WorldWideScience

Sample records for combustion system final

  1. Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison

  2. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  3. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  4. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities

  5. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  6. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  7. Combustion char characterisation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, P; Ingermann Petersen, H; Sund Soerensen, H; Thomsen, E; Guvad, C

    1996-06-01

    The aim was to correlate reactivity measures of raw coals and the maceral concentrates of the coals obtained in a previous project with the morphology of the produced chars by using a wire grid devolatilization method. Work involved determination of morphology, macroporosity and a detailed study by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Systematic variations in the texture of chars produced in different temperature domains and heating rates were demonstrated by using incident light microscopy on polished blocks and by SEM studies directly on the surfaces of untreated particles. Results suggest that work in the field of char reactivity estimates and correlations between char morphology and coal petrography can be accomplished only on chars produced under heating rates and temperatures comparable to those for the intended use of coal. A general correlation between the coals` petrography and the the morphology of high temperature chars was found. The SEM study of the chars revealed that during the devolatilization period the particles fuse and the macroporosity and thus the morphotypes are formed. After devolatilization ceases, secondary micropores are formed. These develop in number and size throughout the medium combustion interval. At the end of the combustion interval the macrostructure breaks down, caused by coalescence of the increased number of microspores. This can be observed as a change in the morphology and the macroporosity of the chars. Results indicate that char reactivity is a function of the macroporosity and thus the morphology of combustion chars. (AB) 34 refs.

  8. Development and Study of Electrochemical Promotion Systems for CO2 Capture and Valorization in Combustion Gases. PROMOCAP Project Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Cillero, D.; Martinez, P. J.; Morales, A.; San Vicente, G.; Diego, G. de; Sanchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the project PROMOCAP was the development and study of electrochemical promotion systems for the capture and valorization of CO 2 in combustion flue gases. To achieve this objective, electrocatalysts consisting of tubes or monoliths of solid electrolyte (K-βAl 2 O 3 or YSZ), coated by the corresponding active metal (Pt, Pd, Ni, Cu, Fe-TiO 2 , Pt-Ru - C, Pt-C, etc.), were prepared using both conventional (painting) and improved (dip-coating, electroless or spray-coating) procedures. Both physico-chemical and volt amperometric characterization of the electrocatalysts was carried out both as prepared and after use in electro promoted CO 2 capture and valorization processes (study of chemisorption, reaction, inhibition, deactivation phenomena, etc.). Pilot plant studies were carried out under realistic conditions for identifying the best electro catalyst and the operating conditions more suitable for CO 2 electro promoted capture and valorization. Finally, the electrocatalysts identified as the most promising for electro promoted CO 2 capture (Pt/K-βAl 2 O 3 ) and valorization (Cu/K-βAl 2 O 3 ) were prepared using the developed optimized procedures and their behavior over multiple cycles of electro promoted CO 2 capture and in long term operation against electro promoted CO 2 hydrogenation, respectively, was studied under real or realistic conditions. (Author)

  9. DRUCKFLAMM - Investigation on combustion and hot gas cleanup in pulverized coal combustion systems. Final report; DRUCKFLAMM - Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung und Heissgasreinigung bei der Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Benoehr, A.; Schuermann, H.; Stroehle, J.; Klaiber, C.; Kuhn, R.; Maier, J.; Schnell, U.; Unterberger, S.

    2001-07-01

    The ambitions of making energy supply more efficient and less polluting brought forth the development of coal based combined cycle power plants allowing considerable increases in net efficiencies. One of the regarded firing concepts for a coal based combined cycle power plant is represented by the pressurised pulverised coal combustion process which has the highest efficiency potential compared with the other coal based concepts. The fundamental purpose of the project was to gain firm knowledge concerning firing behaviour of coal in a pressurised pulverised coal combustion system. Detailed investigations were carried out in a pressurised entrained flow reactor taking into account fuel conversion and particle behaviour, pollutant formation and material behaviour under conditions of a pressurised pulverised coal firing. During the project's investigations several different measurement techniques were tested and partially also acquired (e.g. a two-colour-pyrometry system to measure simultaneous particle surface temperature and particle diameter of burning fuel particles). Calculation models under pressurised conditions for pressure vessel simulation and better scale-up were developed synchronously with the experimental investigations. The results gained using the pressurised entrained flow reactor show that many combustion mechanisms are influenced by increased pressure, for instance the fuel conversion is intensified and at the same time pollutant emissions decreased. The material investigations show that the ceramic materials used due to the very high combustion temperatures are very sensitive versus slagging and fast temperature changes, therefore further development requirements are needed to fully realise the high durability of ceramics in the pressurised furnace. Concerning the improvement of existing models for furnace simulation under pressurised conditions, a good resemblance can be observed when considering the actual measurement results from the test

  10. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  11. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  13. Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - Experimental part. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2003-08-01

    This final report covers the work that has been performed within the project P 10547-2, 'Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - system analysis ORWARE'. This project is part of the research programme 'Energy from Waste' financed by the Swedish National Energy Administration. The project has been carried out at the division of Industrial Ecology and at the division of Chemical Technology at Royal Inst. of Technology. The aim of the project has been to study the potentials for catalytic combustion of gasified waste. The supposed end user of the technique is a smaller community in Sweden with 15,000-20,000 inhabitants. The project contains of two sub projects: an experimental part carried out at Chemical Technology and a system analysis carried out at Industrial Ecology. This report covers the experimental part of the project carried out at Chemical Technology. The aim for the experimental part has been to develop and test catalysts with long life-time and a high performance, to reduce the thermal-NO{sub x} below 5 ppm and to significantly reduce NO{sub x} formed from fuel-bound nitrogen. Different experimental studies have been carried out within the project: a set-up of catalytic materials have been tested over a synthetic mixture of the gasified waste, the influence of sulfur present in the gas stream, NO{sub x} formation from fuel bound nitrogen, kinetic studies of CO and H{sub 2} with and without the presence of water and the effects of adding a co-metal to palladium catalysts Furthermore a novel annular reactor design has been used to carry out experiments for kinetic measurements. Real gasification tests of waste pellets directly coupled to catalytic combustion have successfully been performed. The results obtained from the experiments, both the catalytic combustion and from the gasification, have been possible to use in the system analysis. The aim of the system analysis of catalytic combustion of gasified waste takes into consideration

  14. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  15. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  16. Size and velocity measurements in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared

  17. Investigation and modelling of fuel utilisation in the zone near the burner of technical combustion systems. Final report; Untersuchung und Modellierung der Brennstoffumsetzung im Brennernahbereich technischer Verbrennungssysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S.

    1999-06-01

    Optimisation and development of technical combustion systems in order to generate energy efficiently and reduce pollution is an ever-increasing challenge. Mathematical and numerical simulations play a very important role in this context. This project was dedicated to the implementation and improvement of mathematical models and subsequent verification of the modelling concepts. Verification used data measured by the university department for combined cyle turbines. The focal point of interest was the reaction zone near the burner. Further points of interest: development and improvement of models for two-phase effects, fuel consumption and turbulence interaction as well as further development of the methods of numerical simulation. Simulating the combustion chamber of the combined cycle turbines was prioritised.(orig.) [German] Die Optimierung und Weiterentwicklung technischer Verbrennungssysteme mit dem Ziel einer moeglichst effizienten und schadstoffarmen Energiebereitstellung stellt eine staendig wachsende Herausforderung dar. Bei der technologischen Umsetzung dieses Ziels kommt der mathematisch-numerischen Simulation eine immer groessere Bedeutung zu. In diesem Projekt sollte die Implementierung und Verbesserung von mathematischen Modellierungsansaetzen sowie die anschliessende Verifikation der Modellierungskonzepte anhand der Messdaten des Lehrstuhls fuer Dampf- und Gasturbinen (LDuG) durchgefuehrt werden. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der brennernahen Reaktionszone. Konkrete Arbeitsschwerpunkte waren die Weiterentwicklung und Verbesserung der Modellansaetze fuer Zweiphaseneffekte, Brennstoffumsatz und Turbulenzinteraktion sowie die Weiterentwicklung der Methodik der numerischen Simulation. Dabei stand die Simulation der Brennkammer des LDuG im Vordergrund. (orig.)

  18. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  19. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  20. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  1. Final Report - Low Temperature Combustion Chemistry And Fuel Component Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Recent research into combustion chemistry has shown that reactions at “low temperatures” (700 – 1100 K) have a dramatic influence on ignition and combustion of fuels in virtually every practical combustion system. A powerful class of laboratory-scale experimental facilities that can focus on fuel chemistry in this temperature range is the rapid compression facility (RCF), which has proven to be a versatile tool to examine the details of fuel chemistry in this important regime. An RCF was used in this project to advance our understanding of low temperature chemistry of important fuel compounds. We show how factors including fuel molecular structure, the presence of unsaturated C=C bonds, and the presence of alkyl ester groups influence fuel auto-ignition and produce variable amounts of negative temperature coefficient behavior of fuel ignition. We report new discoveries of synergistic ignition interactions between alkane and alcohol fuels, with both experimental and kinetic modeling studies of these complex interactions. The results of this project quantify the effects of molecular structure on combustion chemistry including carbon bond saturation, through low temperature experimental studies of esters, alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols.

  2. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, R.S. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  3. Development and Study of Electrochemical Promotion Systems for CO{sub 2} Capture and Valorization in Combustion Gases. PROMOCAP Project Final Report; Desarrollo y Estudio de Sistemas de Promocion Electroquimica para la Captura y Valorizacion de CO{sub 2} en Gases de Combustion. Informe Final Proyecto PROMOCAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E.; Cillero, D.; Martinez, P. J.; Morales, A.; San Vicente, G.; Diego, G. de; Sanchez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The ultimate goal of the project PROMOCAP was the development and study of electrochemical promotion systems for the capture and valorization of CO{sub 2} in combustion flue gases. To achieve this objective, electrocatalysts consisting of tubes or monoliths of solid electrolyte (K-{beta}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or YSZ), coated by the corresponding active metal (Pt, Pd, Ni, Cu, Fe-TiO{sub 2}, Pt-Ru - C, Pt-C, etc.), were prepared using both conventional (painting) and improved (dip-coating, electroless or spray-coating) procedures. Both physico-chemical and volt amperometric characterization of the electrocatalysts was carried out both as prepared and after use in electro promoted CO{sub 2} capture and valorization processes (study of chemisorption, reaction, inhibition, deactivation phenomena, etc.). Pilot plant studies were carried out under realistic conditions for identifying the best electro catalyst and the operating conditions more suitable for CO{sub 2} electro promoted capture and valorization. Finally, the electrocatalysts identified as the most promising for electro promoted CO{sub 2} capture (Pt/K-{beta}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and valorization (Cu/K-{beta}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared using the developed optimized procedures and their behavior over multiple cycles of electro promoted CO{sub 2} capture and in long term operation against electro promoted CO{sub 2} hydrogenation, respectively, was studied under real or realistic conditions. (Author)

  4. System and method for engine combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczomak, David P.; Gallon, Robert J.; Solomon, Arun S.

    2018-03-13

    A combustion system for use with one or more cylinder bores of an internal combustion engine includes at least one cylinder head defining first and second intake ports in fluid communication with the one or more cylinder bores. A flap is adjustably connected to the at least one cylinder head. The flap includes a first flap portion cooperating with the first intake port extending from an arm and a second flap portion cooperating with the second intake port extending from the arm and disposed adjacent the first flap portion. A controller in electrical communication with an actuator monitors the condition of the engine and actuates the flap to position the first and second flap portions between first and second positions to create a first combustion condition and a second combustion condition.

  5. Fundamental and semi-global kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon combustion. Final report, March 1977-October 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, F L; Glassman, I; Brezinsky, K

    1981-03-01

    Over the past three and one half years, substantial research efforts of the Princeton Fuels Research Group have been directed towards the development of simplified mechanisms which would accurately describe the oxidation of hydrocarbons fuels. The objectives of this combustion research included the study of semi-empirical modeling (that is an overall description) of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of simple hydrocarbon fuels. Such fuels include the alkanes: ethane, propane, butane, hexane and octane as well as the critically important alkenes: ethene, propene and butene. As an extension to this work, the study of the detailed radical species characteristics of combustion systems was initiated as another major aspect of the program, with emphasis on the role of the OH and HO/sub 2/ radicals. Finally, the studies of important alternative fuel problems linked the program to longer range approaches to the energy supply question. Studies of alternative fuels composed the major elements of this area of the program. The efforts on methanol research were completed, and while the aromatics aspects of the DOE work have been a direct extension of efforts supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, they represented a significant part of the overall research effort. The emphasis in the proposed program is to provide further fundamental understanding of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels which will be useful in guiding engineering approaches. Although the scope of program ranges from the fundamentals of chemical kinetics to that of alternative fuel combustion, the objective in mind is to provide insight and guidance to the understanding of practical combustion environments. The key to our approach has been our understanding of the fundamental combustion chemistry and its relation to the important practical combustion problems which exist in implementing energy efficient, alternate fuels technologies.

  6. Development of an exhaust sensor for control of internal combustion engines and exhaust treatment systems - CatSens. Final report; Entwicklung eines Abgassensors zur Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen - CatSens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepperhoff, G.; Milanovic, I.

    2002-05-01

    A sensor system for controlling combustion processes in small-scale furnaces and internal combustion engines and for on-board diagnosis of exhaust treatment systems, e.g. NO{sub x} adsorber catalytic converters in motor cars, was developed. [German] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes soll ein Sensorsystem zur Regelung der Verbrennungsprozesse in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Verbrennungsmotoren sowie zur Regelung und Ueberwachung (On-Board Diagnose) von Abgasnachbehandlungseinrichtungen wie z.B. NO{sub x}-Adsorberkatalysatoren in Kraftfahrzeugen, entwickelt werden. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of Diesel Combustion inside the EHPC. Final Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florent, D.

    2006-07-01

    In part 1 will be discussed the possibility of providing quantitative schlieren with the EHPC (Eindhoven High Pressure Cell) in order to measure temperature. Firstly, some generalities about schlieren are given and the apparatus already used with the EHPC is described. Secondly, the apparatus for quantitative schlieren measurements is described and the mathematical model is explained. Thirdly, we conclude on the possibility of making quantitative schlieren in the EHPC according to the optical components needed and other difficulties. Also two examples will be given of quantitative schlieren study consulted in the literature. In the first one details are discussed of the measurement of the temperature of axisymmetric partially premixed flames (PPFs) established on a coannular burner. The second example details an isothermal helium jet discharged vertically into ambient air. The purpose of this part is to describe most precisely the way of acquiring data from a schlieren image. The different steps are illustrated with some curves and pictures. Next, a summary and analysis is given of the paper published by R. Rubinstein and P. S. Greenberg. In fact, they explain that some functions which are useful for representing axisymmetric refractive index distribution have exact solutions for Abel transformation of the resulting angular deflection data. The objective is to have a better overview on this mathematical step needed to provide quantitative schlieren. Finally, in part 1, a summary is given of the paper published by Douglas A. Feikema. The author presents a numerical analysis based on the software Chemkin and experimental results in order to provide quantitative measurements of the temperature distribution of a spherical diffusion flame using rainbow schlieren deflectometry in normal and microgravity. In fact, the purpose is to discuss the application of quantitative schlieren for a laminar spherical flame. In part 2 the use of some laser diagnostics to study

  8. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  9. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  10. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  11. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  12. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. [Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29783, July 20, 1990...

  13. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  14. Development of a NO/x/-free combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakata, M.; Furusawa, T.; Kunii, D.; Imagawa, M.; Nawada, M.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a NO(x)-free combustion-heating system realizing both pollution control and energy savings is described. An experiment was carried out by using a small model plant. The system consists of a combustion furnace and a new-type multifunctional heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is a rotary continuous type designed for soot collection and for catalytic combustion of CO and H2 as well as for preheating combustion air.

  15. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to ignition systems for internal combustion engines; in particular, these are used in the engines of modern small motorcycles, where power is supplied by means of a so-called flywheel magneto, so that there is no need for an additional battery. The invention will prevent back-kicking. This is achieved by the following means: in the right direction of rotation of the internal combustion engine, due to an axial magnetic unsymmetry of the rotor, a voltage component that can switch the electronic switch will occur only in one of the two parts of the control winding at the point of ignition. In the wrong direction of rotation, on the other hand, this voltage component will only occur in the other part of the control winding and will act in direction on a diode connected in parallel to this part of the winding.

  16. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    , they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

  17. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  18. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another

  19. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  20. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  1. FutureGen 2.0 Oxy-combustion Large Scale Test – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenison, LaVesta [URS, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Flanigan, Thomas [URS, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hagerty, Gregg [URS, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gorrie, James [Air Liquide, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Leclerc, Mathieu [Air Liquide, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Lockwood, Frederick [Air Liquide, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Falla, Lyle [Babcock & Wilcox and Burns McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States); Macinnis, Jim [Babcock & Wilcox and Burns McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States); Fedak, Mathew [Babcock & Wilcox and Burns McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States); Yakle, Jeff [Babcock & Wilcox and Burns McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States); Williford, Mark [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Morgan County, IL (United States); Wood, Paul [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Morgan County, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    be helpful to plotting the course of, and successfully executing future large demonstration projects. This Final Scientific and Technical Report describes the technology and engineering basis of the project, inclusive of process systems, performance, effluents and emissions, and controls. Further, the project cost estimate, schedule, and permitting requirements are presented, along with a project risk and opportunity assessment. Lessons-learned related to these elements are summarized in this report. Companion reports Oxy-combustion further document the accomplishments and learnings of the project, including: A.01 Project Management Report which describes what was done to coordinate the various participants, and to track their performance with regard to schedule and budget B.02 Lessons Learned - Technology Integration, Value Improvements, and Program Management, which describes the innovations and conclusions that we arrived upon during the development of the project, and makes recommendations for improvement of future projects of a similar nature . B.03 Project Economics, which details the capital and operation costs and their basis, and also illustrates the cost of power produced by the plant with certain sensitivities. B.04 Power Plant, Pipeline, and Injection Site Interfaces, which details the interfaces between the two FutureGen projects B.05 Contractual Mechanisms for Design, Construction, and Operation, which describes the major EPC, and Operations Contracts required to execute the project.

  2. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  3. The Evaluation of Solid Wastes Reduction with Combustion System in the Combustion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Sukosrono

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of solid wastes reduction with combustion system is used for weight reduction factor. The evaluation was done design system of combustion chamber furnace and the experiment was done by burning a certain weight of paper, cloth, plastic and rubber in the combustion chamber. The evaluation of paper wastes, the ratio of wastes (paper, cloth, plastic and rubber) against the factor of weight reduction (%) were investigated. The condition was dimension of combustion chamber furnace = 0.6 X 0.9 X 1.20 X 1 m with combustion chamber and gas chamber and reached at the wastes = 2.500 gram, oxygen pressure 0.5 Bar, wastes ratio : paper : cloth : plastic : rubber = 55 : 10 : 30 : 5, the reduction factor = 6.36 %. (author)

  4. Enhancement of exergy efficiency in combustion systems using flameless mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy efficiency in flameless combustion mode is 13% more than conventional combustion. • The maximum exergy efficiency in flameless combustion mode is achieved when oxidizer contains 10% oxygen. • Exergy destruction of flameless combustion is maximized when CO 2 is used for dilution of oxidizer. - Abstract: An exergitic-based analysis of methane (CH 4 ) conventional and flameless combustion in a lab-scale furnace is performed to determine the rate of pollutant formation and the effective potential of a given amount of fuel in the various combustion modes. The effects of inlet air temperature on exergy efficiency and pollutant formation of conventional combustion in various equivalence ratios are analyzed. The rate of exergy destruction in different conditions of flameless combustion (various equivalence ratios, oxygen concentration in the oxidizer and the effects of diluent) are computed using three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD). Fuel consumption reduction and exergy efficiency augmentation are the main positive consequences of using preheated air temperature in conventional combustion, however pollutants especially NO x formation increases dramatically. Low and moderate temperature inside the chamber conducts the flameless combustion system to low level pollutant formation. Fuel consumption and exergy destruction reduce drastically in flameless mode in comparison with conventional combustion. Exergy efficiency of conventional and flameless mode is 75% and 88% respectively in stoichiometric combustion. When CO 2 is used for dilution of oxidizer, chemical exergy increases due to high CO 2 concentration in the combustion products and exergy efficiency reduces around 2% compared to dilution with nitrogen (N 2 ). Since the rate of irreversibilities in combustion systems is very high in combined heat and power (CHP) generation and other industries, application of flameless combustion could be effective in terms of pollutant

  5. Combustion pressure-based engine management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.; Hart, M. [DaimlerChrysler, Stuttart (Germany); Truscott, A.; Noble, A. [Ricardo, Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom); Kroetz, G.; Richter, C. [DaimlerChrysler, Munchen (Germany); Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instruments AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    In order to fulfill future emissions and OBD regulations, whilst meeting increasing demands for driveability and refinement, new technologies for SI engines have to be found in terms of sensors and algorithms for engine control units. One promising way, explored in the AENEAS collaborative project between DaimlerChrysler, Kistler, Ricardo and the European Commission, is to optimize the behavior of the system by using in-cylinder measurements and analysing them with modern control algorithms. In this paper a new engine management system based on combustion pressure sensing is presented. The pressure sensor is designed to give a reliable and accurate signal of the full pressure trace during a working cycle. With the application of new technologies low cost manufacturing appears to be achievable, so that an application in mass production can be considered. Furthermore, model-based algorithms were developed to allow optimal control of the engine based on the in-cylinder measurements. The algorithms incorporate physical principles to improve efficiency, emissions and to reduce the parameterisation effort. In the paper, applications of the combustion pressure signal for air mass estimation, knock detection, ignition control cam phase detection and diagnosis are discussed. (author)

  6. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  7. Spectral modeling of radiation in combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopalendu

    Radiation calculations are important in combustion due to the high temperatures encountered but has not been studied in sufficient detail in the case of turbulent flames. Radiation calculations for such problems require accurate, robust, and computationally efficient models for the solution of radiative transfer equation (RTE), and spectral properties of radiation. One more layer of complexity is added in predicting the overall heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems due to nonlinear interactions between turbulent fluctuations and radiation. The present work is aimed at the development of finite volume-based high-accuracy thermal radiation modeling, including spectral radiation properties in order to accurately capture turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI) and predict heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems correctly and efficiently. The turbulent fluctuations of temperature and chemical species concentrations have strong effects on spectral radiative intensities, and TRI create a closure problem when the governing partial differential equations are averaged. Recently, several approaches have been proposed to take TRI into account. Among these attempts the most promising approaches are the probability density function (PDF) methods, which can treat nonlinear coupling between turbulence and radiative emission exactly, i.e., "emission TRI". The basic idea of the PDF method is to treat physical variables as random variables and to solve the PDF transport equation stochastically. The actual reacting flow field is represented by a large number of discrete stochastic particles each carrying their own random variable values and evolving with time. The mean value of any function of those random variables, such as the chemical source term, can be evaluated exactly by taking the ensemble average of particles. The local emission term belongs to this class and thus, can be evaluated directly and exactly from particle ensembles. However, the local absorption term

  8. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schihl, Peter; Hoogterp, Laura; Pangilinan, Harold; Schwarz, Ernest; Bryzik, Walter

    2006-01-01

    .... Since engine manufacturers rely solely on DF-2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory lead diesel engine combustion system research activities...

  9. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  10. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  12. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  13. Study on the combustion characteristics of a premixed combustion system with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Kum, Sung-Min; Lee, Chang-Eon; Lee, Seungro

    2013-01-01

    The boiler of a premixed combustion system with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is investigated to explore the potential for increasing thermal efficiency and lowering pollutant emissions. To achieve this purpose, a thermodynamic analysis is performed to predict the effect of EGR on the thermodynamic efficiency for various equivalence ratios. Experiments of a preheated air condensing boiler with EGR were conducted to measure the changes in the thermal efficiency and the characteristics of the pollutant emission. Finally, a 1-D premixed code was calculated to understand the effect of the EGR method on the NO reduction mechanism. The results of the thermodynamic analysis show that the thermodynamic efficiency is not changed because the temperature and the amount of the exhaust gas are unchanged, even though the EGR method is implemented in the system. However, when the EGR method is used with an equivalence ratio near 1.00, it is experimentally verified that the thermal efficiency increases and the NO x concentration decreases. Based on the results from numerical calculations, it is shown that the NO production rates of N + O 2 ↔ NO + O and N + OH ↔ NO + H are remarkably changed due to the decrease in the flame temperature and the NO mole fraction is decreased. - Highlights: • Premixed combustion system with EGR is studied for a high efficiency and low NO x . • All research is performed with various EGR and equivalence ratios. • It verified that efficiency increases and the NO x emission decreases with EGR method. • NO production rates are remarkably changed by N + O 2 ↔ NO + O and N + OH ↔ NO + H with EGR

  14. Internet of Things Based Combustible Ice Safety Monitoring System Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enji

    2017-05-01

    As the development of human society, more energy is requires to meet the need of human daily lives. New energies play a significant role in solving the problems of serious environmental pollution and resources exhaustion in the present world. Combustible ice is essentially frozen natural gas, which can literally be lit on fire bringing a whole new meaning to fire and ice with less pollutant. This paper analysed the advantages and risks on the uses of combustible ice. By compare to other kinds of alternative energies, the advantages of the uses of combustible ice were concluded. The combustible ice basic physical characters and safety risks were analysed. The developments troubles and key utilizations of combustible ice were predicted in the end. A real-time safety monitoring system framework based on the internet of things (IOT) was built to be applied in the future mining, which provide a brand new way to monitoring the combustible ice mining safety.

  15. Experimental study of the kinetics of dry, forward combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.W.; Buthod, A.P.; Allag, O.

    1979-02-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of dry, forward combustion with two main objectives, viz, (1) to develop a method for determining the kinetic perameters of fuel laydown and burnoff from combustion tube data, and (2) to evaluate them for a particular crude-sand mixture. In the light of past experimental work, a two-step chain reaction model is postulated in which fuel laydown and burnoff are considered as competitive kinetic reactions. Laboratory equipment consisting of a combustion tube assembly and sampling probe, a flow control system, an electronic control assembly, and a fluid analysis system are described in detail. The sampling probe provides a novel method for taking fluid samples at selected interior points within the combustion cell. Six experimental runs were performed using a 27/sup 0/ API Prudhoe Bay crude. Analyses of the data indicte that, in addition to the coke residue, some light ends of the crude enter into the total fuel consumed by the burning zone. The use of the moveable sampling probe permitted the reconstruction of CO + CO/sub 2/ production rate curves as functions of time and distance. A technique is presented for solving the integral equation and estimating the activation energies, pre-exponential factors, and some associated constants for fuel deposition and combustion. It was found that operating pressure has essentially no effect on the exponential energy, but it does affect the preexponential (or frequency) factor. It is concluded that the essential phenomena of forward combustion can be adequately depicted by the two-step chain reaction concept, and that kinetic data,or their bounds, can be determined from combustion tube data.

  16. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Srinivasan, Shiva; York, William David

    2016-11-29

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap that extends radially across the combustor and includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A combustion chamber is downstream of the end cap, and tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. Each tube provides fluid communication through the end cap to the combustion chamber. The system further includes means for reducing combustion dynamics in the combustor. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through tubes that extend axially through an end cap that extends radially across the combustor and obstructing at least a portion of the working fluid flowing through a first set of the tubes.

  17. NATO Workshop on Soot in Combustion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, G

    1983-01-01

    Our interest in Mulhouse for carbon black and soot began some 30 years ago when J.B. Donnet developed the concept of surface chemistry of carbon and its involvement in interactions with gas, liquid and solid phases. In the late sixties, we began to study soot formation in pyrolytic systems and later on in flames. The idea of organ1z1ng a meeting on soot formation originated some four or five years ago, through discussions among Professor J.B. Howard, Dr. A. D'Alessio and ourselves. At that time the scientific community was becoming aware of the necessity to strictly control soot formation and emission. Being involved in the study of surface properties of carbon black as well as of formation of soot, we realized that the combustion community was not always fully aware of the progress made by the physical-chemists on carbon black. Reciprocally, the carbon specialists were often ignoring the research carried out on soot in flames. One objective of this workshop was to stimulate discussions between these two scie...

  18. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc.), Collectible Concepts Group, Inc., Communitronics of... is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion...

  19. Hadron–Quark Combustion as a Nonlinear, Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ouyed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hadron–quark combustion front is a system that couples various processes, such as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, diffusion, and neutrino transport. Previous numerical work has shown that this system is very nonlinear, and can be very sensitive to some of these processes. In these proceedings, we contextualize the hadron–quark combustion as a nonlinear system, subject to dramatic feedback triggered by leptonic weak decays and neutrino transport.

  20. Hadron–Quark Combustion as a Nonlinear, Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Amir; Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2018-03-01

    The hadron-quark combustion front is a system that couples various processes, such as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, diffusion, and neutrino transport. Previous numerical work has shown that this system is very nonlinear, and can be very sensitive to some of these processes. In these proceedings, we contextualize the hadron-quark combustion as a nonlinear system, subject to dramatic feedback triggered by leptonic weak decays and neutrino transport.

  1. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  2. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  3. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  4. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  5. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    ineffective in the T63, even at concentrations up to 40 times the recommended value. Additive companies were informed about the performance of their...M. (1996): NASA RP- 1385. • Toepke, S. (1999): Boeing Company , Personal Correspondence. • Ulrich, G.D. (1971): Comb. Sci. Tech., Vol. 4, pp. 47-58...temperature (K) THC = total hydrocarbons UNICORN = UNsteady Ignition and COmbustion with ReactioNs V = reactor volume (mL) WSR = well-stirred reactor

  6. The formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerrild Zeuthen, J

    2007-05-15

    This thesis describes the formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. The formation of aerosol particles is investigated by studying condensation of alkali salts from synthetic flue gasses in a laboratory tubular furnace. In this so-called laminar flow aerosol condenser-furnace gaseous alkali chlorides are mixed with sulphur dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. At high temperatures the alkali chloride reacts with sulphur dioxide to form alkali sulphate. During subsequent cooling of the synthetic flue gas the chlorides and sulphates condense either as deposits on walls or on other particles or directly from the gas phase by homogenous nucleation. A previously developed computer code for simulation of one-component nucleation of particles in a cylindrical laminar flow is extended to include a homogeneous gas phase reaction to produce gaseous alkali sulphate. The formation of aerosol particles during full-scale combustion of wheat straw is investigated in a 100 MW grate-fired boiler. Finally, aerosols from incineration of waste are investigated during full-scale combustion of municipal waste in a 22 MW grate-fired unit. (BA)

  7. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2013-08-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend through the end cap. A diluent supply in fluid communication with the end cap provides diluent flow to the end cap. Diluent distributors circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle extend downstream from the downstream surface and provide fluid communication for the diluent flow through the end cap. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing fuel through tube bundles that extend axially through an end cap, flowing a diluent through diluent distributors into a combustion chamber, wherein the diluent distributors are circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle and each diluent distributor extends downstream from the end cap, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between at least one pair of adjacent tube bundles.

  8. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Kloeft, H.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Frandsen, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. (Author)

  9. Revised data book for evaluation of combustion and gasification models: Final report, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.R.; Rasband, M.W.; Smoot, L.D.

    1987-10-01

    During the previous contract (DE-AC21-81MC16518) a major task was to identify, collect and publish detailed experimental data for evaluation of comprehensive gasification/combustion codes. A review of the literature was completed and prospective data were identified for inclusion in this data book in five categories of increasing complexity: (1) non-reacting, gaseous flows (58 cases); (2) non-reacting, particle-laden flows (43 cases); (3) gaseous combustion (34 cases); (4) pulverized coal combustion (57 cases); (5) entrained coal gasification (6 cases). Selection of these data was based on a set of criteria which included data completeness, availability of detailed, digital profiles for several properties (e.g., species concentrations, velocity, temperature) and data accuracy. From these 198 cases, which were referenced in the final report (Vol. III), the data base was reduced to a total of 35 sets of data from 8 laboratories, with at least 3 cases in each category above. For these 35 cases, the measured data, together with geometrical dimensions and test conditions were documented in a uniform tabular format. These data were also stored on a magnetic tape for distribution. During this follow-on contract (DE-AC21-85MC22059), the accuracy of the data was checked and several additional corrections were made. The format for reporting the data (Appendix B) was simplified. Also, a review of additional data sets available from the Combustion Laboratory and other sources was completed. In all, 213 cases from 52 investigators at 18 laboratories were considered and 37 cases are included in this data book from 22 different investigations at 8 independent laboratories. 81 refs.

  10. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. WMU Power Generation Study Task 2.0 Corn Cob Co-Combustion Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkedahl, Bruce [Folkedahl Consulting, Inc., Willmar, MN (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Much attention has been focused on renewable energy use in large-scale utilities and very small scale distributed energy systems. However, there is little information available regarding renewable energy options for midscale municipal utilities. The Willmar Municipal Utilities Corn Cob-Coal Co-Combustion Project was initiated to investigate opportunities available for small to midscale municipal utilities to "go green". The overall goal of the Project was to understand the current renewable energy research and energy efficiency projects that are or have been implemented at both larger and smaller scale and determine the applicability to midscale municipal utilities. More specific objectives for Task 2.0 of this project were to determine the technical feasibility of co-combusting com cobs with coal in the existing WMU boiler, and to identify any regulatory issues that might need to be addressed if WMU were to obtain a significant portion of its heat from such co-combustion. This report addresses the issues as laid out in the study proposal. The study investigated the feasibility of and demonstrated the technical effectiveness of co-combusting corn cobs with coal in the Willmar Municipal Utilities stoker boiler steam generation power plant. The results of the WMU Co-Combustion Project will serve as a model for other midscale utilities who wish to use corn cobs to generate renewable electrical energy. As a result of the Co-Combustion Project, the WMU plans to upgrade their stoker boiler to accept whole corn cobs as well as other types of biomass, while still allowing the fuel delivery system to use 100% coal as needed. Benefits of co-combustion will include: energy security, reduced Hg and CO2 air emissions, improved ash chemistry, potential future carbon credit sales, an immediate positive effect on the local economy, and positive attention focused on the WMU and the City of Willmar. The first step in the study was to complete a feasibility analysis. The

  12. Final Technical Report: Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Combustion Intermediates Trapped in Helium Nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douberly, Gary Elliott [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2017-11-16

    The objective of our experimental research program is to isolate and stabilize transient intermediates and products of prototype combustion reactions. This will be accomplished by Helium Nanodroplet Isolation, a novel technique where liquid helium droplets freeze out high energy metastable configurations of a reacting system, permitting infrared spectroscopic characterizations of products and intermediates that result from hydrocarbon radical reactions with molecular oxygen and other small molecules relevant to combustion environments. The low temperature (0.4 K) and rapid cooling associated with He droplets provides a perfectly suited medium to isolate and probe a broad range of molecular radical and carbene systems important to combustion chemistry. The sequential addition of molecular species to He droplets often leads to the stabilization of high-energy, metastable cluster configurations that represent regions of the potential energy surface far from the global minimum. Single and double resonance IR laser spectroscopy techniques, along with Stark and Zeeman capabilities, are being used to probe the structural and dynamical properties of these systems.

  13. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

    1978-09-11

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

  14. Investigation of combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Juan; Weng Yiwu

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this research were to investigate the combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine. The characteristics of lean burn catalytic combustion were investigated by utilising 1D heterogeneous plug flow model which was validated by experiments. The effects of operating parameters on catalytic combustion were numerically analysed. The system models were built in ASPEN Plus and three independent design variables, i.e. compressor pressure ratio (PR), regenerator effectiveness (RE) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) were selected to analyse the thermodynamic performance of the thermal cycle. The main results show that: simulations from 1D heterogeneous plug flow model can capture the trend of catalytic combustion and describe the behavior of the catalytic monolith in detail. Inlet temperature is the most significant parameter that impacts operation of the catalytic combustor. When TIT and RE are constant, the increase of PR results in lowering the inlet temperature of the catalytic combustor, which results in decreasing methane conversion. The peak thermal efficiency and the optimal PR at a constant TIT increase with the increase of TIT; and at the constant PR, the thermal efficiency increases with the increase of TIT. However, with lower TIT conditions, the optimal PR and the peak efficiency at a constant TIT of the LBCCGT cycle are relative low to that of the conventional cycle. When TIT and PR are constant, the decrease of RE may result in lower methane conversion. The influences of RE on the methane conversion and the thermal efficiency are more significant at higher PRs. The higher thermal efficiency for the lower RE is achieved at lower PR.

  15. N2O formation in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize N 2 O emissions from combustion sources emphasizing N 2 O emissions from post-combustion selective gas phase NO x reduction processes and reburning. The processes to be evaluated include ammonia, urea and cyanuric acid injection and reburning. The project includes pilot-scale testing at two facilities supported by chemical kinetic modeling. Testing will be performed on both a gas-fired plug flow combustor and a pulverized-coal fired combustor. Work performed to date has included the performance of the initial detailed chemical kinetics calculations. These calculations showed that both urea and cyanuric acid produce significant quantities of N 2 O, while NH 3 injection produced negligible amounts. These kinetics data support limited test results reported for cyanuric acid and ammonia injection. Laboratory work to evaluate the selective gas phase NO x reduction processes listed above will begin in the gas-fired facility early in CY 1990. Testing to evaluate reburning at the coal-fired facility is currently planned to be performed in parallel with the testing at the gas-fired facility. Following completion of that work, additional kinetics calculations will be performed

  16. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  17. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  18. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO 2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO 2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO 2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Annual Report: DOE Advanced Combustion Systems & Fuels R&D; Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Despite compliance issues in previous years, automakers have demonstrated that the newest generation of diesel power trains are capable of meeting all federal and state regulations (EPA, 2016). Diesels continue to be a cost-effective, efficient, powerful propulsion source for many light- and medium-duty vehicle applications (Martec, 2016). Even modest reductions in the fuel consumption of light- and medium duty diesel vehicles in the U.S. will eliminate millions of tons of CO2 emissions per year. Continued improvement of diesel combustion systems will play an important role in reducing fleet fuel consumption, but these improvements will require an unprecedented scientific understanding of how changes in engine design and calibration affect the mixture preparation, combustion, and pollutant formation processes that take place inside the cylinder. The focus of this year’s research is to provide insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for improved thermal efficiency observed with a stepped-lip piston. Understanding how piston design can influence efficiency will help engineers develop and optimize new diesel combustion systems.

  20. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  1. Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.

  2. Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)

  3. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2004-10-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  4. [Study on expert system of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible smoke agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-ming; Guan, Hua; Hou, Wei; Pan, Gong-pei

    2009-05-01

    The present paper studied the application of expert system in prediction of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible anti-infrared smoke agent. The construction of the expert system was founded, based on the theory of minimum free energy and infrared spectral addition. After the direction of smoke agent was input, the expert system could figure out the final combustion products. Then infrared spectrogram of smoke could also be simulated by adding the spectra of all of the combustion products. Meanwhile, the screening index of smoke was provided in the wave bands of 3-5 im and 8-14 microm. FTIR spectroscope was used to investigate the performance of one kind of HC smoke. The combustion products calculated by the expert system were coincident with the actual data, and the simulant infrared spectrum was also similar to the real one of the smoke. The screening index given by the system was consistent with the known facts. It was showed that a new approach was offered for the fast discrimination of varieties of directions of smoke agent.

  5. Hydrogen Generation, Combustibility and Mitigation in Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha, K.A.; El-Sheikh, B.M.; Gad El-Mawla, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear power plant is provided with features to insure safety. The engineered safety features (ESFs) are devoted to set operating conditions under accident conditions. If ESFs fail to apply in some accidents, this would lead to what called severe accidents, and core damage. In this case hydrogen will be generated from different sources particularly from metal-water reactions. Since the containment is the final barrier to protect the environment from the release of radioactive materials; its integrity should not be threatened. In recent years, hydrogen concentration represents a real problem if it exceeds the combustibility limits. This work is devoted to calculate the amount of hydrogen to be generated, indelicate its combustibility and how to inertize the containment using different gases to maintain its integrity and protect the environment from the release of radioactive materials

  6. Simulation of low temperature combustion mechanism of different combustion-supporting agents in close-coupled DOC and DPF system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Penghao; Li, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wen; He, Li; Wu, Yue

    2018-07-01

    In the coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particular Filter (DPF) system, soot cannot be completely removed by only using the passive regeneration. And DPF active regeneration is necessary. The research method in this paper is to spray different kinds of combustion-supporting agents to the DOC in the front of the DPF. Therefore, the low temperature combustion mechanism of different kinds of combustion-supporting agents in DOC was studied, in order to grasp the law of combustion in DOC, and the influence of follow-up emission on DPF removal of soot. During the study, CH 4 H 2 mixture and diesel (n-heptane + toluene) were used as combustion-supporting agents respectively. The simplified mechanisms of two kinds of gas mixtures used as the combustion-supporting agents in DPF have been constructed and testified in the paper. In this paper, the combustion and emission conditions of the two combustion-supporting agents were analyzed so as to meet the practical requirements of different working conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  9. Electronic ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, L W

    1980-11-20

    Mechanical ignition adjustment devices are sensitive to many effects, for example breakage, faults due to manufacturing tolerances, play in the linkage and the effect of a dirty or corrosive environment. It is therefore the purpose of the invention to provide an electronic ignition system which avoids the disadvantages of a mechanical system. The invention provides adjustment of the ignition point, which gives advance of the ignition timing with increasing speed. An output signal is formed, which supersedes the signal supplied by the electronic control system, so that the ignition is advanced. This also occurs with a larger crankshaft angle before top dead centre of the engine. The electronic control system combines with a source of AC time signals which has a generator as electrical transmitter and a DC battery and ignition coil. The rotor of the electrical generator is driven synchronised with the engine. Structural and functional details of the transistor control circuits are given in 5 patent claims.

  10. Effects of setting new source performance standards for fluidized-bed combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    This study was undertaken for the US Environmental Protection Agency to examine the potential consequences of revisions in New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) on fluidized-bed combustor-based steam electric generators of greater than 250,000,000 Btu. A study of the appropriateness and differential effects of alternate regulatory approaches to the standards-setting process was made. Problems dealing with an emerging technology such as fluidized-bed combustion were emphasized. Finally, an examination was made of the potential benefits of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems relative to conventional coal-fired systems equipped with scrubbers. Information is included on the relative advantages and disadvantages of utility-sized fluidized-bed combustors, the technical consequences of NSPS alternatives, policy implications concerning NSPS for steam-electric generators, and cost models for atmospheric and pressurized FBC systems. (LCL)

  11. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  12. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  13. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  14. Investigation of reactions and species dominating low temperature combustion - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T.; Radi, P.; Knopp, G.; Tulej, M.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland on the quantitative description of ignition. processes and the influence of peroxy radicals that determine ignition and speciation of the intermediates initially present and, thereby, the progress of subsequent reactions. The authors note that for the preparation of peroxy radicals, a dedicated molecular beam apparatus has been built by the PSI's 'Molecular Dynamics' group. A novel radical source is operational. In many cases, specific radicals can be prepared with high selectivity. A description of flame chemistry is being worked on that can reliably predict the speciation of intermediate products during ignition. Laser-based measurement techniques are being applied at PSI to measure the static and dynamic properties of alkyl peroxy radicals in order to accurately describe their reaction behaviour in combustion processes. A dedicated synchrotron beam line is installed at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) that extends the available range of spectroscopic measurements into the VUV (vacuum-ultraviolet) wavelength domain. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  15. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  16. Numerical analysis on the combustion and emission characteristics of forced swirl combustion system for DI diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, LiWang; Li, XiangRong; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, FuShui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new combustion system named FSCS for DI diesel engines was proposed. • Fuel/air mixture formation was improved for the application of FSCS. • The FSCS showed a good performance on emission characteristics. - Abstract: To optimize the fuel/air mixture formation and improve the environmental effect of direct injection (DI) diesel engines, a new forced swirl combustion system (FSCS) was proposed concerned on unique design of the geometric shape of the combustion chamber. Numerical simulation was conducted to verify the combustion and emission characteristics of the engines with FSCS. The fuel/air diffusion, in-cylinder velocity distribution, turbulent kinetic energy and in-cylinder temperature distribution were analyzed and the results shown that the FSCS can increase the area of fuel/air diffusion and improve the combustion. The diesel engine with FSCS also shown excellent performance on emission. At full load condition, the soot emission was significantly reduced for the improved fuel/air mixture formation. There are slightly difference for the soot and NO emission between the FSCS and the traditional omega combustion system at lower load for the short penetration of the fuel spray

  17. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines. Kraftstoffeinspritzsystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, U.

    1990-09-13

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is provided with a fuel supply line (13) and at least one electromagnetically actuated fuel injection valve (14) for apportioning a quantity of fuel for injection. A connection muzzle (24) coming from the valve body (23) juts into an opening (22) in the suction pipe (21) of the internal combustion engine. The end of the injection valve opposite the connecting muzzle (24) is connected with the fuel supply line via a fuel entry. The valve body (23) is enclosed by a casing (25) in order to provide the conditions required for a warm start. An annulus (31) extending over a large part of the axial length of the valve remains between the casing and the valve body (23). The annulus (31) communicates with the fuel flow through the fuel supply line (13) via an afflux and an efflux opening (32, 33) (Fig. 1).

  18. Design and experimental investigation of an oxy-fuel combustion system for magnetohydrodynamic power extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Manuel Johannes

    design concepts. Therefore, numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to design and optimize the combustion flow fields of oxy-fuel combustion systems. These models were analyzed to understand the boundary layer and heat transfer profile and qualitative behaviors in the product designs. Advanced materials for high-temperature applications were assessed for their possible implementation in the product design. A trade-off analysis indicated that this scheme may incur elevated product cost and a difficulty in manufacturing. Active cooling strategies were considered for product development. A rocket-based cooling scheme, regenerative cooling, was implemented to provide active cooling. In the hot gas path (HGP) cooling design, CFD models were developed to predict the variation of heat removal along the oxy-combustion wall for various operating conditions. The oxy-combustion technology was manufactured using electrical discharge machining (EDM). The product development lifecycle in this dissertation encompassed preliminary design, detailed design, and demonstration and validation of the product. Towards the final stages of the product development, Fuel-rich oxy combustion experiments were carried out to demonstrate and observe flame characteristics from the designed technology and to predict heat transfer loads. The demonstration findings of oxy-combustion flames are presented in this work to contribute the developing field of MHD direct power extraction, which lacks oxy-combustion design data and qualitative combustion datasets. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy MHD environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The combustor hardware design was developed to contribute to engineered systems rated less than 100 kW for demonstration. The product hardware was

  19. In situ high-temperature gas sensors: continuous monitoring of the combustion quality of different wood combustion systems and optimization of combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kohler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensing characteristics and long-term stability of different kinds of CO ∕ HC gas sensors (non-Nernstian mixed potential type during in situ operation in flue gas from different types of low-power combustion systems (wood-log- and wood-chip-fuelled were investigated. The sensors showed representative but individual sensing behaviour with respect to characteristically varying flue gas composition over the combustion process. The long-term sensor signal stability evaluated by repeated exposure to CO ∕ H2 ∕ N2 ∕ synthetic air mixtures showed no sensitivity loss after operation in the flue gas. Particularly for one of the sensors (Heraeus GmbH, this high signal stability was observed in a field test experiment even during continuous operation in the flue gas of the wood-chip firing system over 4 months. Furthermore, it was experimentally shown that the signals of these CO ∕ HC sensing elements yield important additional information about the wood combustion process. This was demonstrated by the adaptation of an advanced combustion airstream control algorithm on a wood-log-fed fireplace and by the development of a combustion quality monitoring system for wood-chip-fed central heaters.

  20. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  1. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford E. Smith; Steven M. Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; David L. Black; Karl V. Meredith

    2005-01-01

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool was developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. Vision 21 combustion systems, such as combustors for gas turbines, combustors for indirect fired cycles, furnaces and sequestrian-ready combustion systems, will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. The simulation tool will greatly reduce the number of experimental tests; this is especially desirable for gas turbine combustor design since the cost of the high pressure testing is extremely costly. In addition, the software will stimulate new ideas, will provide the capability of assessing and adapting low-emission combustors to alternate fuels, and will greatly reduce the development time cycle of combustion systems. The revolutionary combustion simulation software is able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled (e.g. natural gas, low BTU syngas, hydrogen, biogas etc.) turbulent combustion and assess innovative concepts needed for Vision 21 plants. In addition, the software is capable of analyzing liquid-fueled combustion systems since that capability was developed under a concurrent Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The complex physics of the reacting flow field are captured using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods, in which large scale transient motion is resolved by time-accurate numerics, while the small scale motion is modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. In this way, LES combustion simulations can model many physical aspects that, until now, were impossible to predict with 3D steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, i.e. very low NOx emissions, combustion instability (coupling of unsteady heat and acoustics), lean blowout, flashback, autoignition, etc. LES methods are becoming more and more practical by linking together tens

  2. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 2, Data plots: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments

  3. PWR radiation fields at combustion engineering plants through mid-1985: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.S.; Beineke, T.A.; Bradshaw, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of the initial phase of the EPRI-PWR Standard Radiation Monitoring Program (SRMP) for PWR nuclear power plants with Nuclear Steam Supply Systems supplied by Combustion Engineering, Inc. The purposes of the SRMP are to provide reliable, consistent and systematic measurements of the rate of radiation-field buildup at operating PWR's; and to use that information to identify opportunities for radiation control and the consequent reduction of occupational radiation exposure. The report includes radiation surveys from seven participating power plants. These surveys were conducted at well-defined locations on the reactor coolant loop piping and steam generators, and/or inside the steam generator channel heads. In most cases only one survey is available from each power plant, so that conclusions about the rate of radiation-field buildup are not possible. Some observations are made about the distribution pattern of radiation levels within the steam generator channel heads and around the reactor coolant loops. The report discusses the relationship between out-of-core radiation fields (as measured by the SRMP) and: the pH of the reactor coolant, the concentration of lithium hydroxide in the reactor coolant, and the frequency of changes in reactor power level. In order to provide data for possible future correlations of these parameters with the SRMP radiation-field data, the report summarizes information available from participating plants on primary coolant pH, and on the frequency of changes in reactor power level. 12 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  4. A review of active control approaches in stabilizing combustion systems in aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Lu, Zhengli; Zhao, He; Li, X. Y.; Wang, Bing; Liu, Peijin

    2018-02-01

    Self-sustained combustion instabilities are one of the most plaguing challenges and problems in lean-conditioned propulsion and land-based engine systems, such as rocket motors, gas turbines, industrial furnace and boilers, and turbo-jet thrust augmenters. Either passive or active control in open- or closed-loop configurations can be implemented to mitigate such instabilities. One of the classical disadvantages of passive control is that it is only implementable to a designed combustor over a limited frequency range and can not respond to the changes in operating conditions. Compared with passive control approaches, active control, especially in closed-loop configuration is more adaptive and has inherent capacity to be implemented in practice. The key components in closed-loop active control are 1) sensor, 2) controller (optimization algorithm) and 3) dynamic actuator. The present work is to outline the current status, technical challenges and development progress of the active control approaches (in open- or closed-loop configurations). A brief description of feedback control, adaptive control, model-based control and sliding mode control are provided first by introducing a simplified Rijke-type combustion system. The modelled combustion system provides an invaluable platform to evaluate the performance of these feedback controllers and a transient growth controller. The performance of these controllers are compared and discussed. An outline of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations are then provided to overview the research and development progress made during the last 4 decades. Finally, potential, challenges and issues involved with the design, application and implementation of active combustion control strategies on a practical engine system are highlighted.

  5. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system are described for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. 10 figures

  6. Future combustion technology for synthetic and renewable fuels in compression ignition engines (REFUEL). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakko-Saksa, P.; Brink, A.; Happonen, M. [and others

    2012-07-01

    This domestic project, Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (ReFuel), was part of a Collaborative Task 'Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Transport' of International Energy Agency (IEA) Combustion Agreement. This international Collaborative Task is coordinated by Finland. The three-year (2009-2011) prooject was a joint research project with Aalto University (Aalto), Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Aabo Akademi University (AAU). The project was funded by TEKES, Waertsilae Oyj, Agro Sisu Power, Aker Arctic Technology Oy and the research partners listed above. Modern renewable diesel fuels have excellent physical and chemical properties, in comparison to traditional crude oil based fuels. Purely paraffinic fuels do not contain aromatic compounds and they are totally sulphur free. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) was studied as an example of paraffinic high cetane number (CN) diesel fuels. HVO has no storage and low temperature problems like the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have. The combustion properties are better than those of crude oil based fuels and FAME, because they have very high cetane numbers and contain no polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). With low HVO density, viscosity and distillation temperatures, these advantageous properties allow far more advanced combustion strategies, such as very high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates or extreme Miller timings, than has been possible with current fossil fuels. The implementation of these advanced combustion technologies, together with the novel renewable diesel fuel, brought significant nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), particulate matter (PM) emission reductions with no efficiency losses. (orig.)

  7. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  8. Formation and emission of PM10 in combustion of biofuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Leckner, Bo

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown correlations between negative health effects and increased particle concentrations in the ambient air. Because of this correlation and the increasing biofuel combustion, there is a need to more carefully investigate formation and emissions from biofuel combustion to secure good air quality in the future. This project is limited to primary combustion particles emitted from small-scale biofuel combustion. Small-scale is here defined as combustion devices with an output less than 10 MW. The project is divided into two parts. In the first part, particles from small-scale biofuel combustion have been characterised. In the second part, the formation of particles during biofuel combustion is studied. Characterisation of particle emissions has been performed for a range of different combustion units, i.e. pellet stove with a thermal output of a few kW, domestic wood and pellet boilers and district-heating boilers with thermal outputs around 2 MW. Mass concentration of particles was measured according to Swedish Standard method. Particle mass size distribution was measured using Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI, size range 30 nm - 10 μm). The number of particles and corresponding size distribution were measured with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, 30 nm - 10 μm). To some extent, the particle emissions were investigated regarding chemical content and morphology. In all measurement cases, gas concentrations were measured in the flue gas as a control of combustion conditions. The highest mass concentration of particles (2,200 mg/MJ fuel ) was recorded in the flue gas from an old domestic wood log boiler with poor combustion conditions resulting in very high emissions of unburnt (soot). On the other hand, the lowest mass concentration of particles (20 mg/MJ fueI ) was recorded during optimally adjusted pellet combustion, where 83 % of the particles were found to be inorganic. The remaining part consists of unburnt material (e

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine with rotary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, P A

    1977-05-18

    In the Wankel engine, the sparking plugs spark three times per rotation of the rotor and are never cooled by the incoming mixture. This constant high temperature environment necessitates the use of special sparking plugs. The covered top of the sparking plug is particularly liable to carbon deposits. This invention makes it possible to use sparking plugs on the rotor, without the disadvantages due to the use of high voltage. Further, the use of distributors or mechanical devices determining the ignition timing is no longer necessary. The fuel/air mixture is ignited in a combustion chamber, which is limited by first and second components moving relative to one another in repeated cycles. A generator device is fitted to the first components and an ignition device to the second components. The magnetic flux linking takes place in a predetermined area of the relative movement between the first and second components in a repeated cycle. An ignition signal is produced in the combustion chamber by the magnetic flux linking.

  11. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation on the thermal efficiency and combustion characteristics for premixed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Kum, Sung-Min; Lee, Chang-Eon; Lee, Seungro

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a boiler in a premixed combustion system used to achieve exhaust gas recirculation was investigated as a way to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. The effects of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities on thermal efficiency, NO x and CO emissions and the flame behavior on the burner surface were examined both experimentally and numerically. The results of the experiments showed that when EGR was used, the NO x and CO concentrations decreased and the thermal efficiency increased. In the case of a 15% EGR ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, NO x concentrations were found to be smaller than for the current operating condition of the boiler, and the thermal efficiency was approximately 4.7% higher. However, unlike NO x concentrations, although the EGR ratio was increased to 20% at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, the CO concentration was higher than in the current operating condition of the boiler. From the viewpoint of burner safety, the red glow on the burner surface was noticeably reduced when EGR was used. These results confirmed that the EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety. -- Highlights: ► The premixed boiler system applied EGR was investigated to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. ► Thermal efficiency and emission characteristics were examined with EGR ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities. ► EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety.

  12. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Cannon; Clifford Smith

    2003-04-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 10th quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation has developed the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-Simval combustor. Also, Beta testing by consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. In the two quarters ahead, CFDRC will validate the code on the new DOE SimVal experiments. Experimental data from DOE should be available in June 2003, though LES calculations are currently being performed. This will ensure a truly predictive test of the software. CFDRC will also provide help to the consortium members on running their cases, and incorporate improvements to the software suggested by the beta testers. The beta testers will compare their predictions with experimental measurements and other numerical calculations. At the end of this project (October, 2003), a final released version of the software will be available for licensing to the general public.

  13. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M [ed.

    1999-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  14. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  15. NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Holmes

    2005-12-31

    This document is the final report on the work completed on DE-FG02-95ER25238 since the start of the second renewal period: Jan 1, 2001. It supplements the annual reports submitted in 2001 and 2002. In the renewal proposal I envisaged work in three main areas: Analytical and topological tools for studying flows and maps Low dimensional models of fluid flow Models of animal locomotion and I describe the progess made on each project.

  16. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...

  17. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Carbon monoxide can be produced in severe accidents from interaction of ex-vessel molten core with concrete. Depending on the particular core-melt scenario, the type of concrete and geometric factors affecting the interaction, the quantities of carbon monoxide produced can vary widely, up to several volume percent in the containment. Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas. The carbon monoxide thus produced is in addition to the hydrogen produced by metal-water reactions and by radiolysis, and represents a possibly significant contribution to the combustible gas inventory in the containment. Assessment of possible accident loads to containment thus requires knowledge of the combustion properties of both CO and H 2 in the containment atmosphere. Extensive studies have been carried out and are still continuing in the nuclear industry to assess the threat of hydrogen in a severe reactor accident. However the contribution of carbon monoxide to the combustion threat has received less attention. Assessment of scenarios involving ex-vessel interactions require additional attention to the potential contribution of carbon monoxide to combustion loads in containment, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed for hydrogen to effectively deal with particular aspects of carbon monoxide. The topic of core-concrete interactions has been extensively studied; for more complete background on the issue and on the physical/thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved, the reader is referred to Proceedings of CSNI Specialists Meetings (Ritzman, 1987; Alsmeyer, 1992) and a State-of-Art Report (European Commission, 1995). The exact amount of carbon monoxide present in a reactor pit or in various compartments (or rooms) in a containment building is specific to the type of concrete and the accident scenario considered. Generally, concrete containing limestone and sand have a high percentage of CaCO 3 . Appendix A provides an example of results of estimates of CO and CO 2

  18. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  19. Investigation of reactions and species dominating low temperature combustion - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.; Knopp, G.; Johnson, M.; Boedi, A.; Gerber, T.

    2009-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The project 'Investigation of reactions and species dominating low temperature combustion' involves the characterisation of species that govern ignition. A base established for the spectroscopic investigation of peroxy radicals is discussed. The two-fold aim of this project is discussed which includes the measurement of molecular features such as binding energies and dissociation patterns of well-studied and spectroscopically accessible molecules and radicals as well as the application of the measurement techniques to alkyl peroxy radicals. This was done in order to improve the database of a class of molecules playing a dominant role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Several experimental techniques that are to be developed to achieve these aims are looked at. Achievements made are discussed and future work to be carried out is noted.

  20. Final Report Product Imaging of Molecular Dynamics Relevant to Combustion Grant No. DE-FG02-88ER13934

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Product imaging has been used to investigate several processes important to a fundamental understanding of combustion. The imaging technique produces a ''snapshot'' of the three-dimensional velocity distribution of a state-selected reaction product. Research in three main areas is planned or underway. First, product imaging has been used to investigate the reactive scattering of radicals or atoms with species important in combustion. These experiments, while more difficult than studies of inelastic scattering or photodissociation, are now becoming feasible. They provide both product distributions of important processes as well as angular information important to the interpretation of reaction mechanisms. Second, the imaging technique has been used to measure rotationally inelastic energy transfer on collision of closed-shell species with important combustion radicals. Such measurements improve our knowledge of intramolecular potentials and provide important tests of ab initio calculations. Finally, experiments using product imaging have explored the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of O2, N2O, SO2, CO2 and other important species. Little is known about the highly excited electronic states of these molecules and, in particular, how they dissociate. These studies provide product vibrational energy distributions as well as angular information that can aid in understanding the symmetry and crossings among the excited electronic states

  1. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  2. Combustion energy frontier research center (CEFRC) final report (August 1, 2009 – July 31, 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Chung [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center (CEFRC) was established to tackle the single overarching grand challenge of energy sustainability, energy security and global warming: to develop a “validated, predictive, multi-scale, combustion modeling capability to optimize the design and operation of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications,” as identified in the DOE report on “Basic Energy Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels”. The challenge is particularly daunting since energy conversion efficiencies and exhaust emissions are governed by coupled chemical and transport processes at multiple length scales ranging from electron excitation to molecular rearrangements to nanoscale particulate formation to turbulent fuel/air mixing. To tackle this challenge, the CEFRC assembled a world-class team of 15 principal investigators, with the objectives to: 1) develop and test theoretical models to predict elementary reaction rates, molecule thermalization rates, chemical bond dissociation energies, and nonequilibrium transport properties using quantum chemistry calculations that account for strong electron correlation and multiple electronic potential energy surfaces; 2) develop automated kinetic mechanism generation, reduction, and error control methods for predicting alternative fuel including biofuel oxidation, fuel droplet decomposition, and NOx and particulate formation; 3) validate and improve the predictions of these models by measuring ignition delay times, species profiles, flame structures, burning limits, turbulence-kinetic coupling, and NOx and soot emissions at high-pressures and near-limit conditions, by using advanced experimental diagnostic techniques including multiple laser techniques, molecular beam sampling and synchrotron photoionization, and by conducting the measurements in high-pressure shock tubes, jet-stirred and flow reactors, flame bombs, counterflow flames, and advanced

  3. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  4. CFD Modelling of Biomass Combustion in Small-Scale Boilers. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-Song Bai; Griselin, Niklas; Klason, Torbern; Nilsson, Johan [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This project deals with CFD modeling of combustion of wood in fixed bed boilers. A flamelet model for the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions is developed and applied to study small-scale boiler. The flamelet chemistry employs 43 reactive species and 174 elementary reactions. It gives detailed distributions of important species such as CO and NO{sub x} in the flow field and flue gas. Simulation of a small-scale wood fired boiler measured at SP Boraas (50 KW) shows that the current flamelet model yields results agreeable to the available experimental data. A detailed chemical kinetic model is developed to study the bed combustion process. This model gives boundary conditions for the CFD analysis of gas phase volatile oxidation in the combustion chambers. The model combines a Functional Group submodel with a Depolymerisation, Vaporisation and Crosslinking submodel. The FG submodel simulates how functional groups decompose and form light gas species. The DVC submodell predicts depolymerisation and vaporisation of the macromolecular network and this includes bridge breaking and crosslinking processes, where the wood structure breaks down to fragments. The light fragments form tar and the heavy ones form metaplast. Two boilers firing wood log/chips are studied using the FG-DVC model, one is the SP Boraas small-scale boiler (50 KW) and the other is the Sydkraft Malmoe Vaerme AB's Flintraennan large-scale boiler (55 MW). The fix bed is assumed to be two zones, a partial equilibrium drying/devolatilisation zone and an equilibrium zone. Three typical biomass conversion modes are simulated, a lean fuel combustion mode, a near-stoichiometric combustion and a fuel rich gasification mode. Detailed chemical species and temperatures at different modes are obtained. Physical interpretation is provided. Comparison of the computational results with experimental data shows that the model can reasonably simulate the fixed bed biomass conversion process. CFD

  5. Ash quality and environmental quality assurance system in co-combustion - Co-combustion of forest industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.

    2000-01-01

    The environmental acceptability and possible utilization of co-combustion ashes will have a significant influence on the wider use of co-combustion in the future. At present the correlation between currently used fuels, their mixture ratios, and quality variations in ashes are not known, which complicates the assessment of possible utilization and environmental acceptability of co-combustion ashes. The composition of ashes has also been found to vary significantly. Effective utilization requires that process variations to alter ash composition and quality variations are known in advance. The aim of the research was to characterize the fly ash from co- combustion of peat, wood and biological paper mill sludge produced under different fuel loadings, especially with and without sludge addition, ant to identify critical parameters influencing on the ash composition. The variations in the leaching properties of ashes collected daily were followed up. The environmental acceptability of the ashes produced under different fuel loadings, especially their suitability for use in road constructions, were evaluated. The project included also the preparation of laboratory reference material from ash material. Guidelines were developed for sampling, sample preparation and analysis, and leaching tests. Furthermore, a quality control system, including sampling strategies, sample analysis and leaching testing, was established

  6. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  7. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-04-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory is nearly complete, and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building is in the final stages. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is being discussed with a potential contractor. Discussions with potential contactor regarding the availability of materials and current machining capabilities have resulted in the modification of the original designs. The selection of the fabrication contractor for the CFBC Facility is expected during the next quarter. Third, co-firing experiments conducted with coal and chicken waste have been initiated in the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  8. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  9. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  10. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  11. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  12. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects; La gestion final del combustible nuclear. Aspectos legales y economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-07-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  13. Introduction to modeling and control of internal combustion engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, Lino; Onder, Christopher H. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. In order to fully exploit the remaining margins, increasingly sophisticated control systems have to be applied. This book offers an introduction to cost-effective model-based control-system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed and solutions for selected feedforward and feedback control-problems are presented. The discussions concerning pollutant emissions and fuel economy of ICE in automotive applications constantly intensified since the first edition of this book was published. Concerns about the air quality, the limited resources of fossil fuels and the detrimental effects of greenhouse gases exceedingly spurred the interest of both the industry and academia in further improvements. The most important changes and additions included in this second edition are: - restructured and slightly extended section on superchargers; - short subsection on rotational oscillations and their treatment on engine test-benches; - complete section on modeling, detection, and control of engine knock; - improved physical and chemical model for the three-way catalytic converter; - new methodology for the design of an air-to-fuel ratio controller; - short introduction to thermodynamic engine-cycle calculation and corresponding control-oriented aspects. (orig.)

  14. Gaussian process regression based optimal design of combustion systems using flame images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junghui; Chan, Lester Lik Teck; Cheng, Yi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The digital color images of flames are applied to combustion design. • The combustion with modeling stochastic nature is developed using GP. • GP based uncertainty design is made and evaluated through a real combustion system. - Abstract: With the advanced methods of digital image processing and optical sensing, it is possible to have continuous imaging carried out on-line in combustion processes. In this paper, a method that extracts characteristics from the flame images is presented to immediately predict the outlet content of the flue gas. First, from the large number of flame image data, principal component analysis is used to discover the principal components or combinational variables, which describe the important trends and variations in the operation data. Then stochastic modeling of the combustion process is done by a Gaussian process with the aim to capture the stochastic nature of the flame associated with the oxygen content. The designed oxygen combustion content considers the uncertainty presented in the combustion. A reference image can be designed for the actual combustion process to provide an easy and straightforward maintenance of the combustion process

  15. Study of Catalysts and Electrocatalysts for NO{sub x} Removal in Combustion Gases ELECTRONOX Project Final Report; Estudio de Catalizadores y Electrocatalizadores para la Eliminacion de NO{sub x} en Gases de Combustion. Informe Final Proyecto ELECTRONOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Martinez, E; Marono Bujan, M; Sanchez-Hervas, J M

    2009-12-11

    The final aim of the ELECTRONOX project was to develop new methodologies and technologies for NO{sub x} removal. To fulfil this objective, studies of selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with hydrocarbons, both conventional and with electrochemical promotion, have been undertaken at pilot plant level, using appropriate catalyst/electrocatalysts configurations and in conditions similar to those required in their possible practical application. None of the catalysts/electrocatalysts studied is active and stable enough, under realistic conditions, to consider its possible industrial application, because the value of NO{sub x} conversion achieved by selective catalytic reduction with hydrocarbons, both conventional and with electrochemical promotion, decreases in presence of the different inhibitors and poisons present in the combustion gas, while the promotional effect on the catalytic activity and selectivity is more pronounced. In addition, the catalysts/electrocatalysts suffer from different deactivation processes, such as: sulphur poisoning, carbon deposition and sintering. However, the developed electrochemical catalyst looks promising for NO{sub x} removal in combustion gases, because it can be promoted under realistic operating conditions. (Author) 23 refs.

  16. Study of the chemistry of sulfur- and nitrogen oxides at fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, O.

    1995-01-01

    Research has been carried out concerning chemistry of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, with relevance to fluidized bed combustion. Studies of the heterogeneous decomposition reactions of NO and N 2 O molecules have also been carried out. The effect of O 2 on the heterogeneous reactions has been investigated and the results indicate that NO can deteriorate only in the reducing zones of a FBC. The formation of NO and N 2 O as well as the question of what parameters affect this formation have been studied in a series of combustion experiments. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that the volatiles and the char are about equally important for the NO and N 2 O formation. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to study the surface processes of the nitrogen oxides. Investigations of the desulfurization reactions at high percentages of CO 2 with special regard to the PFBC technique have been made. In addition, the same reaction has been studied with e.g. spectroscopic methods at normal CO 2 percentages, but with varying amounts of O 2 and CO. CaSO 3 has been demonstrated to be an intermediary and CaS as being one of the products. An important part of the project activities is the analytical work which primarily supports the full scale experiments on the 12 MW th CTH FBC boiler. As a link between the CTH boiler and our analytical laboratory, a chemical engineer also has been employed. In this activity is also included the development of sampling and analytical methods, e.g. NH 3 and HCN sampling in the combustor. Time has also been allocated to measuring corrosive alkali metals (Na and K) in flue gases from a PFBC plant. 29 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. W.A. Parish Post Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project Final Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armpriester, Anthony [Petra Nova Parish Holdings, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-02-17

    The Petra Nova Project is a commercial scale post-combustion carbon dioxide capture project that is being developed by a joint venture between NRG Energy (NRG) and JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration (JX). The project is designed to separate and capture carbon dioxide from an existing coal-fired unit's flue gas slipstream at NRG's W.A. Parish Generation Station located southwest of Houston, Texas. The captured carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline and injected into the West Ranch oil field to boost oil production. The project, which is partially funded by financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy will use Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of America, Inc.'s Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery (KM-CDR(R)) advanced amine-based carbon dioxide absorption technology to treat and capture at least 90% of the carbon dioxide from a 240 megawatt equivalent flue gas slipstream off of Unit 8 at W.A. Parish. The project will capture approximately 5,000 tons of carbon dioxide per day or 1.5 million tons per year that Unit 8 would otherwise emit, representing the largest commercial scale deployment of post-combustion carbon dioxide capture at a coal power plant to date. The joint venture issued full notice to proceed in July 2014 and when complete, the project is expected to be the world's largest post-combustion carbon dioxide capture facility on an existing coal plant. The detailed engineering is sufficiently complete to prepare and issue the Final Public Design Report.

  18. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  19. Final Focus Systems in Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor

    1998-01-01

    In colliding beam facilities, the ''final focus system'' must demagnify the beams to attain the very small spot sizes required at the interaction points. The first final focus system with local chromatic correction was developed for the Stanford Linear Collider where very large demagnifications were desired. This same conceptual design has been adopted by all the future linear collider designs as well as the SuperConducting Supercollider, the Stanford and KEK B-Factories, and the proposed Muon Collider. In this paper, the over-all layout, physics constraints, and optimization techniques relevant to the design of final focus systems for high-energy electron-positron linear colliders are reviewed. Finally, advanced concepts to avoid some of the limitations of these systems are discussed

  20. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  1. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  2. A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system with a high solar share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system is presented. • This hybrid CLC system integrates a CLC plant with a solar thermal energy plant. • The oxygen carrier particles are used for chemical and sensible thermal energy storage. • A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. • The calculations show a total solar share of around 60% can be achieved. - Abstract: A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion (Hy-Sol-CLC) is presented, in which the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system are employed to provide thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. This hybrid aims to take advantage of key features of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system that are desirable for solar energy systems, notably their inherent chemical and sensible energy storage systems, the relatively low temperature of the “fuel” reactor (to which the concentrated solar thermal energy is added in a hybrid) relative to that of the final temperature of the product gas and the potential to operate the fuel reactor at a different pressure to the heated gas stream. By this approach, it is aimed to achieve high efficiency of the solar energy, infrastructure sharing, economic synergy, base load power generation and a high solar fraction of the total energy. In the proposed Hy-Sol-CLC system, a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for fuel reactor while for the storage of the oxygen carrier particles two reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC. A heat exchanger is also proposed to provide independent control of the temperatures of the storage reservoirs from those of solar fuel and air reactors. The system is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The operating temperature of the fuel reactor, solar absorption efficiency, solar share, fraction of the solar thermal energy stored within the solar reactor, the fractions of sensible and

  3. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  4. Modelling of EAF off-gas post combustion in dedusting systems using CFD methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.; Kirschen, M.; Pfeifer, H. [Inst. for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering in Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Abel, M. [VAI-Fuchs GmbH, Willstaett (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    To comply with the increasingly strict environmental regulations, the poisonous off-gas species, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), produced in the electric arc furnace (EAF) must be treated in the dedusting system. In this work, gas flow patterns of the off-gas post combustion in three different dedusting system units were simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code: (1) post combustion in a horizontal off-gas duct, (2) post combustion in a water cooled post combustion chamber without additional energy supply (no gas or air/oxygen injectors) and (3) post combustion in a post combustion chamber with additional energy input (gas, air injectors and ignition burner, case study of VAI-Fuchs GmbH). All computational results are illustrated with gas velocity, temperature distribution and chemical species concentration fields for the above three cases. In case 1, the effect of different false air volume flow rates at the gap between EAF elbow and exhaust gas duct on the external post combustion of the off-gas was investigated. For case 2, the computed temperature and chemical composition (CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) of the off-gas at the post chamber exit are in good agreement with additional measurements. Various operating conditions for case 3 have been studied, including different EAF off-gas temperatures and compositions, i. e. CO content, in order to optimize oxygen and burner gas flow rates. Residence time distributions in the external post combustion chambers have been calculated for cases 2 and 3. Derived temperature fields of the water cooled walls yield valuable information on thermally stressed parts of post combustion units. The results obtained in this work may also gain insight to future investigation of combustion of volatile organic components (VOC) or formation of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and permit the optimization of the operation and design of the off-gas dedusting system units. (orig.)

  5. Fundamentals of combustion research. Final report 2000; Grundlagen der Verbrennungsforschung. Abschlussbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    All ten projects were aimed at modelling and validation of practically relevant natural gas flames. Modelling comprises the use,l development and enhancement of advanced combustion and turbulence models, e.g. PDF models or higher order Reynolds stress models. Validation uses modern laser diagnostics, e.g. spontaneous Raman scattering, LIF spectroscopy, and LDA. The practical applicability is ensured by a 150 kW flame whose characteristics can be extrapolated to industrial-scale plants. For this, four identical experiments were set up in the TECFLAM institutes of Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Heidelberg, and Darmstadt. [German] Gemeinsames Projektziel der vorliegenden zehn Vorhaben ist die Modellentwicklung und Validierung anwendungsnaher Erdgasflammen. Unter Modellentwicklung ist dabei die Nutzung, Entwicklung und Weiterentwicklung fortschrittlicher Verbrennungs- und Turbulenzmodelle wie PDF-Modelle oder Reynolds-Stress-Modelle hoeherer Ordnung zu verstehen. Validierung wird durchgefuehrt mittels moderner Laserdiagnostik-Verfahren, wie der spontanen Raman-Streuung, der LIF-Spektroskopie sowie LDA-Verfahren. Die Anwendungsnaehe wird sichergestellt durch eine Flamme mit 150 kW Leistung, deren Verhalten auf grosstechnische Anlagen extrapolierbar ist. Um dieses ehrgeizige Ziel zu erreichen, wurden vier identische Versuchsaufbauten in den TECFLAM-Instituten in Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Heidelberg und Darmstadt errichtet. (orig.)

  6. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 1. Final technical report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  7. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 2 -- Appendices. Final report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  8. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  9. Design of the steam generator in an energy conversion system based on the aluminum combustion with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercati, Stefano; Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of a numerical approach for the analysis of a co-generation system based on the aluminum water reaction. ► Construction of system operating maps for estimating the system behavior. ► Comparison of two different designs of the steam generator for the system. ► Definition of the operating range where each configuration provides the best performance. -- Abstract: The paper shows the preliminary design of the superheated steam generator to be used in a novel hydrogen production and energy conversion system based on the combustion of aluminum particles with water. The system is aimed at producing hydrogen and pressurized superheated steam, using the heat released by the Al–H 2 O reaction. The interest on this type of technology arises because of the possibility of obtaining hydrogen with very low pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to the traditional hydrogen production systems, such as the steam reforming from methane. The analysis of the combustion chamber and the heat recovery system is carried out by means of a lumped and distributed parameter numerical approach. The multi phase and gas mixture theoretical principles are used both to characterize the mass flow rate and the heat release in the combustion chamber and within the heat exchangers in order to relate the steam generator performance to the system operating parameters. Finally, the influence of the steam generator performance on the whole energy conversion system behavior is addressed, with particular care to the evaluation of the total power and efficiency variation with the combustion parameters.

  10. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  11. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  13. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  14. Development of generalised model for grate combustion of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, L.

    2007-02-15

    This project has been divided into two main parts, one of which has focused on modelling and one on designing and constructing a grate fired biomass test rig. The modelling effort has been defined due to a need for improved knowledge of the transport and conversion processes within the bed layer for two reasons: 1) to improve emission understanding and reduction measures and 2) to improve boundary conditions for CFD-based furnace modelling. The selected approach has been based on a diffusion coefficient formulation, where conservation equations for the concentration of fuel are solved in a spatially resolved grid, much in the same manner as in a finite volume CFD code. Within this porous layer of fuel, gas flows according to the Ergun equation. The diffusion coefficient links the properties of the fuel to the grate type and vibration mode, and is determined for each combination of fuel, grate and vibration mode. In this work, 3 grates have been tested as well as 4) types of fuel, drinking straw, wood beads, straw pellets and wood pellets. Although much useful information and knowledge has been obtained on transport processes in fuel layers, the model has proved to be less than perfect, and the recommendation is not to continue along this path. New visual data on the motion of straw on vibrating grates indicate that a diffusion governed motion does not very well represent the transport. Furthermore, it is very difficult to obtain the diffusion coefficient in other places than the surface layer of the grate, and it is not likely that this is representative for the motion within the layer. Finally, as the model complexity grows, model turnover time increases to a level where it is comparable to that of the full furnace model. In order to proceed and address the goals of the first paragraph, it is recommended to return to either a walking column approach or even some other, relatively simple method of prediction, and combine this with a form of randomness, to mimic the

  15. Analyzing a low NO[sub x] concentric combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Eremeev, A.V.

    1992-05-01

    Discusses concentric combustion technology developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA) to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from pulverized coal-fired boilers. The major innovation consists in arranging existing independent secondary air burners into three pairs of concentric combustion burners. Using high-deflection angle concentric combustion burners, higher oxygen concentration near the boiler walls, reduced erosion and lower probability of slag deposition on the heat shield are achieved. The technology was tested at the 165 MW Valmont power plant and 350 MW Cherokee power plant. Reduction of 55.7% (to 0.294 kg/GJ) in NO[sub x] emissions with a boiler efficiency of 86.35% was achieved. Highest NO[sub x] reduction efficiency was observed at full load (highest tertiary air supply). Burner design, performance, relations of NO[sub x] emissions and tertiary air blast as well as fuel entrainment prior to and after upgrading are given. Methods of reducing slag deposition in boilers are considered. 2 refs.

  16. Numerical study of influence of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen; Wang, Zhan-xue

    2015-01-01

    The atomization and combustion flowfield of the combustion chamber with swirl-nozzle were simulated using different biofuels; the thermodynamic cycle of the aircraft engine system were also analyzed, influences of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system were explored. Results show that viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting the atomization and combustion characteristics of biofuels, and then dominate the distribution of the temperature and NO concentration. Due to the characteristic of low viscosity and low caloric value for biofuels adopted, the biofuels accumulate near the head of combustion chamber, and the corresponding NO emission is lower than that it has for conventional kerosene. When biofuels with low caloric value are used under the operation condition which is same as the condition for the conventional kerosene, lower turbine inlet temperature, lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption would be achieved for the aircraft engine. - Highlights: • Influences of biofuels properties on combustion characteristic are explored. • Effects of biofuels on cycle parameters of aircraft engine are discussed. • Viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting combustion of biofuels. • NO emission becomes lower when biofuels with low caloric value is adopted. • The performance of aircraft engine becomes worse for biofuels with low caloric value.

  17. Setting up experimental incineration system for low-level radioactive samples and combustion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1997-01-01

    An incineration system was constructed which were composed of a combustion furnace (AP-150R), a cyclone dust collector, radioisotope trapping and measurement apparatus and a radioisotope storage room built in the first basement of the Radioisotope Center. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) used for the combustion experiment were composed of combustible material or semi-combustible material containing 500 kBq of 99m TcO 4 or 23.25 kBq of 131 INa. The distribution of radioisotopes both in the inside and outside of combustion furnace were estimated. We measured radioactivity of a smoke duct gas in terminal exit of the exhaust port. In case of combustion of LLRS containing 99m TcO 4 or 131 INa, concentration of radioisotopes at the exhaust port showed less than legal concentration limit of these radioisotopes. In cases of combustion of LLRS containing 99m TcO 4 or 131 INa, decontamination factors of the incineration system were 120 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  18. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  19. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  20. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  1. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  2. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative ... quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam- ... interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam ... coupled interferometer design.

  3. System for combustion of sunflower shells in industrial steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriev, Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an economically efficient solution for reconstruction of steam generators with steam production over 5 t/h using foregoing cyclone chamber for sunflower shells combustion. For average fuel caloricity 9 445 ccal/kg and sunflower shells caloricity between 3 485 and 3 750 ccal/kg, the petroleum saving is 68.78% for an average boiler efficiency 4.6 t/h steam

  4. Unsteady Motions in Combustion Chambers for Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    active in wind musical instruments. In all such cases, °ow separation is involved, followed by instability of a shear layer and formation of vortices... musical instruments. The idea that vortices might be responsible for oscillations in a solid propellant rocket seems to have been proposed ¯rst by...Combustion Oscillation in a Ducted Premixed Flame," Inst. Mech. Engineers, Int. Conf. on Comb. in Eng., Oxford, pp. 85{94. Campos -Delgado, D.V., Scheuermans

  5. Design of a High Intensity Turbulent Combustion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    mixing of the reactants in chemical reactors, boilers , furnaces and mixing of fuel and air in engines take place in turbulent flow. One of the most...determining flame speed. When a tube containing combustible mixture, the flame speed is the propagation speed of the flame front towards the unburned...stress criteria is effective when the material is ductile in nature. This stress theory is developed from the 44 ’distortion energy failure theory

  6. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  7. An innovative system for supplying air and fuel mixture to a combustion chamber of an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikumar, G. R. Bharath

    2018-04-01

    Conventional carburetors are being used since decades to ensure that the desired ratio of air and fuel enters the combustion chamber for combustion for the purpose of generating power in an Spark Ignition(SI) internal combustion engine. However to increase the efficiency, the carburetor system is gradually being replaced by fuel injection systems. Fuel injection systems use injectors to supply pressurized fuel into the combustion chamber. Owing to the high initial and maintenance cost, carburetors are still ruling in the low cost vehicle domain. An innovative concept is conceived, which is an alternative method to the carburetor system to supply the air and fuel mixture to a combustion chamber of an engine. This system comprises of an inner hollow cylinder with minute holes drilled along its length with an outer cylinder capable of sliding along its length or its longitudinal axis. This system is placed in the venturi instead of the conventional carburetor system. Fuel enters from the bottom inlet of the inner cylinder and flows out through the holes provided along its length. The fuel flow from the inner cylinder is dependent on the size and the number of holes exposed at that instance by the sliding outer cylinder which in turn is connected to the throttle or accelerator.

  8. On the formation of Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals by a novel system through microwave assisted combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinpur, Arman, E-mail: arman_hoseinpur@metaleng.iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaly, Maisam [Nanotechnology Department, School of New Technologies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bafghi, Mohammad Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki, Jalil Vahdati [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775-1111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This research is devoted to microwave assisted combustion synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles. The ternary system of MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C was used as a novel approach for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C in which the zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} was responsible for the combustion to take place. Results showed that the formation of Mo{sub 2}C was assisted by the zincothermic reaction, although further microwave heating up to 6 min was necessary to complete the reaction. The effects of the microwave heating and mechanical activation on the reaction progress were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction was used to examine the synthesis progress. Final products (Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO) were successfully separated from each other and the synthesized carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing the formation of Mo{sub 2}C hexagonal nanocrystals during combustion process. - Highlights: • Hexagonal β-Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. • MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C powder mixture was selected as the initial mixture for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C. • 30 min of mechanical activation was necessary for the carbide formation to be completed. • The zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} by Zn was responsible for the combustion. • The final products included of Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO in which ZnO was removed by acid leaching.

  9. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  10. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  11. Increased combustion stability in modulating biomass boilers for district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hermansson, Roger (eds.) [Lulea Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    One of the problems in small district heating systems is the large load variation that must be handled by the system. If the boiler is designed to cover the needs during the coldest day in winter time in northern Europe it would have to run at loads as low as 10% of full load during summer time, when heat is needed only for tap water production. Load variations in small networks are quite fast and earlier investigations have shown that existing biomass boilers give rise to large amounts of harmful emissions at fast load variations and at low loads. The problem has been addressed in different ways: Three new boiler concepts have been realized and tested: A prototype of a 500 kW boiler with partitioned primary combustion chamber and supplied with a water heat store. A 10 kW bench scale combustor and a 500 kW prototype boiler based on pulsating combustion. Bench scale boilers to test the influence from applied sound on emissions and a 150 kW prototype boiler with a two-stage secondary vortex combustion chamber. Development of control and regulating equipment: Glow Guard, a control system using infra-red sensors to detect glowing char on the grate, has been constructed and tested. A fast prediction model that can be used in control systems has been developed. Simulation of the combustion process: Code to simulate pyrolysis/gasification of fuel on the grate has been developed. Combustion of the gas phase inside the combustion chamber has been simulated. The two models have been combined to describe the combustion process inside the primary chamber of a prototype boiler. A fast simulation code based on statistical methods that can predict the environmental performance of boilers has been developed. One of the boiler concepts matches the desired load span from 10 to 100% of full load with emissions far below the set limits for CO and THC and close to the set limits for NO{sub x}. The other boilers had a bit more narrow load range, one with very low emissions except for NO

  12. Development of a high-pressure compaction system for non-combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogo, S.; Hata, T.; Torita, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Karita, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, nuclear power plants in Japan have been in search of a means to reduce the volume of non-combustible solid wastes and therefore the application of a high-pressure compaction system has been in demand. Most non-combustible solid wastes have been packed in 200-litre drums for storage and the situation requires a high-pressure compaction system designed exclusively for 200-litre drums. The authors have developed a high-pressure compaction system which compresses 200-litre drums filled with non-combustible solid wastes and packs them into new woo-litre drums efficiently. This paper reports the outline of this high-pressure compaction system and the results of the full-scale verification tests

  13. High Temperature Catalytic Combustion Suppports Final Report CRADA No. TSB-0841-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hair, Lucy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Magno, Scott [Catalytic Combustion Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    This Small Business CRADA between LLNL and Catalytica was executed on January 25, 1995. The total estimated cost of this project was 113K. LLNL's contribution was estimated at $50K funded under the DOE/Defense Program Small Business Initiative. Catalytica's in-kind contribution was estimated at 63K. Catalytic combusion catalyst systems operate at temperatures from 600°C to above 1300°C. Catalytica has developed technology that limits the catalyst temperature to below 1000°C. At temperatures in the range of 850 to 1000°C, the thermal stability of the catalyst is an important issue. Typical supports such as stabilized aluminas, hexaluminates, zirconia and stabilized zirconia supports are typically used but lack either thermal stability or other desirable properties. Catalytica had developed a new concept for thermally stable mixed oxide supports but this concept required the preparation of molecularly uniform precursors; that is, prior to high temperature treatment of these materials, the elements that make up the mixed oxide must be as nearly uniform as possible on a molecular level. The technique of sol gel processing appeared to be the preferred technique to make these molecularly uniform precursors, and a cooperative program with LLNL was established to prepare and test the proposed compounds. Catalytica proposed the composition and concentration levels for the materials to be prepared.

  14. Numerical model describing the heat transfer between combustion products and ventilation-system duct walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A package of physical models simulating the heat transfer processes occurring between combustion gases and ducts in ventilation systems is described. The purpose of the numerical model is to predict how the combustion gas in a system heats up or cools down as it flows through the ducts in a ventilation system under fire conditions. The model treats a duct with (forced convection) combustion gases flowing on the inside and stagnant ambient air on the outside. The model is composed of five submodels of heat transfer processes along with a numerical solution procedure to evaluate them. Each of these quantities is evaluated independently using standard correlations based on experimental data. The details of the physical assumptions, simplifications, and ranges of applicability of the correlations are described. A typical application of this model to a full-scale fire test is discussed, and model predictions are compared with selected experimental data

  15. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  16. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  17. Systematic design of an intra-cycle fueling control system for advanced diesel combustion concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kefalidis, L.

    2017-01-01

    This technical report presents a systematic approach for the design and development of an intra-cycle fueling control system for diesel combustion concepts. A high level system was developed and implemented on an experimental engine setup. Implementation and experimental validation are performed for

  18. SatisFactory Final System Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sunlight SA

    2018-01-01

    The present document is a deliverable of the SatisFactory project, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD), under its Horizon 2020 Research and innovation programme (H2020). The main objective of this deliverable is to report on the SatisFactory Final System Evaluation, with regards to the industrial pilots at COMAU and SUNLIGHT. The evaluation of SatisFactory platform is based on the implementation of the business scenarios where each tool...

  19. Analysis of Combustion Process in Industrial Gas Engine with Prechamber-Based Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Ślefarski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a pre-combustion chamber (PCC ignition system is one of the methods to improve combustion stability and reduce toxic compounds emission, especially NOx. Using PCC allows the operation of the engine at lean combustion conditions or the utilization of low calorific gaseous fuels such as syngas or biogas. The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the combustion process in two stroke, large bore, stationary gas engine GMVH 12 equipped with two spark plugs (2-SP and a PCC ignition system. The experimental research has been performed during the normal operation of the engine in an industrial compression station. It was observed that application of PCC provides less cycle-to-cycle combustion variation (more than 10% and nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions decreased to 60% and 26% respectively. The total hydrocarbon (THC emission rate is 25% higher for the engine equipped with PCC, which results in roughly two percent engine efficiency decrease. Another important criterion of engine retrofitting was the PCC location in the engine head. The experimental results show that improvement of engine operating parameters was recorded only for a configuration with one port offset by 45° from the axis of the main chamber. The study of the ignition delay angle and equivalence ratio in PCC did not demonstrate explicit influence on engine performance.

  20. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  1. System analysis of environmental impacts of the combustion of waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanterae, R.

    1996-01-01

    Combustion alternatives of different waste paper grades that are unsuitable or difficult to recycle were studied. Environmental impacts of alternative methods of waste paper treatment - combustion, dump disposal and use for fibre raw material - were studied with the aid of system analysis. Use of waste paper for energy production is usually recommended when there is oversupply of waste paper or it is unsuitable for recycled pulp. On the basis of certain studies it has also been suggested that it would be most profitable to use all waste paper as fuel. Refused tight paper rolls, baled brown paper and a mixture of adhesive paper and crushed building waste wood were chosen for waste paper in the combustion tests. The tests were run in the fluidised-bed combustion boiler of Maentaen Energia Oy. The mass flow of paper was about 3 t/h and its proportion of the fuel efficiency on average 20%. Prior to each paper combustion test, a blank trial was run with pure peat. The combustion tests indicated that flue gas emissions are not reduced by using paper instead of peat for energy production, but their composition is changed slightly. When the environmental effects of the use of waste paper for energy were compared with those of landfill dumping, the most significant difference was a reduction in greenhouse gases. The amount of methane emitted from the landfill will reduce. Differences in other emissions, e.g., in acidification due to SO 2 and NO 2 emissions, were rather small. The amount of solid waste was significantly lower in the combustion alternative. (38 refs.)

  2. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  3. The influence of design and fuel parameters on the particle emissions from wood pellets combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Gebart, Rikard [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of solid biomass under fixed bed conditions is a common technique to generate heat and power in both small and large scale grate furnaces (domestic boilers, stoves, district heating plants). Unfortunately, combustion of biomass will generate particle emissions containing both large fly ash particles and fine particles that consist of fly ash and soot. The large fly ash particles have been produced from fusion of non-volatile ash-forming species in burning char particle. The inorganic fine particles have been produced from nucleation of volatilised ash elements (K, Na, S, Cl and Zn). If the combustion is incomplete, soot particles are also produced from secondary reaction of tar. The particles in the fine fraction grows by coagulation and coalescence to a particle diameter around 0.1 pm. Since the smallest particles are very hard to collect in ordinary cleaning devices they contribute to the ambient air pollution. Furthermore, fine airborne particles have been correlated to adverse effects on the human health. It is therefore essential to minimize particle formation from the combustion process and thereby reduce the emissions of particulates to the ambient air. The aim with this project is to study particle emissions from small scale combustion of wood pellets and to investigate the impact of different operating, construction and fuel parameters on the amount and characteristic of the combustion generated particles. To address these issues, experiments were carried out in a 10 kW updraft fired wood pellets reactor that has been custom designed for systematic investigations of particle emissions. In the flue gas stack, particle emissions were sampled on a filter. The particle mass and number size distributions were analysed by a low pressure cascade impactor and a SMPS (Scanning Electron Mobility Particle Sizer). The results showed that the temperature and the flow pattern in the combustion zone affect the particle emissions. Increasing combustion

  4. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Hansen, Craig N.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve Timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multifuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this final report.

  5. Membrane Systems Engineering for Post-combustion Carbon Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali; Khalilpour, Rajab; Abbas, Ali; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a strategy for optimal design of hollow fiber membrane networks for post combustion carbon capture from power plant multicomponent flue gas. A mathematical model describing multicomponent gas permeation through a separation membrane was customized into the flowsheet modeling package ASPEN PLUS. An N-stage membrane network superstructure was defined considering all possible flowsheeting configurations. An optimization formulation was then developed and solved using an objective function that minimizes the costs associated with operating and capital expenses. For a case study of flue gas feed flow rate of 298 m3/s with 13% CO2 and under defined economic parameters, the optimization resulted in the synthesis of a membrane network structure consisting of two stages in series. This optimal design was found while also considering feed and permeate pressures as well as recycle ratios between stages. The cost of carbon capture for this optimal membrane network is estimated to be $28 per tonne of CO2 captured, considering a membrane permeance of 1000 GPU and membrane selectivity of 50. Following this approach, a reduction in capture cost to less than $20 per tonne CO2 captured is possible if membranes with permeance of 2000 GPU and selectivity higher than 70 materialize.

  6. Membrane Systems Engineering for Post-combustion Carbon Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2013-08-05

    This study proposes a strategy for optimal design of hollow fiber membrane networks for post combustion carbon capture from power plant multicomponent flue gas. A mathematical model describing multicomponent gas permeation through a separation membrane was customized into the flowsheet modeling package ASPEN PLUS. An N-stage membrane network superstructure was defined considering all possible flowsheeting configurations. An optimization formulation was then developed and solved using an objective function that minimizes the costs associated with operating and capital expenses. For a case study of flue gas feed flow rate of 298 m3/s with 13% CO2 and under defined economic parameters, the optimization resulted in the synthesis of a membrane network structure consisting of two stages in series. This optimal design was found while also considering feed and permeate pressures as well as recycle ratios between stages. The cost of carbon capture for this optimal membrane network is estimated to be $28 per tonne of CO2 captured, considering a membrane permeance of 1000 GPU and membrane selectivity of 50. Following this approach, a reduction in capture cost to less than $20 per tonne CO2 captured is possible if membranes with permeance of 2000 GPU and selectivity higher than 70 materialize.

  7. Natural gas reburning technology for NOx reduction from MSW combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penterson, C.A.; Abbasi, H.; Khinkis, M.J.; Wakamura, Y.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A technology for reducing emissions from municipal solid waste combustion systems through advanced combustion techniques is being developed. Pilot testing of natural gas reburning was first performed in the Institute of Gas Technology's pilot-scale furnace under conditions simulating the firing of 1.7 x 10 6 Btu/hr (0.5 MWth) of MSW. Pilot testing then continued in Riley Stoker Corporation's 3 x 10 6 Btu/hr (0.88 MWth), 7 ton/day, pilot-scale MSW combustor using actual MSW in both test series, injection of up to 15% (HHV basis) natural gas reduced NO, by 50--70% while maintaining or improving combustion efficiency as measured by CO and hydrocarbon emissions and temperature stability. This paper will review the test results and discuss the status of the full-scale field demonstration testing that is planned for 1990

  8. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  9. Co-combustion of cultivable raw materials in existing power supply plants -a study on the potential for such plants in the eastern Laender. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, W.; Kappelmann, K.H.

    1996-04-01

    The present study is dedicated to an analysis of co-combustion of biomass in existing power supply plants in the eastern Laender. The question to be resolved is whether the existing substantial potential for substituting fossil energy carriers for biomass in the short term and at low cost also offers a viable option from the viewpoint of political economy. In its final assessment the study also takes agropolitical and ecopolitical interests into account. A further basic question posed by this impact analysis is in what way the increased use of biomass as an energy carrier can contribute to farmers; income and thus help improve employment in rural area. Implicated in this is the question whether the conservation of developed land resulting from large-area biomass cultivation is desirable from the sociopolitical viewpoint. Another important aspect concerning the impact analysis is the question as to the environmental efficiency of biomass co-combustion given the Federal Government's aims regarding CO 2 abatement. The study examines how biomas co-combustion compares with other alternatives to this end in terms of CO 2 abatement costs. These deliberations provide the basis for the study's concluding recommendations to political decision makers who are confronted with the question whether and under what conditions public promotion of biomass co-combustion in the new Laender makes sociopolitical sense. (orig./SR) [de

  10. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  11. Pilot-scale incineration testing of an oxygen-enhanced combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterland, L.R.; Lee, J.W.; Staley, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System performed under the Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. This system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a hazardous coal tar waste (decanter tank tar sludge form coking operations - K087). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was tested. Test results show that compliance with the hazardous waste incinerator performance standards of 99.99 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7 percent O 2 was achieved for all tests. The Pyretron oxygen-enhanced combustion system allowed in-compliance operation at double the mixed waste feedrate possible with conventional incineration, and with a 60 percent increase in charge weight than possible with conventional incineration

  12. PARTITIONING OF THE REFRACTORY METALS, NICKEL AND CHROMIUM, IN COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning of nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) in combustion systems was investigated theoretically and experimentally. In comparison to other volatile and semi-volatile metals, both Ni and Cr are usually considered to be refractory (non-volatile). Theoretical predictions ba...

  13. An experimental and theoretical investigation of a fuel system tuner for the suppression of combustion driven oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, David E.

    Manufacturers of commercial, power-generating, gas turbine engines continue to develop combustors that produce lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) in order to meet the environmental standards of governments around the world. Lean, premixed combustion technology is one technique used to reduce NOx emissions in many current power and energy generating systems. However, lean, premixed combustors are susceptible to thermo-acoustic oscillations, which are pressure and heat-release fluctuations that occur because of a coupling between the combustion process and the natural acoustic modes of the system. These pressure oscillations lead to premature failure of system components, resulting in very costly maintenance and downtime. Therefore, a great deal of work has gone into developing methods to prevent or eliminate these combustion instabilities. This dissertation presents the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel Fuel System Tuner (FST) used to damp detrimental combustion oscillations in a gas turbine combustor by changing the fuel supply system impedance, which controls the amplitude and phase of the fuel flowrate. When the FST is properly tuned, the heat release oscillations resulting from the fuel-air ratio oscillations damp, rather than drive, the combustor acoustic pressure oscillations. A feasibility study was conducted to prove the validity of the basic idea and to develop some basic guidelines for designing the FST. Acoustic models for the subcomponents of the FST were developed, and these models were experimentally verified using a two-microphone impedance tube. Models useful for designing, analyzing, and predicting the performance of the FST were developed and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the FST. Experimental tests showed that the FST reduced the acoustic pressure amplitude of an unstable, model, gas-turbine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions and combustor configurations. Finally, combustor

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Sipeng; Deng, Kangyao; Qu, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system especially for turbocharged engines is proposed to improve the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. Simplified recovery processes can be described as follows: superheated steam generated by engine waste heat is injected into the pipe before the turbine to increase the boost pressure of the fresh air; intake valve close timing is adjusted to control the amount of fresh air as the original level, and thus the higher pressure charged air expands in the intake stroke and transfers the pressure energy directly to the crankshaft. In this way, the increased turbine output by the pre-turbine steam injection is finally recovered in the cylinder, which is different from the traditional Rankine cycle. The whole energy transfer processes are studied with thermodynamic analyses and numerical simulations. The results show that the mass flow rate of the injected steam has the biggest influence on the energy transfer processes followed by the temperature of the injected steam. With this in-cylinder waste heat recovery system, the fuel economy of a selected turbocharged diesel engine can be improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point when the injected mass flow ratio is set to be 0.1. - Highlights: • An in-cylinder waste heat recovery system is proposed. • Effects of injected parameters are studied with energy and exergy balance theories. • Variations of operating points on the compressor map are studied in detail. • The fuel economy is improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point

  15. Combustion Property Analysis and Control System for the Dynamics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding to global environment problems in recent year, the technology for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission of engine was needed. Simulation of transient engine response is needed to predict engine performance that frequently experience rapid changes of speed. The aim of this research is to develop a non-linear dynamic control model for direct injection single cylinder diesel engine which can simulate engine performance under transient conditions. In this paper, the combustion model with multistage injection and conducted experiments in the transient conditions to clarify the combustion characteristics was proposed. In order to perform the analysis of acceleration operation characteristics, it was built a Model Predictive Control (MPC to reproduce the characteristic values of the exhaust gas and fuel consumption from the control parameters in particular. Finally, MPC is an effective method to perform the analysis of characteristic in diesel engine under transient conditions.

  16. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  17. Development of a syngas-fired catalytic combustion system for hybrid solar-thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mayank; Pramanik, Santanu; Ravikrishna, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Syngas-fired combustor concept as hybrid heat source for solar thermal application. • Experimental characterization of catalytic combustor under fuel-rich conditions. • Stable operation, quick startup, and high turn-down ratio demonstrated. • Reacting flow CFD simulations of single channel of catalytic monolith. - Abstract: This paper describes the development and operation of a catalytic combustion system for use with syngas as an important component of a hybrid heating source for solar-thermal power generation. The reactor consists of a cylindrical ceramic monolith with porous alumina washcoat in which platinum is distributed as the catalyst. Two fuel-rich equivalence ratios were studied over a range of flow rates. The fuel-rich conditions permit low temperature combustion without the problem of hotspots likely to occur under fuel-lean conditions with hydrogen-containing fuels. Experimental data of temperature and species concentration at the exit of the reactor have been reported for a maximum fuel thermal input of 34 kW. The system exhibited quick start-up with a light-off time of around 60 s and a steady-state time of around 200 s as determined from the transient temperature profiles. The experimental results have also been complemented with detailed two-dimensional numerical simulations for improved understanding of the combustion characteristics in the reactor. The simulations suggest that the combustion system can be operated at a turn-down ratios far in excess of 1.67, which is the maximum value that has been investigated in the present setup. Stable operation, quick startup, and high turn-down ratio are some of the key features that enable the proposed combustion system to accommodate the transients in solar-thermal applications.

  18. The application of zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system to coal boilers for efficiency improvement and emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang; Zhou, Wei; Widmer, Neil C.; Moyeda, David K. [GE Energy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO{sub x} Burner (LNB) and Overfire Air (OFA) are challenged with maintaining good combustion conditions. In many cases, the significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned carbon levels can be attributed to local poor combustion conditions as a result of poorly controlled fuel-air distribution within the furnace. The Zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system developed by GE is available to detect and correct the furnace air-fuel distribution imbalance. The system monitors the boiler excess oxygen (O{sub 2}) and combustible gases, primarily carbon monoxide (CO), by using spatially distributed multipoint sensors located in the boiler's high temperature upper convective backpass region. At these locations, the furnace flow is still significantly stratified allowing tracing of poor combustion zones to specific burners and OFA ports. Using a model-based tuning system, operators can rapidly respond to poor combustion conditions by redistributing airflows to select burners and OFA ports. By improving combustion at every point within the furnace, the boiler can operate at reduced excess O{sub 2} and reduced furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) while also reducing localized hot spots, corrosive gas conditions, slag formation, and carbon-in-ash. Benefits include improving efficiency, reducing NO{sub X} emissions, increasing output and maximizing availability. This chapter presents the results from implementing the Zonal combustion monitoring and tuning system on a 460 MW tangential-fired coal boiler in the Western United States.

  19. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATED HIGH TEMPERATURE MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT MULTIMODE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  20. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new

  1. A stochastic logical system approach to model and optimal control of cyclic variation of residual gas fraction in combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuhu; Kumar, Madan; Shen, Tielong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An in-cylinder pressure based measuring method for the RGF is derived. • A stochastic logical dynamical model is proposed to represent the transient behavior of the RGF. • The receding horizon controller is designed to reduce the variance of the RGF. • The effectiveness of the proposed model and control approach is validated by the experimental evidence. - Abstract: In four stroke internal combustion engines, residual gas from the previous cycle is an important factor influencing the combustion quality of the current cycle, and the residual gas fraction (RGF) is a popular index to monitor the influence of residual gas. This paper investigates the cycle-to-cycle transient behavior of the RGF in the view of systems theory and proposes a multi-valued logic-based control strategy for attenuation of RGF fluctuation. First, an in-cylinder pressure sensor-based method for measuring the RGF is provided by following the physics of the in-cylinder transient state of four-stroke internal combustion engines. Then, the stochastic property of the RGF is examined based on statistical data obtained by conducting experiments on a full-scale gasoline engine test bench. Based on the observation of the examination, a stochastic logical transient model is proposed to represent the cycle-to-cycle transient behavior of the RGF, and with the model an optimal feedback control law, which targets on rejection of the RGF fluctuation, is derived in the framework of stochastic logical system theory. Finally, experimental results are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and the control strategy.

  2. Combustion Control System Design of Diesel Engine via ASPR based Output Feedback Control Strategy with a PFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Tsunematsu, Junpei; Fujii, Seiya

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a design method of an output feedback control system with a simple feedforward input for a combustion model of diesel engine will be proposed based on the almost strictly positive real-ness (ASPR-ness) of the controlled system for a combustion control of diesel engines. A parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) design scheme which renders the resulting augmented controlled system ASPR will also be proposed in order to design a stable output feedback control system for the considered combustion model. The effectiveness of our proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  3. Sensors Based Measurement Techniques of Fuel Injection and Ignition Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in DI Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative sensor based measurement techniques like needle lift sensor, photo (optical sensor and piezoresistive pressure transmitter are introduced and used to measure the injection and combustion characteristics in direct injection combustion system. Present experimental study is carried out in the constant volume combustion chamber to study the ignition, combustion and injection characteristics of the solid cone diesel fuel sprays impinging on the hot surface. Hot surface ignition approach has been used to create variety of advanced combustion systems. In the present study, the hot surface temperatures were varied from 623 K to 723 K. The cylinder air pressures were 20, 30 and 40 bar and fuel injection pressures were 100, 200 and 300 bar. It is found that ignition delay of fuel sprays get reduced with the rise in injection pressure. The ignition characteristics of sprays much less affected at high fuel injection pressures and high surface temperatures. The fuel injection duration reduces with the increase in fuel injection pressures. The rate of heat release becomes high at high injection pressures and it decreases with the increase in injection duration. It is found that duration of burn/combustion decrease with the increase in injection pressure. The use of various sensors is quite effective, reliable and accurate in measuring the various fuel injection and combustion characteristics. The study simulates the effect of fuel injection system parameters on combustion performance in large heavy duty engines.

  4. Adaptive system of supplying lubricant to the internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barylnikova, E. P.; Kulakov, A. T.; Kulakov, O. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper assesses the impact of reducing the pressure in the lubrication system on the failures of the crankshaft bearings. The method of adapting lubricating system of the diesel engine as the wear in operation and depending on the operation modes.

  5. Exhaust gas purifying system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, H; Saito, Z

    1976-10-07

    The exhaust gas purification system is a so-called three-way catalytic converter. It consists of an oxidation converter, a reduction converter, or a thermal converter. An exhaust sensor made up of an oxygen sensor, a carbon sensor, a carbon monoxide sensor, hydrocarbon sensor, or a nitrogen peroxide sensor, tests the composition of the exhaust and controls the air-fuel feed system in dependence of the exhaust mixture in such a manner that in the intake system an air-fuel mixture is taken in which the stoichiometric air-fuel relation is produced. Moreover, a thermostatically controlled air intake device is built into the fuel injection system which supplies the air of the fuel injection system with a relatively consistent temperature.

  6. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fifth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. The use of multiple trees and periodic tree dumping was investigated. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry was finished for serial applications. Validation of the model on a backstep reacting case was performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment were performed for various barrel lengths, equivalence ratio, combustor shapes, and turbulence models. The effects of these variables on combustion instability was studied. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. Next quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting will be held at CFDRC. LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, should be accomplished

  7. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  8. Analysis of the Impact Caused by Coherent Structures in Swirling Flow Combustion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the technologies used in the energy and propulsion generation for the reduction of emissions, the use of swirling flows has demonstrated its high performance in anchoring the flame inside of the combustion systems. This, added to the use of premixing in the pre-chambers, has created one of the most innovative methods for the reduction of highly polluting particles such as NOx. However, the lack of understanding of these flows makes it necessary to increase the research on the topic in order to clarify themes as complex as the role of the coherent structures inside of the system. This paper explains some of the phenomena produced by some of the coherent structures observed in the system. The results showed the existence of complex Recirculation Zones (RZ, Precessing Vortex Core (PVC and Combustion Induced Vortex Breakdown (CIVB.

  9. Combustion reaction of Ti–Al–C–N system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Materials and Chemical Engineering School, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007, Henan, ... compounds in Ti–Al–C–N system was discussed as follows. ... tion, we can observe the crack propagation in the micrograph.

  10. Biomass Power Generation through Direct Integration of Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Houng Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the largest renewable energy source in the world. Its importance grows gradually in the future energy market. Since most biomass sources are low in energy density and are widespread in space, small-scale biomass conversion system is therefore more competitive than a large stand-alone conversion plant. The current study proposes a small-scale solid biomass power system to explore the viability of direct coupling of an updraft fixed bed gasifier with a Stirling engine. The modified updraft fixed bed gasifier employs an embedded combustor inside the gasifier to fully combust the synthetic gas generated by the gasifier. The flue gas produced by the synthetic gas combustion inside the combustion tube is piped directly to the heater head of the Stirling engine. The engine will then extract and convert the heat contained in the flue gas into electricity automatically. Output depends on heat input. And, the heat input is proportional to the flow rate and temperature of the flue gas. The preliminary study of the proposed direct coupling of an updraft gasifier with a 25 kW Stirling engine demonstrates that full power output could be produced by the current system. It could be found from the current investigation that no auxiliary fuel is required to operate the current system smoothly. The proposed technology and units could be considered as a viable solid biomass power system.

  11. Modelling the effects of heat loss and fuel/air mixing on turbulent combustion in gas turbine combustion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gövert, S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development and validation of a simulation framework for the accurate prediction of turbulent reacting flows at reduced computational costs. Therefore, a combustion model based on the tabulation of laminar premixed flamelets is employed. By compilation of

  12. Shock tube study of the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with combustion species and pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.; Koffend, J.B.

    1998-02-01

    Shock heating t-butyl hydroperoxide behind a reflected shock wave has proved to be as a convenient source of hydroxyl radicals at temperatures near 1000 K. We applied this technique to the measurement of reaction rate coefficients of OH with several species of interest in combustion chemistry, and developed a thermochemical kinetics/transition state theory (TK-TST) model for predicting the temperature dependence of OH rate coefficients.

  13. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  14. Development of Final Running Test System for Digital Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Lee, Eui-Jong; Lim, Hee-Taek; Kim, Min-Seok

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear industry, the newly designed systems to upgrade are qualified to meet IEEE standards and the regulatory guidelines for their functions, performance and reliability requirements. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Hazard Analysis have been used to improve the reliability of the control system. To ensure the completeness of the software, the verification and validation processes are carried out during the development process. In spite of the many efforts depending on the analysis and procedures, there are limitations to improve the reliability. The lessons learned from the currently installed system failures show the incompleteness of the final integration test. The current point-to-point and logic-to-logic separate test procedures manually performed by the engineers can cause some procedures missed and have effects on the critical functions. The design processes of the digital systems are met in accordance with the international standards and regulatory guidelines. The lessons learned from the failures of the running digital systems showed the limitations of the current verification and validation efforts. The various improvements and attempts have been considered including the expert review processes and the completeness of the test. In this paper, the Final Running Test Method evaluating the completeness of the digital system using the control patterns and the Test System Architecture are proposed

  15. Development of Final Running Test System for Digital Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Lee, Eui-Jong; Lim, Hee-Taek; Kim, Min-Seok [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In nuclear industry, the newly designed systems to upgrade are qualified to meet IEEE standards and the regulatory guidelines for their functions, performance and reliability requirements. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Hazard Analysis have been used to improve the reliability of the control system. To ensure the completeness of the software, the verification and validation processes are carried out during the development process. In spite of the many efforts depending on the analysis and procedures, there are limitations to improve the reliability. The lessons learned from the currently installed system failures show the incompleteness of the final integration test. The current point-to-point and logic-to-logic separate test procedures manually performed by the engineers can cause some procedures missed and have effects on the critical functions. The design processes of the digital systems are met in accordance with the international standards and regulatory guidelines. The lessons learned from the failures of the running digital systems showed the limitations of the current verification and validation efforts. The various improvements and attempts have been considered including the expert review processes and the completeness of the test. In this paper, the Final Running Test Method evaluating the completeness of the digital system using the control patterns and the Test System Architecture are proposed.

  16. Air to fuel ratio sensor for internal combustion engine control system; Nainen kikan no nensho seigyoyo kunen hi sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, M.; Kawai, T.; Yamada, T.; Nishio [NGK Spark Plug Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Air to fuel ratio sensor is used for emission control system of three-way catalyst, and constitutes the important functional part of combustion control system. For further precise combustion control application, universal air to fuel ratio heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO sensor) has been developed. This paper introduces heater control system for constant element temperature of UEGO sensor. By the heater wattage feedback control of sensing cell impedance, the change of sensor element temperature is decreased. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Automatic Control and Data Acquisition System for Combustion Laboratory Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    O VPI Access~.ion FCr- 1473 2 UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution unlimited JAutomatic Control and Data Acquisition System for...unit. The CPU/ROK board includes a 16 bit microprocessor chip which decodes and executes all in- structions, and controls all data transfers. The 12K...in the limited memory space of 32K of the HP-85 33 ACQDTA’ 1) Controls DevicesCRAIN ,2) Acquires Photodiods Output$ 3) Stores Data o Disc 1

  18. Waste heat recovery systems for internal combustion engines: classification and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko, A.; Samoilenko, D.; Adel Hamzah, Ali; Adel Hamzah, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Recent trend about the best ways of using the deployable sources of energy in to useful work in order to reduce the rate of consumption of fossil fuel as well as pollution. Out of all the available sources, the internal combustion engines are the major consumer of fossil fuel around the globe. The remaining heat is expelled to the environment through exhaust gases and engine cooling systems, resulting in to entropy rise and serious environmental pollution, so it is required to utilized waste ...

  19. The combustion system of the MAN 20V35/44G gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Markus; Auer, Matthias; Stiesch, Gunnnar [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The new gas engine 20V35/44G by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE has a power output of 10.6 MW. The high effective efficiency level of 48.4 % as well as numerous technical innovations allow an environmentally-friendly, economical and reliable engine operation. Key to achieve this is the combustion system, which has been optimised during advanced engineering by means of modern simulation tools and extensive single-cylinder tests. (orig.)

  20. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; Hinman, M.B.; Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K.

    1997-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems

  1. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  2. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  3. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit

  4. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong H.; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-11-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the tube bundle comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the upstream and downstream surfaces. A plurality of tubes extends through the tube bundle from the upstream surface through the downstream surface, wherein the downstream surface is stepped to produce tubes having different lengths through the tube bundle. A method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through a plurality of tubes radially arranged between an upstream surface and a downstream surface of an end cap that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the downstream surface is stepped.

  5. Risk analysis of highly combustible gas storage, supply, and distribution systems in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.P.; VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen distribution configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen distribution system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement

  6. Construction of a power plant with prototype DLN combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.L. [CSW Energy, Dallas, TX (United States); Drummond, L.J. [Zurn NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Design and construction of a power plant is always a difficult process and this is especially true when the main keystone, the combustion turbine engine, is being modified by the manufacturer resulting in numerous changes in the design interfaces. The development of the design and construction of the Orange Cogeneration Facility has been in parallel with major modification of the LM6000 to DLE technology (a Dry Low NO{sub x} combustion system). The Dry Low NO{sub x} Combustion System for a combustion turbine offered a means to reduce water usage, lower Zero Liquid Discharge System operating costs and reduce emissions to meet Florida Department of Environmental Protection requirements. This development was successfully accomplished by Owner, EPC contractor and Combustion Turbine Manufacturer by maintaining flexibility in the design and construction while the design interfaces and performance of the combustion turbines were being finalized.

  7. Design of the combustion system for the SGT5-8000H and first experiences in the Irsching power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huth, Michael; Gruschka, Uwe; Janus, Bertram; Meisl, Juergen [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Wasif, Sam [Siemens Power Generation Inc., Energy Sector, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The lean premixed combustion system for the new SGT5-8000H 50Hz H-class engine was scaled from the smaller Siemens 60Hz F-class engine. The paper describes the combustion system in more details and the testing methodology including six sigma approaches. First experiences with SGT5-8000H Prototype-Engine in the Irsching power plant are summarised. (orig.)

  8. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS)

  9. Chromatic correction for the final transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Peterson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The final transport and focusing of the heavy-ion beam onto the fusion pellet in vacuum is complicated by several non-linear effects - namely, chromatic (momentum dependent) effects, geometric aberrations, and space-charge forces. This paper gives an example of how the chromatic effects can be nullified, at least to second order. Whether third- or higher-order terms are important is not yet clear. Space-charge effects are important but are not considered here

  10. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-10-13

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides.

  11. LANL environmental restoration site ranking system: System description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, L.; Kann, A.; Voth, M.

    1992-01-01

    The basic structure of the LANL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Ranking System and its use are described in this document. A related document, Instructions for Generating Inputs for the LANL ER Site Ranking System, contains detailed descriptions of the methods by which necessary inputs for the system will be generated. LANL has long recognized the need to provide a consistent basis for comparing the risks and other adverse consequences associated with the various waste problems at the Lab. The LANL ER Site Ranking System is being developed to help address this need. The specific purpose of the system is to help improve, defend, and explain prioritization decisions at the Potential Release Site (PRS) and Operable Unit (OU) level. The precise relationship of the Site Ranking System to the planning and overall budget processes is yet to be determined, as the system is still evolving. Generally speaking, the Site Ranking System will be used as a decision aid. That is, the system will be used to aid in the planning and budgetary decision-making process. It will never be used alone to make decisions. Like all models, the system can provide only a partial and approximate accounting of the factors important to budget and planning decisions. Decision makers at LANL will have to consider factors outside of the formal system when making final choices. Some of these other factors are regulatory requirements, DOE policy, and public concern. The main value of the site ranking system, therefore, is not the precise numbers it generates, but rather the general insights it provides

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

  13. Droplet evaporation and combustion in a liquid-gas multiphase system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradoglu, Metin; Irfan, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Droplet evaporation and combustion in a liquid-gas multiphase system are studied computationally using a front-tracking method. One field formulation is used to solve the flow, energy and species equations with suitable jump conditions. Both phases are assumed to be incompressible; however, the divergence-free velocity field condition is modified to account for the phase change at the interface. Both temperature and species gradient driven phase change processes are simulated. Extensive validation studies are performed using the benchmark cases: The Stefan and the sucking interface problems, d2 law and wet bulb temperature comparison with the psychrometric chart values. The phase change solver is then extended to incorporate the burning process following the evaporation as a first step towards the development of a computational framework for spray combustion. We used detailed chemistry, variable transport properties and ideal gas behaviour for a n-heptane droplet combustion; the chemical kinetics being handled by the CHEMKIN. An operator-splitting approach is used to advance temperature and species mass fraction in time. The numerical results of the droplet burning rate, flame temperature and flame standoff ratio show good agreement with the experimental and previous numeric.

  14. Formation Mechanism of Spherical TiC in Ni-Ti-C System during Combustion Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoliang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Chuanbao; Pan, Weitao; Huang, Haijun; Du, Dafan; Wang, Donghong; Shu, Da; Dong, Anping; Sun, Baode; Jiang, Sheng; Pu, Yilong

    2017-08-29

    The formation mechanism of TiC particles in a Ni-Ti-C system were revealed by using differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, and SEM to identify the reaction products in different temperature ranges. The results indicated that the synthesis mechanism of TiC in Ni-Ti-C system was complex; several reactions were involved in the combustion synthesis of TiC-Ni composite. The Ni-Ti intermediate phases play important roles during the formation of TiC. Moreover, the influence of heating rate on the size range of TiC was also discussed.

  15. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  16. Two-dimensional quantification of soot and flame-soot interaction in spray combustion at elevated pressures - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T.

    2008-07-15

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell near top dead centre conditions typically found in a Diesel engine. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 MPa and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 MPa and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 ms and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions, gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.4 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 ms and 16 ms after start of injection, irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  17. Photovoltaic systems concept study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The work performed in the conceptual design and systems analysis of three sizes of photovoltaic solar electric power systems is contained in five volumes consisting of nine sections plus appendices. Separate abstracts were prepared for the two sections in this volume. (MHR)

  18. Experimental and Numerical Study of Jet Controlled Compression Ignition on Combustion Phasing Control in Diesel Premixed Compression Ignition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhang; Wuqiang Long; Jiangping Tian; Yicong Wang; Xiangyu Meng

    2014-01-01

    In order to directly control the premixed combustion phasing, a Jet Controlled Compression Ignition (JCCI) for diesel premixed compression ignition systems is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder natural aspirated diesel engine without EGR at 3000 rpm. Numerical models were validated by load sweep experiments at fixed spark timing. Detailed combustion characteristics were analyzed based on the BMEP of 2.18 bar. The simulation results showed that the high temperature j...

  19. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator impact on the efficiency of a drive system with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziolkowski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the combustion engine drive systems efficiency is currently being achieved by structural changes in internal combustion engines and its equipment, which are geared towards limiting mechanical, thermal and outlet losses. For this reason, downsizing. In addition to these changes, all manner of exhaust gas energy recovery systems are being investigated and implemented, including turbocompound, turbogenerators and thermoelectric generators. The article presents the author’s idea of a thermoelectric generator system of automotive applications ATEG (Automotive Thermoelectric Generator and the study of the recovery of exhaust gas energy stream. The ATEG consists of a heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and a cooling system. In this solution, 24 commercial thermoelectric modules based on Bi2Te3 (bismuth telluride were used. Measurements were made at two engine test sites on which SI and CI engines were installed. The exhaust gas parameters (temperature and mass flow rate, fuel consumption and operating parameters of the ATEG – the intensity and the voltage generated by the thermoelectric modules and the temperature on the walls of the heat exchanger – were all measured in the experiments. Based on the obtained results, the exhaust gas energy flow and the power of the ATEG were determined as well as its effect on the diesel engine drive system efficiency.

  20. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  1. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  2. SIMULACIÓN BIDIMENSIONAL DE UN SISTEMA DE COMBUSTIÓN INESTABLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF AN UNSTABLE COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Achury Varila

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad en la combustión es una condición indeseada en algunos sistemas de combustión como en turbinas de gas por ejemplo. Se refiere a la presencia autogenerada de oscilaciones en la presión que pueden afectar a la cámara de combustión y de paso llegar a generar ruido. Una reciente tendencia generalizada en los procesos de combustión apunta al uso de mezclas pobres para la reducción de contaminantes, no obstante que este tipo de mezclas son más susceptibles a la inestabilidad en la combustión. Las complicadas relaciones que gobiernan el fenómeno se pueden resumir como el acoplamiento entre la llama y la acústica del sistema. En el presente trabajo se presenta un planteamiento numérico que permite aproximarse al fenómeno a través de la solución de un modelo de combustión básico implementado computacionalmente. En este modelo se simula una autoexcitación del sistema a través de oscilaciones en la entrada de flujos de reactantes. Finalmente, se comparan los resultados de la simulación numérica con otras simulaciones y datos experimentales.The Combustion instability is an undesirable condition reached in some combustion systems, as during the operation of gas turbines. It refers to self-excited oscillations of pressure that may affect the combustion chamber and generate noise. A recent generalized tendency in combustion processes aims to the use of lean combustion (low fuel/air ratios for pollutants reduction, nevertheless this sort of mixtures are more susceptible to combustion instabilities. The complex relationship that generates the phenomenon can be summarized as the coupling between flame and acoustics. In this paper it is outlined a numerical approach to this phenomenon by solving a basic computational combustion model (by Direct Numerical Simulation. In this model a self-excited system is simulated through imposed oscillations in reactants flows. Finally, results for this numerical simulation are compared

  3. Solar radiation alert system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  4. Intelligent Transportation Systems statewide architecture : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the development of Kentuckys Statewide Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Architecture. The process began with the development of an ITS Strategic Plan in 1997-2000. A Business Plan, developed in 2000-2001, translated t...

  5. Traffic Management Systems Performance Measurement: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.

  6. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  7. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  8. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  9. Final report on the FMIT Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The computer control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) prototype accelerator was designed using distributed intelligence driven by a distributed database. The system consists of two minicomputers in the central control room and four microcomputers residing in CAMAC crates located near appropriate subsystems of the accelerator. The system uses single vendor hardware as much as practical in an attempt to minimize the maintenance problems. Local control consoles are an integral part of each node computer to provide subsystem check-out. The main console is located in the central control room and permits one-point operation of the complete control system. Automatic surveillance is provided for each data channel by the node computer with out-of-bounds alarms sent to the main console. Report by exception is used for data logging. This control system has been operational for two years. The computers are too heavily loaded and the operator response is slower than desired. A system upgrade to a faster local-area network has been undertaken and is scheduled to be operational by conference time

  10. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  11. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  12. From orbital debris capture systems through internal combustion engines on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and conceptualization of an orbital debris collector was the primary area of design. In addition, an alternate structural design for Space Station Freedom and systems supporting resource utilization at Mars and the moon were studied. Hardware for production of oxygen from simulate Mars atmosphere was modified to permit more reliable operation at low pressures (down to 10 mb). An internal combustion engine was altered to study how Mars atmosphere could be used as a diluent to control combustion temperatures and avoid excess Mars propellant production requirements that would result from either methane-rich or oxygen-rich, methane-oxygen combustion. An elastic loop traction system that could be used for lunar construction vehicles was refined to permit testing. A parabolic heat rejection radiator system was designed and built to determine whether it was capable of increasing heat rejection rates during lunar daytime operation. In addition, an alternate space station truss design, utilizing a pre-integrated concept, was studied and found to reduce estimate extravehicular activity (EVA) time and increase the structural integrity when compared to the original Warren truss concept. An orbital-debris-capturing spacecraft design which could be mated with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle was studied. The design identified Soviet C-1B boosters as the best targets of opportunity in Earth orbits between an altitude of 900 km and 1100 km and at an inclination of 82.9 deg. A dual robot pallet, which could be spun to match the tumbling rate of the C-1B booster, was developed as the conceptual design.

  13. Numerical analysis on the effect of swirl ratios on swirl chamber combustion system of DI diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Shengli; Wang, Feihu; Leng, Xianyin; Liu, Xin; Ji, Kunpeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new swirl chamber combustion system of DI diesel engines is proposed. • The appropriate vortex motion can reduce the wall concentration of mixture. • It has best emissions at swirl ratio of 0.8. • Before spray, the turbulent kinetic energy is primarily controlled by the squish. • After spray, the combustion swirl and reverse squish have a great impact on TKE. - Abstract: In order to improve the spray spatial distribution and promote the mixture quality, enhancing airflow movement in a combustion chamber, a new swirl chamber combustion system in direct injection (DI) diesel engines is proposed. The mixture formation and combustion progress in the cylinder are simulated and investigated at several different swirl ratios by using the AVL-FIRE code. The results show that in view of the fuel/air equivalence ratio distribution, the uniformity of mixture with swirl ratio of 0.2 is better. Before spray injection, the turbulent kinetic energy distribution is primarily controlled by the squish. After spray, the combustion swirl and reverse squish swirl have an effect on temperature distribution and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the cylinder. The NO mass fraction is the lowest at swirl ratio of 0.8 and the highest at swirl ratio of 2.7, while Soot mass fraction is the lowest at swirl ratio of 0.2 and the highest at swirl ratio of 3.2. The appropriate swirl is benefit to improve combustion. To sum up, the emissions at swirl ratio of 0.8 has a better performance in the new combustion system

  14. Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

  15. NKS MOMS. Final report. [Mobile Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilssen, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IRSA) (Iceland)

    2013-02-15

    Mobile car-borne measurement systems are an important asset in early phase emergency response in all Nordic countries. However, through the development of the systems in the different countries, there are considerable differences between the systems developed. This complicates Nordic cooperation and mutual assistance in emergency situations. This project aimed to facilitate harmonization of mobile measurement systems between the Nordic countries. The project focused on harmonizing data formats, information exchange and measurement strategies. Although the work done was funded by each member, the project established a good platform for cooperation which will hopefully continue beyond the scope of the project. A two-day seminar was held in May 2012, where all participants presented the current status (equipment, methods used etc.), in addition to invited speakers presenting development within the field of mobile detection and in situ measurements. Exchange of experiences and information on different measurement systems and practises in use was an important part of the seminar. The seminar was followed up by a small workshop during the REFOX exercise in Lund, Sweden, September 2012. Exchange of measurement data from the exercise was facilitated through a workspace proveded by NRPA as part of the MOMS project. The work done in this project will be presented at the NordEx12 seminar in March 2013. (Author)

  16. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  17. Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.

    1996-02-15

    A feasibility study to develop a requirements analysis and functional specification for a data management system for large-scale DNA sequencing laboratories resulted in a functional specification for a Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). This document reports the results of this feasibility study, and includes a functional specification for a SIMS relational schema. The SIMS is an integrated information management system that supports data acquisition, management, analysis, and distribution for DNA sequencing laboratories. The SIMS provides ad hoc query access to information on the sequencing process and its results, and partially automates the transfer of data between laboratory instruments, analysis programs, technical personnel, and managers. The SIMS user interfaces are designed for use by laboratory technicians, laboratory managers, and scientists. The SIMS is designed to run in a heterogeneous, multiplatform environment in a client/server mode. The SIMS communicates with external computational and data resources via the internet.

  18. The final fate of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  19. Research of Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Internal Combustion Engine Based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y H; Tian, X L; Cheng, P; Chang, X; Dou, W J

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the structure, working principle, functions and characteristics of an data acquisition and analysis system for internal combustion engines (I.C. engine) based on DSP is introduced. The DSP can not only acquire and analyze the data alone, also can work with the PC together to form data acquisition and analysis system with high speed and large memory. The system takes advantages of TMS320F2812's plenty of peripherals on chip, becomes small and easy for installation. USB technique is used to translate data between DSP and PC in high speed, so the system's real time processing is proved very much. It is proved that the designed system can acquire and analyze the steady and transient parameters of the I.C. engine very well

  20. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  1. Engine 3E. NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers. Final report; Engine 3E. NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalis, N.; Homann; Schubert

    1999-11-05

    This is the final report of the Technology Project 'NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers', which is part of the Engine 3E 2010 programme of the BMBF, which was to promote research in aircraft engineering. In this project, technologies were developed to achieve a 60% reduction of NO{sub x} emissions as compared to ICAO '95 in an annular combustion chamber in realistic operating conditions where the emissions of substances oher than NO{sub x} were to be of the same level as the emissions of modern jet drives. Further, the design of the new combustion chamber was to be conventional in order to retain the possibility of converting existing propulsion systems to the new technology. [German] Diese Notiz enthaelt den Abschlussbericht des Technologievorhabens 'NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern'. Das Vorhaben ist Teil des Luftfahrtfoerderprogramms Engine 3E 2010 der Bundesregierung und wird vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) unter dem Foerderkennzeichen 20T9540 gefoerdert. Das Programm wurde am 01. Juli 1995 begonnen und endete am 30. Juni 1999. Entsprechend dem Foerderantrag wurden in dem Vorhaben Einzeltechnologien erarbeitet, die erforderlich sind, um eine 60% Reduktion der NO{sub x}-Emissionen gegenueber ICAO '95 in einer Ringbrennkammer unter realistischen Betriebsbedingungen zu demonstrieren, wobei die restlichen Emissionen das Emissionsniveau moderner Triebwerke nicht ueberschreiten sollten. Darueber hinaus sollte das aeussere Design der zu entwickelnden Brennkammer sind von konventionellen Brennkammern nicht unterscheiden, um die Moeglichkeit der Umruestung von alten Triebwerken mit der Brennkammern der neuen Technologie offen zu halten. (orig.)

  2. Laser fusion system design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were completed: (1) The synthesis of a pointing/control system compatible with existing and advanced laser opto-mechanical configurations. (2) Attainment of the required pointing angle, longitudinal focus, and differential pathlength accuracies. (3) Maximum modularization of the sensor and gimbal assemblies to provide the required accuracies at minimum cost. Detailed information is given on each. (MOW)

  3. Review of the investigation of mixture formation and combustion process using rapid compression machine and direct visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaat, M.; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, B.; Ramsy, Him

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews of some applications of optical visualization systems to compute the fuel-air mixing process during early stage of mixture formation in Diesel Combustion Engines. A number of studies have contributed to the understanding of fuel air mixing in DI diesel engine. This review has shown that the mixture formation process affects initial flame development. The review also found that injection pressure has a great effect on the mixture formation then the flame development and combustion characteristics. The method of the simulation of real phenomenon of diesel combustion with optical access rapid compression machine is also reviewed and experimental results are presented. The application of these methods to the investigation of diesel sprays highlights mechanisms which govern propagation and distribution of the formation of a combustible fuel-air mixture. A summary of the implementation of constant volume chamber and optical visualization system are shown in the accompanying tables and figures. The visualization of the formation process of diesel spray and its combustion in the diesel combustion chamber of diesel engine has been recognized as one of the best ways to understand the characteristics of the mixture formation.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study of Jet Controlled Compression Ignition on Combustion Phasing Control in Diesel Premixed Compression Ignition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to directly control the premixed combustion phasing, a Jet Controlled Compression Ignition (JCCI for diesel premixed compression ignition systems is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder natural aspirated diesel engine without EGR at 3000 rpm. Numerical models were validated by load sweep experiments at fixed spark timing. Detailed combustion characteristics were analyzed based on the BMEP of 2.18 bar. The simulation results showed that the high temperature jets of reacting active radical species issued from the ignition chamber played an important role on the onset of combustion in the JCCI system. The combustion of diesel pre-mixtures was initiated rapidly by the combustion products issued from the ignition chamber. Moreover, the flame propagation was not obvious, similar to that in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI. Consequently, spark timing sweep experiments were conducted. The results showed a good linear relationship between spark timing in the ignition chamber and CA10 and CA50, which indicated the ability for direct combustion phasing control in diesel PCCI. The NOx and soot emissions gradually changed with the decrease of spark advance angle. The maximum reduction of NOx and soot were both over 90%, and HC and CO emissions were increased.

  5. Power system EMP protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marable, J.H.; Barnes, P.R.; Nelson, D.B.

    1975-05-01

    Voltage transients induced in electric power lines and control circuits by the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high-altitude nuclear detonations may cause widespread power failure and damage in electric power systems. This report contains a parametric study of EMP power line surges and discusses protective measures to minimize their effects. Since EMP surges have considerably greater rates of rise than lightning surges, recommended standards and test procedures are given to assure that surge arresters protect equipment from damage by EMP. Expected disturbances and damage to power systems are reviewed, and actions are presented which distribution companies can take to counter them. These include backup communications methods, stockpiling of vulnerable parts, repair procedures, and dispatcher actions to prevent blackout from EMP-caused instabilities. A long-range program is presented for improving distributors' protection against EMP. This involves employee training, hardware protection for power and control circuits, and improvement of plans for emergency action. (U.S.)

  6. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation

  7. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  8. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  9. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Steven M. Masutani

    2001-08-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  10. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  11. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO(sub 2) from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO(sub 2) sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO(sub 2) sequestration system

  12. Final Report of Strongly Interacting Fermion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    There has been significant progress in three broad areas: (A) Optical properties, (B) Large-scale computations, and (C) Many-body systems. In this summary the emphasis is primarily on those papers that point to the research plans. At the same time, some important analytic work is not neglected, some of it even appearing in the description of large-scale Computations. Indeed one of the aims of such computations is to give new insights which lead to development of models capable of simple analytic or nearly analytic analysis

  13. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  14. Dual Manifold System for Arraying Biomolecules; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktycz, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this CRADA is to establish a new approach to fluid transfer and array construction. This new approach will involve a high-speed, multiplexed fluid distribution valve and ink jet valves. It will enable the parallel handling of multiple reagents for a system that will have multiple applications in addition to the high-speed construction of microarrays. The primary tasks involve proof of principle experiments aimed at establishing key components of the technology and evaluating various optional configurations. The basic platform for evaluating the technology will be set-up by the Contractor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will employ custom valving prepared by Rheodyne. The test platform will consist of a motion controller, 3-axes of motion, software, and pneumatic control; and will be used to evaluate the hybrid valve

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system used to cool down the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novella, R.; Dolz, V.; Martín, J.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enough power in the exhaust gases is available to operate the absorption cycle. • Three engine operating points are presented in the article. • Improvement potential up to 4% is possible in the engine indicated efficiency. • Engine indicated efficiency benefit was experimentally confirmed by direct testing. - Abstract: This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration cycle used to cool down the temperature of the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine using as a heat source the exhaust gas of the engine. The solution of ammonia-water has been selected due to the stability for a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures and the low freezing point. The effects of operating temperatures, pressures, concentrations of strong and weak solutions in the absorption refrigeration cycle were examined to achieve proper heat rejection to the ambient. Potential of increasing Internal Combustion Engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions was estimated by means of theoretical models and experimental tests. In order to provide boundary conditions for the absorption refrigeration cycle and to simulate its effect on engine performance, a 0D thermodynamic model was used to reproduce the engine performance when the intake air is cooled. Furthermore, a detailed experimental work was carried out to validate the results in real engine operation. Theoretical results show how the absorption refrigeration system decreases the intake air flow temperature down to a temperature around 5 °C and even lower by using the bottoming waste heat energy available in the exhaust gases in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the theoretical analysis estimates the potential of the strategy for increasing the engine indicated efficiency in levels up to 4% also at the operating conditions under evaluation. Finally, this predicted benefit in engine indicated efficiency has been experimentally confirmed by direct

  16. Design and Implementation of a Data Acquisition System for Combustion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the biomass market has constantly increased. The pellet manufacture industry has started looking for new products, such as wastes from forest, agriculture, and agroindustrial residues, among others, with the potential to be used as biofuels. However, some of these wastes have some characteristics that make both the combustion process and operating and maintenance conditions of thermal equipment difficult. Thus, further research to optimize the performance and ensure the compliance of the maximum atmospheric levels is needed. In order to carry out these studies, the design and implementation of a supervision, control, and data acquisition system for a domestic pellet boiler was carried out, which makes obtaining further information about the performance of non-conventional biofuels possible. Thus, these biofuels, coming from different sources, underwent different working regimes, facilitating the understanding of the results and the correction of limiting elements. The results from initial tests were reliable and precise, coinciding with the check readings that were done with a thermometer and a combustion gas analyser. Under these conditions, the system designed constitutes a fundamental tool to examine thermal processes with alternative biofuels, with the objective of making the most of different biomass wastes as renewable energy sources.

  17. Design and Implementation of the Control System of an Internal Combustion Engine Test Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate tests and performance analysis of engines are required to minimize measurement errors and so the use of the advanced test equipment is imperative. In other words, the reliable test results depend on the measurement of many parameters and recording the experimental data accurately which is depended on engine test unit. This study aims to design the control system of an internal combustion engine test unit. In the study, the performance parameters of an available internal combustion engine have been transferred to computer in real time. A data acquisition (DAQ card has been used to transfer the experimental data to the computer. Also, a user interface has been developed for performing the necessary procedures by using LabVIEW. The dynamometer load, the fuel consumption, and the desired speed can easily be adjusted precisely by using DAQ card and the user interface during the engine test. Load, fuel consumption, and temperature values (the engine inlet-outlet, exhaust inlet-outlet, oil, and environment can be seen on the interface and also these values can be recorded to the computer. It is expected that developed system will contribute both to the education of students and to the researchers’ studies and so it will eliminate a major lack.

  18. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior

    2005-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.

  19. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers

  20. Mirror confinement systems: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This report contains: (1) A discussion of azimuthal asymmetrics and fluctuations in RFC-XX-M. Both lead to enhanced radial transport in RFC-XX-M, and presumably most other tandem mirror machines as well; A report on four operating modes of RFC-XX-M which were developed and studied as part of the collaboration. These operating modes were the simple tandem mode, the negative (floating) potential mode, the hot electron mode, and the ECH (electron cyclotron heating) mode; A pulsed rf heated discharge cleaning system which was developed for RFC-XX-M. This method of cleaning proved much more effective than normal glow discharge cleaning, and variations of it are currently in use on the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror and the JIPP TII-U tokamak at the Institute for Plasma Physics at Nagoya; Short descriptions of the diagnostics development and improvement done in conjunction with the work on RFC-XX-M; and a compilation of the work performed at the University of Tsukuba on GAMMA-10. Most of the effort on GAMMA-10 involved diagnostics development and improvement. 16 refs., 42 figs., 1 tab

  1. Condenser inleakage monitoring system development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassen, W.R.; Putkey, T.A.; Sawochka, S.G.; Pearl, W.L.; Clouse, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    An instrument/hardware package for air and condenser cooling water inleakage location employing the helium and freon techniques was designed and fabricated. The package consists of design details for tracer gas distribution hardware, injection plenums, and a sample preconditioner and instrument module. Design of the package was based on an evaluation of helium and freon leak detectors and a survey of utility user's experience with the helium and freon techniques. The applicability of the instrument/hardware package to air and cooling water inleakage location was demonstrated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Moss Landing Station. The use of calibrated leaks indicated that cooling water leaks down to 1.5 x 10 -4 gpm (0.56 ml/min) and air leaks down to 0.05 cfm were readily detectable with the helium technique, whereas a 4 x 10 -4 gpm (1.5 ml/min) liquid leak was the readily detectable minimum via the freon technique. The field demonstration and in-house detector testing showed the helium technique to be preferable to the freon technique for inleakage location at PWRs, BWRs, and fossil-fueled systems

  2. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished

  3. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  4. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second and third

  5. Transactive Campus Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Transactive energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. The fundamental purpose of transactive energy management is to seamlessly coordinate the operation of large numbers of new intelligent assets—such as distributed solar, energy storage and responsive building loads—to provide the flexibility needed to operate the power grid reliably and at minimum cost, particularly one filled with intermittent renewable generation such as the Pacific Northwest. It addresses the key challenge of providing smooth, stable, and predictable “control” of these assets, despite the fact that most are neither owned nor directly controlled by the power grid. The Clean Energy and Transactive Campus (CETC) work described in this report was done as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Washington State Department of Commerce (Commerce) through the Clean Energy Fund (CEF). The project team consisted of PNNL, the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU), to connect the PNNL, UW, and WSU campuses to form a multi-campus testbed for transaction-based energy management—transactive—solutions. Building on the foundational transactive system established by the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), the purpose of the project was to construct the testbed as both a regional flexibility resource and as a platform for research and development (R&D) on buildings/grid integration and information-based energy efficiency. This report provides a summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  6. Prototype testing and analysis of a novel internal combustion linear generator integrated power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhaoping; Chang, Siqin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel four-stroke free-piston engine equipped with a linear electric generator (namely internal combustion linear generator integrated power system) is proposed in this paper to achieve efficient energy conversion from fuel to electricity. Unique features of the novel power system are presented and their effects on the continuous running are discussed, along with potential advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional engines. A single cylinder, gasoline and spark ignition prototype is fabricated with reference to the geometric and control parameters of an existing conventional four-stroke engine. Stable running of the prototype is realized, and a 2.2 kW average output power with the generating efficiency of 32% has been obtained up to now. The feasibility and performance of the proposed design are verified. Detailed testing results from the continuous running prototype are analyzed in this paper for giving insight into the performance and dynamic behaviors of the novel power system. (author)

  7. Tomography system for measurement of gas properties in combustion flow field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling SONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a self-designed fiber-coupled tomography system and its application in combustion diagnostics. The tomographic technique, which combines tunable diode laser spectroscopy and algebraic reconstruction technique, enables the simultaneous reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration with both spatial and temporal resolutions. The system measures a maximum diameter of 35 cm in a circular area with a minimum spatial resolution of 1 mm × 1 mm and temporal response of up to 1 kHz. Simulations validate the effects of the beam arrangement and discrete grid on reconstruction accuracy, and give the optimal beam arrangements. Experiments are made to demonstrate the tomography method, and systems are constructed in laboratory and on engineering test benches.

  8. DECONTAMINATION SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION RESEARCH PROGRAM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echol E. Cook, Ph.D., PE.

    1998-01-01

    Tek Centrifugal Membrane System was a unique separation process introduced through the Agreement that is now being used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on the cost to the USDOE for both technologies and considering their usefulness in cleaning up contaminated sites, no other technologies developed through USDOE provide or have the propensity to provide as great a return on investment and impact on environmental remediation. These technologies alone make the$10.3 million USDOE investment in the WVU Cooperative Agreement a tremendous investment

  9. The completed design of the SLC Final Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Brown, K.L.; Fieguth, T.

    1987-02-01

    The design of the SLC Final Focus System has evolved from its initial conceptual design into its final form. This final design is described including a review of the critical decisions influencing the adoption of particular features. The creation of a feasible design has required that these decisions be tempered by practical considerations such as site constraints, correction of optical errors caused by imperfections, and accommodations requested by engineers and particle detector physicists. As this is the first such system to be built, it is hoped that the experience gained will be useful for the design of future systems

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  11. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  12. High temperature high velocity direct power extraction using an open-cycle oxy-combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The implementation of oxy-fuel technology in fossil-fuel power plants may contribute to increased system efficiencies and a reduction of pollutant emissions. One technology that has potential to utilize the temperature of undiluted oxy-combustion flames is open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. These systems can be configured as a topping cycle and provide high enthalpy, electrically conductive flows for direct conversion of electricity. This report presents the design and modeling strategies of a MHD combustor operating at temperatures exceeding 3000 K. Throughout the study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were extensively used as a design and optimization tool. A lab-scale 60 kWth model was designed, manufactured and tested as part of this project. A fully-coupled numerical method was developed in ANSYS FLUENT to characterize the heat transfer in the system. This study revealed that nozzle heat transfer may be predicted through a 40% reduction of the semi-empirical Bartz correlation. Experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical evaluation, with the combustor exhibiting a favorable performance when tested during extended time periods. A transient numerical method was employed to analyze fuel injector geometries for the 60-kW combustor. The ANSYS FLUENT study revealed that counter-swirl inlets achieve a uniform pressure and velocity ratio when the ports of the injector length to diameter ratio (L/D) is 4. An angle of 115 degrees was found to increase distribution efficiency. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The heat loss fraction in this oxy-combustion system, based on CFD and analytical calculations, at optimal operating conditions, was estimated to be less than 10 percent

  13. Elemental and organic carbon in flue gas particles of various wood combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, C.; Schmid, M.; Guentert, P.

    2005-12-15

    The airborne particulate matter (PM) in the environment is of ever increasing concern to authorities and the public. The major fractions of particles in wood combustion processes are in the size less than 1 micron, typically in the range of 30 to 300 nm. Of specific interest is the content of the elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the particles since these substances are known for its particular potential as carcinogens. Various wood combustion systems have been analysed (wood chip boiler, pellet boiler, wood log boiler, wood stove and open fire). The sampling of the particles was done by mean of a multi-stage particle sizing sampler cascade impactor. The impactor classifies the particles collected according to their size. The 7 stages classify the particles between 0.4 and 9 microns aerodynamic diameter. The analytical method for determining the content of EC and OC in the particles is based on coulometry. The coulometer measures the conductivity of CO{sub 2} released by oxidation of EC in the samples at 650 {sup o}C. The OC content is determined by pyrolysis of the particle samples in helium atmosphere.

  14. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

    2001-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period from 1 October to 31 December 2000. During this period planning of chemostat experiments at Aquasearch was initiated. These experiments will be used to select microalgae for the photobioreactor demonstrations. An initial survey of techniques for removing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas was begun. Chemical adsorption using MEA is the most mature technology and looks to be the most economically viable in the near future.

  15. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis of TiC in Al-Ti-C system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Rakita, Milan; Xu, Wilson; Wang, Xiaoming; Han, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on the combustion synthesis of TiC particles in Al-Ti-C system. The process involved that high-intensity ultrasound was applied on the surface of a compacted Al-Ti-C pellet directly through a Nb probe during the thermal explosion reaction. By comparing with the sample without ultrasonic treatment, it was found that the thermal explosion reaction for synthesizing TiC phase could take place thoroughly in the ultrasonically treated sample. During the process of synthesizing TiC phase, the dissolution of solid graphite particles into the Al-Ti melt, as well as the nucleation and growth of TiC particles could be promoted effectively due to the effects of ultrasound, leading to an enhancement of the formation of TiC particles. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis as a simple and effective approach was proposed for synthesizing materials in this research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring of diesel engine combustions based on the acoustic source characterisation of the exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Gu, F.; Gennish, R.; Moore, D. J.; Harris, G.; Ball, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    Acoustic methods are among the most useful techniques for monitoring the condition of machines. However, the influence of background noise is a major issue in implementing this method. This paper introduces an effective monitoring approach to diesel engine combustion based on acoustic one-port source theory and exhaust acoustic measurements. It has been found that the strength, in terms of pressure, of the engine acoustic source is able to provide a more accurate representation of the engine combustion because it is obtained by minimising the reflection effects in the exhaust system. A multi-load acoustic method was then developed to determine the pressure signal when a four-cylinder diesel engine was tested with faults in the fuel injector and exhaust valve. From the experimental results, it is shown that a two-load acoustic method is sufficient to permit the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities in the pressure signal, caused by the faults. This then provides a novel and yet reliable method to achieve condition monitoring of diesel engines even if they operate in high noise environments such as standby power stations and vessel chambers.

  17. Development of a Dual-Pump CARS System for Measurements in a Supersonic Combusting Free Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the development of a dual-pump CARS system for simultaneous measurements of temperature and absolute mole fraction of N2, O2 and H2 in a laboratory scale supersonic combusting free jet. Changes to the experimental set-up and the data analysis to improve the quality of the measurements in this turbulent, high-temperature reacting flow are described. The accuracy and precision of the instrument have been determined using data collected in a Hencken burner flame. For temperature above 800 K, errors in absolute mole fraction are within 1.5, 0.5, and 1% of the total composition for N2, O2 and H2, respectively. Estimated standard deviations based on 500 single shots are between 10 and 65 K for the temperature, between 0.5 and 1.7% of the total composition for O2, and between 1.5 and 3.4% for N2. The standard deviation of H2 is 10% of the average measured mole fraction. Results obtained in the jet with and without combustion are illustrated, and the capabilities and limitations of the dual-pump CARS instrument discussed.

  18. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  19. Supersonic Combustion in Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems for Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzay, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Great efforts have been dedicated during the last decades to the research and development of hypersonic aircrafts that can fly at several times the speed of sound. These aerospace vehicles have revolutionary applications in national security as advanced hypersonic weapons, in space exploration as reusable stages for access to low Earth orbit, and in commercial aviation as fast long-range methods for air transportation of passengers around the globe. This review addresses the topic of supersonic combustion, which represents the central physical process that enables scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems to accelerate aircrafts to ultra-high speeds. The description focuses on recent experimental flights and ground-based research programs and highlights associated fundamental flow physics, subgrid-scale model development, and full-system numerical simulations.

  20. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  1. Fluid dynamic modeling of junctions in internal combustion engine inlet and exhaust systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalet, David; Chesse, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    The modeling of inlet and exhaust systems of internal combustion engine is very important in order to evaluate the engine performance. This paper presents new pressure losses models which can be included in a one dimensional engine simulation code. In a first part, a CFD analysis is made in order to show the importance of the density in the modeling approach. Then, the CFD code is used, as a numerical test bench, for the pressure losses models development. These coefficients depend on the geometrical characteristics of the junction and an experimental validation is made with the use of a shock tube test bench. All the models are then included in the engine simulation code of the laboratory. The numerical calculation of unsteady compressible flow, in each pipe of the inlet and exhaust systems, is made and the calculated engine torque is compared with experimental measurements.

  2. A simple and automated sample preparation system for subsequent halogens determination: Combustion followed by pyrohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L S F; Pedrotti, M F; Vecchia, P Dalla; Pereira, J S F; Flores, E M M

    2018-06-20

    A simple and automated system based on combustion followed by a pyrohydrolysis reaction was proposed for further halogens determination. This system was applied for digestion of soils containing high (90%) and also low (10%) organic matter content for further halogens determination. The following parameters were evaluated: sample mass, use of microcrystalline cellulose and heating time. For analytes absorption, a diluted alkaline solution (6 mL of 25 mmol L -1  NH 4 OH) was used in all experiments. Up to 400 mg of soil with high organic matter content and 100 mg of soil with low organic matter content (mixed with 400 mg of cellulose) could be completely digested using the proposed system. Quantitative results for all halogens were obtained using less than 12 min of sample preparation step (about 1.8 min for sample combustion and 10 min for pyrohydrolysis). The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of coal and spiked samples. No statistical difference was observed between the certified values and results obtained by the proposed method. Additionally, the recoveries obtained using spiked samples were in the range of 98-103% with relative standard deviation values lower than 5%. The limits of quantification obtained for F, Cl, Br and I for soil with high (400 mg of soil) and low (100 mg of soil) organic matter were in the range of 0.01-2 μg g -1 and 0.07-59 μg g -1 , respectively. The proposed system was considered as a simple and suitable alternative for soils digestion for further halogens determination by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  4. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  5. A DMS kinetic study of the boron oxides vapor in the combustion front of SHS system Mo + B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashireninov, O.E.; Yuranov, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of the boron oxides vapor in the combustion wave of the SHS system Mo + B has been studied by the dynamic mass spectrometry technique (DMS) to test the thermodynamically based hypothesis for the key role of gas-phase transport in solid-state combustion. The molecular beam sampling of the gases over the burning tablet was performed by a stationary probe cone from the moving combustion wave. Ion currents of boron oxides were recorded at 10--20 ms intervals that afforded spatial resolution of 0.1--0.2 mm. It has been found that the distribution of the boron oxides vapor pressure along the combustion wave corresponds to the known zones of preheating, reaction, and postcombustion. The rapid increase of B 2 O 2 pressure takes place in the preheating zone as a result of the reaction B(s) + B 2 O 3 (g) = B 2 O 2 (g). Boron oxides are not observed over the reaction zone because of their complete decay in the reaction with Mo(s) to form molybdenum boride(s). The appearance The appearance of boron oxide vapors over the postcombustion zone is due to the evaporation of B 2 O 3 (l). The effective kinetic parameters are estimated from the data obtained. The results show that solid-state combustion of the Mo + B system proceeds predominantly through formation of gas-phase boron oxides

  6. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  7. General method for final focus system design for circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo de Maria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Colliders use final focus systems to reduce the transverse beam sizes at the interaction point in order to increase collision event rates. The maximum focal strength (gradient of the quadrupoles, and the maximum beam size in them, together limit the beam size reduction that is possible. The goal of a final focus system design is to find the best compromise between quadrupole aperture and quadrupole gradient, for the magnet technology that is used. This paper develops a design method that identifies the intrinsic limitations of a final focus system, validates the results of the method against realistic designs, and reports its application to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider final focus.

  8. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  9. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: system performance data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. The resource recovery systems investigated were divided into three categories: thermal processng, mechanical separation, and biological processing. Thermal processing systems investigated are: excess-air incineration; starved-air incineration/gasification; and pyrolysis (indirect heating). Mechanical processing systems investigated are: coarse refuse derived fuel; materials separation; dust refuse derived fuel; densified refuse derived fuel; and fine refuse derived fuel. Mechanical processing components investigated include: receiving module; primary size reduction module; combustible separation module; refuse derived fuel preparation module; fuel densification; fuel storage module; ferrous separation; and building and facilities. Pretreatment processes and principle methods of bioconversion of MSW dealing with biological processing are investigated. (MCW)

  10. System catalytic neutralization control of combustion engines waste gases in mining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Solnitsev, R. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the problems solution of the atmospheric air pollution with the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engines, used in mining technologies. Such engines are used in excavators, bulldozers, dump trucks, diesel locomotives in loading and unloading processes and during transportation of minerals. NOx, CO, CH emissions as the waste gases occur during engine operation, the concentration of which must be reduced to the standard limits. The various methods and means are used for the problem solution, one of which is neutralization based on platinum catalysts. A mathematical model of a controlled catalytic neutralization system is proposed. The simulation results confirm the increase in efficiency at start-up and low engine load and the increase in the catalyst lifetime.

  11. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  12. How in-situ combustion process works in a fractured system : two-dimensional, core and block scale simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadaei, H.; Renard, G. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Lyon (France); Quintard, M.; Debenest, G. [L' Inst. de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Kamp, A.M. [Centre Huile Lourde Ouvert et Experimental CHLOE, Pau (France)

    2008-10-15

    Core and matrix block scale simulations of in situ combustion (ISC) processes in a fractured reservoir were conducted. ISC propagation conditions and oil recovery mechanisms were studied at core scale, while the 2-D behaviour of ISC was also studied at block-scale in order to determine dominant processes for combustion propagation and the characteristics of different steam fronts. The study examined 2-phase combustion in a porous medium containing a solid fuel as well as 2-D conventional dry combustion methods. The aim of the study was to predict ISC extinction and propagation conditions as well as to understand the mechanisms of oil recovery using ISC processes. The simulations were also used to develop up-scaling guidelines for fractured systems. Computations were performed using different oxygen diffusion and matrix permeability values. The effect of each production mechanism was studied separately. The multi-phase simulations showed that ISC in fractured reservoirs is feasible. The study showed that ISC propagation is dependent on the oxygen diffusion coefficient, while matrix permeability plays an important role in oil production. Oil production was governed by gravity drainage and thermal effects. Heat transfer due to the movement of combustion front velocity in the study was minor when compared to heat transfer by conduction and convection. It was concluded that upscaling methods must also consider the different zones distinguished for oil saturation and temperatures. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  13. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix I: Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix discusses the work performed by the SOR Power Work Group. The Power Work Group (PWG) had several major responsibilities: first, to determine the effects of each of the various system operating strategies (SOS) on the Northwest regional power system; second, given these effects, to determine what, if any, actions are required to meet forecasted regional energy consumption; and finally, to estimate the cost for serving the forecasted regional energy consumption. The Northwest regional power system consists of Federal and non-Federal hydroelectric power projects (hydropower or hydro projects) on the main stem of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, numerous smaller hydro projects on other river reaches, and a number of thermal plants (coal, nuclear and combustion turbines)

  15. FOCUS: a fire management planning system -- final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten; James B. Davis; George T. Flatman; Jerold W. Keith; Stanley R. Rapp; Theodore G. Storey

    1981-01-01

    FOCUS (Fire Operational Characteristics Using Simulation) is a computer simulation model for evaluating alternative fire management plans. This final report provides a broad overview of the FOCUS system, describes two major modules-fire suppression and cost, explains the role in the system of gaming large fires, and outlines the support programs and ways of...

  16. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  17. Development of fast-burn combustion with elevated coolant temperatures for natural gas engines. Final report, May 1985-May 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, K.L.; Dennis, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The overall objective of the work was to improve the state of the art in the gas fired spark ignited engine for use in a cogeneration system. Four characteristics were enhanced for cogeneration, namely, Low Pressure Gas Induction, Improved Shaft Thermal Efficiency, Low NOx Emissions, and Increased Jacket Coolant Temperature. Using Taguchi methods and statistical design of experiment methodologies, an engine design evolved that exhibited: The ability to run satisfactorily on supply gas pressure as low as 1.5 psig (goal: 1 psig); A brake specific fuel consumption as low as 6950 Btu/hp-hr (36.6% thermal efficiency) at 2 gm/hp-hr NOx (goal: 7000 acceptable, 6800 excellent with NOx no more than 2 gm/hp-hr); A jacket water coolant system (with oil cooler on the same circuit) temperature of 225 F (goal); and The ability to burn gas with Methane Number as low as 67 (goal).

  18. A Reduced Order Model for the Design of Oxy-Coal Combustion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-coal combustion is one of the more promising technologies currently under development for addressing the issues associated with greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. Oxy-coal combustion involves combusting the coal fuel in mixtures of pure oxygen and recycled flue gas (RFG consisting of mainly carbon dioxide (CO2. As a consequence, many researchers and power plant designers have turned to CFD simulations for the study and design of new oxy-coal combustion power plants, as well as refitting existing air-coal combustion facilities to oxy-coal combustion operations. While CFD is a powerful tool that can provide a vast amount of information, the simulations themselves can be quite expensive in terms of computational resources and time investment. As a remedy, a reduced order model (ROM for oxy-coal combustion has been developed to supplement the CFD simulations. With this model, it is possible to quickly estimate the average outlet temperature of combustion flue gases given a known set of mass flow rates of fuel and oxidant entering the power plant boiler as well as determine the required reactor inlet mass flow rates for a desired outlet temperature. Several cases have been examined with this model. The results compare quite favorably to full CFD simulation results.

  19. Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

    2010-12-12

    Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

  20. FINAL IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE LHC COLLIMATOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Masi, A; Losito, R

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 collimation system of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) included 80 movable collimators for a total of 316 degrees of freedom. Before beam operation, the final controls implementation was deployed and commissioned. The control system enabled remote control and appropriate diagnostics of the relevant parameters. The collimator motion is driven with time-functions, synchronized with other accelerator systems, which allows controlling the collimator jaw positions with a micrometer accuracy during all machine phases. The machine protection functionality of the system, which also relies on function-based tolerance windows, was also fully validated. The collimator control challenges are reviewed and the final system architecture is presented. The results of the remote system commissioning and the overall performance are discussed.

  1. Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report, FY 1993 and 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Murguia, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which destroys hazardous organics by oxidizing a mediator at the anode of an electrochemical cell; the mediator in turn oxidizes the organics within the bulk of the electrolyte. With this process organics can be nearly completely destroyed, that is, the carbon and hydrogen present in the hydrocarbon are almost entirely mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. The MEO process is also capable of dissolving radioactive materials, including difficult-to-dissolve compounds such as plutonium oxide. Hence, this process can treat mixed wastes, by destroying the hazardous organic components of the waste, and dissolving the radioactive components. The radioactive material can be recovered if desired, or disposed of as non-mixed radioactive waste. The process is inherently safe, since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and the system operates at low temperatures (below 80 degree C) and at ambient pressures

  2. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  3. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  4. Final Report: Optimization of Chemical Process Heater and Combustion Systems, September 1, 1996 - August 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Phillip

    1999-08-31

    The optimization of ethylene furnace operations using cfd-based simulations has been addressed. The optimization problems have been cast into various formulations: the Multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) approach, the All-At-Once (AAO) approach and the Individual discipline feasible (IDF) approach. These approaches mainly differ in their handling of the state equations as constraints, and hence some of the formulations place restrictions on the methods used to solve the state equations.

  5. Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial CO2 Extraction System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balepin, Vladimir [Alliant Techsystems Operations LLC, Ronkonkoma, NY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report summarizes the effort carried out under NETL contract DE- FE0013122 from 1 October 2013 to 31 March 2017. As described in this document, technical challenges realized during the performance of this project resulted in completion of only the first two of three planned budget periods. Despite this outcome, substantial progress was made toward understanding and maturing the CO2 capture technology under consideration and considerable future promise remains for applications requiring lower CO2 capture and/or lower CO2.

  6. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (μg) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (Δλ < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under μg conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for μg combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  7. Optical system for CO and NO gas detection in the exhaust manifold of combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.; De Vittorio, M.; Passaseo, A.; Lomascolo, M.; De Risi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental characterization of an innovative optical system for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitride oxide (NO) in the exhaust manifold of otto and diesel engines is reported. A photodetector based on gallium nitride (GaN) and an UV light source are integrated in a chamber of analysis and form the detection system. The UV light source, consisting of a spark produced by an arc discharge, induces electronic transitions in the gas molecules flowing between the light source and the GaN photodetector. The transitions modify the fraction of light in the UV spectral region which is detected by the GaN photodetector, as a function of the species concentration. By means of its structural properties, gallium nitride (GaN) allows to operate at high temperature and high speed and to work in situ in the exhaust manifold of combustion engines at temperatures as high as 600 o C, at which the deposited organic residuals on the detector can be oxidized. This assures a clear surface necessary for a real time optical measurement of the species concentration to be used for a closed loop control of the fuel injection process. The system was applied to the detection of CO and NO with concentration between 0% and 2% in a buffer of pure nitrogen gas, showing an increase in the measured photocurrent as a function of the above gases

  8. The possible role of indoor radon reduction systems in back-drafting residential combustion appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    A computational sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might most likely exacerbate or create back-drafting of natural-draft combustion appliances. Parameters varied included: house size; normalized leakage area; exhaust rate of exhaust appliances other than the ASD system; and the amount of house air exhausted by the ASD system. Even with a reasonably conservative set of assumptions, it is predicted that ASD systems should not exacerbate or create back- drafting in most of the U.S. housing stock. Only at normalized leakage areas lower than 3 to 4 cm 2 commercial at 4 Pa) per m 2 of floor area should ASD contribute to back-drafting, even in small houses at high ASD exhaust rates (compared to a mean of over 10 cm 2 /m 2 determined from data on over 12,000 U.S. houses). But on the other hand, even with a more forgiving set of assumptions, it is predicted that ASD systems could contribute to back-drafting in some fraction of the housing stock -houses tighter than about 1 to 2 cm 2 /m 2 - even in large houses at minimal ASD exhaust rates. It is not possible to use parameters such as house size or ASD system flow rate to estimate reliably the risk that an ASD system might contribute to back-drafting in a given house. Spillage/back-draft testing would be needed for essentially all installations. (au) 18 refs

  9. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  10. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  11. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized

  12. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort

  13. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  14. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  15. Converting existing Internal Combustion Generator (ICG) systems into HESs in standalone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Attalage, R.A.; Perera, K.K.C.K.; Dassanayake, V.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Obtained Pareto fronts of LEC, power supply reliability (PSR) and ICC/GHG emission. • Pareto surface was observed for smaller ICGs when considering LEC–PSR–GHG. • Shape of the LEC–PSR–ICC Pareto front gradually changes with ICG capacity. • Importance of multi-criterion decision-making after multi objective optimization. - Abstract: Expanding existing Internal Combustion Generator (ICG) systems by combining renewable energy sources is getting popular due to global concern on emission of green house gases (GHG) and increasing fossil fuel costs. Life cycle cost, initial capital cost (ICC), power supply reliability of the system, and GHG emission by ICG are factors to be considered in this process. Pareto front of Levelized Energy Cost (LEC)–Unmet Load Fraction (ULF)–GHG emission was taken in this study for four different expansion scenarios. Furthermore, Pareto front of ICC–LE–ULF was taken for three different expansion scenarios in order to analyze the impact of renewable energy integration. The results clearly depict that characteristics of the Pareto front varies with the scale of expansion and objectives taken for the optimization. A detailed analysis was conducted for a scale up problem with a 4 kVA ICG by using the Pareto fronts obtained

  16. Thermodynamic performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    This communication presents thermodynamic methodology for the performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been defined. The effects of process steam pressure and pinch point temperature used in the design of heat recovery steam generator, and reheat on energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been investigated. From the results obtained in graphs it is observed that the power to heat ratio increases with an increase in pinch point, but the first-law efficiency and second-law efficiency decreases with an increase in pinch point. The power to heat ratio and second-law efficiency increases significantly with increase in process steam pressure, but the first-law efficiency decreases with the same. Results also show that inclusion of reheat, provide significant improvement in electrical power output, process heat production, fuel-utilization (energetic) efficiency and second-law (exergetic) efficiency. This methodology may be quite useful in the selection and comparison of combined energy production systems from thermodynamic performance point of view

  17. A conceptual design of Final Focus Systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1987-06-01

    Linear colliders are a relatively recent development in the evolution of particle accelerators. This report discusses some of the approaches that have been considered for the design of Final Focus Systems to demagnify the beam exiting from a linac to the small size suitable for collisions at the interaction point. The system receiving the most attention is the one adopted for the SLAC Linear Collider. However, the theory and optical techniques discussed should be applicable to the design efforts for future machines

  18. Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1987-06-01

    The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 μm transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects

  19. Engineered Sulfur‐Resistant Catalyst System with an Assisted Regeneration Strategy for Lean‐Burn Methane Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinen, Kauko; Maunula, Teuvo; Suvanto, Mika

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Catalytic combustion of methane, the main component of natural gas, is a challenge under lean‐burn conditions and at low temperatures owing to sulfur poisoning of the Pd‐rich catalyst. This paper introduces a more sulfur‐resistant catalyst system that can be regenerated during operation. The developed catalyst system lowers the barrier that has restrained the use of liquefied natural gas as a fuel in energy production. PMID:29780434

  20. The Final Focus Test Beam laser referene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler, V.E.; Ruland, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The original design for the SLAC linac included an alignment reference system with 270 diffraction gratings situated along the 3000 meter linac. These gratings have provided SLAC with a global reference line repeatable to within 200 micro meters. For the Final Focus Test Beam, this laser system has been extended and 13 new diffraction gratings have been installed. Improvements targets and the availability of new instruments allows us to evaluate the performance of the laser reference system at the 510 micro meter level. An explanation of the system and the results of our evaluation are presented

  1. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  2. A RECIPE FOR LINEAR COLLIDER FINAL FOCUS SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The design of Final Focus systems for linear colliders is challenging because of the large demagnifications needed to produce nanometer-sized beams at the interaction point. Simple first- and second-order matrix matching have proven insufficient for this task, and minimization of third- and higher-order aberrations is essential. An appropriate strategy is required for the latter to be successful. A recipe for Final Focus design, and a set of computational tools used to implement this approach, are described herein. An example of the use of this procedure is given

  3. Probing LINEAR Collider Final Focus Systems in SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Paul Conrad Vaagen

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for future linear collider final focus systems is the large chromaticity produced by the final quadrupoles. SuperKEKB will be correcting high levels of chromaticity using the traditional scheme which has been also proposed for the CLIC FFS. We present early simulation results indicating that lowering β*у in the SuperKEKB Low Energy Ring might be possible given on-axis injection and low bunch current, opening the possibility of testing chromaticity correction beyond FFTB level, similar to ILC and approaching that of CLIC. CLIC – Note – 1077

  4. Performance and combustion analysis of Mahua biodiesel on a single cylinder compression ignition engine using electronic fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Anandkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, experiment is carried out on a 1500 rpm constant speed single cylinder Diesel engine. The test is carried out with Neat diesel, neat biodiesel, and blend B20. The engine considered was run with electronic fuel injection system supported by common rail direct injection to obtain high atomization and effective air utilization inside the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine in terms of break thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption was found and compared. The B20 blend shows 1.11% decrease in break thermal efficiency and 3.35% increase in brake specific energy consumption than diesel. The combustion characteristics found are in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate and compared for peak pressure load to understand the nature of combustion process. For each fuel test run, the maximum peak pressure is observed at part load condition. The rate of change of pressure and heat release rate of diesel is high compared to pure biodiesel and B20 blend. The diffusion combustion is observed to be predominant in case of B100 than B20 and Neat diesel.

  5. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  6. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  7. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  8. Optimization of the combustion system of a medium duty direct injection diesel engine by combining CFD modeling with experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesus; Novella, Ricardo; Pastor, Jose Manuel; Hernández-López, Alberto; Hasegawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Naohide; Emi, Masahiko; Uehara, Isshoh; Martorell, Jordi; Alonso, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A DOE-based optimization of the combustion system of a CI engine has been performed. • Improving efficiency controlling emissions needs optimizing bowl design and settings. • Swirl-supported with re-entrant bowl combustion system is required after optimizing. • Computationally optimized combustion system has been validated by engine tests. - Abstract: The research in the field of internal combustion engines is currently driven by the needs of decreasing fuel consumption and CO_2 emissions, while fulfilling the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions regulations. In this framework, this research work focuses on describing a methodology for optimizing the combustion system of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, by combining Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling, and the statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) technique known as Response Surface Method (RSM). As a key aspect, in addition to the definition of the optimum set of values for the input parameters, this methodology is extremely useful to gain knowledge on the cause/effect relationships between the input and output parameters under investigation. This methodology is applied in two sequential studies to the optimization of the combustion system of a 4-cylinder 4-stroke Medium Duty Direct Injection (DI) CI engine, minimizing the fuel consumption while fulfilling the emission limits in terms of NO_x and soot. The first study targeted four optimization parameters related to the engine hardware including piston bowl geometry, injector nozzle configuration and mean swirl number (MSN) induced by the intake manifold design. After the analysis of the results, the second study extended to six parameters, limiting the optimization of the engine hardware to the bowl geometry, but including the key air management and injection settings. For both studies, the simulation plans were defined following a Central Composite Design (CCD), providing 25 and 77 simulations respectively. The results

  9. Innovative Calibration Method for System Level Simulation Models of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Prah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a procedure for the computer-controlled calibration of the combined zero-dimensional (0D and one-dimensional (1D thermodynamic simulation model of a turbocharged internal combustion engine (ICE. The main purpose of the calibration is to determine input parameters of the simulation model in such a way as to achieve the smallest difference between the results of the measurements and the results of the numerical simulations with minimum consumption of the computing time. An innovative calibration methodology is based on a novel interaction between optimization methods and physically based methods of the selected ICE sub-systems. Therein physically based methods were used for steering the division of the integral ICE to several sub-models and for determining parameters of selected components considering their governing equations. Innovative multistage interaction between optimization methods and physically based methods allows, unlike the use of well-established methods that rely only on the optimization techniques, for successful calibration of a large number of input parameters with low time consumption. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for efficient calibration of simulation models of advanced ICEs.

  10. Plutonium Protection System (PPS). Volume 2. Hardware description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, D.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Plutonium Protection System (PPS) is an integrated safeguards system developed by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security. The system is designed to demonstrate and test concepts for the improved safeguarding of plutonium. Volume 2 of the PPS final report describes the hardware elements of the system. The major areas containing hardware elements are the vault, where plutonium is stored, the packaging room, where plutonium is packaged into Container Modules, the Security Operations Center, which controls movement of personnel, the Material Accountability Center, which maintains the system data base, and the Material Operations Center, which monitors the operating procedures in the system. References are made to documents in which details of the hardware items can be found

  11. Formation of Co2P in the combustion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchaik, S.V.; Dubrov, A.N.; Lynchak, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion of the system Co-P produces the compounds Co 2 P, CoP and CoP 3 , the first two being producible in the combustion regime, while for synthesis of stoichiometric Co 2 P at normal argon pressure, an original mixture with a certain excess of phosphorus is required. The present experiments were performed with electrolytic cobalt powder and red phosphorus. As the Co-P mixture is diluted by the final product (Co 2 P) there is a decrease in combustion temperature and rate, unaccompanied by any of the anomalies seen with dilution by cobalt. It can be suggested that although the combustion in the Co-P system and, possibly, i-- other phosphide systems, is not gasless in its kinetic aspects the combustion mechanism is similar to that in gasless systems. It is shown that formation of the phosphide Co=3''P and specimens wyth composition Co-Co 2 P in the combustion regime occurs with participation of a lIqui] phase of eutectic composition. Combustion occurs in a self-oscillating regime. The temperature for Co 2 P formation is close to its melting point, and the process activation energy comprises 205 kJ/mole

  12. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  13. State of the art and the future fuel portfolio of fluidized bed combustion systems; Status und kuenftiges Brennstoffportfolio bei Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szentannai, Pal; Friebert, Arpad; Winter, Franz [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrens-, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    Coal, biomass and substitute fuels energetically can be used efficiently and with low pollution in fluidized bed plants. In comparison to biomass there are significant differences between the circulating and stationary fluidized bed technology. The stationary fluidised bed is fed predominantly with biomasses and residual substances. Coal usually is the basis fuel in the circulating fluidised bed. Biomass and residual substances frequently are course-fired. The state of the art is the employment of a broad fuel mixture in small and large fluidized-bed combustion systems. Future developments present an increased use of sewage sludge, fluidized bed combustion systems with wood as a basis fuel, utilization of household waste and the gas production.

  14. 8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.

  15. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  16. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  17. Numerical investigation into premixed hydrogen combustion within two-stage porous media burner of 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen Tzu-Hsiang; Chen Bao-Dong [Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036, Taiwan (China); Hong Wen-Tang; Tsai Yu-Ching; Wang Hung-Yu; Huang Cheng-Nan; Lee Chien-Hsiung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to analyze the combustion of the anode off-gas / cathode off-gas mixture within the two-stage porous media burner of a 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In performing the simulations, the anode gas is assumed to be hydrogen and the combustion of the gas mixture is modeled using a turbulent flow model. The validity of the numerical model is confirmed by comparing the simulation results for the flame barrier temperature and the porous media temperature with the corresponding experimental results. Simulations are then performed to investigate the effects of the hydrogen content and the burner geometry on the temperature distribution within the burner and the corresponding operational range. It is shown that the maximum flame temperature increases with an increasing hydrogen content. In addition, it is found that the burner has an operational range of 1.2--6.5 kW when assigned its default geometry settings (i.e. a length and diameter of 0.17 m and 0.06 m, respectively), but increases to 2--9 kW and 2.6--11.5 kW when the length and diameter are increased by a factor of 1.5, respectively. Finally, the operational range increases to 3.5--16.5 kW when both the diameter and the length of the burner are increased by a factor of 1.5.

  18. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  19. Thermocouples used in emission systems of internal combustion engines; Thermoelemente fuer den Einsatz in Abgassystemen von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Silke; Froehlich, Thomas; Mammen, Helge [Technische Univ. Illmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozessmess- und Sensortechnik; Ament, Christoph; Guether, Thomas [Technische Univ. Illmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungs- und Systemtechnik

    2012-11-01

    Thermocouples used in exhaust systems of combustion engines are exposed to high temperature gradients and temperature leaps ({Delta}T > 900 K), high flow speeds and pressure. When constructing these thermocouples, a compromise is needed between the resulting high demands on the mechanical-thermal stability, accuracy and the fast response time demanded by the servo-control of the motors. Additionally, a numerical correction of the measured signal may contribute to an improved sensor dynamics. (orig.)

  20. Investigation and design optimization of exhaust-based thermoelectric generator system for internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Diao, Hai; Yu, Shuhai; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for exhaust-based thermoelectric waste heat recovery is developed. • Various heat, mass and electric transfer characteristics are elucidated. • Channel size needs to be moderate to balance heat transfer and pressure drop. • Bafflers need to be placed at all locations near all TEG modules. • Baffler angle needs to be sufficiently large, especially for downstream locations. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has attracted considerable attention for the waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine. In this study, a 3-D numerical model for engine exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (ETEG) system is developed. By considering the detailed geometry of thermoelectric generator (TEG) and exhaust channel, the various transport phenomena are investigated, and design optimization suggestions are given. It is found that the exhaust channel size needs to be moderate to balance the heat transfer to TEG modules and pressure drop along channel. Increasing the number of exhaust channels may improve the performance, however, since more space and TEG modules are needed, the system size and cost need to be considered as well. Although only placing bafflers at the channel inlet could increase the heat transfer coefficient for the whole channel, the near wall temperature downstream might decrease significantly, leading to performance degradation of the TEG modules downstream. To ensure effective utilization of hot exhaust gas, the baffler angle needs to be sufficiently large, especially for the downstream locations. Since larger baffler angles increase the pressure drop significantly, it is suggested that variable baffler angles, with the angle increasing along the flow direction, might be a middle course for balancing the heat transfer and pressure drop. A single ETEG design may not be suitable to all the engine operating conditions, and making the number of exhaust channels and baffler angle adjustable according to different engine

  1. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  2. A Dynamic Alignment System for the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.; Plouffe, D.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) was conceived as a technological stepping stone on the way to the next linear collider. Nowhere is this more evident than with the alignment subsystems. Alignment tolerances for components prior to beam turn are almost an order of magnitude smaller than for previous projects at SLAC. Position monitoring systems which operate independent of the beam are employed to monitor motions of the components locally and globally with unprecedented precision. An overview of the FFTB alignment system is presented herein

  3. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  4. Fuels and Combustion | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuels and Combustion Fuels and Combustion This is the March 2015 issue of the Transportation and , combustion strategy, and engine design hold the potential to maximize vehicle energy efficiency and performance of low-carbon fuels in internal combustion engines with a whole-systems approach to fuel chemistry

  5. Pre-Combustion Carbondioxide Capture in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeki YILMAZOĞLU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants have a significant place big proportion in the production of electric energy. Thermal power plants are the systems which converts heat energy to mechanical energy and also mechanical energy to electrical energy. Heat energy is obtained from combustion process and as a result of this, some harmful emissions, like CO2, which are the reason for global warming, are released to atmosphere. The contribution of carbondioxide to global warming has been exposed by the previous researchs. Due to this fact, clean energy technologies are growing rapidly all around the world. Coal is generally used in power plants and when compared to other fossil energy sources unit electricity production cost is less than others. When reserve rate is taken into account, coal may be converted to energy in a more efficient and cleaner way. The aim for using the clean coal technologies are to eradicate the harmful emissions of coal and to store the carbondioxide, orginated from combustion, in different forms. In line with this aim, carbondioxide may be captured by either pre-combustion, by O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems or by post combustion. The integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC are available in pre-combustion capture systems, whereas in O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems there are ultrasuper critical boiler technologies and finally flue gas washing systems by amines exists in post combustion systems. In this study, a pre-combustion CO2 capture process via oxygen blown gasifiers is compared with a conventional power plant in terms of CO2 emissions. Captured carbondioxide quantity has been presented as a result of the calculations made throughout the study.

  6. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E.

  7. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report.

  8. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE's System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E

  9. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE's System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report

  10. Identification of prenatal toxic components of complex PAH mixtures derived from fossil fuel combustion employing rodent embryo culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, T.R.; Akgerman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Many adverse health effects caused by combustion-generated toxins have been recognized for some time. Acute pulmonary toxicity among urban populations has been repeatedly recorded during periods of high smoke, soot, and organo-particulate pollution. The combustion of coals and petroleum-derived fuels results in emission of particulate and organic vapor-phase components to the atmosphere. Isolation of these particle-absorbed compounds and subsequent toxicological testing has further indicated the importance of chronic, low-level exposure to airborne combustion-generated toxins in the etiology of many forms of human cancer; particulate phases of these emissions have been found to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic organic compounds, absorbed onto the particle matrix, which possess potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. In this paper, the authors define a postimplantation rat embryo culture system constructed to identify prenatal toxic components of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soots. Employing this culture system, we also describe its application to identify prenatal toxic components of diesel soot particulates

  11. Transition duct system with arcuate ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-11-07

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include an arcuate connecting segment (36). An arcuate ceramic liner (60) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the arcuate connecting segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  12. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  13. Brayton isotope power system, phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Phase I program resulted in the development and ground demonstration of a dynamic power conversion system. The two key contractual objectives of 25% conversion efficiency and 1000 h of endurance testing were successfully met. As a result of the Phase I effort, the BIPS is a viable candidate for further development into a flight system capable of sustained operation in space. It represents the only known dynamic space power system to demonstrate the performance and endurance coupled with the simplicity necessary for reliable operation. This final report follows thirty-five monthly reports. For expediency, it makes liberal use of referenced documents which have been submitted to DOE during the course of the program

  14. Recommended operating procedure number 56: Collection of gaseous grab samples from combustion sources for nitrous oxide measurement. Final report, Jan-Dec 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.V.; Karns, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    The document is a recommended operating procedure (ROP), prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent analysis of nitrous oxide. The procedure details only the grab sampling methodology and associated equipment

  15. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  16. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  17. Design and testing of a heat pipe gas combustion system for the STM4-120 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, K.; Godett, T. M.; Meijer, R. J.; Verhey, R. P.

    Evaporators of a novel geometry, designed to have a more compact size yet the same output as larger, conventional heat pipes, have been fabricated and tested. A technique was developed to calculate capillary pressure required inside the heat pipe. Several quarter- and full-scale evaporators were designed and successfully tested. The burner, film-cooled combustion chamber, and preheater were designed and tested separately. A complete heat pipe gas combustion system (HPGC) was tested, showing an efficiency of 89 percent was measured at 20 kWth. A film-cooled combustion chamber was tested with flame temperatures of 2200 C and wall temperatures below 1000 C using preheated air for film cooling. Also, a full-scale HPGC was tested at an excess of 95 kWth, showing efficiency in the range of 85 to 90 percent under steady-state conditions. Results of transient and startup tests, carried out to evaluate the performance of the heat pipe, all also reported.

  18. Design and implementation of a control system to improve the quality of the combustion gases in the fire-tube boiler of 5 BHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Pérez Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is the design and implementation of a system for controlling the quality of the combustion gases in a fire-tube boiler of 5 BHP. Based on the percentage of O2 present in the combustion gases, measured by a lambda sensor, the percentage of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere is determined. PID proportional control is responsible for the automatic regulation of the entry of air to the boiler by an actuator, according to the percentage of the oxygen concentration in the combustion gases. The control system has an HMI display and a modular PLC. The results achieved ensure pollutant gases emissions within the parameters established by current environmental standards, achieving the required quality of combustion gases and reducing the fuel consumption of the boiler.

  19. Final design and status of the NSLS vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    We describe the final system, as built, reasons for changes and the general status of the NSLS. The NSLS is a dedicated facility for the purpose of producing synchrotron radiation. It consists of an electron linac-booster injector system, and two storage rings, one for uv research and the other for x-ray research. (Synchrotron radiation is produced by accelerating electrons in the storage rings.) The design current and energies are 1000 ma at 700 MeV for the vuv ring and 500 ma at 2.5 GeV for the x-ray ring. A total of 44 experimental beam ports are available for use. Since each beam port may be divided into two or more experimentall beam lines, it is quite plausible to have upward of 100 simultaneously operating beam lines

  20. Effect of radiative transfer of heat released from combustion reaction on temperature distribution: A numerical study for a 2-D system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huaichun; Ai Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    Both light and heat are produced during a chemical reaction in a combustion process, but traditionally all the energy released is taken as to be transformed into the internal energy of the combustion medium. So the temperature of the medium increases, and then the thermal radiation emitted from it increases too. Chemiluminescence is generated during a chemical reaction and independent of the temperature, and has been used widely for combustion diagnostics. It was assumed in this paper that the total energy released in a combustion reaction is divided into two parts, one part is a self-absorbed heat, and the other is a directly emitted heat. The former is absorbed immediately by the products, becomes the internal energy and then increases the temperature of the products as treated in the traditional way. The latter is emitted directly as radiation into the combustion domain and should be included in the radiation transfer equation (RTE) as a part of radiation source. For a simple, 2-D, gray, emitting-absorbing, rectangular system, the numerical study showed that the temperatures in reaction zones depended on the fraction of the directly emitted energy, and the smaller the gas absorption coefficient was, the more strong the dependence appeared. Because the effect of the fraction of the directly emitted heat on the temperature distribution in the reacting zones for gas combustion is significant, it is required to conduct experimental measurements to determine the fraction of self-absorbed heat for different combustion processes

  1. A new classification system for biomass and waste materials for their use in combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkinson, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomass derived solid fuels for electricity generation in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis plant has received increasing levels of interest for commercial operation in recent years. However, there are limited tools available which allow a prediction of the performance of these fuels during thermochemical transformation given an understanding of their original chemical structure. As such, this investigation has concentrated on the derivation of a simply utilised classificat...

  2. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  3. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  4. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.

    2017-10-01

    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  5. GM's HCCI. In-vehicle experience with a future combustion system; GM's HCCI. Erfahrungen mit einem zukuenftigen Verbrennungssystem im Fahrzeugeinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritze, Stefan; Koenigstein, Achim [Adam Opel GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Rayl, Allen; Chang, Chen-Fang; Najt, Paul; Grebe, Uwe D. [General Motors LLC, Warren/Ponitac, MI (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) stands at General Motors (GM) for the auto-ignition of a homogeneous air-fuel mixture in a gasoline engine. HCCI enables unthrottle operation under part load conditions with the high potential for fuel consumption reduction at lowest NO{sub x} emission levels even with lean mixtures. It is capable to use worldwide available fuel qualities with conventional exhaust aftertreatment. Important requirements for the application in a vehicle are the realization of a large usable steady state map covering lowest engine loads including idle operation and an outstanding transient combustion performance in terms of robustness and responsiveness. The prerequisites to achieve this were set based on a spray-guided gasoline direct injection with a strategy to control the residuals by trapping and recompressing them in the combustion chamber and sensing of individual cylinder pressure. The main characteristics of the combustion system will be discussed. The application in a vehicle sets new targets in terms of engine controller requirements and the complexity of the control algorithms. Considering only indirect control of combustion being very sensitive against extraneous impacts, it becomes extremely challenging to realize robust transitions among the various operation modes. The results achieved with the integration of the presented HCCI combustion system in prototype vehicles of the midsize segment support the chosen development path. Further improvements can be expected considering the latest achievements of the combustion system development. (orig.)

  6. Practical reliability and uncertainty quantification in complex systems : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Boggs, Paul T.; Zurn, Rena M.; Diegert, Kathleen V. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Red-Horse, John Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of Bayesian methods for the estimation of the reliability of complex systems. The goals were to find methods for dealing with continuous data, rather than simple pass/fail data; to avoid assumptions of specific probability distributions, especially Gaussian, or normal, distributions; to compute not only an estimate of the reliability of the system, but also a measure of the confidence in that estimate; to develop procedures to address time-dependent or aging aspects in such systems, and to use these models and results to derive optimal testing strategies. The system is assumed to be a system of systems, i.e., a system with discrete components that are themselves systems. Furthermore, the system is 'engineered' in the sense that each node is designed to do something and that we have a mathematical description of that process. In the time-dependent case, the assumption is that we have a general, nonlinear, time-dependent function describing the process. The major results of the project are described in this report. In summary, we developed a sophisticated mathematical framework based on modern probability theory and Bayesian analysis. This framework encompasses all aspects of epistemic uncertainty and easily incorporates steady-state and time-dependent systems. Based on Markov chain, Monte Carlo methods, we devised a computational strategy for general probability density estimation in the steady-state case. This enabled us to compute a distribution of the reliability from which many questions, including confidence, could be addressed. We then extended this to the time domain and implemented procedures to estimate the reliability over time, including the use of the method to predict the reliability at a future time. Finally, we used certain aspects of Bayesian decision analysis to create a novel method for determining an optimal testing strategy, e.g., we can estimate the 'best' location to

  7. GAT 3 - fuel cells and their management (PACoGES). Progress report; GAT 3 - piles a combustible et leur gestion (PACoGES). Rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2005-07-01

    The Topic Analysis Group PACoGES ('Piles a Combustible et leur Gestion') has conducted thoughts on fuel cells and their management with all the searchers concern with researches and developments on fuel cells and in particular on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, ITSOFC) running at high temperature (600 to 1000 C). This has concerned about 200 searchers working in about fifty laboratories (CNRS, CEA, EDF, GDF, INRETS, CNAM, Armines, and several industrial teams). Here is given the final report 2002-2004 concerning all the researches carried out by this Group. (O.M.)

  8. Application of CO{sub 2} selective membrane reactors in pre-combustion decarbonisation systems for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C.A. Kluiters; Virginie C. Feuillade; Jan Wilco Dijkstra; Daniel Jansen; Wim G. Haije [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    For pre-combustion decarbonisation of fuels for large-scale power production or H{sub 2} generation both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} selective membranes are viable candidates for use in steam reforming and water gas shift membrane reactors. It will be shown that the choice between either option is not a matter of taste, but dictated by the fuel used and, to a lesser extent, the total system layout. Hydrotalcites, clay-like materials, are shown to be promising candidates as membrane material for low temperature, below 400{sup o}C, membrane shift reactors. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  10. Final design of thermal diagnostic system in SPIDER ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H{sup −} production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements. This paper deals with the final design and the technical specification of the thermal sensor diagnostic for SPIDER. In particular the layout of the diagnostic, together with the sensors distribution in the different components, the cables routing and the conditioning and acquisition cubicles are described.

  11. Final design of thermal diagnostic system in SPIDER ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.

    2016-01-01

    The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H"− production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements. This paper deals with the final design and the technical specification of the thermal sensor diagnostic for SPIDER. In particular the layout of the diagnostic, together with the sensors distribution in the different components, the cables routing and the conditioning and acquisition cubicles are described.

  12. Influence of the Structure of a Solid-Fuel Mixture on the Thermal Efficiency of the Combustion Chamber of an Engine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Koznacheev, I. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2014-11-01

    On the basis of thermodynamic calculations, the features of the combustion of a solid-fuel mixture based on the glycidyl azide polymer were investigated, the thermal cycle of the combustion chamber of a model engine system was analyzed, and the efficiency of this chamber was determined for a wide range of pressures in it and different ratios between the components of the combustible mixture. It was established that, when the pressure in the combustion chamber of an engine system increases, two maxima arise successively on the dependence of the thermal efficiency of the chamber on the weight fractions of the components of the combustible mixture and that the first maximum shifts to the side of smaller concentrations of the glycidyl azide polymer with increase in the pressure in the chamber; the position of the second maximum is independent of this pressure, coincides with the minimum on the dependence of the rate of combustion of the mixture, and corresponds to the point of its structural phase transition at which the mole fractions of the carbon and oxygen atoms in the mixture are equal. The results obtained were interpreted on the basis of the Le-Chatelier principle.

  13. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  14. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  15. Exhaust systems for combustion products: solutions and innovations; Les systemes d'evacuation des produits de combustion: solutions et innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France (GdF) for building engineering professionals, about the exhaust systems for gas boilers: 1 - overview of airtight systems: horizontal suction-grip duct, vertical suction-grip duct, collective ducts for tight boilers, separate ducts; 2 - example of products: separate ducts; reuse of an individual smoke duct; 3 - overview of non-airtight exhaust systems: individual smoke ducts, collective smoke ducts, ventilation-gas systems; 4 - examples of non-airtight systems: diagnosis and rehabilitation of smoke ducts, low pressure mechanical exhaust system; 5 - works in progress and perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  16. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  17. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  18. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data

  19. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, J.M., E-mail: jmkr@danfysik.dk [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Budde, M.; Bødker, F. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Irman, A.; Jochmann, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kristensen, J.P. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Lehnert, U.; Michel, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  20. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  1. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  2. Foundations for Improvements to Passive Detection Systems - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labov, S E; Pleasance, L; Sokkappa, P; Craig, W; Chapline, G; Frank, M; Gronberg, J; Jernigan, J G; Johnson, S; Kammeraad, J; Lange, D; Meyer, A; Nelson, K; Pohl, B; Wright, D; Wurtz, R

    2004-01-01

    This project explores the scientific foundation and approach for improving passive detection systems for plutonium and highly enriched uranium in real applications. Sources of gamma-ray radiation of interest were chosen to represent a range of national security threats, naturally occurring radioactive materials, industrial and medical radiation sources, and natural background radiation. The gamma-ray flux emerging from these sources, which include unclassified criticality experiment configurations as surrogates for nuclear weapons, were modeled in detail. The performance of several types of gamma-ray imaging systems using Compton scattering were modeled and compared. A mechanism was created to model the combine sources and background emissions and have the simulated radiation ''scene'' impinge on a model of a detector. These modeling tools are now being used in various projects to optimize detector performance and model detector sensitivity in complex measuring environments. This study also developed several automated algorithms for isotope identification from gamma-ray spectra and compared these to each other and to algorithms already in use. Verification testing indicates that these alternative isotope identification algorithms produced less false positive and false negative results than the ''GADRAS'' algorithms currently in use. In addition to these algorithms that used binned spectra, a new approach to isotope identification using ''event mode'' analysis was developed. Finally, a technique using muons to detect nuclear material was explored

  3. Final focus system tuning studies towards Compact Linear Collider feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E.; Latina, A.; Tomás, R.; Schulte, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the latest results regarding the tuning study of the baseline design of the final focus system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC-FFS). CLIC aims to provide collisions to the experiments at a luminosity above 1034 c m-2 s-1 . In order to deliver such luminosity in a single pass machine, the vertical beam size at the interaction point (IP) is reduced to about 1 nm, which imposes unprecedented tuning difficulties to the system. In previous studies, 90% of the machines reached 90% of the nominal luminosity at the expense of 18 000 luminosity measurements, when considering beam position monitor errors and transverse misalignments of magnets for a single beam case. In the present study, additional static imperfections as, roll misalignments, strength v2.epss are included. Moreover both e- and e+ beamlines are properly simulated. A new tuning procedure based on linear and nonlinear knobs is implemented to effectively cure the most relevant beam size aberrations at the IP. The obtained results for single and double beam studies under solely static imperfections are presented.

  4. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  5. Dissemination of Continuing Education Materials Via Television Delivery Systems. Final Technical Report and Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munushian, Jack

    In 1972, the University of Southern California School of Engineering established a 4-channel interactive instructional television network. It was designed to allow employees of participating industries to take regular university science and engineering courses and special continuing education courses at or near their work locations. Final progress…

  6. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research

  7. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, Peter Gregory [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  8. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  9. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-07-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  10. The E-3 Test Facility at Stennis Space Center: Research and Development Testing for Cryogenic and Storable Propellant Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, John T.; Chandler, Craig A.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader a broad overview of the current upgraded capabilities of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center E-3 Test Facility to perform testing for rocket engine combustion systems and components using liquid and gaseous oxygen, gaseous and liquid methane, gaseous hydrogen, hydrocarbon based fuels, hydrogen peroxide, high pressure water and various inert fluids. Details of propellant system capabilities will be highlighted as well as their application to recent test programs and accomplishments. Data acquisition and control, test monitoring, systems engineering and test processes will be discussed as part of the total capability of E-3 to provide affordable alternatives for subscale to full scale testing for many different requirements in the propulsion community.

  11. Transition duct system with straight ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-05-16

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include a straight path segment (26) for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor. A straight ceramic liner (40) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the straight path segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  12. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  13. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, M.A.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Romanovskii, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review. - Highlights: • Overview of modern TDL-based sensors for combustion • TDL systems, methods of absorption detection and algorithms of data processing • Prominent examples of TDLAS diagnostics of the combustion facilities • Extension of the TDLAS on the tomographic imaging of combustion processes

  14. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  15. Mathematical modelling and laser measurement technique of combustion processes. Final report 1994-1996; Mathematische Modellierung und Lasermesstechnik von Verbrennungsvorgaengen. Abschlussbericht 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Due to financial boundary conditions and greater industrially orientated targets, the project was restructured in its third phase. The general theme `Mathematical modelling and laser measurement technique of combustion processes` was made more precise by the central questions of the Sub-heading `Modelling and validation`. It applies equally as target for the three part projects (a) Modelling process, (b) Standard flames (c) Coal and solid combustion, soot formation, radiation. Due to the preliminary work done, good progress was achieved in all projects, in some cases discoveries were made and new types of projects were developed. The quality and quantity of the basic data as input parameters for modelling and validation data as test parameters for the prediction of the models was expanded further by comparison of different methods of measurement. [Deutsch] Aufgrund der finanziellen Randbedingungen und der staerker industrieorientierten Zielsetzungen wurde das Projekt in seiner dritten Phase neu strukturiert. Das Generalthema `Mathematische Modellierung und Lasermesstechnik von Verbrennungsvorgaengen` wurde um die zentralen Fragestellungen als Zwischenueberschrift praezisiert: `Modellierung und Validierung`. Sie gilt fuer die drei Teilprojekt (a) Modellierungsverfahren (b) Standardflammen (c) Kohle- und Feststoffverbrennung, Russbildung, Strahlung in gleichem Mass als Zielsetzung. In allen Vorhaben konnten aufgrund der geleisteten Vorarbeit gute Fortschritte erzielt werden, in einigen Faellen Entdeckungen gemacht und neuartige Verfahren entwickelt werden. Die Qualitaet und Quantitaet der Basisdaten als Eingangsgroessen fuer die Modellierung und der Validierungsdaten als Testgroessen fuer die Voraussagen der Modelle konnten durch Vergleich unterschiedlicher Messmethoden generell weiter ausgebaut werden. (orig.)

  16. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  17. MEGAS multi-electrode gas sensor system. Final report; MEGAS - Multi-Elektroden-Gassensorsystem. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleter, J.

    2003-07-01

    In the context of the MEGAS project, GTE developed and and constructed an electronic system for controlling and data acquisition of sensors for laboratory and test applications. The system is based on microcontrollers and has a data bus connection. Measurements made in order to find out whether the concentrations of a binary gas mixture and combustion gases are detected separately were successful. A demonstration system was constructed. The MEGAS project showed that it is possible to separate two gases by a sensitive layer at constant sensor temperature. The sensor element is a promising technology. Further research is required on suppressing sensor poisoning by siloxanes, and on reduced sensitivity to interfering gases (e.g. ethanol in the case of combustion gases). (orig.)

  18. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  19. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. Comparative study in LTC Combustion between a short HP EGR loop without cooler and a variable lift and duration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bression, Guillaume; Pacaud, Pierre; Soleri, Dominique; Cessou, Jerome [IFP (France); Azoulay, David [Renault Powertrain Div. (France); Lawrence, David [Mechadyne (United Kingdom); Doradoux, Laurent; Guerrassi, Noureddine [Delphi Diesel Systems (France)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reach future Diesel emission standards such as Euro 6 or Tier 2 Bin 5, NO{sub x} emissions need to be dramatically reduced. Advanced technologies and engine settings such as higher EGR rates, reduced compression ratio, EGR cooler and low-pressure EGR loop - depending on vehicle application - may help to reach this target whilst maintaining low CO{sub 2} emissions and fuel consumption. However, the resulting low combustion temperatures and the low air-fuel ratios lead to a significant increase in HC and CO emissions, especially during the start-up phase prior to catalyst light-off. Moreover, high levels of EGR make transient operation even more difficult. So HC-CO emissions and EGR transient operation represent two key issues that could limit the extension of this alternative combustion mode. Consequently, an in-depth investigation of a variable lift and duration (VLD) system was performed to overcome these problems on a 4-cylinder engine, which was also equipped with a dual HP-LP EGR loop. The VLD system tested in this paper produces a variable camshaft-operated exhaust valve re-opening, which is controlled by a hydraulic rotary actuator, ensuring quick and accurate regulation of the internal gas recirculation (IGR). By increasing gas temperature in the combustion chamber, this advanced technology allows us to reduce HC-CO emissions by 50% under 3 bar BMEP. Although efficient, this technology has to be compared with other solutions from a cost-to-value point of view. The aim of this paper is firstly to compare the double lift exhaust system with a short route high-performance EGR loop without cooler by quantifying their respective gains on steady state points of the NEDC cycle, then by evaluating their potential performances during transient conditions. With the short-route EGR, the potential in HC-CO emission reduction remains significant on a large scale of engine temperatures representative of engine warm up. However, the VLD system allows us to

  1. Experimental findings on thermal use of residues and biofuels in circulating fluidized bed combustion systems; Experimentelle Ergebnisse zur thermischen Nutzung von Rest- und Biobrennstoffen in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Girndt, H. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Albrecht, J. [Lurgi Lentjes Babcock, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Youssef, M. [Minia Univ. (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    The energy Engineering Institute of Dresden Technical University investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of a number of combustion systems, including a circulating fluidized bed system with a capacity of 0.3 MW{sub th}. Egypt`s sugar cane industry produces large volumes of bagasse. The conbustion and emission characteristics of this biofuel in a circulating fludized bed combustion systems were investigated in a joint research project of the University of Minia and Dresden Technical University. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Energietechnik der TU Dresden wird das Verbrennungs- und Emissionsverhalten verschiedenster Brennstoffe in unterschiedlichen Feuerungssystemen untersucht. Neben anderen Pilotanlagen steht eine zirkulierende Wirbelschichtfeuerung (ZWFS) mit einer Leistung von 0.3 MW{sub th} zur Verfuegung. In der Zuckerrohrindustrie Aegyptens fallen grosse Mengen von Bagasse an. In einer gemeinsamen Forschungsarbeit zwischen der Universitaet Minia und der TU Dresden sollte das Verbrennungs- und Emissionsverhalten dieses Biobrennstoffes in einer ZWSF untersucht werden. (orig)

  2. Experimental findings on thermal use of residues and biofuels in circulating fluidized bed combustion systems; Experimentelle Ergebnisse zur thermischen Nutzung von Rest- und Biobrennstoffen in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W; Brunne, T; Girndt, H [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Albrecht, J [Lurgi Lentjes Babcock, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Youssef, M [Minia Univ. (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The energy Engineering Institute of Dresden Technical University investigated the combustion and emission characteristics of a number of combustion systems, including a circulating fluidized bed system with a capacity of 0.3 MW{sub th}. Egypt`s sugar cane industry produces large volumes of bagasse. The conbustion and emission characteristics of this biofuel in a circulating fludized bed combustion systems were investigated in a joint research project of the University of Minia and Dresden Technical University. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Energietechnik der TU Dresden wird das Verbrennungs- und Emissionsverhalten verschiedenster Brennstoffe in unterschiedlichen Feuerungssystemen untersucht. Neben anderen Pilotanlagen steht eine zirkulierende Wirbelschichtfeuerung (ZWFS) mit einer Leistung von 0.3 MW{sub th} zur Verfuegung. In der Zuckerrohrindustrie Aegyptens fallen grosse Mengen von Bagasse an. In einer gemeinsamen Forschungsarbeit zwischen der Universitaet Minia und der TU Dresden sollte das Verbrennungs- und Emissionsverhalten dieses Biobrennstoffes in einer ZWSF untersucht werden. (orig)

  3. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  4. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  5. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  6. Ultra-low pollutant emission combustion method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khinkis, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for ultra-low pollutant emission combustion of fossil fuel. It comprises: introducing into a primary combustion chamber a first fuel portion of about 1 percent to about 20 percent of a total fuel to be combusted; introducing primary combustion air into the primary combustion chamber; introducing a first portion of water into the primary combustion chamber, having a first water heat capacity equivalent to a primary combustion air heat capacity of one of a primary combustion air amount of about 10 percent to about 60 percent of the first stoichiometirc requirement for complete combustion of the first fuel portion and an excess primary combustion air amount of about 20 percent to about 150 percent of the first stoichiometric requirement for complete combustion of the first fuel portion; burning the first fuel portion with the primary combustion air in the primary combustion chamber at a temperature abut 2000 degrees F to about 2700 degrees F producing initial combustion products; passing the initial combustion products into a secondary combustion chamber; introducing into the secondary combustion chamber a second fuel portion of about 80 percent to about 99 percent of the total fuel to be combusted; introducing secondary combustion air into the secondary combustion chamber in an amount of about 105 percent to about 130 percent of a second stoichiometric requirement for complete combustion of the second fuel portion; introducing a second portion of water into the secondary combustion chamber; burning the second fuel portion and any remaining fuel in the initial combustion products; passing the final combustion products into a dilution chamber; introducing dilution air into the dilution chamber; discharging the ultra-low pollutant emission vitiated air form the dilution chamber

  7. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design: Docket Number 52-002. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the System 80+ standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1462 in August 1994 to document the NRC staff's review of the System 80+ design. The System 80+ design was submitted by Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE), in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff's review of the changes to the System 80+ design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. ABB-CE made these changes as a result of its review of the System 80+ design details. The NRC staff concludes that the changes to the System 80+ design documentation are acceptable, and that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ design

  8. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  9. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  11. Start up system for hydrogen generator used with an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen generator provides hydrogen rich product gases which are mixed with the fuel being supplied to an internal combustion engine for the purpose of enabling a very lean mixture of that fuel to be used, whereby nitrous oxides emitted by the engine are minimized. The hydrogen generator contains a catalyst which must be heated to a pre-determined temperature before it can react properly. To simplify the process of heating up the catalyst at start-up time, either some of the energy produced by the engine such as engine exhaust gas, or electrical energy produced by the engine, or the engine exhaust gas may be used to heat up air which is then used to heat the catalyst.

  12. Environmental sensing and combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoleri, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Environmental Sensing and Combustion Diagnostics. Topics covered include: Incineration Systems Applications, Permitting, And Monitoring Overview; Infrared Techniques Applied to Incineration Systems; Continuous Emission Monitors; Analyzers and Sensors for Process Control And Environmental Monitoring

  13. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  14. Study of the chemistry of sulfur- and nitrogen oxides at fluidized bed combustion. Final report; Studier avseende svavel- och kvaeveoxidernas kemi vid fluidiserad foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindqvist, O [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1995-12-01

    Research has been carried out concerning chemistry of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, with relevance to fluidized bed combustion. Studies of the heterogeneous decomposition reactions of NO and N{sub 2}O molecules have also been carried out. The effect of O{sub 2} on the heterogeneous reactions has been investigated and the results indicate that NO can deteriorate only in the reducing zones of a FBC. The formation of NO and N{sub 2}O as well as the question of what parameters affect this formation have been studied in a series of combustion experiments. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that the volatiles and the char are about equally important for the NO and N{sub 2}O formation. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to study the surface processes of the nitrogen oxides. Investigations of the desulfurization reactions at high percentages of CO{sub 2} with special regard to the PFBC technique have been made. In addition, the same reaction has been studied with e.g. spectroscopic methods at normal CO{sub 2} percentages, but with varying amounts of O{sub 2} and CO. CaSO{sub 3} has been demonstrated to be an intermediary and CaS as being one of the products. An important part of the project activities is the analytical work which primarily supports the full scale experiments on the 12 MW{sub th} CTH FBC boiler. As a link between the CTH boiler and our analytical laboratory, a chemical engineer also has been employed. In this activity is also included the development of sampling and analytical methods, e.g. NH{sub 3} and HCN sampling in the combustor. Time has also been allocated to measuring corrosive alkali metals (Na and K) in flue gases from a PFBC plant. 29 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture in air-blown IGCC systems with cold and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, A.; Bonalumi, D.; Lozza, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot fuel gas clean-up is a very favorable technology for IGCC concepts. • IGCC net efficiency reduces to 41.5% when realizing post-combustion CO 2 capture. • Complex IGCC layouts are necessary if exhaust gas recirculation is realized. • IGCC performance does not significantly vary with exhaust gas recirculation. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermodynamic performance of air-blown IGCC systems with post-combustion CO 2 capture by chemical absorption. Two IGCC technologies are investigated in order to evaluate two different strategies of coal-derived gas clean-up. After outlining the layouts of two power plants, the first with conventional cold gas clean-up and the second with hot gas clean-up, attention is paid to the CO 2 capture station and to issues related to exhaust gas recirculation in combined cycles. The results highlight that significant improvements in IGCC performance are possible if hot coal-derived gas clean-up is realized before the syngas fuels the combustion turbine, so the energy cost of CO 2 removal in an amine-based post-combustion mode is less strong. In particular, IGCC net efficiency as high as 41.5% is calculated, showing an interesting potential if compared to the one of IGCC systems with pre-combustion CO 2 capture. Thermodynamic effects of exhaust gas recirculation are investigated as well, even though IGCC performance does not significantly vary against a more complicated plant layout

  16. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  17. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  18. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    In the conditioning plant, fuel elements which have been stored for ten years are loaded into transport containers, unloaded, identified and welded into a dry storage box. The dry store barrel is introduced into a final storage container, which, after being closed, is packed in lost shielding. This so-called final storage barrel is finally placed in a transport container and leaves the conditioning plant in this form by rail for transport to the final storage mine. The fuel element method of treatment 'packing of three complete fuel elements' was used as the reference process. In addition, the method of treatment 'fuel elements dismantled into fuel rods' was also examined. The handling of fuel elements and secondary waste treatment in the reference process are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  19. A final focus system for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Brown, K.; Emma, P.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Wilson, P.

    1995-06-01

    The final focus of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) demagnifies electron and positron beams of 250--750 GeV energy down to a transverse size of about 2.5 x 350 nm 2 at the interaction point (IP). The basic layout, momentum bandwidth, vibration tolerances, wakefield effects, and the tunability of the proposed final focus design are discussed. Also a perspective is given on the crab cavity and on effects of the solenoid field in the interaction region

  20. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    was in collaboration with Prof. R. Bowersox (Texas A&M University) and Dr. K. Kobayashi ( Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA). 4.2 Ignition... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  1. LOFT integral test system final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Safety analyses are presented for the following LOFT Reactor systems: engineering safety features; support buildings and facilities; instrumentation and controls; electrical systems; and auxiliary systems. (JWR)

  2. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  3. Combustion control for diesel engines with direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschke, J.; Henn, M.; Lang, T.; Wendt, J.; Nitzke, H.G.; Mannigel, D. [Volkswagen AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This article looks at a new cylinder pressure-based combustion control for DI diesel engines that has been developed by Volkswagen. This cylinder pressure-based control uses cylinder pressure sensors that are integrated in the glow plugs. The description and the evaluation of these sensors form a main part of this article as they are a central element in the new diesel management system. The test and development phase in connection with a rapid prototyping system and the realisation of the combustion control algorithms in a diesel control unit are also described. Finally, results from use of the closed-loop combustion control with different applications on a diesel engine are presented. (orig.)

  4. Fractionated-combustion analysis of carbonate-containing phases in composite materials of the hydroxyapatite-calcium carbonate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M. A.; Shibaeva, T. V.; Smirnov, V. V.; Kutsev, S. V.; Barinov, S. M.; Grigorovich, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Materials in the hydroxyapatite (HA)-calcium carbonate (CC) system were synthesized by a precipitation method from aqueous solutions. According to the data of X-ray phase analysis and IR spectroscopy, the powders consisted of CC and AB-type carbonate-substituted HA (CHA). In order to determine the content of carbonate-containing phases in materials, the temperature-temporal mode of fractionated-combustion analysis of carbon was developed. The quantitative phase ratios and the degree of substitution of carbonate groups in CHA were determined. It was shown that the degree of substitution of carbonate groups in CHA increased from 2.47 to 5.31 wt % as the CC content increased from 13.50 to 88.33 wt %.

  5. Review of light water reactor regulatory requirements: Assessment of selected regulatory requirements that may have marginal importance to risk: Postaccident sampling system, Turbine missiles, Combustible gas control, Charcoal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.B.; Jamison, J.D.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Vo, T.V.

    1987-05-01

    In a study commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the costs and benefits of modifying regulatory requirements in the areas of the postaccident sampling system, turbine rotor design reviews and inspections, combustible gas control for inerted Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, and impregnated charcoal filters in certain plant ventilation systems. The basic framework for the analyses was that presented in the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines (NUREG/BR-0058) and in the Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (NUREG/CR-3568). The effects of selected modifications to regulations were evaluated in terms of such factors as public risk and costs to industry and NRC. The results indicate that potential modifications of the regulatory requirements in three of the four areas would have little impact on public risk. In the fourth area, impregnated charcoal filters in building ventilation systems do appear to limit risks to the public and plant staff. Revisions in the severe accident source term assumptions, however, may reduce the theoretical value of charcoal filters. The cost analysis indicated that substantial savings in operating costs may be realized by changing the interval of turbine rotor inspections. Small to moderate operating cost savings may be realized through postulated modifications to the postaccident sampling system requirements and to the requirements for combustible gas control in inerted BWR containments. Finally, the use of impregnated charcoal filters in ventilation systems appears to be the most cost-effective method of reducing radioiodine concentrations

  6. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  7. CFD analysis of bubble hydrodynamics in a fuel reactor for a hydrogen-fueled chemical looping combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harichandan, Atal Bihari; Shamim, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational study of the fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion technology. • The results yield better understanding of the bubble hydrodynamics in fuel reactor. • Increasing the reactor bed length increases the conversion rate. • Small oxygen carrier particles improves the conversion rate. - Abstract: This study investigates the temporal development of bubble hydrodynamics in the fuel reactor of a hydrogen-fueled chemical looping combustion (CLC) system by using a computational model. The model also investigates the molar fraction of products in gas and solid phases. The study assists in developing a better understanding of the CLC process, which has many advantages such as being a potentially promising candidate for an efficient carbon dioxide capture technology. The study employs the kinetic theory of granular flow. The reactive fluid dynamic system of the fuel reactor is customized by incorporating the kinetics of an oxygen carrier reduction into a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. An Eulerian multiphase treatment is used to describe the continuum two-fluid model for both gas and solid phases. CaSO 4 and H 2 are used as an oxygen carrier and a fuel, respectively. The computational results are validated with the experimental and numerical results available in the open literature. The CFD simulations are found to capture the features of the bubble formation, rise and burst in unsteady and quasi-steady states very well. The results show a significant increase in the conversion rate with higher dense bed height, lower bed width, higher free board height and smaller oxygen carrier particles which upsurge an overall performance of the CLC plant

  8. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  9. Thermodynamic potential of the spray-guided combustion system for gasoline engines at Mercedes-Benz; Thermodynamisches Potenzial beim strahlgefuehrten Brennverfahren fuer Ottomotoren bei Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaupp, U.; Bertsch, D.; Schaub, R.; Schmolla, W.; Winter, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    From the beginning of the nineteen's the development of DI engines for reducing fuel consumption was reinforced. The focus in studies by Mercedes-Benz was located in the development of a robust stratified operation mode (leaner than stoichiometric {lambda}>>1). To reach the targets the spray guided Mercedes-Benz combustion system with Piezo injection technology was developed and went into series production in the CLS 350 CGI in 2006. Main focus of the development was the control of the spray guided combustion system under mass production requirements by keeping-up the consumption- and emission-potentials. The advantage in fuel consumption in the NEDC of the CLS 350 CGI is 10% in comparison to the basic PFI technology. Besides the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber geometry a new ignition system offers an additional option for a further increase of the combustion efficiency. This article describes how this new ignition system can be used advantageously, how to get a bigger robustness window and how to open up additional reduction of fuel consumption and better untreated emissions. (orig.)

  10. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, B.; Kronschnabel, H.; Mueller, W.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    There is an investigation whether accessibility can be produced to fuel elements stored in a salt mine. All solutions of the problem were followed up until the technically best one was found. Two conditions must be fulfilled for access to the final storage barrel: - There must be a climate which is suitable for people. The Mining Order is the basis for this. - The pit building must be fixed, in the convergence in the salt mine should not lead to it becoming impossible to reach part of the mine. Due to heat-producing waste, rock temperatures are caused in the salt mine, in which mining is no longer possible. Building on the idea of cooling the whole final storage area using concentric sections, the amount of heat to be removal was first estimated. Cooling of the whole final storage area proved to be technically unjustifiable and uninteresting at present. (orig./HP) [de

  11. The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: the Development and Integration Concept for Droplet Combustion Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    using liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. As a result of the concurrent design process of MDCA and CIR, the MDCA team continues to work closely with the CIR team, developing Integration Agreements and an Interface Control Document during preliminary integration activities. Integrated testing of hardware and software systems will occur at the Engineering Model and Flight Model phases. Because the engineering model is a high fidelity unit, it will be upgraded to a flight equivalent Ground Integration Unit (GIU) when the engineering model phase is completed. The GIU will be available on the ground for troubleshooting of any on-orbit problems. Integrated verification testing will be conducted with the MDCA flight unit and the CIR flight unit. Upon successful testing, the MDCA will be shipped to the Kennedy Space Center for a post-shipment checkout and final turn-over to CIR for final processing and launch to the International Space Station. Once on-orbit, the MDCA is managed from the GRC Telescience Support Center (TSC). The MDCA operations team resides at the TSC. Data is transmitted to the PI's at their home sites by means of TREK workstations, allowing direct interaction between the PI and operations staff to maximum science. Upon completion of a PI's experiment, the MDCA is reconfigured for the next of the three follow-on experiments or ultimately removed from the CIR, placed into stowage, and returned to Earth.

  12. Numerical research of heat and mass transfer at the ignition of system “fabric – combustible liquid – oxidant” by the local energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical research was executed for macroscopic regularities determination of heat and mass transfer processes under the conditions of phase transformation and chemical reaction at the ignition of vapour coming from fabrics impregnated by typical combustible liquid into oxidant area at the local power supply. Limit conditions of heterogeneous system “fabric – combustible liquid – oxidant” ignition at the heating of single metal particle was established. Dependences of ignition delay time on temperature and rates of local power source were obtained.

  13. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion -influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [de

  14. The ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] Data Management System: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.L.; Baylor, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) Data Management System (DMG) is a VAX-based software system that provides unified data access for ATF data acquisition and analysis. The system was designed with user accessibility, software maintainability, and extensibility as primary goals. This paper describes the layered architecture of the system design, the system implementation, use, and the data file structure. 3 refs., 1 fig

  15. Final Report. Novel Behavior of Ferromagnet/Superconductor Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, Norman [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Final report for grant DE-FG02-06ER46341. This work has produced a most convincing experimental demonstration that spin-triplet supercurrent can appear in Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials, even when the superconducting electrodes are conventional, spin-singlet superconductors.

  16. Final Report. Novel Behavior of Ferromagnet/Superconductor Hybrid Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birge, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Final report for grant DE-FG02-06ER46341. This work has produced a most convincing experimental demonstration that spin-triplet supercurrent can appear in Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials, even when the superconducting electrodes are conventional, spin-singlet superconductors.

  17. Retrofit MHB Hamm. Process-related optimization of the combustion air system MHB Hamm; Retrofit MHB Hamm. Prozess- und verfahrenstechnische Optimierung des Verbrennungsluftsystems MHB Hamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Frank [SC Schumacher Consulting handelnd fuer Xervon Energy GmbH, Ritterhude (Germany); Lindke, Carsten [MHB Hamm Betriebsfuehrungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamm (Germany); Auel, Werner [Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a process-related optimization of the combustion air system of the waste incinerator Hamm. Subsequently to the historical aspects of this waste incinerator and the development of its calorific values, the authors describe the tender Retrofit, its implementation as well as the first practical experiences.

  18. Potentials of spray-guided combustion systems in combination with downsizing concepts; Potenziale strahlgefuehrter Brennverfahren in Verbindung mit Downsizing-Konzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueckert, Peter; Breitbach, Hermann; Waltner, Anton; Merdes, Norbert; Weller, Ralph [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2006, Mercedes-Benz was the world's first manufacturer to introduce a spray-guided lean-burn combustion system to the gasoline engine, combining high specific engine output with exceptional fuel consumption values. After presenting the technology in the M272 DE six-cylinder engine in 2006, the spray-guided combustion system was introduced in 2010, starting with the new 4.6l biturbo V8 engine as a homogeneous application, followed by the new M276 DE six-cylinder engine with an enhanced lean-burn combustion process as part of the new BlueDIRECT engine generation [3,4]. In the future, the technology will be rolled out with all new 4-cylinder engines. The advantages of the spray-guided lean-burn combustion system are clearly apparent during part load operation of the gasoline engine, both from reduction of throttling losses as well as the improved efficiency of the thermodynamic process. Early on, Mercedes- Benz investigated, whether in conjunction with downsizing the advantages of this combustion system could be retained, if downsizing led to reduction of throttling losses through an increase of the specific output of the engine in the NEDC. Clarification was also required regarding the extent to which turbocharging the engine would create new challenges for the combustion process. This question is discussed on the basis of combustion and emissions investigations. The paper also focuses in particular on the requirements pertaining to the components in the injection system and to the turbocharger in order to achieve the optimum efficiency of the overall system. Likewise, attention is devoted to the challenges regarding the stability and accuracy of the components. As the investigations show, downsizing by means of turbocharging is ideally suitable for combination with the spray-guided lean-burn combustion system. The use of evolved concepts has made it possible to extend the operating range of the stratified combustion system to higher loads, such that even

  19. Thermal Stability, Combustion Behavior, and Mechanical Property in a Flame-Retardant Polypropylene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively improve the strength, toughness, flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and thermal stability of polypropylene (PP, layered double hydroxide (LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH was synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire properties for PP composites containing 1 wt %–20 wt % Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH were investigated. The cone calorimeter tests confirm that the peak heat release rate (pk–HRR of PP–20%LDH was decreased to 500 kW/m2 from the 1057 kW/m2 of PP. The pk–HRR, average mass loss rate (AMLR and effective heat of combustion (EHC analysis indicates that the condensed phase fire retardant mechanism of Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH in the composites. The production rate and mean release yield of CO for composites gradually decrease as Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH increases in the PP matrix. Thermal analysis indicates that the decomposition temperature for PP–5%LDH and PP–10%LDH is 34 °C higher than that of the pure PP. The mechanical tests reveal that the tensile strength of PP–1%LDH is 7.9 MPa higher than that of the pure PP. Furthermore, the elongation at break of PP–10%LDH is 361% higher than PP. In this work, the synthetic LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH can be used as a flame retardant, smoke suppressant, thermal stabilizer, reinforcing, and toughening agent of PP products.

  20. Numerical study with experimental comparison of pressure waves in the air intake system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Carlos E.G.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br; Hanriot, Sergio M. [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mail: hanriot@pucminas.br

    2010-07-01

    The work investigates the pressure waves behavior in the intake system of an internal combustion engine. For the purpose of examining this problem, it was chosen an experimental study in order to validate the results of the present simulation. At the literature there are several experimental studies, and some numerical simulations, but the most of the numerical studies treat the problem only in one dimension in practical problems, or two dimensions in specific problems. Using a CFD code it is possible to analyze more complex systems, including tridimensional effects. The pulsating phenomenon is originated from the periodic movement of the intake valve, and produces waves that propagate within the system. The intake system studied was composed by a straight pipe connected to a 1000 cc engine with a single operating cylinder. The experiments were carried out in a flow bench. In the present work, the governing equations was discretized by Finite Volumes Method with an explicit formulation, and the time integration was made using the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The solution is independent of mesh or time step. The numerical analysis presents a good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  1. Distributed parameter modeling and simulation for the evaporation system of a controlled circulation boiler based on 3-D combustion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yuntao; Lou Chun; Cheng Qiang; Zhou Huaichun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic, distributed parameter model for the evaporation system of a controlled circulation boiler was developed. As an essential basis, the 3-D temperature distribution and the average emissivity of the particle phase inside its furnace can be got by a flame image processing technique from multiple, visible flame image detectors in a real-time combustion monitoring system. Then the transient, 2-D radiation flux can be obtained by solving a set of energy balance equations for the water wall elements, which serves as a distributed boundary condition for the dynamic, distributed parameter model proposed for the evaporation system. For large change of the boiler load, two important parameters, the correction factor of equivalent flame emissivity and the coefficient of the steam mass flow rate at the outlet of the drum, were determined using the operation data from a 300 MW boiler. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results for some main steam parameters of the system with those from measurements. Besides that, the transient distributions of the parameters, such as the steam quality and the mass velocity, were predicted by the model. This model can be used for on-line calculation or off-line prediction of the local abnormal phenomena occurring on the water walls, forming an important basis to effectively evaluate the security and the reliability of a power plant boiler

  2. B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System Description; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This document describes the CVCS system components which include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) coupled with an Operator Interface Unit (OIU) and application software. This document also includes an Alarm Index specifying the setpoints and technical basis for system analog and digital alarms

  3. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 2: Combustion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The influence of injection technology on the fuel-air mixing process and the combustion development are analyzed by means of visualization techniques. For this purpose, two injectors (one solenoid and one piezoelectric) are characterized using an optical accessible two stroke engine. Visualization of liquid penetration has allowed the measurement of the stabilized liquid length, which is related with the efficiency of fuel-air mixing process. A theoretical derivation is used in order to relate this liquid length with chamber conditions, as well as to make a temporal analysis of these phenomena. After this, natural flame emission and chemiluminescence techniques are carried out. These results indicate that the piezoelectric system has a more efficient fuel-air mixing and combustion, reducing the characteristic times as well as soot formation. Finally, a correlation for the ignition delay of the two systems is obtained. (author)

  4. Hydrogen or Fossil Combustion Nuclear Combined Cycle Systems for Baseload and Peak Load Electricity Production. Annex X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    A combined cycle power plant is described that uses: (i) heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to meet baseload electrical demands; and (ii) heat from the same high temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen to meet peak load electrical demands. For baseload electricity production, fresh air is compressed, then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900{sup o}C by using heat provided by a high temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat transport loop, and finally exits through a high temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts and heats the air to 1300{sup o}C - the operating conditions for a standard natural gas fired combined cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until required. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electrical grid can vary from zero (i.e. when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. As nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electrical grid. This combined

  5. NNWSI project information management system concepts evaluation report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report is intended as a first step in developing detailed information management system specifications for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The current state of information management at the NNWSI Project level is investigated and an information management system (IMS) is proposed. The IMS as it relates to aspects of Project and records management is discussed. Information management concepts and prospective IMS system components are investigated. Concepts and system components include: indexing, searching, retrieval, data base management system technology, computers, storage media, computer-assisted retrieval (CAR) of microfilm, electronic imaging-based systems, optical character recognition, and communications. Performance criteria and desirable system attributes applicable to the IMS are discussed. Six conceptual system approaches capable of satisfying the performance criteria are defined. System approaches include: fully centralized microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 1), partially distributed microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 2), fully distributed microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 3), fully centralized optical disk system based on electronic image and full-text retrieval (Approach 4), partially distributed optical system based on electron image and full-text retrieval (Approach 5), and fully distributed optical disk system based on electronic image and full-text retrieval (Approach 6). Technical and cost considerations associated with the six conceptual approaches are evaluated. Technical evaluation results indicate Approach 4 is the best conceptual approach, and cost evaluation results show no significant differences among approaches. On the basis of the evaluation, Approach 4 is recommended

  6. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  7. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  8. Combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine with independent intake port injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Chen, Xu; Lin, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different injection approaches for n-butanol and gasoline affect combustion events. • High n-butanol percentage in the total energy of fuels improves combustion stability. • N-butanol promotes ignition and shortens combustion duration. • Lean burn increases indicated mean effective pressure at fixed total energy of fuels. • Different fuel injection methods slightly affect indicated mean effective pressure. - Abstract: N-butanol, as a sustainable biofuel, is usually used as a blend with gasoline in spark ignition engines. In this study, the combustion characteristics were investigated on a four-cylinder spark ignition gasoline engine with independent port fuel injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline in different operating conditions. The results show that in the case of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direct injection gasoline at a given total energy released in a cycle, indicated mean effective pressure is slightly affected by spark timing at stoichiometry while it changes much more with delayed spark timing in lean burn conditions and is much higher in lean burn conditions compared to stoichiometry at given spark timings. With the increase of n-butanol percentage in a fixed total energy released in a cycle at given spark timings, ignition timing advances, combustion duration shortens, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency increase. For the cases of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direction injection gasoline and port fuel injection of gasoline with direction injection n-butanol at a fixed total energy released in a cycle, their indicated mean effective pressures are close. But their combustion processes are dependent on fuel injection approaches.

  9. Biomass combustion power generation technologies: Background report 4.1 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Van Wijk, A.

    1995-05-01

    New developments in biomass combustion technology in progress tend to go towards efficiencies which come close to the present fossil fuel fired systems. The objective of this study is to give a representation of the state of the art and future prospects of biomass combustion technologies and to compare those on a location-independent basis. This will be done both by a general boiler technology description on the basis of qualitative criteria and by a comparison of most recently built and planned power plants on more quantitative grounds. The methodology which has been used in gathering, selecting, presenting and comparing the information is discussed in chapter 2. In chapter 3, a general introduction is given on some basic principles of biomass combustion technology. This includes the combustion process, the Rankine steam cycle and NO x formation. Different boiler technologies which are in use for biomass combustion power generation are discussed in chapter 4. The main groups of boilers which are discussed are the pile burners, stoker fired boilers, suspension fired boilers and fluidized bed boilers. The description focuses on aspects such as construction, operation, fuel requirements, efficiencies and emissions. Chapter 5 deals with individual existing or planned biomass combustion plants, resulting from an international inventory. All the different technologies which have been discussed in chapter 4 are discussed in chapter 5 in the context of complete power plants. The information which is presented for each plant comprises a technical description, efficiencies, emissions and investment costs. At the end of chapter 5 an overview of comparable data from the literature is given, as well as an overview of the results of the inventory. 32 figs., 28 tabs., 4 appendices., 51 refs

  10. Drainage facility management system : final report, June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This research project identified requirements for a drainage facility management system for the Oregon Department of Transportation. It also estimated the personnel resources needed to collect the inventory to populate such a system with data. A tota...

  11. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system

  12. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented

  13. Interfacing system isolation experience review. Final report, August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    A light water reactor power plant has auxiliary systems interconnected with the reactor coolant system that are not designed for reactor operating pressure. These principally include the shutdown heat removal systems and various emergency core cooling injection systems. There are multiple isolation valves that prevent rector vessel pressure from causing overpressurization in low pressure interfacing systems. Combinations of hardware failures or operational errors are necessary to expose these systems to overpressurization. This experience review provides insights regarding the risk that an auxiliary system might become over pressurized from the reactor system. While analyses show that for the pressures involved the probability of auxiliary system failure is low, the auxiliary system conceivably might fail outside of containment while the plant is at power. Such a potential event has come to be called an interfacing system loss of coolant accident (ISLOCA). This report provides a compilation of occurrences where valve leakage, valve failure, or valve mispositioning played a role in the ability to maintain interfacing system isolation. Seventeen U.S. BWR events, twenty three U.S. PWR events and one foreign event are discussed in the report. Eleven of the U.S. BWR events and ten U.S. PWR events are judged to relate directly to the so-called ISLOCA event in that they fulfilled one or more of the failures necessary to cause an ISLOCA. (author)

  14. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    sludge in coal-fired power stations is state of the art and carried out at various sites. It can be expected that co-combustion of waste wood will be introduced in the future on a wider scale. For both supplementary fuels, there was a fuel market already established, or it could build itself on available structures. The practice of these projects brought about ample experience with the supply of the supplementary fuels and the effects of co-combustion on system operation. The knowledge thus gained can be used when further supplementary fuels shall be introduced in the large power-station park of Germany. The facts and data compiled point out in addition where possibilities for improvement exists and which subjects require further investigation. (orig.) [German] Die Mitverbrennung von Abfaellen in Kraftwerken bietet sich als eine zusaetzliche Option zur thermischen Behandlung bestimmter Abfallstoffe und damit zur Einhaltung der Vorgaben der TA-Siedlungsabfall an. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung ist der Wissensstand zur Mitverbrennung in Kohlekraftwerken fuer Klaerschlamm, Biomasse und ausgewaehlte Abfallstoffe zusammengefasst. Die Ergebnisse sollen eine umfangreiche Hilfe zur Beurteilung der Verfahren zur Verfuegung stellen, um so einen Beitrag zur Beseitigung von Unsicherheiten, sowohl bei Anlagenbetreibern als auch auf der Seite der Aufsichtsbehoerden, zu leisten. Ausserdem sollen mit Hilfe der erarbeiteten Erkenntnisse bestehende Wissensluecken, der notwendige Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf und der Handlungsbedarf des Gesetzgebers aufgezeigt werden. Durch direkte Recherche bei Entsorgungsunternehmen, den Kraftwerksbetreibern und auch den Genehmigungs- und Aufsichtsbehoerden wurde die Literaturarbeit ergaenzt und ein umfassendes Bild der aktuellen Situation in Deutschland erarbeitet. Es werden die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen der Mitverbrennung und Zusatzbrennstoffpotentiale aufgezeigt. Die verfahrenstechnische Verwirklichung der Mitverbrennung wird dargestellt

  15. Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Nanoscale Al/AgIO3: A Potential Energetic Biocidal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to release iodine in addition to oxygen. The reacted product was collected to investigate the final state of the products. Trans- mission electron...Quantachrome Autosorb 1C surface analyzer, using low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. High-speed digital video imaging was conducted with a Vision ...a tesla coil (tip of wire visible in the upper left corner of the top images). Images were recorded at 10-ms intervals, using a 2-ms exposure. The Al

  16. Early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in underground coal mines with development of an ethylene enriching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jun; Xue, Sheng [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Kenmore (Australia); Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Gang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal (sponcom) is a major hazard in underground coal mining operations. If not detected early and managed properly, it can seriously affect mine safety and productivity. Gaseous products of sponcom, such as carbon monoxide, ethylene and hydrogen, are commonly used in coal mines as indicators to reflect the state of the sponcom. Studies have shown that ethylene starts to occur when sponcom reaches a characteristic temperature. However, due to dilution of ventilation air and detection limits of the instruments used for gas analysis at coal mines, ethylene cannot be detected until the sponcom has developed past its early stage, missing an optimum opportunity for mine operators to control the hazard. To address the issue, an ethylene-enriching system, based on its physical adsorption and desorption properties, has been developed to increase detection sensitivity of the ethylene concentration in mine air by about 10 times. This system has successfully been applied in a number of underground coal mines in China to detect sponcom at its early stage and enable mine operators to take effective control measures. This paper describes the ethylene enriching system and its application. (author)

  17. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky (final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-07

    A contract was awarded in June 1976 for the installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system at 2400 Watteroon Trail, Louisville, Kentucky. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to the existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq ft office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offered a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site. The two systems are described in detail and information on the data acquisition system is included.

  18. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance

  19. Technology verification phase. Dynamic isotope power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.G.

    1982-03-10

    The Phase I requirements of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) program were to make a detailed Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) for an isotope fueled organic Rankine cycle power system and to build and test a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) which simulated as closely as possible the operational characteristics of the FSCD. The activities and results of Phase II, the Technology Verification Phase, of the program are reported. The objectives of this phase were to increase system efficiency to 18.1% by component development, to demonstrate system reliability by a 5000 h endurance test and to update the flight system design. During Phase II, system performance was improved from 15.1% to 16.6%, an endurance test of 2000 h was performed while the flight design analysis was limited to a study of the General Purpose Heat Source, a study of the regenerator manufacturing technique and analysis of the hardness of the system to a laser threat. It was concluded from these tests that the GDS is basically prototypic of a flight design; all components necessary for satisfactory operation were demonstrated successfully at the system level; over 11,000 total h of operation without any component failure attested to the inherent reliability of this type of system; and some further development is required, specifically in the area of performance. (LCL)

  20. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  1. Sensitivity analysis of large system of chemical kinetic parameters for engine combustion simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, H; Sanz-Argent, J; Petitpas, G; Havstad, M; Flowers, D

    2012-04-19

    In this study, the authors applied the state-of-the art sensitivity methods to downselect system parameters from 4000+ to 8, (23000+ -> 4000+ -> 84 -> 8). This analysis procedure paves the way for future works: (1) calibrate the system response using existed experimental observations, and (2) predict future experiment results, using the calibrated system.

  2. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, S; Suzuki, T; Yamamoto, M [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Evaluation of Instructional Systems RUPS and TABA. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Phillip M.

    An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of dissemination of the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (Rups) and Development of Higher Level Thinking Abilities (TABA) instructional systems developed by the Northwest Regional Laboratory (NWREL), the degree of conformity between the RUPS and TABA systems as developed and as used in the…

  4. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  5. OLAP: A Fast, Easy, Affordable Executive Information System--Finally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Henry M.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Rochester's experience with online analytical processing (OLAP), part of its executive information system, is reported. The server, a multiuser, local area network (LAN)-based database loaded from legacy systems or a data warehouse, can rapidly manipulate and display data, and allows quick creation and changing of analytical…

  6. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  7. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy

  8. HVAC systems and nuclear plant safety. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide perspective on the overall risk impact of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system problems. Industry experience with HVAC system problems is documented and analyzed. In addition, the results of 10 plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) were reviewed to determine the contribution of HVAC systems to the risk of core damage. The PRAs included in this review cover a broad range of plant types and operating conditions. The review found that the impact of HVAC systems on risk is plant specific. These results exhibit a broad range of frequencies for HVAC contribution to risk, and the percentage of total core damage due to HVAC problems also had a wide variability. Plant-specific differences in design, environment, operation, and maintenance are the primary factors in determining the risk contribution of HVAC systems. (author)

  9. Experimental study on the effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics in a premixed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Lee, Chang-Eon; Kum, Sung Min; Lee, Seungro

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics were experimentally studied in a premixed combustion system with a cross-flow staggered-tube heat exchanger. The various heat exchanger modules, from 4 to 8, combined with a premixed burner were tested to investigate the performance of the heat exchanger through the surface area of the heat exchanger at various equivalence ratios. Additionally, the performance of the heat exchanger was analyzed by applying entropy generation theory to the heat exchanger system. As a result, although the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the equivalence ratio, the NOx and CO concentrations also increase due to the increasing flame temperature. In addition, the entropy generation increases with an increase of the equivalence ratio. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate and the effectiveness are increased with the increase of the number of the heat exchanger modules. Also, the effectiveness is sharply increased when the number of the heat exchanger modules is increased from 4 to 5. Consequently, the optimal operating conditions regarding pollutant emission, effectiveness and entropy generation in this experimental range are 0.85 for the equivalence ratio and 8 for the number of heat exchanger modules

  10. Impurity impacts on the purification process in oxy-fuel combustion based CO2 capture and storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Yan, J.; Yan, J.; Anheden, M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the requirements of CO 2 transportation and storage, non-condensable gases, such as O 2 , N 2 and Ar should be removed from the CO 2 -stream captured from an oxy-fuel combustion process. For a purification process, impurities have great impacts on the design, operation and optimization through their impacts on the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 -streams. Study results show that the increments of impurities will make the energy consumption of purification increase; and make CO 2 purity of separation product and CO 2 recovery rate decrease. In addition, under the same operating conditions, energy consumptions have different sensitivities to the variation of the impurity mole fraction of feed fluids. The isothermal compression work is more sensitive to the variation of SO 2 ; while the isentropic compression work is more sensitive to the variation of Ar. In the flash system, the energy consumption of condensation in is more sensitive to the variation of Ar; but in the distillation system, the energy consumption of condensation is more sensitive to the variation of SO 2 , and CO 2 purity of separation is more sensitive to the variation of SO 2 . (author)

  11. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  12. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  13. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  14. Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System. Final evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.; Newton, R.D.

    1986-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission of an unobtrusive, voluntary, anonymous third-party managed, nonpunitive human factors data gathering system (the Nuclear power Safety Reporting System - NPSRS) for the nuclear electric power production industry. The data to be gathered by the NPSRS are intended for use in identifying and quantifying the factors that contribute to the occurrence of significant safety incidents involving humans in nuclear power plants. The NPSRS has been designed to encourage participation in the System through guarantees of reporter anonymity provided by a third-party organization that would be responsible for NPSRS management. As additional motivation to reporters for contributing data to the NPSRS, conditional waivers of NRC disciplinary action would be provided to individuals. These conditional waivers of immunity would apply to potential violations of NRC regulations that might be disclosed through reports submitted to the System about inadvertent, noncriminal incidents in nuclear plants. This document summarizes the overall results of the study of the NPSRS concept. In it, a functional description of the NPSRS is presented together with a review and assessment of potential problem areas that might be met if the System were implemented. Conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are also presented. A companion volume (NUREG/CR-4133, Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System: Implementation and Operational Specifications'') presented in detail the elements, requirements, forms, and procedures for implementing and operating the System. 13 refs

  15. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  16. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the

  17. Automated personnel data base system specifications, Task V. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Bocast, A.K.; Deppner, F.O.; Harrison, O.J.; Kraas, I.W.

    1978-11-01

    The full title of this study is 'Development of Qualification Requirements, Training Programs, Career Plans, and Methodologies for Effective Management and Training of Inspection and Enforcement Personnel.' Task V required the development of an automated personnel data base system for NRC/IE. This system is identified as the NRC/IE Personnel, Assignment, Qualifications, and Training System (PAQTS). This Task V report provides the documentation for PAQTS including the Functional Requirements Document (FRD), the Data Requirements Document (DRD), the Hardware and Software Capabilities Assessment, and the Detailed Implementation Schedule. Specific recommendations to facilitate implementation of PAQTS are also included

  18. Laser fusion systems design study. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This study investigated: (1) the formulation and evaluation of an alignment system to accomplish pointing, focusing, centering and translation for the 20-arm SHIVA laser, (2) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of static phase distortions introduced by the accumulated optical elements in the laser chains, (3) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of optical path length differences between the arms of the SHIVA system, and (4) the conceptual design of appropriate control system hardware. (U.S.)

  19. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  20. Development of a ceramic heat exchanger for a combined cycle plant with pressurized coal dust combustion. Final report; Entwicklung eines keramischen Waermeaustauschers fuer eine Kombianlage mit Kohlenstaubdruckfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R.; Ehlers, C.

    2001-12-01

    State of Research: The Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion Combined Cycle (PPCCCC) with a directly fired gas turbine can reach electrical efficiencies beyond 50%. The required gas quality upstream the gas turbine has not been reached yet at temperatures above 1000 C. One approach tested is the precipitation of ash and alkalines at temperatures above the ash melting point. This principle contains problems concerning the remaining content of ash and alkalines in the flue gas and damages to the refractory materials due to corrosion. Goal of the Investigation: An alternative process had to be investigated in which the flue gas is cleaned according to the state of the art, i.e. below the ash fusion temperature. This principle requires cooling down the flue gas and heating it up again after cleaning in a high temperature heat exchanger. Method: A ceramic tube-and-shell heat exchanger in a model scale was designed and was operated at realistic conditions in an atmospheric test plant in connection with a high temperture precipitation. Result: The heat exchanger showed a good performance concerning design and material. The expected temperatures were not reached totally because of untight joints. Clogging occurred in the tube entrances at high temperatures because of sintered ash agglomerates. First tests to clean the entrances during operation showed positive results. The ash precipitation by means of a cyclone and ceramic filter candles was performed without difficulties. Conclusion: Avoiding and improving joints will help to achieve higher temperatures. A process of cleaning the tubes in-line has to be introduced to prevent the clogging effects. If this is successfully done for high temperatures, an attractive principle for a PPCCCC-process is available which reaches the gas purity required. (orig.) [German] Derzeitiger Stand der Forschung: Der Kohlenstaubdruckfeuerungs-Kombiprozess mit direkt befeuerter Gasturbine verspricht elektrische Wirkungsgrade ueber 50%. Die