermal shock resistance was confirmed. A study was made of spot observation of the specimen surface by laser microscope, and development was conducted of a temperature measuring method with no influence of radiant heat. 44 refs., 250 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine and ultrahigh-temperature materials; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 (suiro nensho turbine no kaihatsu/chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are the materials designs/production and tests/evaluation results of heat-resistant materials, i.e., alloys, ceramic composites and carbon-based composites, which are expected to be applicable to the hydrogen combustion turbines. These have been studied since 1993, and this paper summarizes the overall evaluation results of the phase I program. The intermetallic compound as one of the candidate materials has a high-temperature strength in a range from 1200 to 1400 degrees C by optimizing elements added. However, no prospect is obtained for heat resistance at 1700 degrees C or more for the material not coated or cooled moderately. Each of the other candidate materials tested shows a bright prospect of applicability at the base material and specimen levels. The single-crystal superalloy for hybrid cooling structures has novelty in that it is free of Cr but incorporated with Si and Hf, showing approximately 10 degrees C higher heat-resistant temperature than CMSX-4. CMC and C/C are inherently excellent heat-resistant materials, and are attractive advanced composites, because they are expected to realize no-cooled blades at 1700 degrees C. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (R and D of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of ultra-high temperature materials); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the application to hydrogen combustion turbines, the R and D were continued of heat resistant alloys, ceramic composite materials, and carbonaceous composite materials. In the development of highly efficient super alloy single crystal materials, as to the single crystal alloy (Ni-5.3Al-0.5Ti-6.0Mo-4.8W-6.0Re) and an alloy made by adding 0.15%Si to the above alloy and an alloy made by adding 2.0%Hf to the above alloy, data on high temperature tensile property and creep rupture property were obtained, and it was confirmed that Hf added alloys were excellent in strength. Relating to the development of fiber reinforced ceramics, materials for trial fabrication were fabricated by the CVI method using SiC fiber, and the evaluation test was conducted to obtain the basic data. Besides, the following were carried out: study of coating for heat resistant alloy cooled blades, development of ceramic composite materials, development of ceramic multi-structure materials and analysis of fracture behaviors under the ultra-high composite environment, development of 3D fiber reinforced composite materials, development of technology to evaluate basic properties of ultra-high temperature materials, etc. 46 refs., 217 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (evaluation of the optimum system); Suiso riyo kokusai energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu (saiteki system no hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Based on the proposed cycle of each contractor, conceptual design of 500 MW class hydrogen combustion turbine power generation plant has been completed through its economic examination. The optimum system has been evaluated on the basis of the conceptual design. For the conceptual design of power generation plant, the gross power generation efficiencies based on HHV of topping regenerating cycle and new Rankine cycle proved to be 61.8% and 61.7%, respectively, which exceed the target efficiency 60%. Economic consideration proved that the construction cost of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. The development problem, development step and development cost have become clear. Examination on the reliability proved that the operation reliability of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. Examination on the plant layout proved that the conservation of space for each system will be smaller than that of current combined cycle power generation plant. Environmental examination confirmed that each system is very clean power generation system. For the evaluation proposed by each company, the total points of each system became in the order, topping regeneration cycle, new Rankine cycle, and Rankine cycle with reheat and recuperation. 112 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2015-12-01

    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  15. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  16. A manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of polluting emissions from turbines with a power lower than 10 MW; Turbines. Proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the industrial turbines manufactured by Turbomeca company and with the way to reduce the pollutant emissions in agreement with the French regulation on combustion and environment. After a recall of the functioning conditions and the performances requested in turbines combustion chamber, the paper analyzes the different existing solutions used for the reduction of pollutants emissions (water injection, weak, rich and dry low NOx combustion, catalytic combustion) and their cost/performance ratio. Then Turbomeca`s applied research on combustion chambers is described (conventional chambers with water injection, specific low emission chamber of Eurodyn turbines and adaptable to other existing engines, 2D numerical simulation of combustion kinetics, low pre-mixed combustion chambers, catalytic combustion chambers). (J.S.)

  17. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  18. Thermal stresses investigation of a gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowreesh, S.; Pravin, V. K.; Rajagopal, K.; Veena, P. H.

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of structural and thermal stress values that are produced while the turbine is operating are the key factors of study while designing the next generation gas turbines. The present study examines structural, thermal, modal analysis of the first stage rotor blade of a two stage gas turbine. The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine with optimized dump gap of the combustion chamber, since the allowable temperature on the turbine blade dependents on the hot gas temperatures from the combustion chamber. In the present paper simplified 3-D Finite Element models are developed with governing boundary conditions and solved using the commercial FEA software ANSYS. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress on the rotor blades, a detail study on mechanical and thermal stresses are estimated and evaluated with the experimental values.

  19. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  20. Failure analysis of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two 20 MW gas turbines suffered damage in blades belonging to the 2nd. stage of the turbine after 24,000 hours of duty. From research it arises that the fuel used is not quite adequate to guarantee the blade's operating life due to the excess of SO 3 , C and Na existing in combustion gases which cause pitting to the former. Later, the corrosion phenomenon is presented under tension produced by working stress enhanced by pitting where Pb is its main agent. A change of fuel is recommended thus considering the blades will reach the operational life they were designed for. (Author) [es

  1. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  2. Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scanning proton microscopy was employed to evaluate the quality of refurbishment process of gas turbine ... environment of hot combustion gases occur due to various processes, such as .... performance of refurbished blades.7. Due to the ...

  3. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  4. DIAGNOSIS OF FAILURE OF COMBUSTION IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER WITH A THERMOVISION EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vorobiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermovision technology to diagnose failure of the combustion flame test tube of the main combustion chamber gas turbine engine is deal with in the article. Join the thermal radiation of the jet of combustion products and the internal elements was carried out using short-wave thermovision system AGA-782 with spectral spectral filters in several ranges from 3.2 to 5.6 microns. Thermovision is mounted on the axis of the flame tube. The output signal was recorded and processed on a computer in real time, allowing monitor the combustion process and the thermal state of the object during the experiment.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  6. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  7. Demonstration of IGCC features - plant integration and syngas combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, F.; Huth, M.; Karg, J.; Schiffers, U. [Siemens AG Power Generation (KWU), Erlanger/Muelheim (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Siemens is involved in three IGCC plants in Europe that are currently in operation. Against the background of the Puertollano and Buggenum plants, some of the specific new features of fully integrated IGCC power plants are discussed, including: requirements and design features of the gas turbine syngas supply system; gas turbine operating experience with air extraction for the air separation unit from the gas turbine air compressor; and design requirements and operational features of the combustion system. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Análise termodinâmica de um ciclo de potência com célula a combustível sofc e turbina a vapor = Thermodynamic analysis of a power cycle such as SOFC fuel cell and steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sordi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar a análise termodinâmica de um sistema híbrido, SOFC / ST (célula a combustível tipo SOFC e turbina a vapor ST. O combustível considerado para a análise foi o gás metano (biogás produzido por meio da digestão anaeróbica de resíduos orgânicos. A metodologia utilizada foi o balanço de energia dosistema SOFC / ST, considerando a reforma interna do metano na célula a combustível, de forma a obter a sua eficiência elétrica. O resultado foi comparado a um ciclo combinado convencional de turbina a gás e turbina a vapor (GT / ST para potências entre 10 MW e 30MW. A eficiência do sistema híbrido SOFC / ST variou de 61% a 66% em relação ao poder calorífico do metano; e a eficiência do ciclo combinado GT / ST variou de 41% a 55% para o mesmo intervalo de potência. Para geração distribuída a célula a combustível SOFC é atecnologia mais eficiente.The objective of this article was to analyze the thermodynamic of ahybrid system, SOFC / ST (SOFC fuel cell and ST steam turbine. The fuel for the analysis was the gas methane (biogas produced through the anaerobic digestion of the organic residues. The utilized methodology was the energy balance of the system SOFC / ST,considering the internal reforming of methane in the fuel cell, in a way to obtain its electric effectiveness. The result was compared to a conventional combined cycle of gas turbine and steam turbine (GT / ST for powers between 10 MW and 30 MW. The efficiency of the hybrid system SOFC / ST varied from 61 to 66% in relation to the lower heating value of methane; and the efficiency of the combined cycle GT / ST varied from 41 to 55% within the same power interval. For distributed generation, the SOFC fuel cell is the most efficienttechnology.

  9. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Design Parameters Defining Gas Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane Endwall Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Rubensdörffer, Frank G.

    2006-01-01

    The primary requirements for a modern industrial gas turbine consist of a continuous trend of an increasing efficiency combined with very low emissions in a robust, cost-effective manner. To fulfil these tasks a high turbine inlet temperature together with advanced dry low NOX combustion chambers are employed. These dry low NOX combustion chambers generate a rather flat temperature profile compared to previous generation gas turbines, which have a rather parabolic temperature profile before t...

  10. Improved PFB operations - 400-hour turbine test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-04-01

    The paper deals with a 400-hr small turbine test in the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) at an average temperature of 770 C, an average relative gas velocity of 300 m/sec, and average solid loadings of 200 ppm. Consideration is given to combustion parameters and operating procedure as well as to the turbine system and turbine test operating procedures. Emphasis is placed on erosion/corrosion results.

  11. The interaction of combustion pressure oscillations and liner vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Gas turbine combustors have at industrial scale a thermal power released by combustion of 1 to 400 MW. As the flames in these combustors are very turbulent, the combustion generates high levels of thermo acoustic noise. Of crucial importance for the operation of the engine is not the noise emitted,

  12. Emission Modeling of an Interturbine Burner Based on Flameless Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpignan, A.A.V.; Talboom, M.G.; Levy, Yeshayahou; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2018-01-01

    Since its discovery, the flameless combustion (FC) regime has been a promising alternative to reduce pollutant emissions of gas turbine engines. This combustion mode is characterized by well-distributed reaction zones, which potentially decreases temperature gradients, acoustic oscillations, and

  13. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost

  14. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  16. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  17. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  18. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  19. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  20. Gas turbines and operation of gas turbines 2011; Gasturbinen und Gasturbinenbetrieb 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Conference at 11th and 12th May, 2011 in Offenbach/Main (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The future of high temperature gas turbines in power plants (Konrad Vogeler); (2) Development of reliable thermal barrier coatings for high-loaded turbine and combustor parts (Hans-Peter Bossmann); (3) CCPP Irsching 4 with gas turbine SGT5-8000H, on the way to 60 % CC efficiency (Willibald Fischer); (4) First test results of MAN's new 6 MW gas turbine (Markus Beukenberg); (5) Design characteristics and key thermodynamic parameters of the recuperated 4 MW solar turbines Mercury 50 gas turbines: - Economics and environmental feasibility, - operating experience in combined cycle applications with recuperation (Ulrich Stang); (6) Medium size gas turbines - OEM concept for continued reduction of life cycle costs (Vladimir Navrotsky); (7) Fracture mechanical analysis on fatigue failures of gas turbine components: - Root cause analysis - fracture mechanics - stress corrosion cracking - examples of failure analysis (Peter Verstraete); (8) The effectiveness of blade superalloy reheat treatment (Michael Wood); (9) An innovative combustion technology for high efficient gas turbines (Christian Oliver Paschereit); (10) Damping of thermo-acoustic vibrations in gas turbine combustion chambers (Sermed Sadig); (11) Alstom GT13E2 combustor upgrade for Vattenfalls Berlin Mitte combined heat and power plant (Klaus Doebbeling); (12) Optimisation of air inlet filtration for dust, rain and humidity (Heiko Manstein); (13) Life cycle cost reduction through high efficiency membrane based air intake filters (Helmut Krah); (14) Status and impact of national, European and international standardization on GT plants; GT standardizing status quo? (Gerd Weber); (15) Technical and thermodynamic aspects of compresssed air energy storage (Peter Radgen); (16) Requirements on the gas turbine in the course of time - intelligent OEM-concepts to ensure reliable

  1. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  2. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  3. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaei, Ali; Barzegar Avval, Hasan; Eslami, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C) by solar power tower (SPT) as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simul...

  4. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  5. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  6. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  7. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  8. Gas Turbines: ''low NOx'' technologies at EGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    For more than 15 years, European Gas Turbines (EGT - GEC Alsthom Group) has gained an important know-how culture and can use its rich feedback experience in the domain of gas turbine emissions. The EGT gas turbine units equipped with denitrogenation technologies cover the 4 to 226 MW power range and cumulate more than 1.7 hours of functioning in the different existing installations in the world. This paper describes the economical and environmental interests of gas turbines for power production and the combustion technologies developed by EGT to reduce the NOx emissions. The selective catalytic reduction technique is the only available secondary technique with can allow NOx and CO emissions lower than 10 ppm. Other technologies involving diluent injection (water, water-fuel mixture, vapor..) are also described and were developed in several countries to reduce the emission of these pollutants. (J.S.)

  9. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    could supply both heat and peaking power (Block 2 engine); (2) Repowering of an older coal-fired plant (Block 2 engine); (3) Gas-fired HAT cycle (Block 1 and 2 engines); (4) Integrated gasification HAT (Block 1 and 2 engines). Also under Phase I of the NGT Program, a conceptual design of the combustion system has been completed. An integrated approach to cycle optimization for improved combustor turndown capability has been employed. The configuration selected has the potential for achieving single digit NO{sub x}/CO emissions between 40 percent and 100 percent load conditions. A technology maturation plan for the combustion system has been proposed. Also, as a result of Phase I, ceramic vane technology will be incorporated into NGT designs and will require less cooling flow than conventional metallic vanes, thereby improving engine efficiency. A common 50 Hz and 60 Hz power turbine was selected due to the cost savings from eliminating a gearbox. A list of ceramic vane technologies has been identified for which the funding comes from DOE, NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and P&W.

  10. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  11. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  12. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  13. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  14. Turbines. NO{sub x} processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines. Traitement des NO{sub x} sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie-Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the SoLoNOx process developed by the Solar Turbines Incorporated company for the prevention of NO{sub x} production in his gas turbines. The formation of combustion products, by-products and NO{sub x} are recalled first and then the different existing processes for the reduction of pollutants are reviewed: water or steam injection, and purification of exhaust gases. The SoLoNOx process uses a dry, weak and pre-mixed mixture and allows better NO{sub x} and CO reductions than the water injection process. (J.S.)

  15. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  16. The new 6 MW gas turbine for the power generation; Die neue 6 MW Gasturbine fuer die Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaswich, Michael; Theis, Sascha [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Oberhausen, Federal Republic of Germany) had developed a new gas turbine in the 6 MW class. This device is the founding stone for a family of gas turbines which at first cover the power range from 6 to 8 MW for the propulsion of pumps, compressors and electric devices. The two-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of a gas generator with an axial compressor with eleven levels, six external single combustion chambers, one two-step high-pressure turbine and a two-step power turbine. Beside the two-shaft industrial gas turbine, there exists a single-shaft industrial gas turbine for the power generation. The single-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of three turbine stages, a gas turbine compressor and combustion chamber being identical in construction to the two-shaft industrial gas turbine. The gas turbine package contains the gas turbine module as well as a filter module. The gas turbine was successfully tested. Further tests and the commissioning of the first customer's plant are planned for this year.

  17. Proceedings of IEA combustion 2009 : IEA 31. task leaders meeting on energy conservation and emissions reduction in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) supports research and development in energy technology. This meeting provided a forum to discuss combustion processes, which is fundamental to achieving further improvements in fuel use efficiency, reducing the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, and facilitating the transition to alternative fuels. The presentations demonstrated recent studies in improving the efficiency and fuel flexibility of automotive engines; improving the performance of industrial furnaces; emissions formation and control mechanisms; and fuel injection and fuel/air mixing. The conference also highlighted studies involving hydrogen combustion, alternative fuels, particulate diagnostics, fuel sprays, gas turbines, and advanced combustion processes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The sessions were entitled: HCCI fuels; sprays; nanoparticle diagnostics; alternative fuels; hydrogen internal combustion engines; turbines; energy security; and collaborative task planning. All 45 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Accelerated life consumption due to thermo-acoustic oscillations in gas turbines: XFEM & Crack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altunlu, A.C.; van der Hoogt, Peter; de Boer, Andries; Grant, I

    2012-01-01

    The combustion instability phenomenon in the gas turbine engines brings out elevated vibrations under high temperature levels. The present work addresses the projection of a life assessment methodology applied in a laboratory-scaled generic combustor onto the typical gas turbine engine combustor

  19. Improved PFB operations - 400-hour turbine test results. [Pressurized Fluidized Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with a 400-hr small turbine test in the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) at an average temperature of 770 C, an average relative gas velocity of 300 m/sec, and average solid loadings of 200 ppm. Consideration is given to combustion parameters and operating procedure as well as to the turbine system and turbine test operating procedures. Emphasis is placed on erosion/corrosion results.

  20. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  1. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  2. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  3. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) 1993 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by AlliedSignal Engines, a unit of AlliedSignal Aerospace Company, during calendar year 1993, toward development and demonstration of structural ceramic technology for automotive gas turbine engines. This work was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Contract DEN3-335, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATFAP). During 1993, the test bed used to demonstrate ceramic technology was changed from the AlliedSignal Engines/Garrett Model AGT101 regenerated gas turbine engine to the Model 331-200(CT) engine. The 331-200(CT) ceramic demonstrator is a fully-developed test platform based on the existing production AlliedSignal 331-200(ER) gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU), and is well suited to evaluating ceramic turbine blades and nozzles. In addition, commonality of the 331-200(CT) engine with existing gas turbine APU's in commercial service provides the potential for field testing of ceramic components. The 1993 ATTAP activities emphasized design modifications of the 331-200 engine test bed to accommodate ceramic first-stage turbine nozzles and blades, fabrication of the ceramic components, ceramic component proof and rig tests, operational tests of the test bed equipped with the ceramic components, and refinement of critical ceramic design technologies.

  4. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  5. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  6. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  7. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  8. Noise immission from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report is in itself a Summary of the entire NIWT project, JOR3-CT95-0065, which consisted of a jointly EC funded collaboration between nine European partners in six Countries which ran between January 1996 and December 1997. The primary aims of the project were to investigate a number of aspects associated with more precisely quantifying the uncertainties associated with the Measurement of Acoustic Noise Immission of wind turbines. The main findings of the report are contained in the technical reports issued by partners on individual tasks. Copies of individual reports can be obtained directly from the participating partners. (author)

  9. Mixing and combustion enhancement of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichang; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Gen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet is a new concept engine that combines the advantages of both solid rocket ramjet and Air Turbo Rocket, with a wide operation envelope and high performance. There are three streams of the air, turbine-driving gas and augment gas to mix and combust in the afterburner, and the coaxial intake mode of the afterburner is disadvantageous to the mixing and combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out mixing and combustion enhancement research. In this study, the numerical model of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet three-dimensional combustion flow field is established, and the numerical simulation of the mixing and combustion enhancement scheme is conducted from the aspects of head region intake mode to injection method in afterburner. The results show that by driving the compressed air to deflect inward and the turbine-driving gas to maintain strong rotation, radial and tangential momentum exchange of the two streams can be enhanced, thereby improving the efficiency of mixing and combustion in the afterburner. The method of injecting augment gas in the transverse direction and making sure the injection location is as close as possible to the head region is beneficial to improve the combustion efficiency. The outer combustion flow field of the afterburner is an oxidizer-rich environment, while the inner is a fuel-rich environment. To improve the efficiency of mixing and combustion, it is necessary to control the injection velocity of the augment gas to keep it in the oxygen-rich zone of the outer region. The numerical simulation for different flight conditions shows that the optimal mixing and combustion enhancement scheme can obtain high combustion efficiency and have excellent applicability in a wide working range.

  10. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of ultrahigh-temperature materials); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Cho koon zairyo no kaihatsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Current technologies are surveyed and tasks to discharge are extracted relating to heat resistant alloys, intermetallic compounds, ceramic based composite materials, and carbon based composite materials, which are expected to be used for hydrogen combustion turbines. Concerning oxide dispersion strengthened alloys for cooled vanes, tasks to discharge are extracted, which relate to the designing, development, and selection of vane materials, bonding layer materials, and coating materials, and to thermal barrier coating techniques and machining techniques. Concerning porous fiber reinforced ceramic materials for ceramic shells, tasks involve the elucidation of corrosion behavior and manufacturing techniques. MoSi{sub 2}, which is a promising high-melting intermetallic compound, also presents some tasks to discharge for an increase in its high strength and high ductility in an ultrahigh-temperature steam/reducing atmosphere, and for improvement in manufacturing techniques. For the carbon/carbon composite material which is the sole material usable in the ultrahigh-temperature domain of 2,000 degrees C, an analysis and evaluation method taking its anisotropy into consideration needs to be developed, and an oxidation resistant coating has to be also developed. In addition to the designing and development of these materials, development is necessary of materials testing and evaluating techniques. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of main accessories); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Shuyo hokirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    In the first fiscal year 1993 of the project, surveys were conducted about current technologies relative to cold energy-utilizing oxygen production equipment and high-temperature heat exchangers for the development of main accessories for a hydrogen combustion turbine plant. Kobe Steel, Ltd., conducted surveys about very low temperature heat exchangers and cold energy utilization technology used in facilities for gasifying liquid hydrogen or liquefied gas. Daido Hoxan, Inc., in its research on the possibility of air separator performance enhancement through liquid hydrogen cold energy application, studied reduction in power unit requirement, stable power supply responding to changes in load, safety measures, and so forth. Toshiba Corporation conducted surveys and studies about heat conduction improvement techniques and about the type, structure, and materials for heat exchangers for the embodiment of a high-temperature heat exchanger excellent in performance and high in structural soundness. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., aiming to establish basic technologies for heat exchangers, studied efficiency enhancement with low pressure loss, improved hygroscopic moisture removing function, and new materials utilization for achieving high-temperature capability. (NEDO)

  12. Large eddy simulation and combustion instabilities; Simulation des grandes echelles et instabilites de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, G.

    2004-11-15

    The new european laws on pollutants emission impose more and more constraints to motorists. This is particularly true for gas turbines manufacturers, that must design motors operating with very fuel-lean mixtures. Doing so, pollutants formation is significantly reduced but the problem of combustion stability arises. Actually, combustion regimes that have a large excess of air are naturally more sensitive to combustion instabilities. Numerical predictions of these instabilities is thus a key issue for many industrial involved in energy production. This thesis work tries to show that recent numerical tools are now able to predict these combustion instabilities. Particularly, the Large Eddy Simulation method, when implemented in a compressible CFD code, is able to take into account the main processes involved in combustion instabilities, such as acoustics and flame/vortex interaction. This work describes a new formulation of a Large Eddy Simulation numerical code that enables to take into account very precisely thermodynamics and chemistry, that are essential in combustion phenomena. A validation of this work will be presented in a complex geometry (the PRECCINSTA burner). Our numerical results will be successfully compared with experimental data gathered at DLR Stuttgart (Germany). Moreover, a detailed analysis of the acoustics in this configuration will be presented, as well as its interaction with the combustion. For this acoustics analysis, another CERFACS code has been extensively used, the Helmholtz solver AVSP. (author)

  13. Micro-propulsion and micro-combustion; Micropropulsion microcombustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribaud, Y.; Dessornes, O.

    2002-10-01

    The AAAF (french space and aeronautic association) organized at Paris a presentation on the micro-propulsion. The first part was devoted to the thermal micro-machines for micro drones, the second part to the micro-combustion applied to micro-turbines. (A.L.B.)

  14. Optical diagnostics in gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the power industry and increasingly tight emission controls are pushing gas turbine manufacturers to develop engines operating at high pressure for efficiency and lean fuel mixtures to control NOx. This combination also gives rise to combustion instabilities which threaten engine integrity through acoustic pressure oscillations and flashback. High speed imaging and OH emission sensors have been demonstrated to be invaluable tools in characterizing and monitoring unstable combustion processes. Asynchronous imaging technique permit detailed viewing of cyclic flame structure in an acoustic environment which may be modeled or utilized in burner design . The response of the flame front to the acoustic pressure cycle may be tracked with an OH emission monitor using a sapphire light pipe for optical access. The OH optical emission can be correlated to pressure sensor data for better understanding of the acoustical coupling of the flame. Active control f the combustion cycle can be implemented using an OH emission sensor for feedback.

  15. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  16. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  17. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.

    2005-12-15

    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  18. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew Carl [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The focus of this program was to experimentally investigate advanced gas turbine cooling schemes and the effects of and factors that contribute to surface deposition from particulate matter found in coal syngas exhaust flows on turbine airfoil heat transfer and film cooling, as well as to characterize surface roughness and determine the effects of surface deposition on turbine components. The program was a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary collaborative effort between aero-thermal and materials faculty researchers and the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The primary technical objectives of the program were to evaluate the effects of combustion of syngas fuels on heat transfer to turbine vanes and blades in land-based power generation gas turbine engines. The primary questions to be answered by this investigation were; What are the factors that contribute to particulate deposition on film cooled gas turbine components? An experimental program was performed in a high-temperature and pressure combustion rig at the DOE NETL; What is the effect of coal syngas combustion and surface deposition on turbine airfoil film cooling? Deposition of particulate matter from the combustion gases can block film cooling holes, decreasing the flow of the film coolant and the film cooling effectiveness; How does surface deposition from coal syngas combustion affect turbine surface roughness? Increased surface roughness can increase aerodynamic losses and result in decreased turbine hot section efficiency, increasing engine fuel consumption to maintain desired power output. Convective heat transfer is also greatly affected by the surface roughness of the airfoil surface; Is there any significant effect of surface deposition or erosion on integrity of turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and do surface deposits react with the TBC in any way to decrease its thermal insulating capability? Spallation and erosion of TBC is a persistent problem in

  19. Ceramics technology for advanced industrial gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, D.; Sheppard, W.J.; DeCorso, M.; Parks, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of high strength ceramic materials and in their application to automotive and aerospace gas turbine engines may lead also to significant improvements in the performance of industrial gas turbines. This paper presents a brief review of the improvements projected in a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The future costs of power generated by small gas turbines (up to 25 MW) are predicted, as well as the potential for fuel savings. Gas turbines in this size range are used extensively for gas compression and for cogeneration, as well as in a variety of more diverse applications. This paper includes results of analyses of the ways in which changes in gas turbine cost and performance are likely to affect market penetration. These results lead to predictions of future savings in U.S. fuel consumption in the industrial sector that would result. The paper also presents a brief overview of the scope of a suggested R and D program, with an appropriate schedule, which would provide a technical basis for achieving the projected results. Important parts of this program would cover ceramic design and fabrication technology, engine development and demonstration, and combustion technology

  20. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  1. The swirl turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  2. Modeling of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki

    2012-10-01

    Recently, many experimental study of plasma-assisted combustion has been done. However, numerous complex reactions in combustion of hydrocarbons are preventing from theoritical study for clarifying inside the plasma-assisted combustion, and the effect of plasma-assist is still not understood. Shinohara and Sasaki [1,2] have reported that the shortening of flame length by irradiating microwave without increase of gas temperature. And they also reported that the same phenomena would occur when applying dielectric barrier discharges to the flame using simple hydrocarbon, methane. It is suggested that these phenomena may result by the electron heating. To clarify this phenomena, electron behavior under microwave and DBD was examined. For the first step of DBD plasma-assisted combustion simulation, electron Monte Carlo simulation in methane, oxygen and argon mixture gas(0.05:0.14:0.81) [2] has been done. Electron swarm parameters are sampled and electron energy distribution function (EEDF)s are also determined. In the combustion, gas temperature is higher(>1700K), so reduced electric field E/N becomes relatively high(>10V/cm/Torr). The electrons are accelerated to around 14 eV. This result agree with the optical emission from argon obtained by the experiment of reference [2]. Dissociation frequency of methane and oxygens are obtained in high. This might be one of the effect of plasma-assist. And it is suggested that the electrons should be high enough to dissociate methane, but plasma is not needed.[4pt] [1] K. Shinohara et al, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys., 42, 182008 (1-7) (2009).[0pt] [2] K. Sasaki, 64th Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, 56, 15 CT3.00001(2011).

  3. Comparative study of non-premixed and partially-premixed combustion simulations in a realistic Tay model combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, K.; Ghobadian, A.; Nouri, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of two combustion models based on non-premixed assumption and partially premixed assumptions using the overall models of Zimont Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Method (ZTFSC) and Extended Coherent Flamelet Method (ECFM) are conducted through Reynolds stress turbulence modelling of Tay model gas turbine combustor for the first time. The Tay model combustor retains all essential features of a realistic gas turbine combustor. It is seen that the non-premixed combustion model fa...

  4. Experimental study on the heavy-duty gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, V.; Ahn, Kook Young

    2000-01-01

    The results of stand and field testing of a combustion chamber for a heavy-duty 150 MW gas turbine are discussed. The model represented one of 14 identical segments of a tubular multican combustor constructed in the scale 1:1. The model experiments were executed at a pressure smaller than in the real gas turbine. The combustion efficiency, pressure loss factor, pattern factor, liner wall temperature, flame radiation, fluctuating pressure, and NOx emission were measured at partial and full load for both model and on-site testing. The comparison of these items of information, received on similar modes in the stand and field tests, has allowed the development of a method of calculation and the improvement of gas turbine combustors

  5. Clean coal technologies for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.M. [GE Industrial & Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The oil- and gas-fired turbine combined-cycle penetration of industrial and utility applications has escalated rapidly due to the lower cost, higher efficiency and demonstrated reliability of gas turbine equipment in combination with fuel economics. Gas turbine technology growth has renewed the interest in the use of coal and other solid fuels in combined cycles for electrical and thermal energy production to provide environmentally acceptable plants without extra cost. Four different types of systems utilizing the gas turbine advantages with solid fuel have been studied: direct coal combustion, combustor processing, fuel processing and indirect cycles. One of these, fuel processing (exemplified by coal gasification), is emerging as the superior process for broad scale commercialization at this time. Advances in gas turbine design, proven in operation above 200 MW, are establishing new levels of combined-cycle net plant efficiencies up to 55% and providing the potential for a significant shift to gas turbine solid fuel power plant technology. These new efficiencies can mitigate the losses involved in gasifying coal and other solid fuels, and economically provide the superior environmental performance required today. Based on demonstration of high baseload reliability for large combined cycles (98%) and the success of several demonstrations of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants in the utility size range, it is apparent that many commercial IGCC plants will be sites in the late 1990s. This paper discusses different gas turbine systems for solid fuels while profiling available IGCC systems. The paper traces the IGCC option as it moved from the demonstration phase to the commercial phase and should now with planned future improvements, penetrate the solid fuel power generation market at a rapid pace.

  6. Thermal performance of gas turbine power plant based on exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Thamir K.; Basrawi, Firdaus; Awad, Omar I.; Abdullah, Ahmed N.; Najafi, G.; Mamat, Rizlman; Hagos, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the Gas turbine. • Investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the energy and exergy performance. • The maximum exergy loss occurs in the gas turbine components. - Abstract: This study is about energy and exergy analysis of gas turbine power plant. Energy analysis is more quantitatively while exergy analysis is about the same but with the addition of qualitatively. The lack quality of the thermodynamic process in the system leads to waste of potential energy, also known as exergy destruction which affects the efficiency of the power plant. By using the first and second law of thermodynamics, the model for the gas turbine power plant is built. Each component in the thermal system which is an air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine play roles in affecting the efficiency of the gas turbine power plant. The exergy flow rate for the compressor (AC), the combustion chamber (CC) and the gas turbine (GT) inlet and outlet are calculated based on the physical exergy and chemical exergy. The exergy destruction calculation based on the difference between the exergy flow in and exergy flow out of the component. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction. The air compressor has 94.9% and 92% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. The combustion chamber has 67.5% and 61.8% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively while gas turbine has 92% and 82% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. For the overall efficiency, the plant has 32.4% and 34.3% exergy and energy efficiency respectively. To enhance the efficiency, the intake air temperature should be reduced, modify the combustion chamber to have the better air-fuel ratio and increase the capability of the gas turbine to receive high inlet temperature.

  7. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  8. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  9. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  10. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  11. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  12. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  13. Comparison of loads for wind turbine down-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    For wind farm active power setpoint tracking, both farm level and turbine level down regulation strategies should to be optimized. Several down regulation strategies are chosen to analyse the wind turbine load performance according to different wind speed and power reference. In this paper we...... suggest appropriate down regulation strategy to control wind turbine for active power reference tracking. we compare four different control strategies, namely Const-Ω, Const-λ, Max-Ω and Min-Ct and discuss the loads on main components and downwind speed by presenting analysis of several wind scenarios...

  14. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  15. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  16. Study on Characteristics of Co-firing Ammonia/Methane Fuels under Oxygen Enriched Combustion Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua; Wang, Zhaolin; Valera-Medina, Agustin; Bowen, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Having a background of utilising ammonia as an alternative fuel for power generation, exploring the feasibility of co-firing ammonia with methane is proposed to use ammonia to substitute conventional natural gas. However, improvement of the combustion of such fuels can be achieved using conditions that enable an increase of oxygenation, thus fomenting the combustion process of a slower reactive molecule as ammonia. Therefore, the present study looks at oxygen enriched combustion technologies, a proposed concept to improve the performance of ammonia/methane combustion. To investigate the characteristics of ammonia/methane combustion under oxygen enriched conditions, adiabatic burning velocity and burner stabilized laminar flame emissions were studied. Simulation results show that the oxygen enriched method can help to significantly enhance the propagation of ammonia/methane combustion without changing the emission level, which would be quite promising for the design of systems using this fuel for practical applications. Furthermore, to produce low computational-cost flame chemistry for detailed numerical analyses for future combustion studies, three reduced combustion mechanisms of the well-known Konnov's mechanism were compared in ammonia/methane flame simulations under practical gas turbine combustor conditions. Results show that the reduced reaction mechanisms can provide good results for further analyses of oxygen enriched combustion of ammonia/methane. The results obtained in this study also allow gas turbine designers and modellers to choose the most suitable mechanism for further combustion studies and development.

  17. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  18. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  19. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions

  20. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  1. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  2. Lean premixed combustion stabilized by radiation feedback and heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, R.W.; Jyh-Yuan Chen; Sawyer, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas-turbine based systems are becoming the preferred approach to electric power generation from gaseous and liquid fossil-fuels and from biomass. As coal gasification becomes, gas turbines will also become important in the generation of electricity from coal. In smaller, distributed installations, gas turbines will also become important in the generation of electricity from coal. In smaller, distributed installations, gas turbines offer the prospect of cogeneration of electricity and heat, with increased efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. One of the most important problems facing combustion-based power generation is the control of air pollutants, primarily nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}, consisting of NO and NO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO). Nitric oxide (NO) is formed during gas-phase combustion and is the precursor of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), the principal component of photochemical smog. Recent research into the mechanisms and control of NO{sub x} formation has been spurred by increasingly stringent emission standards. The principal objective of this research project is the development of effective models for the simulation of catalytic combustion applications.

  3. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  4. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  5. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  6. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  7. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  8. Combustion and environment. The answers from the energy and equipment suppliers; Combustion et environnement. Les reponses des fournisseurs d`energie et d`equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a reprint of an article published in `Energie Plus` magazine which questions the capability of commercial fuels and combustion equipments (central heating plants, burners, turbines and engines) available today of respecting the limit values of pollutant emissions (SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO, dusts) of forthcoming regulations. An analysis of the situation is given separately for the fuels (natural gas, coal, heavy fuels) with a stress on the competition aspects, and for the combustion systems (turbines, diesel and gas engines, central heating plants). (J.S.)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on World Energy Network (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (Development of main accessories); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) seika hokokusho. 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (shuyo hokirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report covers the effort to develop hydrogen-fueled turbines under the international clean energy project. In the development of technologies for the use of liquid hydrogen cold heat, studies are conducted about the emergency stop of an air separating device for a 1,000MW power plant and about a backup system, various details and specifications are defined, and a tentative design is prepared for the whole system. Studies are made about economic efficiency, which lands on a oxygen production cost of 10.92 yen/Nm{sup 3}. In the development of high-temperature heat exchangers, the results are evaluated of the competition which has been under way since 1997 between two entrusted corporations over the topping regeneration cycle technology. In this fiscal year, the evaluation is accomplished by the main accessories development subcommittee, and the Toshiba Corporation wins first place, and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., second place. It is found, however, that the conceptual designs are both feasible from the technological point of view. In addition, tasks to study for the next project are put together. (NEDO)

  10. Combustion control and sensors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docquier, N.; Candel, S.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the application of control to combustion. The objective is to optimize combustor operation, monitor the process and alleviate instabilities and their severe consequences. One wishes to improve the system performance, for example by reducing the levels of pollutant emissions or by smoothing the pattern factor at the combustor exhaust. In other cases, the aim is to extend the stability domain by reducing the level of oscillation induced by coupling between resonance modes and combustion. As combustion systems have to meet increasingly more demanding air pollution standards, their design and operation becomes more complex. The trend towards reduced NO x levels has led to new developments in different fields. Automotive engines and gas turbine combustors are considered in this article. In the first case, complex exhaust aftertreatment is being applied and dedicated engine control systems are required to ensure and maintain high pollutant conversion efficiency. For gas turbines, premixed combustors, which operate at lower local temperatures than conventional systems have been designed. In both cases, monitoring and control of the operating point of the process have to be achieved with great precision to obtain the full benefits of the NO x reduction scheme. For premixed combustors operating near the lean stability limit, the flame is more susceptible to blowout, oscillation or flashback. Research is now carried out to reduce these dynamical problems with passive and active control methods. In addition to a broad range of fundamental problems raised by Active Combustion Control (ACC) and Operating Point Control (OPC), there are important technological issues. This paper contains a review of some facets of combustion control and focuses on the sensors that take or could take part to combustion control solutions. The current status of ACC and OPC is presented together with the associated control concepts. The state of the art in sensors is

  11. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  12. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  13. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  14. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  15. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-09-12

    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  16. Analysis of the microturbine combustion chamber by using the CHEMKIN III computer code; Analise da camara de combustao de microturbinas empregando-se o codigo computacional CHEMKIN III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madela, Vinicius Zacarias; Pauliny, Luis F. de A.; Veras, Carlos A. Gurgel [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: gurgel@enm.unb.br; Costa, Fernando de S. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Combustao e Propulsao]. E-mail: fernando@cptec.inpe.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained with the simulation of multi fuel micro turbines combustion chambers. In particular, the predictions for the methane and Diesel burning are presented. The appropriate routines of the CHEMKIN III computer code were used.

  17. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  18. The swirl turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, M; Pochylý, F; Rudolf, P

    2012-01-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHη h = −u 2 v u2 . From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  19. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  20. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  1. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

    1978-09-11

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

  2. Analysis and improvement of gas turbine blade temperature measurement error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-01-01

    Gas turbine blade components are easily damaged; they also operate in harsh high-temperature, high-pressure environments over extended durations. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. In this study, measurement errors in turbine blade temperatures were analyzed, taking into account detector lens contamination, the reflection of environmental energy from the target surface, the effects of the combustion gas, and the emissivity of the blade surface. In this paper, each of the above sources of measurement error is discussed, and an iterative computing method for calculating blade temperature is proposed. (paper)

  3. Analysis and improvement of gas turbine blade temperature measurement error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-10-01

    Gas turbine blade components are easily damaged; they also operate in harsh high-temperature, high-pressure environments over extended durations. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. In this study, measurement errors in turbine blade temperatures were analyzed, taking into account detector lens contamination, the reflection of environmental energy from the target surface, the effects of the combustion gas, and the emissivity of the blade surface. In this paper, each of the above sources of measurement error is discussed, and an iterative computing method for calculating blade temperature is proposed.

  4. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  5. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development

  6. Flow in Pelton turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kjartan

    2013-01-01

    The flow in Pelton turbines is subsonic, turbulent, multiphase (water, air, and water vapor from cavitation), has high speeds, sharp gradients, free surface and dynamic boundary conditions. A static grid is unsuitable for modeling this mainly due to the turbine wheel and the liquid having a non-stationary relative motion.In recent times, significant progress in CFD simulation has been made, which also is relevant for Pelton turbines.Nevertheless, it is still common to perform costly model tes...

  7. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  8. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  9. Final Technical Report on Investigation of Selective Non-Catalytic Processes for In-Situ Reduction of NOx and CO Emissions from Marine Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, Craig

    1997-01-01

    .... These observations suggest the possibility of utilizing SNCR for reducing NO(x) emissions from marine gas turbines and Diesel engines by direct injection of a reductant species into the combustion chamber, possibly as a fuel...

  10. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  11. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  12. Exhaust gas turbo-charger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.

    1982-01-07

    The invention is concerned with a exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. A turbine driving a compressor, is feeded with the exhaust gas. Intended is the over-temperature protection of the exhaust gas turbocharger. For this reason a ring shaped sheet with a well polished nickel surface, serves as thermal shield. A sealing avoids soiling of the turbine shaft. Due to the heat shielding effect no tinder, oxide or dirt deposition is possible. The heat reflection factor is constant.

  13. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris

    2003-03-31

    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  14. International evaluation of the programme on engine-related combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcoumanis, D [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom); Magnusson, B F [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Peters, N [Institut fuer Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The 12 projects in the engine related combustion programme cover the entire range from fundamental and theoretical aspects of combustion to more applied subjects such as engine control. The common denominator in the programme clearly is the internal combustion engine, both the reciprocating as well as the gas turbine engine. Such a large coverage by a relatively small number of projects necessarily leads to an isolation of some of the projects in terms of their subject as well as the methodology that is used. On the other hand, all the research areas of interest in combustion technology are represented by at least one of the projects. These are: mathematical and numerical methods in combustion; modelling of turbulent combustion; laser diagnostics of flows with combustion; studies of engine performance and their control; semi-empirical model development for practical applications. As a conclusion, the evaluation committee believes that the programme is well balanced between fundamental and applied projects. It covers the entire range of modern methodologies that are used on the international level and thereby contributes to the application and further development of these research tools in Sweden

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Turbines, a manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of pollutant emissions in turbines lower than 10 MW; Turbines, proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    In order to comply with the new French regulations concerning 2-to-20 MW turbines and with regulations in other countries, Turbomeca is already proposing engines with water or steam injection allowing for a 40 pc to 80 pc decrease in NOx emissions. Turbomeca is developing new combustion chambers with lean pre-mixing and low pollutant emissions (NOx inferior to 75 mg/Nm{sup 3} and CO inferior to 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}) that can be adapted to existing engines or installed on developing ones. Turbomeca is also studying catalytic combustion chambers with very low pollutant emission levels (NOx and CO inferior to 20 mg/Nm{sup 3})

  18. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  19. New gas turbine technology 2012-2014 - Gas Turbine Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [LTH, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    The last three years have certainly been a game changer with respect to combined cycle efficiency and operational flexibility. All major manufacturers are able to offer plants with efficiencies around 61 percent. Siemens has a TUV-certified performance of 60.75 percent at the Kraftwerke Ulrich Hartmann (formerly Irsching 4) site outside Berlin. The old paradigm that high performance meant advanced steam-cooled gas turbines and slow started bottoming cycles has definitely proven false. Both Siemens and General Electric are able to do a hot restart within 30 minutes to, more or less, full load. This is, by far, faster than possible with steam cooling and the only technology that is capable of meeting the future flexibility requirements due to high volatile renewable penetration. All major manufacturers have developed air-cooled engines for combined cycles with 61 percent efficiency. Steam cooling will most likely only be used for 1600 deg firing level since there will be an air shortage for both dry low emission combustion and turbine cooling. The increased combined cycle efficiency is a combination of better (or higher) performing gas turbines and improved bottoming cycles. The higher gas turbine performance has been achieved whilst maintaining a 60 deg high pressure admission temperature - hence the gain in combined cycle performance. The mentioned requirements of both high gas turbine performance and sufficient exhaust temperature, should impose both an increase in pressure ratio and increased firing level. The price level (2012) was on average 30-35 percent higher than the minimum level in 2004. The cost of ownership (or per produced unit of power) is strongly governed by the difference between the electricity and the fuel price. The importance of evaluating all factors (like degradation and de-icing operation) in the economic model cannot be stressed too much since it may have a profound impact on the analysis. The test code guarantee verification test is indeed

  20. Dual-cycle power plant with internal and external heating of a gas turbine circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strach, L.

    1976-01-01

    The present proposal, after a preceding invention by the same inventor, aims at making possible the increased use of gas turbines in nuclear and coal-fired power plants. This is to be achieved by bringing the temperature of the combustion easily from a maximum of 900 0 C, as may be supplied, e.g., by the cooling media of nuclear reactors, up to the 1,700 to 2,000 0 C required as inlet temperature for gas turbines, with the aid of a fossil-fired recuperator. In fossil and nuclear power plants, gas turbines will more and more substitute steam turbines which affect the environment because of their high waste-heat losses. In coal power plants, only that part of the coal will be gasified whose resulting gas causes internal combustion within the furnace, while the remaining part of the coal is used for external combustion in a tabular heater. In a nuclear power plant, undisturbed maximum generation of electric power is to be achieved, even at reactor outages and shutdown periods for refuelling and maintenance, by almost inertia-free increase of the fossil fuel supply to the furnace (provided an extension of the latter for the capacity of heating the combustion air from room temperature till 1,700 to 2,000 0 C). The hazard of ruptures in the primary heat exchanging system is very low, because it is operated with a relative pressure of nearly zero between reactor coolant and gas turbine circuit. (RW) [de

  1. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmark, Ephraim

    2005-01-01

    .... "Flameless Combustion" is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability limits and therefore extremely low NOx production, efficient...

  2. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  4. Thermal Loss Determination for a Small Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    an engine driven compressor (supercharger) or by means of an exhaust turbine driven compressor (turbocharger). The compressed air has a higher density...low and high adjustment screws were screwed in (leaned) or out (enrich) as needed to bring the air /fuel mixture closer to stoichiometric conditions...THERMAL LOSS DETERMINATION FOR A SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE THESIS Joshua A. Rittenhouse, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENY-14-M-41 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR

  5. Guide to hydro turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This listing is a guide to turbines for hydroelectric projects of independent energy projects. The listing is in directory format and includes the supplier's name, the name of the supplier's contact, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company and the types of turbines, services and expertise available for energy projects. The listing is international in scope

  6. Improvement of turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobeit, W.; Pfeifer, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Materials for turbine blades and rotors are discussed with a view to the following subjects: Long period creep behaviour, gas/metal reactions, fatigue behaviour in long-term and creep strength testing, fracture mechanics testing, creep/fatigue interactions, development of a turbine blade of TZM, jointing of TZM, decontamination. (orig./IHOE) [de

  7. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  8. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  9. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  10. Graphene in turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  11. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-07-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  12. Exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.; Dommes, W.; Gerwig, W.

    1982-01-21

    The invention aimes at the heat protection of a turbocharger for internal combustion engines. The turbine is feeded with exhaust gas and drives the shaft of a compressor. For resolving this problem a thermal shield has been installed on the backside of the turbine. The shaft is sealed with an elastic gasket ring. This gasket avoids the deposition of dust and dirt. As a consequence of this constructive measure a growth of tinder and oxides can be avoided as well as the deposition of dirt. A constant reflection factor is ensured. The thermal shield can be manufactured of thin sheet with a nickel surface and can fastened with distance pieces on the backside of the turbine case. Furthermore it is possible to use a ceramic heat shield.

  13. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed moist nasal mucosa without inflammation and bilateral prominent blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate like protuberances in bilateral middle meatus. CT images documented accessory middle turbinate in the bilateral nasal cavity. Conclusion: Otolaryngologists should be cognizant of anatomical variations of middle turbinate to achieve correct diagnosis and avoid potential complications during surgical management.

  14. Large Eddy Simulations of Complex Flows in IC-Engine's Exhaust Manifold and Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Fjällman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the flow in pipe bends and radial turbines geometries that are commonly found in an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The development phase of internal combustion engines relies more and more on simulations as an important complement to experiments. This is partly because of the reduction in development cost and the shortening of the development time. This is one of the reasons for the need of more accurate and predictive simulations. By using more complex computational ...

  15. Combustion and environment. A regulation in full evolution; Combustion et environnement. Une reglementation en pleine evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a reprint of an article published in `Energie Plus` magazine which gives a synthesis of the different topics discussed during the conference. Two aspects are discussed: the energy regulations and the environmental regulations. The energy regulations concern the energy efficiency required for central heating plants of small (40 kW < P < 400 kW), medium and large (400 kW < P < 50 MW) size and the periodical control of these installations. The environmental regulations concern the combustion systems with a power comprised between 2 and 20 MW (design and siting, operation and maintenance, water effluents, atmospheric effluents), the turbines and engines with a power of 20 to 50 MW, and the big installations of combustion (P > 50 MW). The principal motivation of these regulations is the abatement of ecosystems acidification. (J.S.)

  16. Study on gas turbines. Leading role of high efficiency power generation; Gas turbine kenkyu. Kokoritsu hatsuden no shuyaku wo nerau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    This review summarizes research works of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry on gas turbines playing a leading role of high efficiency power generation. This article describes historical changes of gas turbine technology, changes and current status from the viewpoint of electric power industry, and development trend in various makers. Increase in the flow-in gas temperature, low NOx combustion technology, use of various fuels, and durability evaluation and improvement technology for high temperature parts are described as technological problems and development trends. The increase in temperature is indispensable for the improvement of efficiency. Materials having heat resistance, anticorrosion and strength are required. Accordingly, Ni-based single crystal super alloy has been developed. Developments of ceramic gas turbine and catalytic combustor are also described. The coal gasification combined power generation is expected as a new power generation technology having availability of various coals, high efficiency, and excellent environmental protection. Development of 1500 {degree}C class combustor for turbines has been promoted. Evaluation and improvement of durability of high temperature parts are also described. For the new utilization technology of gas turbines, repowering and compressed air storage gas turbine power generation technology are introduced. 92 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Production costs: U.S. gas turbine ampersand combined-cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This fourth edition of UDI's gas turbine O ampersand M cost report gives 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 450 US gas turbine power plants. Modeled on UDI's popular series of O ampersand M cost reports for US steam-electric plants, this report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, total fuel expenses, total non-fuel O ampersand M expenses, total production costs, and current plant capitalization. Coverage includes over 90 percent of the utility-owned gas/combustion turbine and combined-cycle plants installed in the country

  18. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  19. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  20. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  1. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a combined heat and power (CHP) demonstration project that reduces the energy costs and environmental impact of a plant while easing congestion on the constrained Northeast power grid.

  2. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  3. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  4. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  5. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D K [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  6. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  7. Control issues in oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snarheim, Dagfinn

    2009-08-15

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the major energy source in todays society. While the use of fossil fuels is a necessity for our society to function, there has been an increasing concern on the emissions of CO{sub 2} resulting from human activities. Emissions of CO{sub 2} are considered to be the main cause for the global warming and climate changes we have experienced in recent years. To fight the climate changes, the emissions of CO{sub 2} must be reduced in a timely fashion. Strategies to achieve this include switching to less carbon intensive fuels, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and combustion with CO{sub 2} capture. The use of oxy-fuel combustion is among the alternative post- and pre combustion capture concepts, a strategy to achieve power production from fossil fuels with CO{sub 2} capture. In an oxy-fuel process, the fuel is burned in a mixture of oxygen and CO{sub 2} (or steam), leaving the exhaust consisting mainly of CO{sub 2} and steam. The steam can be removed by use of a condenser, leaving (almost) pure CO{sub 2} ready to be captured. The downside to CO{sub 2} capture is that it is expensive, both in capital cost of extra equipment, and in operation as it costs energy to capture the CO{sub 2}. Thus it is important to maximize the efficiency in such plants. One attractive concept to achieve CO{sub 2} capture by use of oxy-fuel, is a semi-closed oxy-fuel gas turbine cycle. The dynamics of such a plant are highly integrated, involving energy and mass recycle, and optimizing efficiency might lead to operational (control) challenges. In these thesis we investigate how such a power cycle should be controlled. By looking at control at such an early stage in the design phase, it is possible to find control solutions otherwise not feasible, that leads to better overall performance. Optimization is used on a nonlinear model based on first principles, to compare different control structures. Then, closed loop simulations using MPC, are used to validate

  8. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft ceramic gas turbine for cogeneration); 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saiseishiki ichijiku ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop a 300kW-class ceramic gas turbine with a turbine inlet temperature of 1350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. The soundness in strength of the ceramic rotor blades and their fastening structure is confirmed. Rotor blade cushion thickness is found to decrease in start-and-stop repetitions in the initial period, but not thereafter. The exhaust diffuser and exhaust path shape are studied and improved for an increase in output, which improves turbine efficiency by 1.7%. Under the operating conditions of 1350 degrees C and full load, NOx emissions and combustion efficiency prove to be 5.6ppm and 99.9%. Even in the case using a large-diameter liner with its combustion efficiency under light load improved, the ultimate target value is achieved. Studies are further conducted on centrifugal stage loss reduction towards the ultimate goal set for the compressor. The diffuser shape is improved and the shroud clearance is reduced, and insulation efficiency of 81.1% is attained at the designing stage. In a test run of a pilot ceramic gas turbine in which temperature finally arrives at 1350 degrees C, engine thermal efficiency of 35% and shaft output of 282kW are achieved. (NEDO)

  10. CT pelvimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicens, J.L.; Charles, G.; Le Berre, J.; Flageat, J.

    1989-01-01

    Pelvimetry aims at providing the obstetrician with information on the size and morphology of the female pelvis, thus enabling him to assess the obstetrical prognosis as accurately as possible. Computed tomography (CT) has several advantages, in particular the lower mother and fetus radiation dose. After a brief description of obstetrical anatomy, the usual CT exploration method is presented and its results are considered in terms of measurements, indices and morphological findings. If performed with a very strict exploration procedure, CT pelvimetry is a very reliable, fact and comfortable method of examination. All these advantages, combined with the minimized patient dose, should lead to an increasingly widespread use of this technique [fr

  11. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  12. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  13. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  14. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  15. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  16. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  17. Thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. It may be given through the rectum using ... CT scan Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Normal lung anatomy Thoracic organs References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden ...

  18. CT Enterography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions, and if you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  19. Fuel Combustion Laboratory | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion Laboratory Fuel Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the combustion chamber platform for fuel ignition kinetics research, was acquired to expand the lab's

  20. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  1. Turbine disintegration debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, M.; Martinec, P.; Malotin, V.; Peleska, P.; Voldrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    The determination, evaluation and analysis of possible unacceptable consequences of the disintegration turbine (turbo-set) missiles is a part of the wide conceived project put by the company Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce (NPPM), the Slovak Republic. The aim of the project is to take measures reducing the probability of striking a target of safety importance in NPPM by a turbine (turbo-set) missile below the prescribed limit of 10 -6 per turbine year. Following the IAEA Safety Guides, all potential events leading to the generation of a missile are to be analysed. It is necessary to evaluate the probability of unacceptable consequences of such missiles and analyse each event whose probability is not acceptable low. This complex problem thus carries especially: complex analysis of fragment generation; evaluation of the probability of unacceptable events; location of strike zones of possible turbine missiles; assessment the possibility of the turbo-set casing penetration; and projection of additional design requirements if necessary

  2. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  3. Thermal and fluid dynamic analysis of partially premixed turbulent combustion driven by thermo acoustic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahi, Mina; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Sponfeldner, Thomas; Malcolm, M.J.; Pawelczyk, M.; Paosawatyangyong, B.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo-acoustic instability can be caused by the feedback mechanism between unsteady heat release, acoustic oscillations and flow perturbations. In a gas turbine combustor limit cycles of pressure oscillations at elevated temperatures generated by the unstable combustion process enhance the

  4. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  5. Influence of quality coal combustion and domestic stoves outbreaks steam generators and the environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrilean, Dan Codrut

    2008-01-01

    It was drawn balance a steam generator. We determined the pollutant emissions from coal combustion in the furnace Jiu Valley steam generator with an output of 150 MW. As an example of the steam generator was considered the type BabkoK Hitachi with turbine Turbao + Atom, in cogeneration.

  6. Exergetical analysis of combustion, heat transfers, thermodynamical cycles and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet, E.

    1983-11-01

    Exergetic analysis allowed to show up and evaluate irreversibilities in combustion, vapor exchanges and thermodynamic cycles, and also to justify processes often used to improve yields of thermal and energetic plants, and among them some more and more complex in cogeneration plants. This analysic method has been applied to thermal or nuclear steam power plant, to gas turbines and to cogeneration [fr

  7. Full-Scale Turbofan-Engine Turbine-Transfer Function Determination Using Three Internal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques, using three engine-internal sensors, are applied to existing static-engine test data to determine the turbine transfer function for the currently subdominant combustion noise. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and an improvement to the combustion-noise module GECOR is suggested. The work was carried out in response to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Program s Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge.

  8. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  9. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  10. Wind turbines and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

    2010-01-01

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  13. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  14. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  15. Improvement study for the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dry-low-NOx (DLN micromix combustion principle is developed for the low emission combustion of hydrogen in an industrial gas turbine APU GTCP 36-300. The further decrease of NOx emissions along a wider operation range with pure hydrogen supports the introduction of the micromix technology to industrial applications. Experimental and numerical studies show the successful advance of the DLN micromix combustion to extended DLN operation range. The impact of the hydrogen fuel properties on the combustion principle and aerodynamic flame stabilization design laws, flow field, flame structure and emission characteristics is investigated by numerical analysis using an eddy dissipation concept combustion model and validated against experimental results.

  16. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  17. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  18. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  19. Convex modeling and optimization of a vehicle powertrain equipped with a generator-turbine throttle unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkov, S.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates an internal combustion (gasoline) engine throttled by a generator-turbine unit. Apart from throttling, the purpose of this device is to complement the operation of a conventional car alternator and support its downsizing by introducing an additional source of energy for the

  20. Overview of experimental measurements in a generic can-type gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to CFD Shortfalls, experimental data on gas turbine combustors is required to obtain insight into the combustion and flow mechanisms as well as for simulation and model validation and evaluation. The temperature and velocity fields of a generic...

  1. CFD and Chemical Reactor Network approaches to model an inter-turbine burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpignan, A.A.V.; Talboom, M.G.; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Flameless Combustion (FC) regime is promising to the attainment of lower emissions in gas turbine engines. The well-distributed reactions, with low peak temperatures present in the regime result in lower emissions and acoustic oscillations. However, the

  2. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We...... investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number...... of wind turbines

  3. Numerical studies of the integration of a trapped vortex combustor into traditional combustion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrignani, L.; Losurdo, M.; Bruno, C. [Sapienza Univ. de Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Exhaust emissions from furnace burners can be reduced by premixing reactants with combustion products. This paper discussed the use of a trapped vortex combustor (TVC) as a very promising technology for gas turbines. The TVC can reduce emissions and ensure that the temperature is uniform in the exhaust products, which is a key aspect for certain types of heat treatments, such as in steel rolling mills. The TVC for gas turbines is configured to mix air, fuel and hot products at turbulent scales fine enough to render the combustion mode flameless, or close to flameless. The vortex ensures a high recirculation factor between hot combustion products and reactants, and ultimately flame stability. In this study, the TVC configuration for an existing gas turbine was numerically investigated by means of RANS and LES. According to preliminary results of the fast-flameless combustion (FFC) strategy, the proposed TVC is a suitable candidate to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while keeping the pressure drop below 1 per cent. Both RANS and LES show that too much fuel burns along the main duct. Better fuel splitting or a different position for the injectors may enhance combustion inside the recirculation zone. Behaviour of the main vortices showed that a more accurate design of the internal shape of the combustor is needed to prevent excessive velocity fluctuation or vortex instabilities and therefore emissions. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  5. Theoretical Investigation For The Effect of Fuel Quality on Gas Turbine Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulRazzak khudair, Omar; Alwan Abass, Khetam; Saadi Abed, Noor; Hussain Ali, Khalid; AbdulAziz, Saad; Chlaib Shaboot, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Gas turbine engine power generation is declined dramatically because of the reduction in thermodynamic parameters as a work of turbine, compressor ratio, compressor work, and air mass flow rate and fuel consumption. There are two main objectives of this work, the first is related with the effect of fuel kinds and their quality on the operation of fuel flow divider and its performance specifically gear pump displacement and fuel flow rate to the combustion chambers of gas power plant. AL-DORA gas turbine power plant 35MW was chosen to predict these effects on its performance MATLAB Software program is used to perform thermodynamic calculations. Fuel distribution stage before the process of combustion and as a result of the kind and its quality, chemical reaction will occur between the fuel and the parts of the gear system of each pump of the flow divider, which causes the erosion of the internal pump wall and the teeth of the gear system, thus hampering the pump operation in terms of fuel discharge. The discharge of fuel form the eight external gates of flow divider is decreased and varied when going to the combustion chambers, so that, flow divider does not give reliable mass flow rate due to absence of accurate pressure in each of eight exit pipes. The second objective deals with the stage of fuel combustion process inside the combustion chamber. A comparative study based upon performance parameters, such as specific fuel consumption for gas and gasoil and power generation. Fuel poor quality causes incomplete combustion and increased its consumption, so that combustion products are interacted with the surface of the turbine blades, causing the erosion and create surface roughness of the blade and disruption of gas flow. As a result of this situation, turbulence flow of these gases will increase causing the separation of gas boundary layers over the suction surface of the blade. Therefore the amount of extracted gas will decrease causing retreat work done by

  6. Effect of excess air on second-generation PFB combustion plant performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.; Garland, R.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Rubow, L.; Bonk, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a 1.4-MPa (14-atm) coal-fired second-generation pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion plant and identifies the performance and economic changes that result as the excess air and thus gas turbine-to-steam turbine power ratio, is changed. The performance of these plants, another second- generation PFB combustion plant, and a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with wet limestone flue gas desulfurization is compared. Depending upon the conditions selected, the PFB combustion plant can achieve a 45 percent efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the coal used as fuel) and a cost of electricity at least 20 percent lower than that of the conventional PC-fired plant

  7. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Turbine Engines: A Design and Performance Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis; Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBC) for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating long-term durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature, strength and stability requirements in engine high heat-flux combustion environments, especially for highly-loaded rotating turbine components. Advanced TEBC systems, including nano-composite based HfO2-aluminosilicate and rare earth silicate coatings are being developed and tested for higher temperature capable SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade applications. This paper will emphasize coating composite and multilayer design approach and the resulting performance and durability in simulated engine high heat-flux, high stress and high pressure combustion environments. The advances in the environmental barrier coating development showed promise for future rotating CMC blade applications.

  8. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  9. Development of a catalytically assisted combustor for a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoharu; Sato, Mikio [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-01 (Japan); Kanazawa, Takaaki; Inoue, Hitoshi [Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., 3-11-20 Nakoji, Amagasaki, Hyoho 661 (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    A catalytically assisted low NO{sub x} combustor has been developed which has the advantage of catalyst durability. This combustor is composed of a burner section and a premixed combustion section behind the burner section. The burner system consists of six catalytic combustor segments and six premixing nozzles, which are arranged alternately and in parallel. Fuel flow rate for the catalysts and the premixing nozzles are controlled independently. The catalytic combustion temperature is maintained under 1000C, additional premixed gas is injected from the premixing nozzles into the catalytic combustion gas, and lean premixed combustion at 1300C is carried out in the premixed combustion section. This system was designed to avoid catalytic deactivation at high temperature and thermal or mechanical shock fracture of the honeycomb monolith. In order to maintain the catalyst temperature under 1000C, the combustion characteristics of catalysts at high pressure were investigated using a bench scale reactor and an improved catalyst was selected for the combustor test. A combustor for a 20MW class multi-can type gas turbine was designed and tested under high pressure conditions using LNG fuel. Measurements of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned hydrocarbon were made and other measurements were made to evaluate combustor performance under various combustion temperatures and pressures. As a result of the tests, it was proved that NO{sub x} emission was lower than 10ppm converted at 16% O{sub 2}, combustion efficiency was almost 100% at 1300C of combustor outlet temperature and 13.5ata of combustor inlet pressure

  10. FY1996 annual report on the advanced combustion science in microgravity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research was implemented continuously from the previous year on combustion equipment enabling advanced combustion technologies, by studying combustion in a microgravity field, for the purpose of preventing environmental pollution caused by diversification of energy sources and exhaust gasses. In joint studies with NASA, the themes of the previous year were continued, for which tests were conducted 37 times using Japanese drop test equipment and 131 times using NASA's. The evaluation and analysis of the experiments and test data by the microgravity test equipment were, in addition to the themes of the previous year, such that micro observation for ignition/combustion mechanism of fuel spray droplets was made, as well as studies on fuel droplets combustion by a laser diagnostic device, concerning combustion of fuel droplets and vaporization process, that flame spread on solid substances was researched in relation to combustion characteristics of high density fuels, and that mixed gas combustion on a solid surface was studied in connection with the research on flammability limits. Furthermore, a study on combustion technology for gas turbines was added for the purpose of studying an advanced combustor. (NEDO)

  11. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  12. Gas turbine engine turbine blade damaging estimate in maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ель-Хожайрі Хусейн

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The factors determining character and intensity of corrosive damages of gas turbine blades are analyzed in the article. The classification of detrimental impurities polluting gas turbine airflow duct and injuring blade erosion damages are given. Common features of the method of turbine blade corrosive damage estimation are shown in the article.

  13. Investigations of thermal barrier coatings of turbine parts using gas flame heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeshkin, A. R.; Bichkov, N. G.; Ilinskaja, O. I.; Nazarov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of methods for the calculated and experimental investigations thermal barrier coatings and thermal state of gas-turbine engine parts with a thermal barrier coatings is actual work. The gas flame heating was demonstrated to be effectively used during investigations of a thermal ceramic barrier coatings and thermal state of such gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC as the cooled turbine blades and vanes and combustion liner components. The gas-flame heating is considered to be preferable when investigating the gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC in the special cases when both the convective and radiant components of thermal flow are of great importance. The small-size rig with gas-flame flow made it possible to conduct the comparison investigations with the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of thermal protection of the ceramic deposited thermal barrier coatings on APS and EB techniques. The developed design-experiment method was introduced in bench tests of turbine blades and combustion liner components of gas turbine engines.

  14. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  15. Survey on the feasibility of high-efficiency gas turbine power generation system; Kokoritsu gas turbine hatsuden system ni kansuru jitsuyo kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For higher-efficiency power generation cycle plants with less restrained conditions for a location, the conceptual design of an inter-cooled regenerative two-fluid cycle plant (ISTIG) was attempted using a modified aircraft gas turbine. A high-performance turbo fan engine is used for middle-class power generation. The first stage combustion gas drives the first stage turbine, and its exhaust gas is used for the second stage combustion. Because of two-axial type of high and low pressure, improvement of thermal efficiency is expected by easy-to-install inter-cooler. ISTIG superior in operability is suitable for medium load or distributed power generation facilities, and aims at higher efficiency of a 60% level. ISTIG includes a large amount of water vapor in combustion air by adopting a diffusion type combustor eliminating back fire, and can reduce exergy loss by preheating fuel gas. Since load of the high-pressure turbine shifts toward low-pressure one by the inter-cooler, some considerations are necessary for low-pressure side cooling together with reheating cycle. Because of unnecessary steam turbine, the construction cost per kW can be reduced by 20%. 41 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Deflector plants turbine aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Sheppard, A.R.; Widener, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Water quality requirements have become a focal point in recent re-licensing of hydroelectric projects. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has significantly increased the relevance of license conditions to insure that turbine discharges meet state or other specific criteria for dissolved oxygen (D.O.). Due to naturally occurring depletion of D.O. at increased depths in large reservoirs, water withdrawn from this strata may result in unacceptably low levels of D.O. Different researchers have evaluated various methods of improving D.O. content in hydro turbine discharges, including; diffusers, weirs, oxygen injection, and variations of turbine venting. The authors describe an approach called deflector plate turbine aeration. This computer based, engineered approach allows systems to be evaluated, designed, and installed with predictable performance and costs. Many experts in this field now agree that, to the extent practical, turbine venting offers the most dependable, maintenance free, and cost effective solution to the low D.O. problem. The approach presented in this paper has resulted in proven results

  18. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  19. Numerical simulations of turbulent jet ignition and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Irannejad, Abolfazl; Jaberi, Farhad

    2013-11-01

    The ignition and combustion of a homogeneous lean hydrogen-air mixture by a turbulent jet flow of hot combustion products injected into a colder gas mixture are studied by a high fidelity numerical model. Turbulent jet ignition can be considered as an efficient method for starting and controlling the reaction in homogeneously charged combustion systems used in advanced internal combustion and gas turbine engines. In this work, we study in details the physics of turbulent jet ignition in a fundamental flow configuration. The flow and combustion are modeled with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) approach, in which the filtered form the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity and the FMDF transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (temperature and species mass fractions) field. The hydrogen oxidation is described by a detailed reaction mechanism with 37 elementary reactions and 9 species.

  20. FY 2000 report on research and development of combustion technology utilizing microgravity conditions for fuel diversification; 2000 nendo bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita nenryo tayoka nensho gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of optimum combustion technology with diversified fuels, e.g., naphtha and LCO, for gas turbines and others as power sources for topographical energy supply. The combustion under the microgravity is also investigated using the underground facilities at Japan Microgravity Center. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. For construction of combustion model and simulation, the combustion reactions for various liquid fuels are simplified to calculate ignition delay, adiabatic flame temperature and laminar burning velocity with an error less than about 3%. The microgravity combustion experiments are conducted for spray dispersed into a cylinder, to find flame propagation velocities changing with the vaporization characteristics of liquid fuels, and also to construct the combustion models. The premixed turbulent combustion simulation program is developed using a probability density function and analyzed. Development of new combustion technologies includes the study themes of flame propagation and combustion of the air mixture of the multi-component fuel in which the spray exists, combustion characteristics of the droplets of diversified fuels, and combustion of gas turbines with diversified fuels. A propane/air mixture shows different flame propagation characteristics whether it contains kerosene or LCO droplets. The effects of electrical field intensity in the combustion zone on combustion of fuel droplets are elucidated. (NEDO)

  1. Optimizing parameters of GTU cycle and design values of air-gas channel in a gas turbine with cooled nozzle and rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.

    2012-09-01

    The authors have formulated the problem of joint optimization of pressure and temperature of combustion products before gas turbine, profiles of nozzle and rotor blades of gas turbine, and cooling air flow rates through nozzle and rotor blades. The article offers an original approach to optimization of profiles of gas turbine blades where the optimized profiles are presented as linear combinations of preliminarily formed basic profiles. The given examples relate to optimization of the gas turbine unit on the criterion of power efficiency at preliminary heat removal from air flows supplied for the air-gas channel cooling and without such removal.

  2. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  3. Gas turbine topping combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  4. Combustion/particle sizing experiments at the Naval Postgraduate School Combustion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John; Netzer, David

    1987-01-01

    Particle behavior in combustion processes is an active research area at NPS. Currently, four research efforts are being conducted: (1) There is a long standing need to better understand the soot production and combustion processes in gas turbine combustors, both from a concern for improved engine life and to minimize exhaust particulates. Soot emissions are strongly effected by fuel composition and additives; (2) A more recent need for particle sizing/behavior measurements is in the combustor of a solid fuel ramjet which uses a metallized fuel. High speed motion pictures are being used to study rather large burning particles; (3) In solid propellant rocket motors, metals are used to improve specific impulse and/or to provide damping for combustion pressure oscillations. Particle sizing experiments are being conducted using diode arrays to measure the light intensity as a function of scattering angle; (4) Once a good quality hologram is attained, a need exists for obtaining the particle distributions from hologram in a short period of time. A Quantimet 720 Image Analyzer is being used to reconstruct images.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  6. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  7. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  8. Thermodynamic simulation of a multi-step externally fired gas turbine powered by biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, A.; Pena-Vergara, G.; Curto-Risso, P.L.; Medina, A.; Calvo Hernández, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A realistic model for an EFGT fueled with solid biomass is presented. • Detailed submodels for the HTHE and the chemical reactions are incorporated. • An arbitrary number of compression and expansion stages is considered. • Model validation leads to good agreement with experimental results. • A layout with two-stage compression leads to good efficiencies and power output. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model for a realistic Brayton cycle, working as an externally fired gas turbine fueled with biomass is presented. The use of an external combustion chamber, allows to burn dirty fuels to preheat pure air, which is the working fluid for the turbine. It also avoids direct contact of ashes with the turbine blades, resulting in a higher life cycle for the turbine. The model incorporates a high temperature heat exchanger and an arbitrary number of turbines and compressors, with the corresponding number of intercoolers and reheaters. It considers irreversibilities such as non-isentropic compressions and expansions, and pressure losses in heat input and release. The composition and temperature of the combustion gases, as well as the variable flow rate of air and combustion gases, are calculated for specific biomasses. The numerical model for a single stage configuration has been validated by comparing its predictions with the data sheets of two commercial turbines. Results are in good agreement. Curves on the dependence of thermal efficiency and power output with the overall pressure ratio will be shown for several plant configurations with variable number of compression/expansion stages. Also the influence of different types of biomasses and their moisture will be analyzed on parameters such as fuel consumption and exhaust gases temperature. For a single step plant layout fueled with eucalyptus wood an efficiency of 23% is predicted, whereas for a configuration with two compressors and one turbine efficiency increases up to 25%. But it is remarkable

  9. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  10. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  11. Hydro turbines: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The various types of hydraulic turbines currently used in hydroelectric power plants are described. The descriptions are intended for use by non-engineers who are concerned with fish passage and fish mortality at a hydro power facility. Terminology used in the hydro industry is explained. Since the extent of cavitation is one of the factors affecting mortality rates of fish passing through hydraulic turbines, an equation is introduced which measures the extent of cavitation likely to be experienced in a turbine. An example of how the cavitation index can be calculated is provided for two typical power plants. The relation between certain parameters of power plant operation and the extent of cavitation, and therefore of fish mortality, is illustrated. 2 refs., 14 figs

  12. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  13. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  14. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand......, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...

  15. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  16. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  17. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on hydrogen gas turbine); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso gas turbine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research aims at establishment of the meaning of using hydrogen as gas turbine fuel in the hydrogen energy system and various conditions for hydrogen gas turbines, and approaches to the feasibility study and R and D of hydrogen gas turbines in the future. In fiscal 1975, researches were made on (1) feasibility study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, (2) establishment of various conditions for technical, social and economic realization of hydrogen gas turbines in the total energy system, and (3) study on technical troubles to be solved for realization of hydrogen gas turbines. For the above researches, study was made on hydrogen combustion based on the hydrogen combustion test result of gas mixture including hydrogen, and on the feasibility of aphodid cycle. In addition, study on the applicability of hydrogen-oxygen gas turbines, comparative study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, MHD power generation and fuel cell, and the future prospect of hydrogen gas turbines for ships were made to place this hydrogen gas turbine. (NEDO)

  18. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  19. Analysis of oxygen-enhanced combustion of gas power cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidana, Cristiano Frandalozo; Carotenuto, Adriano; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (GESTE/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos Termicos e Energeticos], E-mails: cristiano.maidana@ufrgs.br, pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    The majority of combustion processes use air as oxidant, roughly taken as 21% O{sub 2} and 79% N{sub 2}, by volume. In many cases, these processes can be enhanced by using an oxidant that contains higher proportion of O{sub 2} than in air. This is known as oxygen-enhanced combustion or OEC, and can bring important benefits like higher thermal efficiencies, lower exhaust gas volumes, higher heat transfer efficiency, reduction fuel consumption, reduced equipment costs and substantially pollutant emissions reduction. Within this scenario, this paper aims to investigate the influence of 21-30% oxygen concentration on the performance of a air-fired natural gas fueled power plant. This power plant operates under a Brayton cycle with models with the help of an air flow splitter after the compressor output in order to dose the oxygen rate of combustion and to keep the flue gas intake of the turbine at a prescribed temperature. Simulations shows that the enhancing of the oxidant stream reduced fuel consumption of about 10%, driven by higher adiabatic flame temperatures, which improves thermal and heat transfer efficiencies. A conclusion obtained is that the use of oxygen in higher proportions can be a challenge to retrofit existing air-fired natural gas power turbine cycles, because of the technological limitation of its materials with higher flame temperatures. (author)

  20. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  1. Combustion modelling of a fuel oil flame; Modelisation de la combustion d`une flamme de fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flour, I.; Mechitouan, N.

    1996-10-01

    The combustion modelling of a fuel oil flame has been realised in the scope of the R and D `Combustion Turbines`. This report presents the results of the 2D simulation of a fuel oil flame (n-octane), at atmospherical pressure, without swirl, realised using the Eulerian two-phase flow software Melodif. This calculation has been defined in collaboration with IFP, using experimental data from the IFRP. The hollow cone spray of liquid fuel is injected in the middle of the combustion chamber, with a co-flowing annular air. The furnace diameter is 2 meter and its length is 6,25 meter. A large recirculation zone is induced by the air flow, and leads to take into account the whole furnace, in order to avoid some problems with the limit conditions at the outlet. This calculation deals with droplets evaporation, gaseous phase combustion and radiation heat transfer. Predictions concerning gaseous axial mean velocity and mean temperature gradient in the flame, are in good agreement with measurements. However the temperature is too low in the peripheral zone of the flow. This is probably due to the fact that heat exchanges at the wall furnace are not correctly represented, because of a lack of detailed limit conditions for the walls. The mean radial velocity is not so well predicted, but this measurement is also quite difficult in a strongly longitudinal flow. The results concerning the dispersed phase will not be compared, because no measurements on the liquid fuel were available. As it has been experimentally observed, the simulation shows that the fuel oil spray quickly evaporates as it enters the combustion chamber. This result allows to propose to use an homogeneous approach (hypothesis of no-slipping between the two phases) in an Eulerian one-phase flow code, in case of a 3D simulation of liquid fuel turbine. (authors)

  2. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  3. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  4. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  5. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  6. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  7. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  8. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  9. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  10. Internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  11. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a clear definition of “fuel and combustion stratifications” is obvious in literature. Hence, it is difficult to compare stratification levels of different PPC strategies or other combustion concepts. T...

  12. CT cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsili, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Cancer of the urinary bladder is one of the commonest urothelial neoplasms. Conventional cystoscopy remains the mainstay in the diagnosis of urinary bladder carcinomas. But it is an invasive and uncomfortable procedure, associated with complications. Computed tomographic (CT) virtual cystoscopy has been proposed as an alternative imaging modality with potential advantages in the detection of urinary bladder neoplasms and good patient acceptance. It is a minimally invasive technique, allowing imaging of the urinary bladder in multiple planes and a 360 0 view. CT cystoscopy provides information about the location, size and morphologic features of urinary bladder lesions, indicating appropriate areas for biopsy. It can be performed in cases in which conventional cystoscopy is not feasible, such as in the presence of urethral strictures, marked prostatic hypertrophy or active bleeding, and in cases in which cystoscopic findings are inconclusive. The technique can be used to evaluate areas of the urinary bladder difficult to evaluate with cystoscopy, such as the anterior bladder neck and narrowmouthed diverticula. Finally, virtual cystoscopy provides both intraluminal and extraluminal pathologic changes, so intravesical disease and exrtavesical extension can be evaluated in the same study. One of the limitations of this technique is the difficulty to demonstrate small-sized lesions. The introduction of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scanners was a major technological advancement because among other things it substantially improves z-axis resolution by reducing section collimation and allowing the detection of very small lesions. The near isotropic or isotropic pixels achieved with a multidetector CT scanner, enable the creation of multiplanar reformatted images with a resolution very close to that of the axial images and three-dimensional (3D) renderings of outstanding quality. Transverse, multiplanar reformations and virtual endoscopic images are complementary

  13. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  14. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  15. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  16. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  17. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  18. Combustion stratification for naphtha from CI combustion to PPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johansson, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrated the change in combustion homogeneity from conventional diesel combustion via partially premixed combustion towards HCCI. Experiments are performed in an optical diesel engine at a speed of 1200 rpm with diesel fuel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is

  19. Cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  20. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  1. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  2. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  3. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  4. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  5. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  6. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  7. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  8. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  9. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  10. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  11. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  12. Radial gas turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausche, S.; Ohlsson, Johan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a program dealing with design point calculations of radial turbine machinery, including both compressor and turbine, with as few input data as possible. Some simple stress calculations and turbine metal blade temperatures were also included. This program was then implanted in a German thermodynamics program, Gasturb, a program calculating design and off-design performance of gas turbines. The calculations proceed with a lot of assumptions, necessary to finish the task, concerning pressure losses, velocity distribution, blockage, etc., and have been correlated with empirical data from VAT. Most of these values could have been input data, but to prevent the user of the program from drowning in input values, they are set as default values in the program code. The output data consist of geometry, Mach numbers, predicted component efficiency etc., and a number of graphical plots of geometry and velocity triangles. For the cases examined, the error in predicted efficiency level was within {+-} 1-2% points, and quite satisfactory errors in geometrical and thermodynamic conditions were obtained Examination paper. 18 refs, 36 figs

  13. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the res...

  14. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  15. CT-Urography; Urografia CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, Ludovico; Grotto, Maurizio [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Dipartimento di scienze cliniche, morfologiche e tecnologiche, UCO di radiologia; Morra, Aldo [CRO, Aviano (Italy). Reparto di radiologia

    2005-09-15

    In this paper we present an overview of CT-Urography. With the advent of multislice CT scanners and the evolution of image processing methods this technique now affords optimal urographic images comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques. We describe the acquisition techniques and protocols used by the various authors. Effective radiation dose has conditioned the use of CT-Urography so that the tendency today is to reduce the number of scans by performing, after the non enhanced scan, a single contrast-enhanced scan comprising both the nephrographic and urographic phase. With the use of multislice CT the quality of the urogram improves with the number of slices. We illustrate a variety of processing techniques, multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum (MIP) and average intensity projection (AIP) and volume rendering (VR) and present a series of upper urinary tract tumours testifying to the superiority of the AIP technique over MIP. We then review the results of comparative studies of CT-Urography with conventional urography in upper urinary tract diagnostics. Finally, we describe the advantages and limitations of CT-Urography. [Italian] Gli Autori presentano una panoramica sulla Urografia TC (Uro TC). L'avvento della TC multistrato e l'evoluzione delle tecniche di elaborazione consentono di ottenere dei quadri urografici ottimali comparativi con quelli convenzionali. Vengono ricordate le varie tecniche di acquisizione e i protocolli usati dai vari Autori. La dose effettiva di radiazioni ha rappresentato uno dei fattori condizionanti per cui oggi prevale l'orientamento di ridurre il numero di scansioni, considerando dopo la scansione senza mezzo di contrasto un'unica scansione contrasto grafica comprendente sia la fase nefrografica che quella urografica. Con l'uso della TC multistrato la qualita dell'urogramma migliora con l'aumento del numero degli strati. Vengono descritte le varie tecniche di elaborazione, la

  16. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    was in collaboration with Prof. R. Bowersox (Texas A&M University) and Dr. K. Kobayashi ( Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA). 4.2 Ignition... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  17. Infrared monitoring of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.C.; Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Solomon, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for combustion monitoring is described. A combination of emission, transmission, and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy yields data on the temperature and composition of the gases, surfaces and suspended particles in the combustion environment. Detection sensitivity of such trace exhaust gases as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and unburned hydrocarbons is at the ppm level. Tomographic reconstruction converts line-of-sight measurements into spatially resolved temperature and concentration data. Examples from various combustion processes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Industrial measurements are described that have been performed directly in the combustion zone and in the exhaust duct of a large chemical recovery boiler. Other measurements of hot slag show how FT-IR spectroscopy can determine the temperature and optical properties of surfaces. In addition, experiments with water droplets show that transmission FT-IR data yield spectra that characterize particle size and number density

  18. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  19. Combustion technology developments in power generation in response to environmental challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BeerBeer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    greenhouse gas debate. This is adding the task of raising the thermodynamic efficiency of the power generating cycle to the existing demands for reduced pollutant emission. Reassessment of the long-term availability of natural gas, and the development of low NO{sub x} and highly efficient gas turbine-steam combined cycles made this mode of power generation greatly attractive also for base load operation. However, the real prize and challenge of power generation R&D remains to be the development of highly efficient and clean coal-fired systems. The most promising of these include pulverised coal combustion in a supercritical steam boiler, pressurised fluid bed combustion without or with topping combustion, air heater gas turbine-steam combined cycle, and integrated gasification combined cycle. In the longer term, catalytic combustion in gas turbines and coal gasification-fuel cell systems hold out promise for even lower emissions and higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency. The present state of these advanced power-generating cycles together with their potential for application in the near future is discussed, and the key role of combustion science and technology as a guide in their continuing development highlighted. (Author)

  20. Effects of wind turbines on human health and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanan, G [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Pandian, A; Gowda, G; Raghunandan, A [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    The impact of climate change through global warming has been a concern for some time now. Targets are being set for ratifying countries to reduce their CO{sup 2} emissions. In order to achieve reduction in CO{sup 2} emissions, there must be sustained move in the production of electricity from renewable sources other than fossil fuel combustion. Of the renewable energy sources, the most realistic and economic is Wind Power. The Asian continent is developing into one of the main powerhouses of Wind Energy. The strongest market leader in Wind Energy in the continent is India. On the flip side, there are some effects of Wind Turbines which are hazardous to human health like noise generated. Such hazards are also likely and known to affect the migratory birds during transition. This paper will address the effects of Wind Turbine on Human Health and Environment. The paper will focus on the following questions: (1)What are the potential health and environmental impacts of Wind Turbines? (2)How is exposure to Wind Turbine Noise assessed? (3)What consultation process with the community is required before Wind Farms are constructed? (Author)

  1. Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2009-01-01

    Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System. From the viewpoint of energy system and environment, the concept for nuclear reactors of the generation IV have good potential for electricity and heat generation devices in producing hydrogen. These gas cooled nuclear reactors employ turbine cycle in transferring the heat. To analyses that coolant system, it is proposed a model of compressor and turbine system with power 3 kW. The used working fluid was hydrogen that be burnt with air within combustion chamber, then be expanded through a turbine for getting shaft work that will be used in driving compressor and generator. This study is aimed to determine the optimum testing conditions of gas turbine system. The used method is by applying the balance equations of energy, mass, and momentum. Gas turbine and compressor were placed at the single shaft, in which it was about 55 percent of power output for running the compressor. Under the testing condition for the speed of 20305 rpm, it was obtained thermal efficiency of the turbine cycle approximate 18 % (equal to the Carnot efficiency ratio 65 %), so that it is properly developed for the development of nuclear power installation in supporting the electricity energy demand and it will be very promising for the future facility. (author)

  2. Micro turbine development with brazilian technology; Desenvolvimento de microturbina com tecnologia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.C.; Sanches, M.S. [Multivacuo Industria e Comercio de Filtros Ltda., Campinas, SP (Brazil); Maciel, H.S. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Moura, N.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Campos, M.F.; Furini, R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most strategical factor in the field of the generation of electric energy, especially for power levels of 500 kW or higher, is the domain of the gas turbine technology and, in this aspect, few countries in the world withhold it. The objectives of the present work are: to project, to calculate, and to construct a gas turbine, based in the use of the natural gas as combustible. To accomplish these objectives the project was planned to be developed in two phases; in the first one, we envisage the set up of a concept test unit, for evidencing the capability of the involved team and of the national suppliers for manufacturing and providing the gas turbine parts. The second stage was planned to project and to construct a prototype unit for certification of the Brazilian gas turbine, aiming finally at the industrial production and commercialization, to attend the marked demand for gas turbines of power levels within the range of 500 kW to 2000 kW, using natural gas as fuel. In this work we show that the results obtained up to now - when we are in the final of the first phase - prove the existence of national technological strength for producing and supplying key parts of gas turbines, as well as qualified human resources to develop and dominate the complete gas turbine technology, in a sufficiently short period. (author)

  3. Prospective gas turbine and combined-cycle units for power engineering (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed.

  4. Design Considerations for Remote High-Speed Pressure Measurements of Dynamic Combustion Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Rohrssen, Robert (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Perez, Eduardo (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV)

    2007-01-01

    As gas turbine combustion systems evolve to achieve ultra-low emission targets, monitoring and controlling dynamic combustion processes becomes increasingly important. These dynamic processes may include flame extinction, combustion-driven instabilities, or other dynamic combustion phenomena. Pressure sensors can be incorporated into the combustor liner design, but this approach is complicated by the harsh operating environment. One practical solution involves locating the sensor in a more remote location, such as outside the pressure casing. The sensor can be connected to the measurement point by small diameter tubing. Although this is a practical approach, the dynamics of the tubing can introduce significant errors into the pressure measurement. This paper addresses measurement errors associated with semi-infinite coil remote sensing setups and proposes an approach to improve the accuracy of these types of measurements.

  5. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  6. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2015-11-19

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating value and highly corrosive combustion products. A potential alternative is to use the gas directly in a gas turbine process employing oxy-fuel combustion, which could eliminate the need for gas cleanup while also enabling the application of carbon capture and sequestration, possibly combined with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, the exact influence of an oxy-fuel environment on the combustion products of sour gas has not been quantified yet. In this work, we used a reactor network model for the combustor and the gas turbine together with our recently assembled and validated detailed chemical reaction mechanism for sour gas combustion to investigate the influence of some basic design parameters on the combustion products of natural gas and sour gas in CO2 or H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion as well as in conventional air combustion. Our calculations show that oxy-fuel combustion produces up to 2 orders of magnitude less of the highly corrosive product sulfur trioxide (SO3) than air combustion, which clearly demonstrates its potential in handling sulfur containing fuels. Unlike in air combustion, in oxy-fuel combustion, SO3 is mainly formed in the flame zone of the combustor and is then consumed as the combustion products are cooled in the dilution zone of the combustor and the turbine. In oxy-fuel combustion, H2O dilution leads to a higher combustion efficiency than CO2 dilution. However, if the process is to be combined with EOR, CO2 dilution makes it easier to comply with the very low levels of oxygen (O2) required in the EOR stream. Our calculations also show that it might even be beneficial to operate slightly fuel-rich because this simultaneously decreases the O2 and SO3 concentration further. The flame zone

  7. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  8. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of a wind turbine based combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Combined cycles use the exhaust gases released from a Gas Turbine (GT). Approximately 30–40% of the turbine shaft work is typically used to drive the Compressor. The present study analyzes a system that couples a Wind Turbine (WT) with a combined cycle. It demonstrates how a WT can be used to supply power to the Compressor in the GT cycle and pump fluid through a reheat Rankine cycle, in order to increase the overall power output. Three different configurations are discussed, namely high penetration, low penetration and wind power addition. In the case of a low electricity demand and high penetration configuration, extra wind power is used to compress air which can then be used in the low penetration configuration. During a high load demand, all the wind power is used to drive the pump and compressor and if required additional compressed air is supplied by a storage unit. The analysis shows that increasing the combustion temperature reduces the critical velocity and mass flow rate. Increases in wind speed reduce both energy and exergy efficiency of the overall system. -- Highlights: ► This study analyzes a system that couples a wind turbine with a combined power generation cycle. ► Surplus wind power is used to compress air, which is then stored and used at a later time. ► Increasing the pressure ratio will reduce the work ratio between the Rankine and Brayton cycles. ► A higher combustion temperature will increase the net work output, as well as the system energy and exergy efficiencies.

  10. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  11. CFD based exploration of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion technology at increased energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2017-03-01

    The study reveals great optimization potential of the micromix combustion technology with respect to the DLN characteristics and gives insight into the impact of geometry modifications on flame structure and NOx emission. This allows to further increase the energy density of the micromix burners and to integrate this technology in industrial gas turbines.

  12. The new 6 MW industrial gas turbine from MAN; Die neue 6 MW Industriegasturbine von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beukenberg, M.; Wiedermann, A.; Orth, U.; Aschenbruck, E.; Reiss, F. [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The development of a completely new series of gas turbines requires significant capital, resources and know-how. MAN Diesel and Turbo strategically decided to create a small gas turbine in the 6 MW-class. The construction of the Gas Turbine has been on the basis of opportunities in current and future markets and the positioning of the competition, this has determined the characteristics and technical parameters which have been optimised in the 6 MW design. The construction uses extremely high precision engineering so that the assembly of sub-components to modules is a smooth flowing process and can guarantee the high standards both quality and performance which MAN Diesel and Turbo are operating to. The individual components must be tested and thoroughly validated many months before actual assembly of the first machine. These include in particular the compressor of the gas turbine and the combustion chamber. The combustion system required special attention, since the emissions are strongly focused to satisfy stringent environmental requirements. The planned tests are a prerequisite for the construction of such a prototype and must be successfully completed before the Gas Turbine will be accepted into service. (orig.)

  13. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  14. Fuel nozzle assembly for use in turbine engines and methods of assembling same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-02-03

    A fuel nozzle for use with a turbine engine is described herein. The fuel nozzle includes a housing that is coupled to a combustor liner defining a combustion chamber. The housing includes an endwall that at least partially defines the combustion chamber. A plurality of mixing tubes extends through the housing for channeling fuel to the combustion chamber. Each mixing tube of the plurality of mixing tubes includes an inner surface that extends between an inlet portion and an outlet portion. The outlet portion is oriented adjacent the housing endwall. At least one of the plurality of mixing tubes includes a plurality of projections that extend outwardly from the outlet portion. Adjacent projections are spaced a circumferential distance apart such that a groove is defined between each pair of circumferentially-apart projections to facilitate enhanced mixing of fuel in the combustion chamber.

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  16. CT urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobkin, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-15

    With the advent of multidetector row CT scanners, evaluation of the urothelium of the entire urinary tract with high-resolution thin sections during a single breath-hold has become a reality. Multidetector CT urography (MDCTU) is a single examination that allows evaluation of potential urinary tract calculi, renal parenchymal masses, and both benign and malignant urothelial lesions. Initial results with this new technique are encouraging. Current investigations of MDCTU focus on methods to improve opacification and distension of the upper urinary tract - the collecting systems, pelvis, and ureters. The role of abdominal compression, infusion of saline and/or furosemide, and optimal time delay of excretory phase imaging is being explored. Upper tract urothelial malignancies, including small lesions less the 5 mmin diameter, can be detected with high sensitivity. Methods to reduce radiation exposure are being explored, including split-bolus contrast injection techniques that combine nephrographic and excretory phases into a single phase. It is likely that in the near future, radiological evaluation of significant unexplained hematuria or of known or prior urothelial malignancy will consist of a single examination - MDCTU. (orig.)

  17. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... turbines and the central topics considered are statistical load extrapolation of extreme loads during operation and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades. Wind turbines differ from most civil engineering structures by having a control system which highly influences the loading. In the literature......, methods for estimating the extreme load-effects on a wind turbine during operation, where the control system is active, have been proposed. But these methods and thereby the estimated loads are often subjected to a significant uncertainty which influences the reliability of the wind turbine...

  18. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  19. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  20. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  1. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  2. Airfoils for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  3. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  4. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  5. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  6. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  7. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Tracking an individual streamer branch among others in a pulsed induced discharge J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 2823--9 [29] van Veldhuizen E M and Rutgers...2005) AIAA–2005–0405. [99] E.M. Van Veldhuizen (ed) Electrical Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fun- damentals and Applications (New York: Nova...Vandooren J, Van Tiggelen P J 1977 Reaction Mechanism and Rate Constants in Lean Hydrogen–Nitrous Oxide Flames Combust. Flame 28 165 [201] Dean A M, Steiner

  8. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  9. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  10. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  11. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  12. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  13. Improving the efficiency of gas turbine systems with volumetric solar receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Sánchez-Delgado, Sergio; Marugán-Cruz, Carolina; Santana, Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of small and large-scale solar-combined cycle plants with volumetric receivers. • Increase of inlet temperature of combustion air using solar energy. • The combustion exergy efficiency starts to decrease over a certain temperature. • Indications obtained from the energy and exergy analyses differ. - Abstract: The combustion process of gas turbine systems is typically associated with the highest thermodynamic inefficiencies among the system components. A method to increase the efficiency of a combustor and, consequently that of the gas turbine, is to increase the temperature of the entering combustion air. This measure reduces the consumption of fuel and improves the environmental performance of the turbine. This paper studies the incorporation of a volumetric solar receiver into existing gas turbines in order to increase the temperature of the inlet combustion air to 800 °C and 1000 °C. For the first time, detailed thermodynamic analyses involving both energy and exergy principles of both small-scale and large-scale hybrid (solar-combined cycle) power plants including volumetric receivers are realized. The plants are based on real gas turbine systems, the base operational characteristics of which are derived and reported in detail. It is found that the indications obtained from the energy and exergy analyses differ. The addition of the solar plant achieves an increase in the exergetic efficiency when the conversion of solar radiation into thermal energy (i.e., solar plant efficiency) is not accounted for in the definition of the overall plant efficiency. On the other hand, it is seen that it does not have a significant effect on the energy efficiency. Nevertheless, when the solar efficiency is included in the definition of the overall efficiency of the plants, the addition of the solar receiver always leads to an efficiency reduction. It is found that the exergy efficiency of the combustion chamber depends on the varying air

  14. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  15. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  16. Ceramics for Turbine Engine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    permet de travailler en compression. 2 - LES TURBINES CONTRAROTATIVES Connues depuis plus de 50 ans dsns lea turbines A vapeur (A grilles radiales) lea...AD-AO87 594 ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT--ETC F/6 11/2 CERAMICS FOR TURBINE ENGINE APPICATIONS.(U) MAR 8G H M GURTE, J...for Turbine Engine Applications ( X.,, ~LAJ DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY Ths ai’-t~ ~ru O ACK COVER forp"~ ~So’ 8 6 0 40 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

  17. Advanced LP turbine blade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance

  18. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  19. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  20. Middle turbinate angiofibroma in an elderly woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Angiofibromas are histologically benign vascular tumors, originating from the nasopharynx, near by the area of sphenopalatine foramen. These neoplasms occur typically in male adolescents. Reports of primary extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas have appeared sporadically in the literature in English. We present the first case of an elderly woman with tumor arising from the middle turbinate, diagnosed as angiofibroma. Case report. A 63-year-old female presented with left-sided nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Endoscopic evaluation revealed a polypoid mass arising from the anteroinferior portion of the left middle turbinate. Computed tomography (CT scan showed a soft-tissue opacity that filled the anterior part of the left nasal cavity. After the endoscopic excision of the mass, postoperative pathohistological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of an angiofibroma. Two years later, the patient was free of symptoms and without endoscopic evidence of recurrence. Conclusion. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas arising from the nasal cavity are extremely rare tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis is very important in all doubtful cases, especially in those with atypical location.

  1. Influence of speed and frequency towards the automotive turbocharger turbine performance under pulsating flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padzillah, M.H.; Rajoo, S.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D CFD modeling of a turbocharger turbine with pulsating flow. • Characterization based on turbine speed and frequency. • Speed has higher influence on turbine performance compared to frequency. • Detailed localized flow behavior are shown for better understanding. - Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for low carbon applications in automotive industry has intensified the development of highly efficient engines and energy recovery devices. Even though there are significant developments in the alternative powertrains such as full electric, their full deployment is hindered by high costing and unattractive life-cycle energy and emission balance. Thus powertrain based on highly efficient internal combustion engines are still considered to be the mainstream for years to come. Traditionally, turbocharger has been an essential tool to boost the engine power, however in recent years it is seen as an enabling technology for engine downsizing. It is a well-known fact that a turbocharger turbine in an internal combustion engine operates in a highly pulsating exhaust flow. There are numerous studies looking into the complex interaction of the pulsating exhaust gas within the turbocharger turbine, however the phenomena is still not fully integrated into the design stage. Industry practice is still to design and match the turbine to an engine based on steady performance maps. The current work is undertaken with the mind to move one step closer towards fully integrating the pulsating flow performance into the turbocharger turbine design. This paper presents the development efforts and results from a full 3-D CFD model of a turbocharger turbine stage. The simulations were conducted at 30,000 rpm and 48,000 rpm (50% and 80% design speed respectively) for both 20 Hz and 80 Hz pulsating flow inlet conditions. Complete validation procedure using cold-flow experimental data is also described. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the incidence angle at the

  2. Small Wind Turbine Installation Compatibility Demonstration Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    wind turbine (HAWT) and one 2.9-kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), we planned to measure radar, acoustic and seismic, turbulence, bird and...non-issue for small turbines . The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind turbines are for large turbines (BPA 2002; Whittam...et al. 2010). The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind energy facil- ities are for utility-scale turbines (> 1 MW) with

  3. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  4. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed ... nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  11. Separating Direct and Indirect Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise While Estimating Post-Combustion (Post-Flame) Residence Time Using the Correlation Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2011-01-01

    A previous investigation on the presence of direct and indirect combustion noise for a full-scale turbofan engine using a far-field microphone at 130 is extended by also examining signals obtained at two additional downstream directions using far-field microphones at 110 deg and 160 deg. A generalized cross-correlation function technique is used to study the change in propagation time to the far field of the combined direct and indirect combustion noise signal as a sequence of low-pass filters are applied. The filtering procedure used produces no phase distortion. As the low-pass filter frequency is decreased, the travel time increases because the relative amount of direct combustion noise is reduced. The indirect combustion noise signal travels more slowly because in the combustor entropy fluctuations move with the flow velocity, which is slow compared to the local speed of sound. The indirect combustion noise signal travels at acoustic velocities after reaching the turbine and being converted into an acoustic signal. The direct combustion noise is always propagating at acoustic velocities. The results show that the estimated indirect combustion noise time delay values (post-combustion residence times) measured at each angle are fairly consistent with one another for a relevant range of operating conditions and demonstrate source separation of a mixture of direct and indirect combustion noise. The results may lead to a better idea about the acoustics in the combustor and may help develop and validate improved reduced-order physics-based methods for predicting turbofan engine core noise.

  12. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  13. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  14. Numerical study of influence of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen; Wang, Zhan-xue

    2015-01-01

    The atomization and combustion flowfield of the combustion chamber with swirl-nozzle were simulated using different biofuels; the thermodynamic cycle of the aircraft engine system were also analyzed, influences of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system were explored. Results show that viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting the atomization and combustion characteristics of biofuels, and then dominate the distribution of the temperature and NO concentration. Due to the characteristic of low viscosity and low caloric value for biofuels adopted, the biofuels accumulate near the head of combustion chamber, and the corresponding NO emission is lower than that it has for conventional kerosene. When biofuels with low caloric value are used under the operation condition which is same as the condition for the conventional kerosene, lower turbine inlet temperature, lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption would be achieved for the aircraft engine. - Highlights: • Influences of biofuels properties on combustion characteristic are explored. • Effects of biofuels on cycle parameters of aircraft engine are discussed. • Viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting combustion of biofuels. • NO emission becomes lower when biofuels with low caloric value is adopted. • The performance of aircraft engine becomes worse for biofuels with low caloric value.

  15. Study of two-stage turbine characteristic and its influence on turbo-compound engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongchao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Yin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical model was built to study the interactions between two turbines in series. • The impacts of HP VGT and LP VGT on turbo-compound engine performance were investigated. • The fuel reductions obtained by HP VGT at 1900 rpm and 1000 rpm are 3.08% and 7.83% respectively. • The optimum value of AR ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 as the turbo-compound engine speed decreases. - Abstract: Turbo-compounding is an effective way to recover waste heat from engine exhaust and reduce fuel consumption for internal combustion engine (ICE). The characteristics of two-stage turbine, including turbocharger turbine and power turbine, have significant effects on the overall performance of turbo-compound engine. This paper investigates the interaction between two turbines in a turbo-compound engine and its impact on the engine performance. Firstly an analytical model is built to investigate the effects of turbine equivalent flow area on the two-stage turbine characteristics, including swallowing capacity and load split. Next both simulation and experimental method are carried out to study the effects of high pressure variable geometry turbine (HP VGT), low pressure variable geometry turbine (LP VGT) and combined VGT on the engine overall performance. The results show that the engine performance is more sensitive to HP VGT compared with LP VGT at all the operation conditions, which is caused by the larger influences of HP VGT on the total expansion ratio and engine air–fuel ratio. Using the HP VGT method, the fuel reductions of the turbo-compound engine at 1900 rpm and 1000 rpm are 3.08% and 7.83% respectively, in comparison with the baseline engine. The corresponding optimum values of AR are 2.0 and 2.5

  16. Combined cogeneration equipment containing gas turbine using low sulphur heavy stock as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Goro; Ishiki, Katsuhiko

    1988-03-10

    This paper describes the combined cogeneration in Chemical and Plastics Co. Madras (India) which uses low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS) as a fuel. By the combined cogeneration of gas turbine and boiler steam turbine power generation, the exhaust from the steam turbine is supplied to the factory as a process steam. This equipment has a capacity of 4835 kW in overall generation power and 23.5 tons/hrs. in steam evaporation. The gas turbine system is equipped with an axial-flow, 11 step compressor, an axial flow, 4 step turbine, and a single-can back flow combustor fixed to the intermediate casing. The temperature of the exhaust from the gas turbine is 542/sup 0/C. Low quality LSHS when burned exerts no influence on the service life of the turbine blades. The boiler is a horizontal bent pipe, forced circulation type, and the steam turbine is a back pressure control type. The fuel is treated with a horizontal, two drum, electrostatic separator to which a demulsifier is supplied, to be separated into oil and water. As to the vanadium salts contained in the fuels, a chemical liquid containing MgO as a major ingredient is added to the fuel prior to the combustion. Thereby, the melting temperature of the vanadium oxide is enhanced, which serves for prevention of the melting and adhesion of the vanadium oxide to the gas turbine. LSHS is a residual oil produced by the ordinary pressure distillation of India-produced crude oil, has a sulphur content of 1.75%, and is solid at room temperature. Attention should be paid to clogging of the pipings. The overall efficiency is 80%. The combined cogeneration can be coordinated with load variations of 10 - 20%. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  17. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.K.; Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  18. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH-HIGH EFFICIENCY ENGINES AND TURBINES (UTSR-HEET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz; William H. Day

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the U S Department of Energy established a cooperative agreement for a program now designated as the University Turbine Systems (UTSR) Program. As stated in the cooperative agreement, the objective of the program is to support and facilitate development of advanced energy systems incorporating turbines through a university research environment. This document is the first annual, technical progress report for the UTSR Program. The Executive Summary describes activities for the year of the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), which administers the UTSR Program. Included are descriptions of: Outline of program administrative activities; Award of the first 10 university research projects resulting from a year 2001 RFP; Year 2002 solicitation and proposal selection for awards in 2003; Three UTSR Workshops in Combustion, Aero/Heat Transfer, and Materials; SCIES participation in workshops and meetings to provide input on technical direction for the DOE HEET Program; Eight Industrial Internships awarded to higher level university students; Increased membership of Performing Member Universities to 105 institutions in 40 states; Summary of outreach activities; and a Summary table describing the ten newly awarded UTSR research projects. Attachment A gives more detail on SCIES activities by providing the monthly exceptions reports sent to the DOE during the year. Attachment B provides additional information on outreach activities for 2002. The remainder of this report describes in detail the technical approach, results, and conclusions to date for the UTSR university projects.

  19. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  20. CANDU combined cycles featuring gas-turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchiarelli, J.; Choy, E.; Peryoga, Y.; Aryono, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, a power-plant analysis is conducted to evaluate the thermodynamic merit of various CANDU combined cycles in which continuously operating gas-turbine engines are employed as a source of class IV power restoration. It is proposed to utilize gas turbines in future CANDU power plants, for sites (such as Indonesia) where natural gas or other combustible fuels are abundant. The primary objective is to eliminate the standby diesel-generators (which serve as a backup supply of class III power) since they are nonproductive and expensive. In the proposed concept, the gas turbines would: (1) normally operate on a continuous basis and (2) serve as a reliable backup supply of class IV power (the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant uses standby gas turbines for this purpose). The backup class IV power enables the plant to operate in poison-prevent mode until normal class IV power is restored. This feature is particularly beneficial to countries with relatively small and less stable grids. Thermodynamically, the advantage of the proposed concept is twofold. Firstly, the operation of the gas-turbine engines would directly increase the net (electrical) power output and the overall thermal efficiency of a CANDU power plant. Secondly, the hot exhaust gases from the gas turbines could be employed to heat water in the CANDU Balance Of Plant (BOP) and therefore improve the thermodynamic performance of the BOP. This may be accomplished via several different combined-cycle configurations, with no impact on the current CANDU Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) full-power operating conditions when each gas turbine is at maximum power. For instance, the hot exhaust gases may be employed for feedwater preheating and steam reheating and/or superheating; heat exchange could be accomplished in a heat recovery steam generator, as in conventional gas-turbine combined-cycle plants. The commercially available GateCycle power plant analysis program was applied to conduct a