WorldWideScience

Sample records for combustion products analyzer

  1. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  2. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer – Combustion Products, used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events, is being...

  3. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products is used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events and, after...

  4. Combustion synthesis method and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  5. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  6. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  7. Kinetics and Product Channels in Combustion Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, John F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2017-02-28

    We report study of the chemical kinetics and/or photochemistry of several chemical reactions of potential interest in understanding the gas phase combustion chemistry of nitrogen-containing molecules. Studies completed during the final grant period include determination of quantum yields of the photolysis of HCNO, fulminic acid, a kinetics and product channel study of the reaction of CN radicals with methyl bromide, and study of the products of the reaction of hydroxymethyl radical with nitric oxide.

  8. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    space, (5) conservation of natural resources, (6) better products and significant technical benefits, (7) reduction in the cost of energy production for utilities, (8) substantial savings for endusers, (9) continued economic competitiveness of coal as a fossil fuel, (10) cleaner and safer environment, (11) reduced social costs, and (12) greater economic development.

  9. A method for analyzing strategic product launch

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO Junji

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to analyze how the manufacturers make product launch decisions in a multi-product oligopoly market, and how the heterogeneity in their products affects the manufacturers' decisions on model launch and withdrawal.

  10. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  11. Coal combustion products. A global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Craig [Ash Development Association Australia, Wollongong (Australia); Feuerborn, Hans-Joachim [European Coal Combustion Products Association, Essen (Germany); Weir, Anne [Association of Canadian Industries Recycling Coal Ash (CIRCA), London (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale use of coal in power generation gives rise to significant quantities of coal combustion products (CCP) from which important 'hard won' end use markets have been established. Current global CCP production and utilisation including volume and value of international trade will be discussed. An overview of country-specific classification systems for CCPs will be discussed, moreover the important role of legislation in creating legal certainty for the ongoing investment in CCPs management and market development. (orig.)

  12. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  13. Fire fighters, combustion products, and urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial cancer may be induced by different workplace chemicals, including carcinogenic aromatic amines, coke oven fumes, and cigarette smoking. The general impact of combustion products on urothelial cancer risk of exposed persons is still controversial. This raises the question whether fire fighters may have an increased risk for urothelial cancer. The present review compiles the literature on combustion products, possibly relevant for fire fighters, and the available studies on urinary bladder cancer risk in fire fighters. Chemical analyses of smoke from experimental fires as well as from fires in cities, wildlands, and industry do not indicate a generally elevated risk of bladder cancer in fire fighters. This is supported by studies on bladder cancer in fire fighters. Based on mortality studies, studies on exposures, and cancer incidence, we conclude that an elevated risk of urothelial cancer in fire fighters, in general, is not confirmed. Only in professional fire fighters more severely exposed for decades, having started their career some decades before, occupational exposure might be discussed as causative for urothelial cancer.

  14. Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Bartelds, H.; Weger, D. de

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data on the generation of toxic combustion products and to get more insight into the risks of fires in pesticide warehouses TNO performed the research project 'Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires'. The following research activities have been performed during th

  15. Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Bartelds, H.; Weger, D. de

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data on the generation of toxic combustion products and to get more insight into the risks of fires in pesticide warehouses TNO performed the research project 'Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires'. The following research activities have been performed during

  16. Analyzing efficiency of vegetable production in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the production technology and efficiency of vegetable production and marketing at the farm level in Benin. Using recent advances in cross sectional efficiency analysis, we analyze two samples of vegetable producers following different perspectives.

  17. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  18. Assessment of Combustion and Potash Production as Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: This study assessed combustion and potash production as options for management of wood waste. The percentage ... of solid wastes being generated in Nigeria every day. One of the .... Conference on Renewable Energy for.

  19. Sources of Combustion Products: An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to environmental tobacco smoke, other sources of combustion products are unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, woodstoves, fireplaces, and gas stoves. The major pollutants released are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles.

  20. Qualification of numerical software. Application to a Software for analyzing combustion in spark-ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilain, S. (Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France) Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France) Ecole Nationale Superieure du Petrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Vignes, J. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France) Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    For analyzing physical phenomena, numerical simulation is used more and more frequently. Starting with a mathematical model describing the phenomenon being analyzed, this simulation consists in creating a scientific computing program expressing this model by implementing the numerical methods required for solving it. Simulation is considered to be valid when the results its provides are in agreement with the results issuing from experimenting with the phenomenon. However, these results contain a computing error resulting from the propagation of round-off errors caused by the floating-point arithmetic used by the computer. They also contain an error coming from the uncertainties concerning the data of the problem. The first part of this paper concerns the validation of numerical software results. After making a brief review of the floating-point arithmetic and highlighting the serious consequences it may have on the results obtained, a probabilistic approach to the analysis of round-off errors, the CESTAC (Controle et Estimation STochastique des Arrondis de Calculs) method, from the standpoint of both its theoretical bases and its practical implementation is described. The second part is devoted to the use of the CADNA software (Control of Accuracy and Debugging for Numerical Applications) for qualifying the simulation software, ANALCO (ANALyse de COmbustion) which analyses combustion in spark-ignition engines. After a description of the normal model of the phenomenon being analyzed and after mathematical model has been deduced, the ANALCO simulation software is described. The results obtained with ANALCO, not using CADNA, reveal the disagreement between the simulation results and the experimental results. The use of the CADNA software eliminates the numerical instabilities and demonstrates that the disagreement between the simulation results and the results observed is due only to numerical problems. (author). 22 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Ignition of Metal Powders in Combustion Products of Model Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-13

    y AD/A-001 172 IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL A. K. Klyauzov, et al Foreign Technology...S. Air Force UNCLASSIFIED »b. s»ouc » "I»0«T TITLE IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL f* OCJCPIPTIVK NOTKI (Typ* o...report mnd Inclumiv «**»••) Translation S »UTMö«I|I ( Firn tSSS», rnlddl* Inltlml, faar .tarna; A. K. Klyauzov, M. M. Arsh, et al 6

  2. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  3. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, H A; Kerkhof, M; Vries, H

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size. Real-time measurements were made of CO, CO(2), temperature, and water vapor, and passive sampling was performed of nitrogen oxides, over a week-long period in 74 kitchens. During the measurements, inhabitants kept a diary to record appliance use time and use of ventilation provisions. The questionnaire-based and diary-based home classifications for the 'Chance of Accumulation of Combustion Products' (CACP) turned out to agree fairly well. For CO(2) as well as for CO a significant difference between the 'high' and 'low' CACP groups was found for the mean accumulation in the kitchen during cooking of the combustion generated concentrations. These facts are considered to be important experimental evidence of the CACP stratification being valid for our study population. In the homes studied, NO(2) as well as CO concentrations were found to be lower compared with previous studies in The Netherlands. Practical Implications Previous studies on indoor combustion product dispersal conducted in the early- to mid-1980s in the Netherlands showed much higher NO(2) and CO concentrations than the present study. Apparently, the removal of combustion products formed during cooking is more efficient in the (mostly newer) homes that we studied than in the homes studied in the early- to mid-1980s. More detailed knowledge of kitchen situations is needed to improve the CACP model. Future studies can achieve this by using questionnaires on the kitchen situation, diaries and real-time measurements of the combustion products under consideration.

  4. Thermal radiation of heterogeneous combustion products in the model rocket engine plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, V. A.; Maratkanova, E. I.; Zagray, I. A.; Rukavishnikova, R. V.

    2015-05-01

    The work presents a method of complex investigation of thermal radiation emitted by heterogeneous combustion products in the model rocket engine plume. Realization of the method has allowed us to obtain full information on the results in all stages of calculations. Dependence of the optical properties (complex refractive index), the radiation characteristics (coefficients and cross sections) and emission characteristics (flux densities, emissivity factors) of the main determining factors and parameters was analyzed. It was found by the method of computational experiment that the presence of the gaseous phase in the combustion products causes a strongly marked selectivity of emission, due to which the use of gray approximation in the calculation of thermal radiation is unnecessary. The influence of the optical properties, mass fraction, the function of particle size distribution, and the temperature of combustion products on thermal radiation in the model rocket engine plume was investigated. The role of "spotlight" effect-increasing the amount of energy of emission exhaust combustion products due to scattering by condensate particles radiation from the combustion chamber-was established quantitatively.

  5. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; De Vries, H

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size. Real

  6. Mineralogy of clean coal combustion by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ligang Wang; Changhe Chen; Kruse H. Kolker

    2004-01-01

    Coal combustion technologies are changing in order to bum coal more cleanly. Many "clean combustion" and postcombustion technologies are developed to remove SO2 and NOx gases, particulate matter during combustion, or from the flue gases leaving the furnace. This paper focuses on three types of fly ash (flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residuals, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) residuals and sorbent duct injection (SDI) residuals) which produced by "the clean combustion" and postcombustion technologies. The residuals formed by FGD are PCFA (pulverized coal fly ash) grains entrained with reacted and unreacted sorbent and have lower bulk densities than PCFA grains because it contains higher concentrations of calcium and sulfur, and lower concentrations of silicon, aluminum and iron than PCFAs. AFBC residuals consist of spent bed which is a heterogeneous mixture of coarse-grained bed material and irregularly shaped, unfused, spherical PCFAs. The main crystalline phases in AFBC residuals are anhydrite (reacted sorbent), quartz and lime (unreacted sobent), calcite, hematite, periclase, magnetite and feldspars.The residuals produced by SDI contained 65%-70% PCFA with the larger sizes material being irregularly shaped, fused or roughedged. The reaction products of sorbent (portlandite and lime) included calcium sulfate (anhydrite) and calcium sulfate. The chemical properties of these residuals are similar to those of high calcium PCFAs because of the high alkalinity and high pH of these residuals.

  7. Confined combustion of TNT explosion products in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, J; Ferguson, R E; Forbes, J; Kuhl, A L; Oppenheim, A K; Spektor, R

    1998-08-31

    Effects of turbulent combustion induced by explosion of a 0.8 kg cylindrical charge of TNT in a 17 m3 chamber filled with air, are investigated. The detonation wave in the charge transforms the solid explosive (C7H5N3O6) to gaseous products, rich (~20% each) in carbon dust and carbon monoxide. The detonation pressure (~210 kb) thereby engendered causes the products to expand rapidly, driving a blast wave into the surrounding air. The interface between the products and air, being essentially unstable as a consequence of strong acceleration to which it is subjected within the blast wave, evolves into a turbulent mixing layer-a process enhanced by shock reflections from the walls. Under such circumstances rapid combustion takes place where the expanded detonation products play the role of fuel. Its dynamic effect is manifested by the experimental measurement of ~3 bar pressure increase in the chamber, in contrast to ~1bar attained by a corresponding TNT explosion in nitrogen. The experiments were modeled as a turbulent combustion in an unmixed system at infinite Reynolds, Peclet and DamkGhler numbers. The CFD solution was obtained by a high-order Godunov scheme using an AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) to trace the turbulent mixing on the computational grid in as much detail as possible. The evolution of the mass fraction of fuel consumed by combustion thus determined exhibited the properties of an exponential decay following a sharp initiation. The results reveal all the dynamic features of the exothermic process of combustion controlled by fluid mechanic transport in a highly turbulent field, in contrast to those elucidated by the conventional reaction-diffusion model.

  8. Combustion of TNT products in a confined explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, R E; Kuhl, A L; Oppenheim, A K

    1999-06-18

    The effects of turbulent combustion of detonation products gases in a confined explosion are explored via laboratory experiments and high-resolution numerical simulations. The expanded products from the detonation of a TNT charge are rich in C and CO, which act as a fuel. When these hot gases mix with air, they are oxidized to CO2--thereby releasing 2482 Cal/g in addition to the 1093 Cal/g deposited by the detonation wave. In this case, the exothermic power is controlled by the turbulent mixing rate, rather than by chemistry. A kinetic law of turbulent combustion is suggested for this process. Pressure histories from the numerical simulations were in good agreement with the experimental measurements--demonstrating that the numerical model contains the fundamental mechanism that controls the exothermic process.

  9. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army's Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Numerical investigation on hydrogen production by CH4-Rich combustion in an alumina foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The two-phase volume-averaged model with the detailed chemistry reaction mechanism GRI 3.0 was adopted in the quasi-steady-state simulation of hydrogen production by CH4-rich filtration combustion in an alumina foam under fully developed conditions. The relations among the combustion wave velocity, the inlet gas velocity and the equivalence ratio were discussed, and their influences on the distributions of temperature and species in the alumina foam and on H2 yield, CH4 conversion, H2 selectivity and CO selectivity were analyzed in detail. The results show that the combustion wave velocity increases with the increase of equivalence ratio or inlet gas velocity. The H2 yield exceeded 50% with equivalence ratio between 2.0 and 3.0 and combustion wave velocity larger than 0.4 mm/s. The H2 selectivity exceeded 50% with equivalence ratio larger than 2.0 and CO selectivity exceeded 80% with equivalence ratio between 1.8 and 2.0 and combustion wave velocity larger than 0.4 mm/s.

  11. AKR1C1 as a Biomarker for Differentiating the Biological Effects of Combustible from Non-Combustible Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangsoon; Gao, Hong; Henderson, David; Zacharias, Wolfgang; Liu, Gang; Tran, Quynh T; Prasad, G L

    2017-05-03

    Smoking has been established as a major risk factor for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but less attention has been paid to the effects of smokeless tobacco products. Our objective is to identify potential biomarkers to distinguish the biological effects of combustible tobacco products from those of non-combustible ones using oral cell lines. Normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), non-metastatic (101A) and metastatic (101B) OSCC cell lines were exposed to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs) including cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM), smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva (STE), or nicotine (NIC) alone. We performed microarray-based gene expression profiling and found 3456 probe sets from 101A, 1432 probe sets from 101B, and 2717 probe sets from HGEC to be differentially expressed. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed xenobiotic metabolism and steroid biosynthesis were the top two pathways that were upregulated by combustible but not by non-combustible TPPs. Notably, aldo-keto reductase genes, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2, were the core genes in the top enriched pathways and were statistically upregulated more than eight-fold by combustible TPPs. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results statistically support AKR1C1 as a potential biomarker for differentiating the biological effects of combustible from non-combustible tobacco products.

  12. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  13. Application of a Modified Gas Chromatograph to Analyze Space Experiment Combustion Gases on Space Shuttle Mission STS-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, William K.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanZandt, David M.

    1998-01-01

    A space experiment designed to study the behavior of combustion without the gravitational effects of buoyancy was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on July 1, 1997. The space experiment, designated as Combustion Module-1 (CM-1), was one of several manifested on the Microgravity Sciences Laboratory - 1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch, designated STS-94, had the Spacelab Module as the payload, in which the MSL-1 experiments were conducted by the Shuttle crewmembers. CM-1 was designed to accommodate two different combustion experiments during MSL-1. One experiment, the Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number experiment (SOFBALL), required gas chromatography analysis to verify the composition of the known, premixed gases prior to combustion, and to determine the remaining reactant and the products resulting from the combustion process in microgravity. A commercial, off-the-shelf, dual-channel micro gas chromatograph was procured and modified to interface with the CM-1 Fluids Supply Package and the CM-1 Combustion Chamber, to accommodate two different carrier gases, each flowing through its own independent column module, to withstand the launch environment of the Space Shuttle, to accept Spacelab electrical power, and to meet the Spacelab flight requirements for electromagnetic interference (EMI) and offgassing. The GC data was down linked to the Marshall Space Flight Center for near-real time analysis, and stored on-orbit for post-flight analysis. The gas chromatograph operated successfully during the entire SOFBALL experiment and collected 309 runs. Because of the constraints imposed upon the gas chromatograph by the CM-1 hardware, system and operations, it was unable to measure the gases to the required accuracy. Future improvements to the system for a re-flight of the SOFBALL experiment are expected to enable the gas chromatograph to meet all the requirements.

  14. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  15. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  16. Means of regulating combustible materials and products in external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Esko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents proposals for defining means of regulating the use of combustible materials and products in external walls. Required protections are based on the quantities of fire loads and their contribution to fire development. The study is based on life safety and protection of property priorities taking into account reaction to fire classes related to different types of fire loads and fire compartmentation requirements of the adjacent spaces of concern. The proposals include the following main principles in relation to fire-separation requirements: In case of internal fire exposure the protective structure for combustible building parts needs to meet at least half of the fire-separating requirement for the compartment of concern. In case of external fire exposure the protection time requirement can be 15 minutes less than for the internal protection. The proposals are applicable for residential buildings and offices. In case of buildings with longer evacuation times more stringent requirement levels may be considered. For verification of protection performance of fire loads it is proposed to use existing standardized test methods (fire protection ability (K classes and fire-separating function (EI classes validated methods of calculation and/or large scale fire testing.

  17. Chromium speciation in coal and biomass co-combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Arthur F; Meij, Ruud; Te Winkel, Henk; Eijk, Ronald J van; Huggins, Frank E; Brem, Gerrit

    2011-03-15

    Chromium speciation is vital for the toxicity of products resulting from co-combustion of coal and biomass. Therefore, understanding of formation processes has been studied using a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The influence of cofiring on Cr speciation is very dependent on the type of fuel. Cr(VI) contents in the investigated fly ash samples from coal and cofiring average around 7% of the total chromium. An exception is cofiring 7-28% wood for which ashes exhibited Cr(VI) concentrations of 12-16% of the total chromium. Measurements are in line with thermodynamic predictions: RE factors of Cr around 1 are in line with volatile Cr only above 1400 °C; lower Cr(VI) concentrations with lower oxygen content and Cr(III) dissolved in aluminosilicate glass. Stability of Cr(VI) below 700 °C does not correlate with Cr(VI) concentrations found in the combustion products. It is indicated that Cr(VI) formation is a high-temperature process dependent on Cr evaporation (mode of occurrence in fuel, promoted by organic association), oxidation (local oxygen content), and formation of solid chromates (promoted by presence of free lime (CaO) in the ash). CaCrO(4)(s) is a probable chemical form but, given different leachable fractions (varying from 25 to 100%), different forms of Cr(VI) must be present. Clay-bound Cr is likely to dissolve in the aluminosilicate glass phase during melting of the clay.

  18. Numerical prediction of the chemical composition of gas products at biomass combustion and co-combustion in a domestic boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomiak Henryk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the numerical modelling of biomass combustion has been successfully applied to determine the combustion mechanism and predict its products. In this study the influence of the addition of waste glycerin in biomass wood pellets on the chemical composition of exhaust gases has been investigated. The pellets have been prepared from spruceand pine wood sawdust without and with addition of waste glycerin. The waste glycerol is a undesirable by-product of biodiesel transesterification at oil manufacturing. The produced pellets were being burned in the 10 kW domestic boiler adapted to wood pellets combustion. The possibilities of pollutants generation (CO2, CO, NOx SOx and compounds containing chlorine in the exhaust gases coming from the boiler were numerically calculated using the latest version of CHEMKIN-PRO software, introduced by the American company Reaction Design. The results of the calculations correspond to the data obtained on a real object, in particular: combustion temperature, gas pressure, residence time of fuel in the burner, air flow, fuel consumption, as well as elementary composition of fuel supplied into the boiler. The proposed method of predicting the chemical composition of exhaust gases allows proper control of the combustion process and can be considered as an important step in reducing the pollutants (lower emission of NOx, SOx and CO2 neutral and thus to contribute to the improvement of the environmental quality. In addition, knowledge of the amounts of Clbased compounds produced in combustion process (under given conditions, can serve as an important hint in terms of corrosion prevention of boiler- and chimney steels.

  19. Materials Combustion Testing and Combustion Product Sensor Evaluations in FY12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit Elisabeth; Mudgett, Paul D.; Hornung, Steven D.; McClure, Mark B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bryg, Victoria; Makel, Darby; Ruff, Gary A.; Hunter, Gary

    2013-01-01

    NASA Centers continue to collaborate to characterize the chemical species and smoke particles generated by the combustion of current space-rated non-metallic materials including fluoropolymers. This paper describes the results of tests conducted February through September 2012 to identify optimal chemical markers both for augmenting particle-based fire detection methods and for monitoring the post-fire cleanup phase in human spacecraft. These studies follow up on testing conducted in August 2010 and reported at ICES 2011. The tests were conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility in a custom glove box designed for burning fractional gram quantities of materials under varying heating profiles. The 623 L chamber was heavily instrumented to quantify organics (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), inorganics by water extraction followed by ion chromatography, and select species by various individual commercially-available sensors. Evaluating new technologies for measuring carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and other species of interest was a key objective of the test. Some of these sensors were located inside the glovebox near the fire source to avoid losses through the sampling lines; the rest were located just outside the glovebox. Instruments for smoke particle characterization included a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Personal Dust Monitor (TEOM PDM) and a TSI Dust Trak DRX to measure particle mass concentration, a TSI PTrak for number concentration and a thermal precipitator for collection of particles for microscopic analysis. Materials studied included Nomex®, M22759 wire insulation, granulated circuit board, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton®, and mixtures of PTFE and Kapton®. Furnace temperatures ranged from 340o to 640o C, focusing on the smoldering regime. Of particular interest in these tests was confirming burn repeatability and production of acid gases with different

  20. Materials Combustion Testing and Combustion Product Sensor Evaluations in FY12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.; Hunter, Gary; Ruff, Gary; Mudgett, Paul D.; Hornung, Steven D.; McClure, Mark B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bryg, Victoria; Makel, Darby

    2013-01-01

    NASA Centers continue to collaborate to characterize the chemical species and smoke particles generated by the combustion of current space-rated non-metallic materials including fluoropolymers. This paper describes the results of tests conducted February through September 2012 to identify optimal chemical markers both for augmenting particle-based fire detection methods and for monitoring the post-fire cleanup phase in human spacecraft. These studies follow up on testing conducted in August 2010 and reported at ICES 2011. The tests were conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility in a custom glove box designed for burning fractional gram quantities of materials under varying heating profiles. The 623 L chamber was heavily instrumented to quantify organics (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), inorganics by water extraction followed by ion chromatography, and select species by various individual commercially-available sensors. Evaluating new technologies for measuring carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and other species of interest was a key objective of the test. Some of these sensors were located inside the glovebox near the fire source to avoid losses through the sampling lines; the rest were located just outside the glovebox. Instruments for smoke particle characterization included a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance Personal Dust Monitor (TEOM PDM) and a TSI Dust Trak DRX to measure particle mass concentration, a TSI PTrak for number concentration and a thermal precipitator for collection of particles for microscopic analysis. Materials studied included Nomex(R), M22759 wire insulation, granulated circuit board, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton(R), and mixtures of PTFE and Kapton(R). Furnace temperatures ranged from 340 to 640 C, focusing on the smoldering regime. Of particular interest in these tests was confirming burn repeatability and production of acid gases with different

  1. Culturability of Bacillus spores on aerosol collection filters exposed to airborne combustion products of Al, Mg, and B·Ti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Atin; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina; Driks, Adam; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of bioweapon facilities due to explosion or fire could aerosolize highly pathogenic microorganisms. The post-event air quality assessment is conducted through air sampling. A bioaerosol sample (often collected on a filter for further culture-based analysis) also contains combustion products, which may influence the microbial culturability and, thus, impact the outcome. We have examined the interaction between spores deposited on collection filters using two simulants of Bacillus anthracis [B. thuringiensis (Bt) and B. atrophaeus (referred to as BG)] and incoming combustion products of Al as well as Mg and B·Ti (common ingredient of metalized explosives). Spores extracted from Teflon, polycarbonate, mixed cellulose ester (MCE), and gelatin filters (most common filter media for bioaerosol sampling), which were exposed to combustion products during a short-term sampling, were analyzed by cultivation. Surprisingly, we observed that aluminum combustion products enhanced the culturability of Bt (but not BG) spores on Teflon filters increasing the culturable count by more than an order of magnitude. Testing polycarbonate and MCE filter materials also revealed a moderate increase of culturability although gelatin did not. No effect was observed with either of the two species interacting on either filter media with products originated by combustion of Mg and B·Ti. Sample contamination, spore agglomeration, effect of a filter material on the spore survival, changes in the spore wall ultrastructure and germination, as well as other factors were explored to interpret the findings. The study raises a question about the reliability of certain filter materials for collecting airborne bio-threat agents in combustion environments.

  2. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  4. Chemical analysis of soil and leachate from experimental wetland mesocosms lined with coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Mitsch, W.J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (USA). Environmental Science Graduate Program and School of Natural Resources

    2001-08-01

    Small-scale (1 m{sup 2}) wetland mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons to investigate the effects on soil and leachate chemistry of using a recycled coal combustion product as a liner. The coal combustion product used as a liner consisted of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products and fly ash. This paper provides the chemical characteristics of mesocosm soil and leachate after 2 yr of experimentation. Arsenic, Ca and pH were higher in FGD-lined mesocosm surface soil relative to unlined mesocosms. Aluminium was higher in the soils of unlined mesocosms relative to FGD-lined mesocosms. No significant difference of potentially phytotoxic B was observed between lined and unlined mesocosms in the soil. Higher pH, conductivity and concentrations of Al, B, Ca, K and S (SO{sub 4}-S) were observed in leachate from lined mesocosms compared with unlined controls while Fe, Mg and Mn were higher in leachate from unlined mesocosms. Concentrations of most elements analyzed in the leachate were below national primary and secondary drinking water standards after 2 yr of experimentation. Initially high pH and soluble salt concentrations measured in the leachate from the lined mesocosms may indicate the reason for early effects noted on the development of wetland vegetation in the mesocosms. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimraksa, K.; Chindaprasirt, P.; Setthaya, N. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2010-12-15

    Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO{sub 2}/Al2O{sub 3} of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100{sup o}C and 130{sup o}C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g{sup 1}, respectively.

  6. Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimraksa, Kedsarin; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Setthaya, Naruemon

    2010-12-01

    Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100 degrees C and 130 degrees C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g(-1), respectively.

  7. Catalytic combustion in environmental protection and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem-Silversand, F.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis is focused on three different areas of catalytic combustion: -Catalytic combustion of diesel soot, -Development of catalytically active wire meshes through thermal spraying, -Stabilisation and activation of {gamma}-alumina for methane combustion. Emissions of diesel soot may be trapped and combusted in a particulate trap coated with catalytically active materials. The soot particles must be combusted at temperatures prevailing in diesel exhausts, generally between 150 and 400 deg C. To facilitate effective combustion at these temperatures, the particulate trap should be coated with an oxide catalyst consisting of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/CuO (V:Cu=0.9 on molar basis). Catalytically active wire meshes offer a number of advantages over pellets and monolith catalysts. They combine geometric flexibility with excellent mass- and heat- transfer characteristics and a low pressure drop. By using a modified thermal spray technique, it is possible to produce porous adhesive ceramic coatings on metal surfaces. The specific surface area can be increased through deposition of a high-surface-area material into the macro-porosity of the as-sprayed layer. The ceramic layer is finally activated through a conventional impregnation technique. Palladium dispersed onto a Si-stabilised {gamma}-alumina is an appropriate combustion catalyst at temperatures below 1000 deg C. Adding small amounts of rhodium or platinum to the palladium increases the catalyst activity but decreases the catalyst`s stability to thermal deactivation. The addition of rare-earth-metal oxides will lead to increased thermal stability but to a decreased activity. Long-term deactivation tests show that the activity for combustion of methane decreases to the same extent as the value of the specific surface area, thus indicating that the alumina surface may play an important role during the activation of adsorbed methane molecules. 29 refs, 14 figs

  8. Combustion method for determination of crude protein in meat and meat products: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Brink, M; Sebranek, J G

    1993-01-01

    Twelve laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare a combustion method with the AOAC mercury catalyst Kjeldahl method (928.08) for the determination of crude protein in meat and meat products. Three different combustion instruments were used; consequently, the combustion method for this study is written in generic terms describing the principle, the apparatus specifications, and the performance requirements needed. Fifteen sample pairs were used for the study; each pair consisted of the same commercial meat product from each of 2 different manufacturers. Protein content of all samples ranged from about 10 to 20%. In addition, nicotinic acid and lysine monohydrochloride were used as standards to assess combustion equipment performance. All laboratories and all instruments performed the combustion method satisfactorily on the basis of results for the standards. For the meat samples, repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 for the Kjeldahl method and from 0.12 to 0.41 for the combustion method; the repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.82 to 2.41% and from 0.60 to 2.23% for the Kjeldahl and combustion methods, respectively. Reproducibility standard deviations (SR) ranged from 0.20 to 0.49 for the Kjeldahl method and from 0.18 to 0.46 for the combustion method, whereas the reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 1.59 to 2.84% for the Kjeldahl method and from 1.32 to 3.35% for the combustion method. Overall grand means were 15.59% protein for the Kjeldahl method and 15.75% protein for the combustion method. The combustion method was adopted first action by AOAC International.

  9. Utilization of ash products from combustion of shredded solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, P.F.; Mullen, J.F. (Energy Answers Corp, Albany, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    One of the major problems with the siting, permitting, construction, and operation of a municipal solid waste-to- energy facility is the disposal of residues. As resource recovery increasingly becomes the disposal option of choice and necessity for municipalities across the country, the foci of environmental concerns has switched from groundwater contamination and inappropriate land use issues associated with landfilling, to air pollution control and residue disposal issues associated with waste combustion. It is suggested that the two separate ash streams can no longer reasonably be considered one and should be analyzed and treated separately, thereby increasing and enhancing the opportunity to recycle from the bottom ash (75 percent) and to focus on a reduced quantity of fly ash material (25 percent) for fixation and reuse or disposal. Such action would conform to the principles of, and the present regulatory trend towards waste minimization. However, there are many regulatory, institutional, and logistical barriers to such promising and seemingly simple waste reduction strategies. While the spirit of solid and hazardous waste legislation may emphasize waste minimization, ambiguities in the regulations have undermined the actual intent, creating an environment of confusion and indecisiveness with respect to treatment and disposal of ash from resource recovery facilities. This book reports on a research and development program to assess the feasibility and possible environmental impacts of utilizing a selected fraction of the bottom ash stream from processed refuse fuel-fired boilers as an aggregate substitute. The purpose of the research program is to develop data on the characteristics of bottom ash during exposure to rain and weathering in proposed applications.

  10. [Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects.

  11. Simulation of combustion products flow in the Laval nozzle in the software package SIFIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussan, K. A.; Teterev, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Developed specialized multifunctional software package SIFIN (Simulation of Internal Flow In the Nozzle) designed for the numerical simulation of the flow of products of combustion in a Laval nozzle. It allows to design the different profiles of the nozzles, to simulate flow of multicomponent media based energy release by burning, to study the effect of swirling flow of products of combustion at the nozzle settings, to investigate the nature of the expiry of the gas jet with varying degrees of pressure ratio.

  12. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot

  13. The Production and Release of CFCs from Coal Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere caused by industrially synthesized CFCs has aroused greatest concerns from the international society, but the CFCs formed from burning of coal containing fluorine have not been recognized by the world yet. In the present study, we condensed the gas through cold traps and used the GC-MS to measure the gas composition, and found that the content of CFC-12 in the smog from coal combustion was significantly higher than the background value of the local atmosphere. This proves that CFC-12 is formed in the process of coal combustion. This paper discusses a new source of non-synthesized CFCs.

  14. Preliminary Study on PAHs Distribution in High-grade Oil Shale and Its Spontaneous Combustion Product in Fushun, Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liping; ZENG Rongshu; XU Wendong

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of oil shale is very common as a result of long-time exposure to the air in the Fushun West Open-Pit Mine and West Dump. The PAHs in the high-grade oil shale and its spontaneous combustion product were analyzed semiquantitatively by GC-MS in order to investigate their distribution in different states and their potential negative effects on the environment. Totally 57and 60 PAHs and their alkyl homologues were identified in the two analyzed samples, among which the alkyl derivatives were predominant, taking up to about 65 % in the total PAHs. Those low-molecular mass PAHs (3- or 4-ring) were the main compounds in the two samples. Ten of sixteen USEPA priority pollutant PAHs were detected in two samples, of which phenanthrene was the richest whose contents were 6.93% and 15.03%. Based on comparison of analysis results, the amount and contents of PAHs,except for triaromatic steroid group, were higher in the burning oil shale. So it can be determined that the effects caused by spontaneous combustion of oil shale would be more serious and that the effects of the Fushun oil shale and its spontaneous combustion on the environment should not be ignored in the future work.

  15. An assessment of combustion products of spark ignition engines supplied by ethanol - gasoline blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuneanu, K.; Golgotiu, E.

    2016-08-01

    The causes of environmental pollution by internal combustion engines arise from the use of fuels containing bounded carbon, from the fact that combustion takes place on a cyclic basis and at high temperature. The first and the last causes are directly related to the fuel and therefore there is in principle a possibility to reduce pollution by acting upon the fuel used. The present paper deals with the comparison of the level of combustion products of a spark ignition engine supplied by gasoline and by a mixture of 10 % ethanol - 90% gasoline.

  16. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed.

  17. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a ...... of bioenergy....

  18. Internal combustion engine with thermochemical recuperation fed by ethanol steam reforming products - feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, O.; Gutman, M.; Shapiro, M.; Tartakovsky, L.

    2016-08-01

    This research analyses the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The basic concept involves the use of the internal combustion engine's (ICE) waste heat to promote onboard reforming of ethanol. The reformer and the engine performance were simulated and analyzed using GT-Suite, Chem CAD and Matlab software. The engine performance with different compositions of ethanol reforming products was analyzed, in order to find the optimal working conditions of the ICE - reformer system. The analysis performed demonstrated the capability to sustain the endothermic reactions in the reformer and to reform the liquid ethanol to hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases. However, the required reformer's size is quite large: 39 x 89 x 73 cm, which makes a feasibility of its mounting on board a vehicle questionable. A comparison with ICE fed by gasoline or liquid ethanol doesn't show a potential of efficiency improvement, but can be considered as a tool of additional emissions reduction.

  19. Analyzing RCD30 Oblique Performance in a Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. E.; Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial triangulation and

  20. Improvement in the production of cylinder shirt of inner diesel combustion engines; Mejoras en la construccion de camisas de cilindro de motores de combustion interna ciclo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Perez, F.; Barroso-Moreno, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study deals with the different types of wear as well as other parameters present in the tribological system piston segment- cylinder in a combustion engine. By means of engineering methods were defined the wear rates in the three components of the system. The biggest wear in the analysis resulted in the cylinder shirt. Specialized methods applied were used to analyze the prevailing metallographic characteristics in its original construction, obtaining a gray melted iron with perlitic matrix. A new material with bainitic matrix has been proposed for increasing wear resistance. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new product, the experimental techniques carried out, were based on a dynamometric testing in a internal combustion engine diesel cycle Scania of 150 kW. It was exposed to a full charge during 500 h with 30 % of potency rising. Compared with the perlitic one, it has been proved that the bainitic matrix allows a better result. Besides, a superior dimensional stability was obtained. The piston segments had a similar wear rate in both materials in reference to the original tribological pair of the project. (Author)

  1. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted

  2. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  3. Highly time-resolved imaging of combustion and pyrolysis product concentrations in solid fuel combustion: NO formation in a burning cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Ehlert, Sven; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Baker, Richard; Streibel, Thorsten

    2015-02-03

    The highly dynamic, heterogeneous combustion process within a burning cigarette was investigated by a miniaturized extractive sampling probe (microprobe) coupled to photoionization mass spectrometry using soft laser single photon ionization (SPI) for online real-time detection of molecular ions of combustion and pyrolysis products. Research cigarettes smoked by a smoking machine are used as a reproducible model system for solid-state biomass combustion, which up to now is not addressable by current combustion-diagnostic tools. By combining repetitively recorded online measurement sequences from different sampling locations in an imaging approach, highly time- and space-resolved quantitative distribution maps of, e.g., nitrogen monoxide, benzene, and oxygen concentrations were obtained at a near microscopic level. The obtained quantitative distribution maps represent a time-resolved, movie-like imaging of the respective compound's formation and destruction zones in the various combustion and pyrolysis regions of a cigarette during puffing. Furthermore, spatially resolved kinetic data were ascertainable. The here demonstrated methodology can also be applied to various heterogenic combustion/pyrolysis or reaction model systems, such as fossil- or biomass-fuel pellet combustion or to a positional resolved analysis of heterogenic catalytic reactions.

  4. Comments on the rank product method for analyzing replicated experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, James A

    2010-03-05

    Breitling et al. introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we relate the rank product method to linear rank statistics and provide an alternative derivation of distribution theory attending the rank product method.

  5. Analyzing the Accuracy of Calculations When Scoping Product Configuration Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    configuration projects is still challenging. Assuming that configurators would naturally solve the existing flaws, both, researchers and professionals typically neglect the need for a making a precise scope for their implementation. Based on this theoretical and practical concern, the present study provides......Product configurators have increasingly been applied in industrial environments. With their help, companies providing customized products have managed to redesign their specification processes and to better handle the growing product variety. But despite the promising benefits, conducting...

  6. The model of the mechanical interaction of particles with the combustion products in a nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teterev, A. V.; Mandrik, P. A.; Misuchenko, N. I.; Rudak, L. V.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes the development of model of interaction of condensed particles with the gas flow in the Laval nozzle. Conducted parametric calculations have shown that the interaction of particles with the combustion products, even with a relatively small volume content may lead to a qualitative change in the internal flow in the Laval nozzle, and thereby influence the characteristics of the nozzle.

  7. ASSESSING SPECIATION AND RELEASE OF HEAVY METALS FROM COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the speciation of heavy metals such as arsenic, selenium, lead, zinc and mercury in coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated using sequential extraction procedures. Coal fly ash, bottom ash and flue gas desulphurization (FGD) sludge samples were used in the ex...

  8. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  9. Analyzing the impact of investment spikes on dynamic productivity growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Firm-level data usually show that a large portion of firm-level investment takes place in a few investment episodes. This paper assesses productivity growth and its components in production framework that accounts for the dynamics of capital adjustment and relates this to investment spikes using

  10. Volatile Reaction Products From Silicon-Based Ceramics in Combustion Environments Identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics and composites are prime candidates for use as components in the hot sections of advanced aircraft engines. These materials must have long-term durability in the combustion environment. Because water vapor is always present as a major product of combustion in the engine environment, its effect on the durability of silicon-based ceramics must be understood. In combustion environments, silicon-based ceramics react with water vapor to form a surface silica (SiO2) scale. This SiO2 scale, in turn, has been found to react with water vapor to form volatile hydroxides. Studies to date have focused on how water vapor reacts with high-purity silicon carbide (SiC) and SiO2 in model combustion environments. Because the combustion environment in advanced aircraft engines is expected to contain about 10-percent water vapor at 10-atm total pressure, the durability of SiC and SiO2 in gas mixtures containing 0.1- to 1-atm water vapor is of interest. The reactions of SiC and SiO2 with water vapor were monitored by measuring weight changes of sample coupons in a 0.5-atm water vapor/0.5-atm oxygen gas mixture with thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Wu

    2005-02-01

    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  12. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Moll; F. Pierie; prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; J. Broekhuijsen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a

  13. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Broekhuijsen, J.; Gemert, W.J.T.; Moll, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a t

  14. Changes in the composition of synthesis products upon transitioning from self-ignition to combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seplyarskii, B. S.; Ivleva, T. P.; Grachev, V. V.; Merzhanov, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of condensed products upon switching from synthesis in the self-ignition mode to combustion synthesis is studied by approximate analytical and numerical means for condensed substances that react via competing reaction pathways. It is shown that these different modes of synthesis produce different compositions of the reaction products. The conditions required for transitioning from one mode of combustion initiation (thermal explosion) to another (ignition) are determined. It is found that this transition can occur upon changing the temperature of a heater by just two characteristic intervals. A scaling procedure that allows the calculation results obtained at zero dimensionless temperature of the heater to be used to determine the effect its non-zero dimensionless temperature has on the ignition mode and the composition of the obtained products is proposed. Calculations show that materials with different distributions of the chemical composition along the sample can be obtained by deliberately changing the temperature of the heater.

  15. Critical Product Features' Identification Using an Opinion Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Azra; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use and ubiquity of the Internet facilitate dissemination of word-of-mouth through blogs, online forums, newsgroups, and consumer's reviews. Online consumer's reviews present tremendous opportunities and challenges for consumers and marketers. One of the challenges is to develop interactive marketing practices for making connections with target consumers that capitalize consumer-to-consumer communications for generating product adoption. Opinion mining is employed in marketing to help consumers and enterprises in the analysis of online consumers' reviews by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the products. This paper describes an opinion mining system based on novel review and feature ranking methods to empower consumers and enterprises for identifying critical product features from enormous consumers' reviews. Consumers and business analysts are the main target group for the proposed system who want to explore consumers' feedback for determining purchase decisions and enterprise strategies. We evaluate the proposed system on real dataset. Results show that integration of review and feature-ranking methods improves the decision making processes significantly. PMID:25506612

  16. Critical Product Features’ Identification Using an Opinion Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Shamim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use and ubiquity of the Internet facilitate dissemination of word-of-mouth through blogs, online forums, newsgroups, and consumer’s reviews. Online consumer’s reviews present tremendous opportunities and challenges for consumers and marketers. One of the challenges is to develop interactive marketing practices for making connections with target consumers that capitalize consumer-to-consumer communications for generating product adoption. Opinion mining is employed in marketing to help consumers and enterprises in the analysis of online consumers’ reviews by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the products. This paper describes an opinion mining system based on novel review and feature ranking methods to empower consumers and enterprises for identifying critical product features from enormous consumers’ reviews. Consumers and business analysts are the main target group for the proposed system who want to explore consumers’ feedback for determining purchase decisions and enterprise strategies. We evaluate the proposed system on real dataset. Results show that integration of review and feature-ranking methods improves the decision making processes significantly.

  17. Critical product features' identification using an opinion analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Azra; Balakrishnan, Vimala; Tahir, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use and ubiquity of the Internet facilitate dissemination of word-of-mouth through blogs, online forums, newsgroups, and consumer's reviews. Online consumer's reviews present tremendous opportunities and challenges for consumers and marketers. One of the challenges is to develop interactive marketing practices for making connections with target consumers that capitalize consumer-to-consumer communications for generating product adoption. Opinion mining is employed in marketing to help consumers and enterprises in the analysis of online consumers' reviews by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the products. This paper describes an opinion mining system based on novel review and feature ranking methods to empower consumers and enterprises for identifying critical product features from enormous consumers' reviews. Consumers and business analysts are the main target group for the proposed system who want to explore consumers' feedback for determining purchase decisions and enterprise strategies. We evaluate the proposed system on real dataset. Results show that integration of review and feature-ranking methods improves the decision making processes significantly.

  18. Chemical Fixation of CO2 in Coal Combustion Products and Recycling through Biosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; David Behel

    2001-09-30

    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented.

  19. Chemical Fixation of CO2 in Coal Combustion Products and Recycling through Biosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; David Behel

    2001-09-30

    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented.

  20. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  1. Fluorescence spectroscopy: a rapid tool for analyzing dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Mortensen, Grith

    2008-02-13

    This paper gives a critical evaluation of the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring chemical and physical changes in dairy products caused by processing and storage. Fluorescence spectroscopy is able to determine various properties of foods without use of chemicals and time-consuming sample preparation. This is shown by examples where the measurement of a given chemical parameter has been appropriately described and validated, as well as situations showing potential applications, but where further research and validation is required. The interpretation of fluorescence spectroscopic data is complex due to absorbance by other molecular groups, changes caused by variation in the sample matrix, etc. It is illustrated how advanced data analytical techniques are required to obtain optimal interpretation of the data. Even though the review focuses on examples from the dairy industry, the principles are broader and can be applied to other fields of food and agricultural research.

  2. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  3. A comprehensive fractal char combustion model☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuting Liu; Rong He

    2016-01-01

    The char combustion mechanisms were analyzed and a comprehensive fractal char combustion model was developed to give a better understanding and better predictions of the char combustion characteristics. Most of the complex factors affecting the char combustion were included, such as the coupling effects between the pore diffusion and the chemical reactions, the evolution of the char pore structures and the variation of the apparent reaction order during combustion, the CO/CO2 ratio in the combustion products and the correction for oxy-char combustion. Eleven different chars were then combusted in two drop tube furnaces with the conversions of the partly burned char samples measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The combustion processes of these chars were simulated with the predicted char conversions matching very well with the measured data which shows that this char combustion model has good accuracy. The apparent reaction order of the char combustion decreases, stabilizes and then increases during the combustion process. The combustion rates in the oxy-mode are general y slower than in the air-mode and the effect of the char-CO2 gasification reac-tion becomes obvious only when the temperature is relatively high and the O2 concentration is relatively low.

  4. Research and Development on Inhalation Toxicologic Evaluation of Red Phosphorus/Butyl Rubber Combustion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    PtODUCyS " PROJECW NWMBER 016139 m l lilt STDY 79-$ CONCENTRATION - C3 Tmbua.ated AnimalL Data PROJCT ID: 221-00 GR1J: C3 SIX; UL3 DAYS: ALL * F~~ATES...STUDIES wITH RP/BR COMBUSTION PRODUCTS PROJECT NUMBER L06139 PHASE III, STUDY 79-SF Cov art -- 3. akt crn oE G ’ooms a MLcvco PROJECT ID: 221-009 GROUP: 23

  5. Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-07-01

    Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm{sup 2} with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process.

  6. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  7. Models of Non-Stationary Thermodynamic Processes in Rocket Engines Taking into Account a Chemical Equilibrium of Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the two approach-based techniques for calculating the non-stationary intra-chamber processes in solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE. The first approach assumes that the combustion products are a mechanical mix while the other one supposes it to be the mix, which is in chemical equilibrium. To enhance reliability of solution of the intra ballistic tasks, which assume a chemical equilibrium of combustion products, the computing algorithms to calculate a structure of the combustion products are changed. The algorithm for solving a system of the nonlinear equations of chemical equilibrium, when determining the iterative amendments, uses the orthogonal QR method instead of a method of Gauss. Besides, a possibility to apply genetic algorithms in a task about a structure of combustion products is considered.It is shown that in the tasks concerning the prediction of non-stationary intra ballistic characteristics in a solid propellant rocket engine, application of models of mechanical mix and chemically equilibrium structure of combustion products leads to qualitatively and quantitatively coinciding results. The maximum difference in parameters is 5-10%, at most. In tasks concerning the starting operation of a solid sustainer engine with high-temperature products of combustion difference in results is more essential, and can reach 20% and more.A technique to calculate the intra ballistic parameters, in which flotation of combustion products is considered in the light of a spatial statement, requires using the high-performance computer facilities. For these tasks it is offered to define structure of products of combustion and its thermo-physical characteristics, using the polynoms coefficients of which should be predefined.

  8. Experimental investigation of the combustion products in an aluminised solid propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Mengying; Guan, Dian; Sui, Xin; Wang, Ningfei

    2017-04-01

    Aluminium is widely used as an important additive to improve ballistic and energy performance in solid propellants, but the unburned aluminium does not contribute to the specific impulse and has both thermal and momentum two-phase flow losses. So understanding of aluminium combustion behaviour during solid propellant burning is significant when improving internal ballistic performance. Recent developments and experimental results reported on such combustion behaviour are presented in this paper. A variety of experimental techniques ranging from quenching and dynamic measurement, to high-speed CCD video recording, were used to study aluminium combustion behaviour and the size distribution of the initial agglomerates. This experimental investigation also provides the size distribution of the condensed phase products. Results suggest that the addition of an organic fluoride compound to solid propellant will generate smaller diameter condensed phase products due to sublimation of AlF3. Lastly, a physico-chemical picture of the agglomeration process was also developed based on the results of high-speed CCD video analysis.

  9. Control Scheme Formulation for the Production of Hydrogen on Demand to Feed an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarniel García Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a control strategy is presented to produce hydrogen on demand to feed an internal combustion (IC engine. For this purpose, the modeling of the IC engine fueled by gasoline blended with 10 % v/v of anhydrous ethanol (E10 and hydrogen as an additive is developed. It is considered that the hydrogen gas is produced according to the IC engine demand, and that the hydrogen gas is obtained by an alkaline electrolyzer. The gasoline–ethanol blend added into the combustion chamber is determined according to the stoichiometric ratio and the production of hydrogen gas is regulated by a proportional and integral controller (P.I.. The controller reference is varying according to the mass flow air induced into the cylinder, in order to ensure an adequate production of hydrogen gas for any operating condition of the IC engine. The main contribution of this work is the control scheme developed, through simulation, in order to produce hydrogen on demand for any operating point of an internal combustion engine fueled by an E10 blend. The simulation results showed that the use of hydrogen gas as an additive in an E10 blend decreases the E10 fuel consumption 23 % on average, and the thermal efficiency is increased approximately 2.13 % , without brake power loss in the IC engine.

  10. Five-Channel Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Combustion Product Monitoring Aboard Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Borgentun, Carl E.; Bagheri, Mahmood; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous combustion product monitoring aboard manned spacecraft can prevent chronic exposure to hazardous compounds and also provides early detection of combustion events. As future missions extend beyond low-Earth orbit, analysis of returned environmental samples becomes impractical and safety monitoring should be performed in situ. Here, we describe initial designs of a five-channel tunable laser absorption spectrometer to continuously monitor combustion products with the goal of minimal maintenance and calibration over long-duration missions. The instrument incorporates dedicated laser channels to simultaneously target strong mid-infrared absorption lines of CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2. The availability of low-power-consumption semiconductor lasers operating in the 2 to 5 micron wavelength range affords the flexibility to select absorption lines for each gas with maximum interaction strength and minimal interference from other gases, which enables the design of a compact and mechanically robust spectrometer with low-level sensitivity. In this paper, we focus primarily on absorption line selection based on the availability of low-power single-mode semiconductor laser sources designed specifically for the target wavelength range.

  11. Comparison of combustion products by the iteration method and application of gasoline and biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarakod, Paramust

    2017-02-01

    For a specific combustion problem involving calculations of several species at the equilibrium state, it is simpler to write a general computer program and calculate the combustion concentration. Original work describes, an adaptation of Newton-Raphson method was used for solving the highly linear system of equations describing the formation of equilibrium products in reacting of fuel-additive-air mixtures. This study also shows what possible of the results. In this paper, it presents the efficient numerical algorithms for solving the combustion problem, to be used linear equations based on the iteration method and high order of the Taylor series. The modified the Adomian decomposition method was applied to construct the numerical algorithms. Some numerical illustrations are given to show the efficiency of algorithms. Comparisons of results by the new Matlab routines and previous routines, the result data indicate that the new Matlab routines are reliable and application with gasoline and biogas with the variance of equivalence ratios, typical deviations from previous results are less than 0.1%.

  12. Analysis of volatile combustion products and a study of their toxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seader, J. D.; Einhorn, I. N.; Drake, W. O.; Mihlfeith, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study the thermochemical, flammability and toxicological characteristics of uncoated and coated polyisocyanurate foams. The coatings used were fluorinated copolymer and an intumescent material. Combustion and pyrolysis gases were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The LD-50 and LD-100 tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats housed in an environmental chamber. The isocyanurate foam, fluorinated-copolymer-coated foam, and the intumescent-coated foam were found to have excellent flammability and insulation characteristics, although smoke development was substantial.

  13. Combustion By-Products and their Health Effects - Combustion Engineering and Global Health in the 21st Century: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnicki, Slawo; Gullett, Brian; Stöger, Tobias; Kennedy, Ian; Diaz, Jim; Dugas, Tammy R.; Varner, Kurt; Carlin, Danielle; Dellinger, Barry; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2014-01-01

    The 13th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and their Health Effects was held in New Orleans, Louisiana from May 15–18, 2013. The congress, sponsored by the Superfund Research Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and National Science Foundation, brought together international academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists and policymakers. With industrial growth, increased power needs and generation and coal consumption and their concomitant emissions, pernicious health effects associated with exposures to these emissions are on the rise. This congress provides a unique platform for interdisciplinary exchange and discussion of these topics. The formation, conversion, control and health effects of combustion by-products, including particulate matter and associated heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and environmentally persistent free radicals, were discussed during the congress. This review will summarize and discuss the implications of the data presented. PMID:24434722

  14. Fuel oil combustion with low production of nitrogen oxides; Combustion de combustoleo con baja produccion de oxidos de nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalera Campoverde, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    This work presents the results of the theoretical-experimental study of the effects of the secondary air jet directed perpendicularly to the flame axis in the fuel oil combustion in a 500 Kw furnace. The main purpose of this study was to obtain low nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions without increasing the CO, which is observed in low NO{sub x} conventional burners. The experimental results showed a significative reduction of the NO{sub x} and of the CO, from 320 to 90 ppm and from 50 ppm to negligible values, respectively. A commercial computational code of fluid dynamics was employed for modeling the combustion in base line conditions, without secondary air and with the injection of secondary air. The experimental results were compared with calculated ones. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio teorico experimental de los efectos de los chorro de aire secundario dirigidos en forma perpendicular al eje de la flama en la combustion del combustoleo en un horno de 500 kW. El proposito principal del estudio fue obtener bajas emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) sin incrementar el CO, lo cual se observa en quemadores convencionales de bajo NO{sub x}. Los resultados experimentales demostraron una reduccion significativa del NO{sub x} y del CO: de 320 a 90 ppm y de 50 ppm a valores despreciables, respectivamente. Se empleo un codigo computacional comercial de dinamica de fluidos para modelar la combustion en condiciones de linea base, sin aire secundario, y con la inyeccion del aire secundario. Se comparan resultados experimentales con los calculados.

  15. Predicting the formation and the dispersion of toxic combustion products from the fires of dangerous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Danihelka, P.; Dobeš, P.; Dlabka, J.; Hejzlar, T.; Baudišová, B.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Natural events, such as wildfires, lightning or earthquakes represent a frequent trigger of industrial fires involving dangerous substances. Dispersion of smoke plume from such fires and the effects of toxic combustion products are one of the reference scenarios expected in the framework of major accident prevention. Nowadays, tools for impact assessment of these events are rather missing. Detailed knowledge of burning material composition, atmospheric conditions, and other factors are required in order to describe quantitatively the source term of toxic fire products and to evaluate the parameters of smoke plume. Nevertheless, an assessment of toxic emissions from large scale fires involves a high degree of uncertainty, because of the complex character of physical and chemical processes in the harsh environment of uncontrolled flame. Among the others, soot particle formation can be mentioned as still being one of the unresolved problems in combustion chemistry, as well as decomposition pathways of chemical substances. Therefore, simplified approach for estimating the emission factors from outdoor fires of dangerous chemicals, utilizable for major accident prevention and preparedness, was developed and the case study illustrating the application of the proposed method was performed. ALOFT-FT software tool based on large eddy simulation of buoyant fire plumes was employed for predicting the local toxic contamination in the down-wind vicinity of the fire. The database of model input parameters can be effectively modified enabling the simulation of the smoke plume from pool fires or jet fires of arbitrary flammable (or combustible) gas, liquid or solid. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic via the project LD11012 (in the frame of the COST CM0901 Action) and the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (project no. SPII 1a10 45/70).

  16. Numerical Simulation of Muzzle Flow Field Based on Calculation of Combustion Productions in Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang∗,Houqian Xu,Wei Wu; Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of numerical simulation of muzzle chemical flow field, and study the gunpowder combustion productions, the muzzle flow field is simulated coupled with the calculation of combustion productions in bore. The calculation in bore uses the gibbs free⁃energy minimization method and the classical interior ballistics model. The simulation of the muzzle flow field employs the multi⁃component ALE ( Arbitrary Lagrange⁃Euler ) equations. Computations are performed for a 12�7 mm gun. From 2�48 ms to 3�14 ms, the projectile moves in the gun barrel. CO and H2 O masses decrease by 3�37% and 6�51%, and H2 and CO2 masses increase by 11�11% and 10�58%. The changes conform to the fact that the water⁃gas equilibrium reaction of all reactions plays a dominant role in this phase. After the projectile leaves the barrel, the masses of H2 and CO decrease, and the masses of H2 O and CO2 increase. When it moves to 80d away from the muzzle, the decreases are 12�75% and 8�05%, and the increases are 12�76% and 36�26%, which tallies with the existence of muzzle flame. Further, CO and H2 burn more and more fiercely with the muzzle pressure pg increasing, and burn more and more weakly with the altitude rising. When two projectiles launch in series, the combustion of the second projectile muzzle flow field is fiercer than the first projectile. Analysis results have shown that the proposed method is effective for simulating the muzzle flow filed.

  17. Effect of diluted and preheated oxidizer on the emission of methane flameless combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Salehirad, Saber; Wahid, M. A.; Sies, Mohsin Mohd; Saat, Aminuddin

    2012-06-01

    In combustion process, reduction of emissions often accompanies with output efficiency reduction. It means, by using current combustion technique it is difficult to obtainlow pollution and high level of efficiency in the same time. In new combustion system, low NOxengines and burners are studied particularly. Recently flameless or Moderate and Intensive Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion has received special attention in terms of low harmful emissions and low energy consumption. Behavior of combustion with highly preheated air was analyzed to study the change of combustion regime and the reason for the compatibility of high performance and low NOx production. Sustainability of combustion under low oxygen concentration was examined when; the combustion air temperature was above the self-ignition temperature of the fuel. This paper purposes to analyze the NOx emission quantity in conventional combustion and flameless combustion by Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) software.

  18. Natural products and altered derivatives as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Radzi bin Abas, M. [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Various molecular markers have been proposed for this process but additional specific tracers are needed. The injection of natural product organic compounds into smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by pyrolysis. Although the composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. Homologous compounds and biomarkers present in smoke are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers (e.g., lignin, cutin, suberin), wax, gum and resin. The component complexity is illustrated with examples from controlled bums of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Conifer smoke contains characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species. These are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. Several compounds are potential key indicators for combustion of such biomass. The precursor to product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide molecular tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

  19. Anthropogenic emissions and combustion products recorded in a Colle Gnifetti ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Zennaro, P.; Lim, S.; Laj, P.; Barbante, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ice cores provide direct and highly resolved records of atmospheric parameters that record both climate signals and forcing factors. European Alpine glaciers are located near densely populated and industrialized areas and provide excellent archives of past air pollution. Ice cores to bedrock on Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa (45°55'51''N, 07°52'34''E; 4450 m a.s.l.) permit centennial to millennial reconstruction of past regional climate, while snow pit and shallow core studies from the same site allow multiple parameter reconstructions of anthropogenic emissions. Air pollution includes fossil fuel and biomass burning products that influence regional smog and contain trace elements hazardous to human health. Here, we examine a high-resolution suite of anthropogenic and natural emissions (black carbon, levoglucosan, trace elements, heavy metals) and climate proxies (major ions and stable isotopes) in a 12 m Colle Gnifetti ice core to determine seasonal changes in anthropogenic emissions and their interaction with climate parameters. This is the first study to compare black carbon (a fossil fuel and biomass combustion tracer) with levoglucosan (a fire activity biomarker) in a European ice core. The combination of these two proxies can determine changing combustion product sources through time. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic emissions influence the summer aerosol flux while crustal sources dominate the winter aerosol flux. These ice core chemical data are consistent with observational data and boundary layer dynamics that transport pollutants concentrated in the Po Valley and similar industrial lowland regions to glacier surfaces during the summer.

  20. Characterization of feed coal and coal combustion products from power plants in Indiana and Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; O' Connor, J.T.; Brownfield, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    The US Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with Indiana and Kentucky utilities to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCP) from three coal-fired power plants. These three plants are designated as Units K1, K2, and I1 and burn high-, moderate-, and low-sulfur coals, respectively. Over 200 samples of feed coal and CCP were analyzed by various chemical and mineralogical methods to determine mode of occurrence and distribution of trace elements in the CCP. Generally, feed coals from all 3 Units contain mostly well-crystallized kaolinite and quartz. Comparatively, Unit K1 feed coals have higher amounts of carbonates, pyrite and sphalerite. Unit K2 feed coals contain higher kaolinite and illite/muscovite when compared to Unit K1 coals. Unit I1 feed coals contain beta-form quartz and alumino-phosphates with minor amounts of calcite, micas, anatase, and zircon when compared to K1 and K2 feed coals. Mineralogy of feed coals indicate that the coal sources for Units K1 and K2 are highly variable, with Unit K1 displaying the greatest mineralogic variability; Unit I1 feed coal however, displayed little mineralogic variation supporting a single source. Similarly, element contents of Units K1 and K2 feed coals show more variability than those of Unit I1. Fly ash samples from Units K1 and K2 consist mostly of glass, mullite, quartz, and spines group minerals. Minor amounts of illite/muscovite, sulfates, hematite, and corundum are also present. Spinel group minerals identified include magnetite, franklinite, magnesioferrite, trevorite, jacobisite, and zincochromite. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis reveals that most of the spinel minerals are dendritic intergrowths within aluminum silicate glass. Unit I1 fly ash samples contain glass, quartz, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, and apatite with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite

  1. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  2. Predictions of the product compositions for combustion or gasification of biomass and others hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Hendrick Maxil Zarate; Itai, Yuu; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Moraes, Sinfronio Brito; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: hendrick@ufpa.br; yuuitai@ufpa.br; mfmn@ufpa.br; sbrito@ufpa.br; brigida@ufpa.br

    2008-07-01

    Processes involving combustion and gasification are object of study of many researchers. To simulate these processes in a detailed way, it is necessary to solve equations for chemical kinetics whose resolution many times is difficult due lack of information in the literature a simples way to bypass tis problem is due the chemical equilibrium. Prediction of the flu gases composition through chemical equilibrium is an important step in the mathematical modelling for gasification and combustion processes. Some free programs exists to solve problems that involve the chemical equilibrium, such as STANJAN, CEA, GASEQ, CANTERA and others.These programs have difficulty for cases involving fuel such as: biomass, vegetable oils, biodiesel, natural gas, etc., because they do not have database with the fuel composition and is hard to supply their HHV and their elementary analysis. In this work, using numeric methods, a program was developed to predict the gases composition on equilibrium after combustion and gasification processes with the for constant pressure or volume. In the program the chemical formula of the fuel is defined as C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z}N{sub w}S{sub v}A{sub u} that reacts with an gaseous oxidizer composed by O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar, He, CO{sub 2} e H{sub 2}O to have as final result the composition of the products CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, H, OH, O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Ar, He, and ash. To verify the accuracy of the calculated values, it was compared with the program CEA (developed by NASA) and with experimental data obtained from literature. (author)

  3. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF FOSSIL FUEL BASED ON VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor V Vujović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by using variational principles and a method of geometric programming and is equal to the sum of the numbers of elements and phases. A short description of the computer program for the calculation of the composition and an example of the results are also given.

  4. Optofluidic reactors for reverse combustion photocatalytic production of hydrocarbons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Erickson, David

    2017-03-01

    In combustion, hydrocarbon fuels are burned with oxygen to release energy, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Here, we introduce a photocatalytic reactor for reversing this process, when carbon dioxide and water are combined and using optical and thermal energy from the sun hydrocarbons are produced and oxygen is released. This allows for the sustainable production of hydrocarbon products from non-fossil sources, allowing for the development of "green" hydrocarbon products. Our reactors take the form of modular cells of 10 x 10 x 10 cm scale where light is delivered to nanostructured catalysts through the evanescent field around dielectric slab waveguides. The light distribution is optimized through the use of engineered scattering sites to enhance field uniformity. This is combined with integrated fluidic architecture to deliver a stream rich in water and carbon dioxide (such as exhaust from a natural gas burning plant) to the nanostructured catalyst particles in a narrow channel. Exhaust streams rich in oxygen and hydrocarbon products are collected at the outlet of the reactor cell. The cell is heated using solar thermal energy and temperatures of up to 200°C are achieved, enhancing reaction efficiency. Hydrocarbon products produced include methanol as well as other potentially useful molecules for fuel production or precursors to the manufacture of plastics. These reactors can be coupled to solar collectors to take advantage of the sun as a free source of heat and light, and the modular nature of the cells enables scaling to larger deployments.

  5. Use of coal combustion by-products for solidification/stabilization of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-05-01

    Five low-rank coal combustion fly ash samples extensively characterized in previous projects were used as a pool of candidate materials for potential use as waste stabilization agents. Two of these fly ash samples were selected because ettringite formed in the solid in long-term leaching experiments, and an associated reduction in leachate concentration of at least one trace element was noted for each sample. The stabilization experiments were designed to evaluate the removal of relatively high concentrations of boron and selenium from a simulated wastewater. Sulfate was added as one variable in order to determine if high concentrations of sulfate would impact the ability of the ettringite to include trace elements in its structure. The following conclusions can be drawn from the information obtained in this research: CCBs (coal combustion by-products) can be useful in the chemical fixation of potentially hazardous trace elements; indication of ettringite formation alone is not adequate for selecting a CCB for waste stabilization applications; moderate sulfate concentrations do not promote or inhibit trace element sorption; ettringite formation mechanisms may impact trace element fixation and need to be elucidated; laboratory demonstration of the CCB with the stabilization process being proposed is necessary to verify the efficacy of the material and process; and the final waste form must be evaluated prior to management according to the required regulatory procedures.

  6. Mineral acquisition by maize grown in acidic soil amended with coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Zeto, S.K.; Ritchey, K.D.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (United States). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center

    2001-07-01

    Large amounts of coal combustion products (CCPs) are produced when coal is burned for generation of electricity. Some of these CCPs could potentially be used as soil amendments. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of different levels of 15 CCPs and chemical grade CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}, and CaSO{sub 3} added to acidic soil (Umbric Dystrochrept) on shoot calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and aluminum (Al) concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.). The CCPs consisted of two fly ashes, one CaO material, three fluidized bed combustion products (FBCs), three 'non-stabilized' flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs), three 'stabilized' FGDs, and three 'oxidized' (FGD gypsum) FGDs. Level of CCP added to soil ranged from beneficial to detrimental effects on plants. Differences in shoot mineral element concentrations were related to kind and amount of CCP added and soil pH. Plants grown in unamended (pH 4) soil had symptoms of P and Mg deficiencies and A1 toxicity. High concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and Mn accumulated when plants were grown with sonic CCPs, but most mineral nutrients were at concentrations considered normal for maize. Shoot concentrations of P, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, and A1 decreased when soil pH became high ({gt}7). Even though detrimental mineral element acquisition effects were imposed on plants at high levels of CCP application, shoot element concentrations were usually normal when applied at levels near those commonly used as soil amendments.

  7. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  8. Development of a database management system for Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, E.M.; Peck, W.D.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F. [and others

    1997-06-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are produced in high volumes worldwide. Utilization of these materials is economically and environmentally advantageous and is expected to increase as disposal costs increase. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) is developing a database to contain characterization and utilization information on CCBs. This database will provide information for use by managers, marketers, operations personnel, and researchers that will aid in their decision making and long-term planning for issues related to CCBs. The comprehensive nature of the database and the interactive user application will enable ACAA members to efficiently and economically access a wealth of data on CCBs and will promote the technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive use of CCBs.

  9. Gaseous Products of Incense Coil Combustion Extracted by Passive Solid Phase Microextraction Samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsi Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning incense indoors is a common behavior in Southeast Asia. In this investigation, needle trap samplers (NTS, a novel, green analytical technology is used for sampling gaseous combustion by-products from sandalwood incense coils. To extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs, two NTS are prepared, one using 60–80 mesh and the other using 100–120 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB particles packed in 22-gauge stainless steel needles. This work compares extraction efficiency of an NTS and that of a commercially available 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME fiber sampler. Experimental results indicated that the 100–120 mesh DVB-NTS performed best among all samplers during a 1 h sampling period. The main extracted compounds were toluene, ethylbenzene, propane, chloromethane, 1,3-butadiene, methanol and dichloromethane. The potential use of small badge-sized or pen-sized NTS for the indoor atmosphere and occupational hygiene applications is addressed.

  10. Coal slurry solids/coal fluidized bed combustion by-product mixtures as plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, R.G.; Green, W.P.; Dreher, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Fine-textured, pyritic waste produced by coal cleaning is stored in slurry settling ponds that eventually require reclamation. Conventionally, reclamation involves covering the dewatered coal slurry solids (CSS) with 1.3 m of soil to allow plant growth and prevent acid generation by pyrite oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the feasiblity of a less costly reclamation approach that would eliminate the soil cover and allow direct seeding of plants into amended CSS materials. Potential acidity of the CSS would be neutralized by additions of fluidized-bed combustion by-product (FBCB), an alkaline by-product of coal combustion. The experiment involved two sources of CSS and FBCB materials from Illinois. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) were seeded in the greenhouse into pots containing mixtures of the materials. CSS-1 had a high CaCO3:FeS2 ratio and needed no FBCB added to compensate for its potential acidity. CSS-2 was mixed with the FBCB materials to neutralize potential acidity (labeled Mix A and B). Initial pH was 5.6, 8.8, and 9.2 for the CSS-1, Mix A, and Mix B materials, respectively. At the end of the 70-day experiment, pH was 5.9 for all mixtures. Tall fescue and sweet clover grew well in all the treatments, but birdsfoot trefoil had poor emergence and survival. Elevated tissue levels of B, Cd, and Se were found in some plants. Salinity, low moisture holding capacity, and potentially phytotoxic B may limit the efficacy of this reclamation method.

  11. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  12. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M; Jones, Patrik R; Akhtar, M Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability.

  13. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  14. New process concepts for CO2 post-combustion capture process integrated with co-production of hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M.R.M.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansens, P.J.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a study in advanced post-combustion based on CO2-capture technologies to be integrated within the Hypogyny concept (electricity generation with co-hydrogen production). Two different Hypogen concepts based on integrating IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) and post-comb

  15. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  16. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and

  17. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an

  18. ANALYZING THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN LOGISTICS SUGARCANE MILL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tognoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present and analyze the physical arrangement of logistics and production process plant in a sugarcane mill, in order to expose the processes involved, analyzing them more deeply and thus collaborate in a more efficient production. The relevance of this presentation is linked to the benefits that the plant and professionals can get through this work, enabling the development of methods and production alternatives. The research method used was case study based on interviews, on-site observation and document analysis, which was very appropriate as it could examine and cross checking. This work will allow a better understanding of the production process of the logistics of the plant in a sugarcane mill and working with suggestions and methods for more efficient production.

  19. Rice Products Feature Analyzing on the Base of Online Review Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the rice product features using online review mining method. The opinion mining is used to do online review data analyze. High-frequency words were extracted from non-structured online reviews text. Then the rice product features were gotten from the factor analysis on the base of high-frequency words. This provided a new method for product feature analyzing which was based on the data mining of online reviews. The proposed method can be used to compare features of rice products which were in the similar category. It also provided new views for understanding consumer brand knowledge. At the end of this study, the online review of rice products were used to verify the scientificity and rationality of this method.

  20. [Real-time analysis of polyvinyl chloride thermal decomposition/combustion products with single photon ionization/photoelectron ionization online mass spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Dong; Hou, Ke-Yong; Chen, Ping; Li, Fang-Long; Zhao, Wu-Duo; Cui, Hua-Peng; Hua, Lei; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Hai-Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the features of a broad range of ionizable compounds, reduced fragments and simple mass spectrum, a homemade magnetic field enhanced photoelectron ionization (MEPEI) source combined with single photon ionization (SPI) for time-of-flight mass spectrometer was built and applied to analyze thermal decomposition/combustion products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The combined ion source can be switched very fast between SPI mode and SPI-MEPEI mode for detecting different targeted compounds, and only adjusting the voltage of the electrode in the ionization region to trigger the switch. Among the PVC thermal decomposition/combustion products, HCl and CO2, which ionization energies (12.74 eV, 13.77 eV respectively) were higher than the energy of photon (10.60 eV), were ionized by MEPEI, while alkenes, dichloroethylene, benzene and its homologs, monochlorobenzene, styrene, indane, naphthalene and its homologs were ionized by SPI and MEPEI simultaneously. Spectra of interested products as a function of temperatures indicated that products are formed via two main mechanisms: (1) dechlorination and intramolecular cyclization can lead to the formation of HCl, benzene and naphthalene at 250-370 degrees C; (2) intermolecular crosslinking leads to the formation of alkyl aromatics such as toluene and xylene/ethylbenzene at 380-510 degrees C. The experimental results show that the combined ion source of SPI/ SPI-MEPEI for TOF-MS has broad application prospects in the online analysis field.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOILER FOR COMBUSTION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS BY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Turanjanin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia consumes about 15 million tons of equivalent oil per year (Mtoe. At the same time potential of the renewable energy sources is about 3,5 Mtoe/year. Main renewable source is biomass, with its potential of about 2,6 Mtoe/year, and 60% of the total biomass source is of agricultural origin. Mainly, that type of biomass is collected, transported and stored in form of bales. At the same time in one of the largest agricultural companies in Serbia (PKB there are over 2000 ha of soya plantations, and also 4000 t/year of baled soya straw available, none of which being used for energy purposes. Therefore, efforts have been made in the Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy of the "Vinča" Institute to develop a technology for utilizing bales of various sizes and shapes for energy production. Satisfactory test results of the 1 MW experimental facility - low CO levels and stable thermal output - led to the building-up of a 1.5 MW soya straw bales-fired hot water boiler, with cigarette type of combustion, for the purposes of greenhouse and office heating in the PKB. Further more, achieving good results in exploitation of that hot water boiler, the next step is building up the first combined heat and power (electricity production facility (CHP, which will use agricultural biomass as a fuel, in Serbia.

  2. Investigating combustion as a method of processing inedible biomass produced in NASA's biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the John F. Kennedy Space Center is a research program to integrate and evaluate biological processes to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This project focuses on the use of conventional crop plants as grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) for the production and recycling of oxygen, food, and water. The inedible portion of these crops has the potential to be converted to edible biomass or directly to the elemental constituents for direct recycling. Converting inedible biomass directly, by combustion, to carbon dioxide, water, and minerals could provide a baseline for estimating partitioning of the mass balance during recycling in a CELSS. Converting the inedible biomass to carbon dioxide and water requires the same amount of oxygen that was produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen produced during crop growth is just equal to the oxygen required to oxidize all the biomass produced during growth. Thus, the amount of oxygen produced that is available for human consumption is in proportion to the amount of biomass actually utilized by humans. The remaining oxygen must be available to oxidize the rest of the biomass back to carbon dioxide and water or the system will not be a regenerative one.

  3. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  4. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolhamid ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  5. Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Theory Applied to the Expansion of Combustion Products in the Power Stroke of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium method, firmly based on the second law of thermodynamics, is applied to the expansion of combustion products of methane during the power stroke of an internal combustion engine. The constraints used in this study are the elemental oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen together with other four dynamic constraints of total number of moles, moles of DCO (CO+HCO, moles of free valence and moles of free oxygen. Since at chemical equilibrium, the mixture composition is dominated by H/O, CO/CO2, and a few other carbon-containing species, almost independent of the fuel molecule, the set results in accurate predictions of the kinetic effects observed in all H/O and CO/CO2 compounds and temperature history. It is shown that the constrained-equilibrium predictions of all the species composed of the specified atomic elements can be obtained independent of a kinetic path, provided their Gibbs free energies are known.

  6. Analyzing Learners' Language Awareness in Written Production : Product-Oriented vs. Process-Oriented Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Adibi Dahaj, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Writing is one of the four skills that students learning a foreign language are supposed to acquire, and writing often has an important role in the language classroom. Furthermore, in the field of cultural and arts education, a process-oriented approach is considered essential for learning. However, even though we see an increased interest in emphasizing the writing process, in reality, what is often commented, discussed and graded is the final outcome - the product. Consequently, features of...

  7. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  8. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  9. CHEMICAL FIXATION OF CO2 IN COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND RECYCLING THROUGH BIOSYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; Paul Enlow; Richard Strickland; David Behel

    2003-12-15

    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented. Algal growth can be limited by several factors, including the level of bicarbonate available for photosynthesis, the pH of the growth solution, nutrient levels, and the size of the cell population, which determines the available space for additional growth. In order to supply additional CO2 to increase photosynthesis and algal biomass production, fly ash reactor has been demonstrated to increase the available CO2 in solution above the limits that are achievable with dissolved gas alone. The amount of dissolved CO2 can be used to control pH for optimum growth. Periodic harvesting of algae can be used to maintain algae in the exponential, rapid growth phase. An 800 liter scale up demonstrated that larger scale production is possible. The larger experiment demonstrated that indirect addition of CO2 is feasible and produces significantly less stress on the algal system. With better harvesting methods, nutrient management, and carbon dioxide management, an annual biomass harvest of about 9,000 metric tons per square kilometer (36 MT per acre) appears to be feasible. To sequester carbon, the algal biomass needs to be placed in a permanent location. If drying is undesirable, the biomass will eventually begin to aerobically decompose. It was demonstrated that algal biomass is a suitable feed to an anaerobic digester to produce methane

  10. Effect of nitrogen dioxide and other combustion products on asthmatic subjects in a home-like environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salome, C M; Brown, N J; Marks, G B; Woolcock, A J; Johnson, G M; Nancarrow, P C; Quigley, S; Tiong, J

    1996-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a number of nitrogen compounds that are by-products of combustion and occur in domestic environments following the use of gas or other fuels for heating and cooking. In this study, we examined the effect of two levels of NO2 on symptoms, lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthmatic adults and children. In addition, in the same subjects, we examined the effects of the same levels of NO2 mixed with combustion by-products from a gas space heater. The subjects were nine adults, aged 19-65 yrs, and 11 children, aged 7-15 yrs, with diagnosed asthma which was severe enough to require daily medication. All subjects had demonstrable AHR to histamine. Exposures were for 1 h on five separate occasions, 1 week apart, to: 1) ambient air, drawn from outside the building; 2) 0.3 parts per million (ppm) NO2 in ambient air; 3) 0.6 ppm NO2 in ambient air; 4) ambient air+combustion by-products+NO2 to give a total of 0.3 ppm; and 5) ambient air+combustion by-products+NO2 to give a total of 0.6 ppm. Effects were measured as changes in lung function and symptoms during and 1 h after exposure, in AHR 1 h and 1 week after exposure, and in lung function and symptoms during the week following exposure. Exposure to NO2 either in ambient air or mixed with combustion by-products from a gas heater, had no significant effect on symptoms or lung function in adults or in children. There was a small, but statistically significant, increase in AHR after exposure to 0.6 ppm NO2 in ambient air. However, there was no effect of 0.6 ppm NO2 on AHR when the combustion by-products were included in the test atmosphere nor of 0.3 ppm NO2 under either exposure condition. We conclude that a 1 h exposure to 0.3 or 0.6 ppm NO2 has no clinically important effect on the airways of asthmatic adults or children, but that 0.6 ppm may cause a slight increase in airway hyperresponsiveness.

  11. Analyzing impact of experience curve on ROI in the software product line adoption process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tüzün, E.; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context Experience curve is a well-known concept in management and education science, which explains the phenomenon of increased worker efficiency with repetitive production of a good or service. Objective We aim to analyze the impact of the experience curve effect on the Return on Investment (ROI)

  12. Modeling absorption spectra for detection of the combustion products of jet engines by laser remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskaya, Olga K; Kashirskii, Danila E; Egorov, Oleg V; Shefer, Olga V

    2016-05-10

    The absorption spectra of exhaust gases (H2O, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) and aerosol (soot and Al2O3) particles were modeled at different temperatures for the first time and suitable spectral ranges were determined for conducting laser remote sensing of the combustion products of jet engines. The calculations were conducted on the basis of experimental concentrations of the substances and the sizes of the aerosol particles. The temperature and geometric parameters of jet engine exhausts were also taken from the literature. The absorption spectra were obtained via the line-by-line method, making use of the spectral line parameters from the authors' own high-temperature databases (for NO2 and SO2 gases) and the HITEMP 2010 database, and taking into account atmospheric transmission. Finally, the theoretical absorption spectra of the exhaust gases were plotted at temperatures of 400, 700, and 1000 K, and the impact of aerosol particles on the total exhaust spectra was estimated in spectral ranges suitable for remote sensing applications.

  13. Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ladwig

    2005-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the impact of key constituents captured from power plant air streams (principally arsenic and selenium) on the disposal and utilization of coal combustion products (CCPs). Specific objectives of the project were: (1) to develop a comprehensive database of field leachate concentrations at a wide range of CCP management sites, including speciation of arsenic and selenium, and low-detection limit analyses for mercury; (2) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of arsenic species at three CCP sites; and (3) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of selenium species at three CCP sites. Each of these objectives was accomplished using a combination of field sampling and laboratory analysis and experimentation. All of the methods used and results obtained are contained in this report. For ease of use, the report is subdivided into three parts. Volume 1 contains methods and results for the field leachate characterization. Volume 2 contains methods and results for arsenic adsorption. Volume 3 contains methods and results for selenium adsorption.

  14. Combustion Synthesis during Flame Spraying (“CAFSY” for the Production of Catalysts on Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Xanthopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion-assisted flame spraying (“CAFSY” has been used to produce catalytically active nickel aluminide coatings on ceramic substrates. Their catalytic activity was studied in CO2 (dry reforming of methane, which is particularly significant for environmental protection as well as production of synthesis gas (CO + H2. By varying the CAFSY processing parameters, it is possible to obtain a range of Ni–Al alloys with various ratios of catalytically active phases on the substrate. The influence of the number of coating layers and the type of substrate on the final catalyst composition and on the catalytic activity of the CAFSY coatings was studied and is presented here. The morphology and microstructure of the composite coatings were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET specific area analysis. Catalytic tests for dry reforming of methane were carried out using crushed pellets from the coatings at temperatures of 750–900 °C, and gas chromatography showed that methane conversion approached 88% whereas that of carbon dioxide reached 100%. The H2/CO ratio in the synthesis gas produced by the reaction varied from about 0.7 to over 1.2, depending on the catalyst and substrate type and testing temperature.

  15. Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ladwig; B. Hensel; D. Wallschlager; L. Lee; I Murarka

    2005-10-19

    Field leachate samples are being collected from coal combustion product (CCP) management sites from several geographic locations in the United States to provide broad characterization of major and trace constituents in the leachate. In addition, speciation of arsenic, selenium, chromium, and mercury in the leachates is being determined. Through 2003, 35 samples were collected at 14 sites representing a variety of CCP types, management approaches, and source coals. Samples have been collected from leachate wells, leachate collection systems, drive-point piezometers, lysimeters, the ash/water interface at impoundments, impoundment outfalls and inlets, and seeps. Additional sampling at 23 sites has been conducted in 2004 or is planned for 2005. First-year results suggest distinct differences in the chemical composition of leachate from landfills and impoundments, and from bituminous and subbituminous coals. Concentrations of most constituents were generally higher in landfill leachate than in impoundment leachate. Sulfate, sodium, aluminum, molybdenum, vanadium, cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations were higher in leachates for ash from subbituminous source coal. Calcium, boron, lithium, strontium, arsenic, antimony, and nickel were higher for ash from bituminous source coal. These variations will be explored in more detail when additional data from the 2004 and 2005 samples become available.

  16. An evaluation of the toxicological aspects and potential doses from the inhalation of coal combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Chen, Lung Chi

    2013-06-01

    This paper reviews toxicological literature pertaining to coal combustion products (CCPs) inhalation and presents case studies on the inhalation of CCPs from the Kingston Fossil Plant area and from the Colbert Fossil Plant CCP landfill site. While most research regarding coal plant emissions focuses on fly ash, this article takes a holistic approach to examining not only emitted particulate matter such as fly ash, but also the theoretical calculated doses of landfilled CCPs. Furthermore, these doses are compared to in vitro and in vivo studies in order to highlight differences between laboratory-based studies and to emphasize the difficulty in extrapolating effects from inhalation exposures. In both case studies, fugitive emissions from the Kingston ash spill or the Colbert CCP-handling operations did not exceed any national ambient air quality standards or reference concentrations for individual components. Adverse effects such as mild pulmonary inflammation noted in the reviewed literature were in response to doses much higher than would be likely to occur in humans exposed to landfilled CCPs. We conclude that the doses for fugitive emissions calculated herein do not appear to be high enough to elicit a measurable adverse response in humans.

  17. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  18. On supersonic combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁生学

    1999-01-01

    Some basic concepts and features of supersonic combustion are explained from the view point of macroscopic aerodynamics. Two kinds of interpretations of supersonic combustion are proposed. The difference between supersonic combustion and subsonic combustion is discussed, and the mechanism of supersonic combustion propagation and the limitation of heat addition in supersonic flow are pointed out. The results of the calculation of deflagration in supersonic flow show that the entropy increment and the total pressure loss of the combustion products may decrease with the increase of combustion velocity. It is also demonstrated that the oblique detonation wave angle may not be controlled by the wedge angle under weak underdriven solution conditions and be determined only by combustion velocity. Therefore, the weak underdriven solution may become self-sustaining oblique detonation waves with a constant wave angle.

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  20. Experimental forward and reverse in situ combustion gasification of lignite with production of hydrogen-rich syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Cui; Jie Liang; Zhangqing Wang; Xiaochun Zhang; Chenzi Fan; Xuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on the feasibility of applying the forward and reverse combustion approach to the in situ gasification of lignite with the production of hydrogen-rich syngas (H2 and CO). The so-called forward combustion gasification (FCG) and reverse combustion gasification (RCG) approach in which oxygen and steam are simultaneously fed to the simulated system of underground coal gasification (UCG) was studied. A simulated system of UCG was designed and established. The underground conditions of the coal seam and strata were simulated in the system. The combustion gasification of lignite has been carried out experimentally for almost 6.5 days. The average effective content (H2 ? CO) of syngas during the FCG phase was 62.31%and the maximum content was 70.92%. For the RCG phase the corresponding figures are 61.33%and 67.91%. Thus, the feasibility of using RCG way for UCG has been demonstrated. The temperature profiles have been provided by using of 85 thermocouples during the model experiment, which portrayed the several nephograms of thermal data in the gasifier were of significance for the prospective gasification processes.

  1. Combustion products of plastics as indicators for refuse burning in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R T; Medeiros, Patricia M; Didyk, Borys M

    2005-09-15

    Despite all of the economic problems and environmental discussions on the dangers and hazards of plastic materials, plastic production worldwide is growing at a rate of about 5% per year. Increasing techniques for recycling polymeric materials have been developed during the last few years; however, a large fraction of plastics are still being discarded in landfills or subjected to intentional or incidental open-fire burning. To identify specific tracer compounds generated during such open-fire combustion, both smoke particles from burning and plastic materials from shopping bags, roadside trash, and landfill garbage were extracted for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Samples were collected in Concón, Chile, an area frequently affected by wildfire incidents and garbage burning, and the United States for comparison. Atmospheric samples from various aerosol sampling programs are also presented as supportive data. The major components of plastic extracts were even-carbon-chain n-alkanes (C16-C40), the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and the antioxidants and lubricants/antiadhesives Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and its oxidation product tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl) phosphate. Major compounds in smoke from burning plastics include the non-source-specific n-alkanes (mainly even predominance), terephthalic acid, phthalates, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including triphenylbenzenes) and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate. 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)- phosphate were found in detectable amounts in atmospheric samples where plastics and refuse were burned in open fires, and thus we propose these two compounds as specific tracers for the open-burning of plastics.

  2. The effect of alternative fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner on production capacity and improvement with oxygen enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capa...

  3. Heat transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion products at Mach 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, I.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air products of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the heat-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.

  4. An Unsupervised Approach to Analyze Users Opinion on Products using Customer Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Opinions are very much essential for any organization's development and success. It affects the quality of various products in a great way and will indicate how much the customer has satisfied with the product along with its strength and weakness. There are a number of ways of collecting opinions; it may be through a feedback register, or through forums and other online feedback survey facilities. The opinions are monitored and are used for improving the productivity of the product on which the opinion is received. After collecting opinions, it is important to analyze them. So we need a proper automated tool that can actually read through the comments and classify them according to the needs. The tool should be capable of going through a large set of comments in a short time and should be efficient enough to recognize almost any sentence we can throw at it.

  5. Development of medium-sized medium-speed lean burn spark-ignited gas engines. Analyzing local gas composition within the main combustion chamber and optimizing the design factors of a jet hole in the pre-combustion chamber; Chugata chusoku kihakunensho gas engine no kaihatsu kenkyu. Nenshoshitsunai kyokusho gas sosei no bunseki to yonenshoshitsu funko sekkei yoso no saitekika ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S.; Sakagami, T.; Hashimoto, T. [Niigata Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    A high-speed gas sampling method was used to analyze the local gas composition within the main combustion chamber of a lean burn gas engine with a 260 mm bore. The spatial distribution of the gas composition and changes every crank angle were studied. The optimum design of a jet hole in the pre-combustion chamber was then investigated based on these results, with the aim of reducing CO and THC concentration and increasing the thermal efficiency. The engineering findings were evaluated by means of a performance test on a 6 cylinder engine. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Circulating fluidized bed combustion product addition to acid soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) composition and environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A; Kost, David

    2006-06-28

    To reduce S emissions, petroleum coke with a high concentration of S was combusted with limestone in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The combustion process creates a bed product that has potential for agricultural uses. This CFB product is often alkaline and enriched in S and other essential plant nutrients, but also contains high concentrations of Ni and V. Agricultural land application of CFB product is encouraged, but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts. CFB product and agricultural lime (ag-lime) were applied at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The 2.0x LR application rate of CFB product was equivalent to 67.2 Mg ha(-1). Alfalfa yield was increased 4.6 times by CFB product and 3.8 times by ag-lime compared to untreated control. Application of CFB product increased the concentration of V in soil and alfalfa tissue, but not in soil water, and increased the concentration of Ni in soil and soil water, but not in alfalfa tissue. However, these concentrations did not reach levels that might cause environmental problems.

  7. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-10-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This eight quarterly technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two to three additional wells will be selected for remediation for inclusion into the study. The results of the additional remediations will be included in the final report.

  8. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-12-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This final technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two additional wells were selected for remediation and included into the study. Furthermore, the remediation results of wells that were a part of the study group of wells are also described.

  9. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam

  10. Characterisation of refuse-derived fuels on the basis of their combustion characteristics; Charakterisierung von Ersatzbrennstoffen hinsichtlich brennstofftechnischer Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.; Ncube, S. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimer (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verfahren und Umwelt

    2007-07-01

    Refuse-derived fuels and biomass-derived fuels are used in power stations and industrial production processes, either in monocombustion plants or in cocombustion plants. Their energy content, ignition and combustion characteristics, slag formation and corrosion potential make them difficult fuels. The contribution starts by reviewing the combustion characteristics of refuse-derived and biomass-derived fuels and analyzing their influence on the combustion characteristics. Various methods of defining the combustion characteristics of these fuels are explained. (orig.)

  11. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  12. ANALYZING THE POSTPONEMENT OF TIME PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN MAKE-TO-STOCK AND SEASONAL DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management, postponement and demand management functions are of strategic importance to the economic success of organizations because they influence the production process, when viewed in isolation and empirically may hinder understanding of their behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the postponement in an enterprise production system with make-to-stock and with seasonal demand. The research method used was a case study, the instruments of data collection were semi-structured interviews, documentary analysis and site visits. This research is restricted to analysis of the influence that different levels of delay and the company's position in the supply chain have on the practice of demand management in the productive segment graphic, product spiral notebook and also in relation to geographical focus (region of the state São Paulo, in which it will seek to interview the managers and directors. As a way to support the research on the analysis of case study and the final considerations will be discussed the following issues: supply chain management, postponement, demand management and production system make-to-stock. The demand management can be understood as a practice that allows you to manage and coordinate the supply chain in reverse, i.e. the consumer to the supplier, in which consumers trigger actions for the supply of products can make the process more efficient. The purpose of managing the supply chain is able to allow the addition of value, exceeding the expectations of consumers, it is necessary to develop a relationship with suppliers and customers win-win. The postponement strategy must fit the characteristics of the turbulent environment within the markets along with demands that require variety of customized products and services and reasonable costs, aiming to support decision making. The postponement of time can be a way to soften the increase in inventory of finished product in the company

  13. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  14. Using Labeled Choice Experiments to Analyze Demand Structure and Market Position among Seafood Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding market competition and consumer preferences are important first steps in developing a business. In a competitive market, effectiveness of the various elements of a firm’s marketing mix depends not only on the absolute value of each element but also on the relative values...... of the elements with respect to the firm’s position in the market. In this paper we analyze the demand structure and market positions for a variety of seafood products in the French retail market. We use a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to analyze twelve seafood species. The choice options are labeled...... and reveal that salmon and cod have the strongest market position while monkfish and pangasius have the weakest. In general, the demand for seafood is moderately sensitive to price (market elasticity of -1.31). Large and low income households, female consumers, people in the age range 35-44 years and self...

  15. A comparative parametric study of a catalytic plate methane reformer coated with segmented and continuous layers of combustion catalyst for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhwa, Mayur; Parmar, Rajesh D.; Thurgood, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    A parametric comparison study is carried out between segmented and conventional continuous layer configurations of the coated combustion-catalyst to investigate their influence on the performance of methane steam reforming (MSR) for hydrogen production in a catalytic plate reactor (CPR). MSR is simulated on one side of a thin plate over a continuous layer of nickel-alumina catalyst by implementing an experimentally validated surface microkinetic model. Required thermal energy for the MSR reaction is supplied by simulating catalytic methane combustion (CMC) on the opposite side of the plate over segmented and continuous layer of a platinum-alumina catalyst by implementing power law rate model. The simulation results of both coating configurations of the combustion-catalyst are compared using the following parameters: (1) co-flow and counter-flow modes between CMC and MSR, (2) gas hourly space velocity and (3) reforming-catalyst thickness. The study explains why CPR designed with the segmented combustion-catalyst and co-flow mode shows superior performance not only in terms of high hydrogen production but also in terms of minimizing the maximum reactor plate temperature and thermal hot-spots. The study shows that the segmented coating requires 7% to 8% less combustion-side feed flow and 70% less combustion-catalyst to produce the required flow of hydrogen (29.80 mol/h) on the reforming-side to feed a 1 kW fuel-cell compared to the conventional continuous coating of the combustion-catalyst.

  16. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  17. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  18. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  19. Combustion products from various kinds of fibers: toxicological hazards from smoke exposure. [Guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betol, E.; Mari, F.; Orzalesi, G.; Volpato, I.

    1983-08-15

    The smoke exposure hazards during combustion of carbon and nitrogen-containing fibers were evaluated in guinea pigs intoxicated by gradual exposure to HCN and CO neo-formed from foam rubber, wool and PAN (Polyacrylonitrile). The most prominent result of our study was that the neo-formation of HCN from 1 g of PAN was 1500 ppm, much higher than from foam rubber and wool because of the presence of many -CN groups in the polymer chemical structure. This concentration of HCN is estimated to be lethal. Extrapolating this data, a lethal concentration of HCN could be obtained by burning 2 kg of PAN in an average sized living room. The above-mentioned 1 g of PAN was burned in a 15.6-liter combustion chamber.

  20. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia Habib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulting coal briquette and disintegration strength using polyvinyl acetate (PVA in combination with calcium carbonate (sample no 3 with highest disintegration strength value of 2059N. Comparison of test samples with the commercially available coal briquettes revealed improved combustion characteristics for the PVA bonded (sample no 1 and 5 coal briquettes having higher fixed carbon content and calorific value, lower ash contents as well as lower initial ignition time.

  1. Study of mercury in by-products from a Dutch co-combustion power station

    OpenAIRE

    Rallo, Manuela; López Antón, María Antonia; Meij, Ruud; Perry, Ron; Maroto Valer, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Fly ashes and gypsum are one of the main wastes produced in coal-fired power stations which may be sent to landfills for their disposal. In this work, leaching and speciation of mercury in fly ashes and gypsum from a modern co-combustion power plant equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit in the Netherlands were studied. The mercury leachable contents were checked against different regulations, including Dutch, German and the Council Directive 2003/33/EC. The speciation ...

  2. Corrosion of Metals Exposed to Combustion Products Generated during Shipboard Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    HY80 steel , type 304 stainless steel , brass, and Monel 400. The metallic coupons were stored under both moderate and high humidity conditions after the... HY80 Steel 25 Type 304 Stainless Steel 28 Brass 28 Monel 400 31 Summary 33 RESULTS OF TESTS W-13 AND W-13A 35 HY80 Steel 39 Type 304 Stainless Steel 50...exposed to the heavy sooty smoke produced during flaming combustion. The metallic specimens or target materials were HY80 steel , type 304

  3. Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Performance and Emission Products from Hydrous Ethanol and Its Blends with Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaab O. El-Faroug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the serviceability of hydrous ethanol as a clean, cheap and green renewable substitute fuel for spark ignition engines and discusses the comparative chemical and physical properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels. The significant differences in the properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels are sufficient to create a significant change during the combustion phase of engine operation and consequently affect the performance of spark-ignition (SI engines. The stability of ethanol-gasoline-water blends is also discussed. Furthermore, the effects of hydrous ethanol, and its blends with gasoline fuel on SI engine combustion characteristics, cycle-to-cycle variations, engine performance parameters, and emission characteristics have been highlighted. Higher water solubility in ethanol‑gasoline blends may be obviously useful and suitable; nevertheless, the continuous ability of water to remain soluble in the blend is significantly affected by temperature. Nearly all published engine experimental results showed a significant improvement in combustion characteristics and enhanced engine performance for the use of hydrous ethanol as fuel. Moreover, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions were also significantly decreased. It is also worth pointing out that unburned hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide emissions were also reduced for the use of hydrous ethanol. However, unregulated emissions such as acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were significantly increased.

  4. Extreme thermal episodes analyzed with MODIS products during the boreal winter (2000-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gomis-Cebolla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the intensification of the existing global warming situation and for a series of drastic global meteorological events. Particularly, during the winter season a series of extreme temperature episodes affecting large areas of the northern hemisphere have been produced. In this paper, these episodes are studied by analyzing the thermal anomalies spatial distribution and temporal evolution in the period 2001-2016 from Land Surface Temperature (LST products obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. The study regions considered in this investigation are eight of the northern hemisphere. The results obtained for the heating and cooling episodes do not reveal an important discrepancy, however, an increase in the area affected by heating versus cooling is observed.

  5. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  6. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    representation of hydropower is included and total hydro power production for each area is calculated, and the production is distributed among all available plants within each area. During simulation, the demand is affected by prices and temperatures. 6 different infrastructure scenarios of wind and power line development are analyzed. The analyses are done by running EMPS calibrated for today's situation for 11*11*8 different combinations of altered weather variables (temperature, precipitation and wind) describing different climate change scenarios, finding the climate response function for every EMPS-variable according the electricity production, such as prices and income, energy balances (supply, consumption and trade), overflow losses, probability of curtailment etc .

  7. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  8. Assessment of evaporation equilibrium and stability concerning an acoustically excited drop in combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriot, Yves; Prud'homme, Roger

    2014-04-01

    The evaporation of drops in a sound field has been the subject of numerous studies aimed at determining its role in combustion instability. The models generally assume local equilibrium evaporation at the interface. We determine here the conditions of validity of this assumption, without calling into question other a priori assumptions of the classical model, in particular spherically symmetric quasi-steady evolution in the gas phase and liquid phase thermal unsteadiness with pure heat conduction. Another possible phenomenon concerns the differential recoil of the vapor. In the case of rapid evaporation, a pressure difference appears between both sides of the interface, even if the latter is plane. This pressure difference, usually neglected, is proportional to the square of speed and the resulting force is oriented toward the denser fluid, i.e. the liquid. A very fast evaporation may even cause local deformation, i.e. Hickman instability. The stability condition concerning this phenomenon has also been determined. This study was co-funded by CNES (French Space Agency) and ONERA and was performed in the framework of CNES-ONERA French Research &  Technology activities on the high-frequency combustion stability of liquid-propellant rocket engines.

  9. Kinetic investigation for slow combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The renewed interest in biomass as a renewable, clean, and inexpensive fuel was discussed. Many different mechanisms take place simultaneously during biomass combustion and also during other thermal processes such as gasification, pyrolysis or carbonization. These mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the design and operation of thermal conversion processes. In addition, product yields and product distributions from the thermal processes are sensitive to the kinetic properties of biomass. In order to evaluate the combustion mechanisms and the combustion kinetics of biomass, the behavior of these constituents under combustion conditions were properly evaluated. In this study, combustion of biomass samples was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer by heating them from ambient to 1173 K with heating rates of 5 K/min and 10 K/min under dynamic dry air atmosphere of 40 mL/min. The biomass samples included olive refuse, sunflower seed shell, rapeseed, grape seed, and hybrid poplar. The purpose of the study was to examine the kinetic properties of biomass during slow combustion for the overall combustion process as well as for some definite temperature intervals at which different combustion mechanisms are present according to the type and complexity of biomass used. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves were derived, and data obtained from these curves were used to compute the kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and governing mechanisms for the combustion processes. The governing mechanisms for individual temperature intervals were examined along with the overall combustion process. The study showed that at lower temperature intervals, the combustion process was controlled primarily by the chemical reaction. At least 3 sequential mechanisms may occur at different temperature intervals during combustion of biomass. Activation energy and pre-exponential factors were determined for each temperature interval

  10. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Yu; Coveney, Raymond M; Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Haitao; Shen, Weiran

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA, procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from approximately 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from approximately 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 +/- 2.87 ng/m3 on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m3, 41% of the entire population lives within this area.

  12. Chemical, structural and combustion characteristics of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Kent Hoekman, S; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-05-01

    A carbon-rich solid product, denoted as hydrochar, was synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), at different pre-treatment temperatures of 150, 250 and 350 °C. The conversion of the raw biomass to its hydrochar occurred via dehydration and decarboxylation processes. The hydrochar produced at 350 °C had the maximum energy-density (>27 MJ kg(-1)) with 68.52% of raw EFB energy retained in the char. To gain a detailed insight into the chemical and structural properties, carbonaceous hydrochar materials were characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. This work also investigated the influence of hydrothermally treated hydrochars on the co-combustion characteristics of low rank Indonesian coal. Conventional thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) parameters, kinetics and activation energy of different hydrochar and coal blends were estimated. Our results show that solid hydrochars improve the combustion of low rank coals for energy generation.

  13. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  14. Thermochemical of combustion products using thermodynamic properties obtained of statistical mechanics; Termoquimica dos produtos de combustao utilizando propriedades termodinamicas obtidas da mecanica estatistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Carlos Alberto Rocha [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Aeronautica; Hinckel, Jose Nivaldo; Koreeda, Jorge [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle]. E-mail: carlosal@aer.ita.cta.br; hinckel@sigma.dem.inpe.br

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the results of an analytical model and a computer program to obtain thermochemical properties of combustion products in a liquid rocket motors, using the method of statistical mechanic to calculation thermodynamic properties of the species. The equations of statistical mechanics and the technique of minimizing of Gibbs free energy are used to calculate the thermochemical functions and the equilibrium chemical composition. These methods are applied to the calculation of equilibrium properties of the combustion products in liquid rocket motors for different propellant pairs, O/F ratios and chamber pressures. The results obtained from this method are compared to those of NASA SP-273. (author)

  15. Occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic and its emission characteristic during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng; Liu Ze-chang; Zhao Ying; Shi Yu-miao [Chemical and Environmental Engineering College of Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2006-12-15

    The occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic was studied by IR and TG-MS. In addition, the emission characteristic of those solid products during combustion was studied. The results indicates that when co-pyrolysis temperature is below 600{sup o}C, there are some organic as well as inorganic chlorine compounds in coke; when the temperature is above 600{sup o}C, there is only inorganic one in the coke. The emission ratio of chlorine is relative to combustion temperature, the co-pyrolysing temperature as well as the percentage of PVC. The emission ratio of chlorine increases with the rising temperature of combustion. When the combustion temperature is 900{sup o}C, the emission ratio is up to 94%. On the contrary, the emission ratio is lower for the solid product from higher co-pyrolysis temperature as the combustion temperature is the same. The highest chlorine emission ratio from pyrolysis at 400{sup o}C is 99.86%, but that from 1000{sup o}C pyrolysis is 94.35%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

    2008-03-31

    ;Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H{sub 2} and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2}' (DOE Award No. DE-FC26-00NT40974). The report focuses on the major accomplishments and lessons learned in analyzing the risks of the novel UFP technology during Phase II of the DOE program.

  17. Molecular hydrogen and catalytic combustion in the production of hyperpolarized 83Kr and 129Xe MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J.; Hill-Casey, Fraser; Stupic, Karl F.; Six, Joseph S.; Lesbats, Clémentine; Rigby, Sean P.; Fraissard, Jacques; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr is a promising MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases affecting the surface of the respiratory zone. However, the distinct physical properties of 83Kr that enable unique MRI contrast also complicate the production of hp 83Kr. This work presents a previously unexplored approach in the generation of hp 83Kr that can likewise be used for the production of hp 129Xe. Molecular nitrogen, typically used as buffer gas in spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP), was replaced by molecular hydrogen without penalty for the achievable hyperpolarization. In this particular study, the highest obtained nuclear spin polarizations were P = 29% for 83Kr and P = 63% for 129Xe. The results were reproduced over many SEOP cycles despite the laser-induced on-resonance formation of rubidium hydride (RbH). Following SEOP, the H2 was reactively removed via catalytic combustion without measurable losses in hyperpolarized spin state of either 83Kr or 129Xe. Highly spin-polarized 83Kr can now be purified for the first time, to our knowledge, to provide high signal intensity for the advancement of in vivo hp 83Kr MRI. More generally, a chemical reaction appears as a viable alternative to the cryogenic separation process, the primary purification method of hp 129Xe for the past 2 1/2 decades. The inherent simplicity of the combustion process will facilitate hp 129Xe production and should allow for on-demand continuous flow of purified and highly spin-polarized 129Xe.

  18. The spontaneous combustion of coal and its by-products in the Witbank and Sasolburg coalfields of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pone, J. Denis N. [Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 228 Housler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hein, Kim A.A. [School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, P/Bag 3, 2050, WITS (South Africa); Stracher, Glenn B. [Division of Science and Mathematics, East Georgia College, Swainsboro, Georgia 30401 (United States); Annegarn, Harold J. [Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 (South Africa); Finkleman, Robert B. [University of Texas at Dallas, Department of Geosciences, Richardson, TX 75083-0688 (United States); Blake, Donald R. [Department of Chemistry, 570 Rowland Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); McCormack, John K. [Electron Microbeam Facility, Department of Geological Sciences, MS 172, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada, Reno, Navada 8955-0047 (United States); Schroeder, Paul [Department of Geology, University of Georgia, 210 Field Street, Athens, GA 30602-2501 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal seams in the Witbank and Sasolburg coalfields, South Africa, was studied in order to determine if toxic chemical elements and compounds are being mobilised into the environment. Samples of the minerals forming on the surface of coal seams, and gases escaping from vents, were analysed to verify the presence of these elements and compounds. Gas temperature measurements at coal-fire vents range from 34 C to 630 C. The coal-fire gas minerals (CFGM) identified included sulphur compounds and salammoniac. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of CFGM by-products confirmed the presence of mascagnite ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), illite ((Al,Si){sub 4}O{sub 10}[(OH){sub 2},H{sub 2}O]) letovicite ((NH{sub 4}){sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}), phlogopite (KMg{sub 3}(AlSi{sub 3})O{sub 10}(F,OH){sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), barite (BaSO{sub 4}), iron sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) and silicate. An unknown and unclassified sulphur-nitrogen-chlorine CFGM was also identified. The minerals are interpreted to have formed by condensation or sublimation; several may be alteration products. Other heavy elements found in the CFGM's are mercury, arsenic, lead, zinc, and copper. Arsenic and mercury were the major elements of potential environmental significance found accumulating around coal-fire vents. Relatively high concentrations of toluene, benzene and xylene were found in the gas collected at both Witbank and Sasolburg coalfields. Benzene, toluene and xylenes are known to possess carcinogenic proprieties. Thirty-two aliphatic compounds were detected, as well as halogenated compounds including bromomethane, iodomethane and trichloromethane in low concentrations, and dichloromethane and chloromethane in high concentrations. The highest concentrations of halogenated compounds were measured for gas samples from the Witbank coalfield. High concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane were also detected. The

  19. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  20. Ignition and combustion characteristics of molded amorphous boron under different oxygen pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Yunan; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-09-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of amorphous boron (B) have received much attention from researchers in recent decades. A pressurized concentrated ignition experimental system was designed to evaluate the ignition and combustion characteristics of molded B samples. The ignition experiments were carried out under different oxygen pressures (1-9 atm). The condensed combustion products were then analyzed using a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer, and an X-ray diffractometer. Furthermore, the complete oxidation rates of the samples were detected by inductively coupled plasma chromatography. As the oxygen pressure increased, the combustion intensity of the samples steadily increased, and the ignition delay time and combustion time both decreased. Under the oxygen pressure of 9 atm, the average ignition delay time and combustion time were 2640 ms and 2596 ms, respectively, and the highest combustion temperature reached 1561.5 °C. The initial diffusion flame on the sample surface was green and the brightest, which was produced by an intermediate combustion product, BO2 (corresponding molecular emission spectrum wavelength, 547.3 nm). Emission spectra of another intermediate product, BO (431.9 nm) was also detected. Two different types of structures were found in the condensed combustion products of the samples. The first type was the flaky B2O3 structure, and the second type was the flocculent structure of incomplete combustion products. The B2O3 content in the condensed combustion products increased with the oxygen pressure during combustion. The complete oxidation ratio of the samples also increased with the oxygen pressure, and reached the maximum value of 68.71% under 9 atm. Overall, the samples showed better ignition and combustion characteristics under higher oxygen pressure.

  1. Fertilisers production from ashes after sewage sludge combustion - A strategy towards sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorazda, Katarzyna; Tarko, Barbara; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Kominko, Halyna; Nowak, Anna K; Kulczycka, Joanna; Henclik, Anna; Smol, Marzena

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development and circular economy rules force the global fertilizer industry to develop new phosphorous recovery methods from alternative sources. In this paper a phosphorus recovery technology from Polish industrial Sewage Sludge Ashes was investigated (PolFerAsh - Polish Fertilizers form Ash). A wet method with the use of mineral acid and neutralization was proposed. Detailed characteristic of SSA from largest mono-combustion plans were given and compared to raw materials used on the market. The technological factors associated with such materials were discussed. The composition of the extracts was compared to typical industrial phosphoric acid and standard values characterizing suspension fertilizers. The most favorable conditions for selective precipitation of phosphorus compounds were revealed. The fertilizers obtained also meet EU regulations in the case of the newly discussed Cd content. The process was scaled up and a flow mass diagram was defined.

  2. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  3. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  4. Homogeneous chemistry of NO/sub x/ production and removal from fossil fuel combustion gases. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, J.A.; Gozewski, C.M.; Kolb, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    The reduction of NO/sub x/ emissions from stationary combustion sources by non-catalytic homogeneous chemical addition is a promising technique. Demonstrations in laboratory experiments and on a number of field scale combustors have shown that the addition of ammonia to the exhaust flow significantly reduces the NO concentrations in a narrow temperature range. This report summarizes the work performed to understand the detailed chemical mechanism which makes this reduction occur. A model describing the NH/sub i//NO/sub x/ chemical system is developed, and rates of the key reactions identified are measured in a high temperature fast flow reactor. Product channels for certain important reactions are also identified. The experimental results are incorporated into the computer code, and the model predictions are compared with laboratory and field test results. Possible additives other than ammonia are evaluated and discussed.

  5. [The introduction of medical product's applications by using flavor and fragrance analyzer "FF-2020"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    The design concept of flavor and fragrance analyzer "FF-2020" was descried; at first how to recognize the quantification of odor, introducing traditional quantification of odor and how to compose the analyzer. At last two analysis of the medical goods were described. The most important thing to quantify the odor is to recognize the three faced of odor that is chemical component face, subjective feeling and objective feeling. For the electronic nose like a flavor and fragrance analyzer, objective feeling should be quantified by the analyzer. Then the original mode of analysis was made to realize the quantification of the objective feeling.

  6. Thermodynamic Model of Aluminum Combustion in SDF Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, . L

    2006-06-19

    Thermodynamic states encountered during combustion of Aluminum powder in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions were analyzed with the Cheetah code. Results are displayed in the Le Chatelier diagram: the locus of states of specific internal energy versus temperature. Accuracy of the results was confirmed by comparing the fuel and products curves with the heats of detonation and combustion, and species composition as measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Results were fit with analytic functions u = f(T) suitable for specifying the thermodynamic properties required for gas-dynamic models of combustion in explosions.

  7. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Hoagland, M.C.; Hubbard, R.L.; Schaub, F.S.

    1981-12-22

    A method of combusting natural gas fuel in a two cycle, turbocharged internal combustion engine substantially reduces the production of nitrogen-oxygen emissions. An improved turbocharger design provides increased air charging pressure, produces a controlled lean air/fuel mixture and lowers peak combustion temperatures. A jet cell ignition device ensures uniform, reliable ignition of the lean air/fuel mixture under all operating conditions and the lean air/fuel mixture in turn encourages complete fuel combustion and provides excellent combustion characteristics with methane, ethane and heavier paraffinic hydrocarbon fuels. These structural modifications and adjustment of other operating parameters combine to reduce nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) emissions by as much as 75% while effecting only a negligible increase in fuel consumption.

  8. High-Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M. tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN,Qing-Hui(金庆辉); CHEN,Ji-Feng(陈继锋); JING,Feng-Xiang(景奉香); ZHAO,Jian-Long(赵建龙); XU,Yuan-Sen(徐元森)

    2002-01-01

    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis (MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M. tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide. The electrophoretic process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.

  9. High—Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M.tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金庆辉; 陈继锋; 等

    2002-01-01

    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis(MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M.tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide,The electrophoretic Process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.

  10. Experimental determination of the retention time of reduced temperature of gas-vapor mixture in trace of water droplets moving in counterflow of combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    We have experimentally studied temporal variation of the temperature of gas-vapor mixture in the trace of water droplets moving in the counterflow of high-temperature combustion products. The initial gas temperature was within 500-950 K. The water droplet radius in the aerosol flow varied from 40 to 400 μm. The motion of water droplets in the counterflow of combustion products in a 1-m-high hollow quartz cylinder with an internal diameter of 20 cm was visualized by optical flow imaging techniques (interferometric particle imaging, shadow photography, particle tracking velocimetry, and particle image velocimetry) with the aid of a cross-correlation complex setup. The scale of temperature decrease in the mixture of combustion products and water droplets was determined for a pulsed (within 1 s) and continuous supply of aerosol with various droplet sizes. Retention times of reduced temperature (relative to the initial level) in trace of water droplets (aerosol temperature trace) are determined. A hypothesis concerning factors responsible for the variation of temperature in the trace of droplets moving in the counterflow of combustion products is experimentally verified.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Selected Microalgae Strains and Determination of its Properties and Combustion Specific Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kokkinos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are gaining importance as significant substitutes for the depleting fossil fuels. Recent focus is on microalgae as the third generation feedstock. In the present research work, two indigenous fresh water and two marine Chlorophyte strains have been cultivated successfully under laboratory conditions using commercial fertilizer (Nutrileaf 30-10-10, initial concentration=70 g/m3 as nutrient source. Gas chromatographic analysis data showed that microalgae biodiesel obtained from Chlorophyte strains biomass were composed of fatty acid methyl esters. The produced microalgae biodiesel achieved a range of 2.2 - 10.6 % total lipid content and an unsaturated FAME content between 49 mol% and 59 mol%. The iodine value, the cetane number, the cold filter plugging point, the oxidative stability as well as combustion specific characteristics of the final biodiesels were determined based on the compositions of the four microalgae strains. The calculated biodiesel properties compared then with the corresponding properties of biodiesel from known vegetable oils, from other algae strains and with the specifications in the EU (EN 14214 and US (ASTM D6751 standards. The derived biodiesels from indigenous Chlorophyte algae were significantly comparable in quality with other biodiesels.

  12. Effects of Postinjection Application with Late Partially Premixed Combustion on Power Production and Diesel Exhaust Gas Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jeftić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of postinjection with late partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI were investigated with respect to diesel exhaust gas conditioning and potential power production. Initial tests comparing postinjection application with PCCI to that with conventional diesel high temperature combustion (HTC indicated the existence of similar trends in terms of carbon monoxide (CO, total unburned hydrocarbon (THC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and smoke emissions. However, postinjection in PCCI cycles exhibited lower NOx and smoke but higher CO and THC emissions. With PCCI operation, the use of postinjection showed much weaker ability for raising the exhaust gas temperature compared to HTC. Additional PCCI investigations generally showed increasing CO and THC, relatively constant NOx, and decreasing smoke emissions, as the postinjection was shifted further from top dead center (TDC. Decreasing the overall air-to-fuel ratio resulted in increased hydrogen content levels but at the cost of increased smoke, THC and CO emissions. The power production capabilities of early postinjection, combined with PCCI, were investigated and the results showed potential for early postinjection power production.

  13. Characterization of products of combustion of mineral coal; Caracterizacao de produtos solidos da combustao do carvao mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Albuquerque, J. S. V.; Sales, J.C.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q., E-mail: hs.pinheiro@metalmat.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    During the burning of coal in power plants, various types of waste or by products are generated. These materials have been the subject of several studies. They contain ashes and have many technological applications, such as in the production of various types of ceramic pieces. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of adding the coal combustion products as filler for ceramics. X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to identify and quantify the proportions of the elements contained in the sample and x-ray diffraction to identify the phases present. The analysis by X-ray diffraction revealed a diffraction pattern of silicon sulfide, calcium silicate and sulfide phases of Aluminium, Potassium and Titanium. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed silica (37.14%), calcium (21.86%), aluminum (14.69%) and sulfur (8.70%). These results show characteristics of materials with potential for incorporation in ceramic bodies, provided that some processing is done to eliminate the sulfur. (author)

  14. THE USE OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett

    2004-09-30

    In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

  15. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  16. Utilization of low NOx coal combustion by-products. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project was to commercialize fly ash beneficiation at various facilities around the country. The paper describes laboratory characterization of fly ash samples, pilot plant testing, product testing, and market and economic analyses. Products include concrete, concrete blocks and bricks, plastic fillers, activated carbon, and metal matrix composites.

  17. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the

  18. The Heat of Combustion of Tobacco and Carbon Oxide Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman AB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated a relationship between mass burn rates of straight-grade cigarettes and heats of combustion of the tobacco materials. In the present work, relationships between measured heats of combustion and elemental composition of the tobacco materials were further analyzed. Heats of combustion measured in oxygen were directly correlated with the carbon and hydrogen content of the tobacco materials tested. Ash content of the materials was inversely related to the heats of combustion. The water insoluble residues from exhaustively extracted tobacco materials showed higher heats of combustion and higher carbon content than the non-extracted materials, confirming a direct relationship between carbon content and heat of combustion. A value for the heat of formation of tobacco was estimated (1175 cal/g from the heat of combustion data and elemental analysis results. The estimated value for heat of formation of tobacco appears to be constant regardless of the material type. Heat values measured in air were uniformly lower than the combustion heats in oxygen, suggesting formation of CO and other reaction products. Gases produced during bomb calorimetry experiments with five tobacco materials were analyzed for CO and CO2 content. When the materials were burned in oxygen, no CO was found in the gases produced. Measured heats of combustion matched estimates based on CO2 found in the gas and conversion of the sample hydrogen content to water. Materials burned in air produced CO2 (56% to 77% of the sample carbon content and appreciable amounts of CO (7% to 16% of the sample carbon content. Unburned residue containing carbon and hydrogen was found in the air combustion experiments. Estimated heat values based on amounts of CO and CO2 found in the gas and water formed from the hydrogen lost during combustion in air were higher than the measured values. These observations indicate formation of products containing hydrogen when the materials

  19. Analyzing Lifestyle and Consumption Pattern of Hire Groups under Product Service Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of rental goods, integrates the green concept in the design and development, and introduces the concept of product service into the rental consumption trend in Taiwan. This study takes the questionnaire survey to collect various opinions of the consumers to rental consumption and also classifies the Taiwanese consumers into five clusters based on the life styles, and the names of clusters are simple financial management cluster, environment and taste cluster, fashionable and flexible cluster, careful purchase cluster, and smart consumption cluster. Finally, conclusions are as follows. (1 The green consumption cognition and attitude of the consumers to the environmental goods can help to master the factor of green consumption property for developing the rental commodities. (2 The market segmentation of the rental consumption market can be enhanced by the variables of available life styles. (3 The applications with product service rental characteristics should take the opinion feedback of the consumers into the sustainable product development conditions and expand the service property of the product. (4 As the cost of cradle-to-cradle recycling pattern is high, the support and promotion of the government can help to construct the business model of product service rental consumption and develop the rental economy.

  20. Co-Production of Knowledge in Multi-Stakeholder Processes: Analyzing Joint Experimentation as Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpo, Essegbemon; Crane, Todd A.; Vissoh, Pierre V.; Tossou, Rigobert C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Changing research design and methodologies regarding how researchers articulate with end-users of technology is an important consideration in developing sustainable agricultural practices. This paper analyzes a joint experiment as a multi-stakeholder process and contributes to understand how the way of organizing social learning affects…

  1. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  2. Towards a Framework to Analyze Causal Relations From Digital Information Networks To Micro Economic Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, A.; N. BAKEN; H. Bouwman

    2009-01-01

    Digital Information Networks (DINs) refer to information networks supported by telecommunication infrastructures and terminated by microprocessors. In the recent past, there is a consolidated recognition that the public digital network infrastructure is of high economic importance, being generally recognized as one of the pillars of the knowledge society. An economic agent uses DINs to increase his individual productivity and that of his organization. From a thorough literature review about w...

  3. In Vivo Cosmetic Product Efficacy Testing by Analyzing Epidermal Proteins Extracted from Tape Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Westman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this in vivo pilot study was to investigate whether differential biomarker analysis from skin tape strips could be used, not only to evaluate the difference between treated and untreated skin, but also to evaluate the effect of different product treatments. Ten volunteers were included in the study, applying two different basic formulations on their forearms. After four weeks of product application, and also after one week of treatment remission, tape strips were collected from the different treatment sites, as well as from untreated skin. The biomarkers investigated were selected to cover different aspects of epidermal differentiation and in connection with moisturization and barrier function. Levels of Involucrin were increased in both treatments, compared to untreated skin, whereas the levels of Keratin-6 were decreased for both treatments. In addition, a pattern for increased levels of Hornerin and Claudin-1 was also detected. There were no significant differences between the two treatments, only for treatment compared to untreated, but there were tendencies for different effect on some of the biomarkers investigated, differences that may reach significance with increased sample size. The major differences between the two treatments in this study were seen after one week of product remission, although due to too small sample size these differences were not significant.

  4. Implementation of methodology for analyzing the added value in a metallurgical industry of custom products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Mayer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the implementation of a methodology for the analysis of added value in a job where steel sheets operations are processed by oxyfuel in a CNC (computer numerical control machine. The method used was based on a case study, followed by descriptive research by observing and recording the movements of the work. For this purpose, all the movements and tasks of the operators and the machine were defined, and classified according to the concepts adopted by Ohno (2002. Their chrono-analyses occurred in the period from March to June 2010 and later improvements were made throughout the workplace, allowing the elimination and reduction of losses, significant increase in the added value and increased occupation of the machine. Through this case study, it was found that the understandings of Ohno (2002 about the added value developed for an automotive industry manufacturing a standard product are perfectly applicable to a company that works with a production system under design and does not manufacture standard products

  5. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  6. Analyzing power A for ω meson production in proton proton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosy-Tof Collaboration; Abdel-Bary, M.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, J.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Freiesleben, H.; Gillitzer, A.; Gottwald, J.; Jä, R.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Kuhlmann, E.; Morsch, H. P.; Pizzolotto, C.; Reimann, S.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schroeder, W.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Sefzick, T.; Sun, G. Y.; Teufel, A.; Ullrich, W.; Wenzel, R.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-04-01

    We report on a determination of the analyzing power A in the p→p→ppω reaction studied with the TOF spectrometer located at the COSY-accelerator (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany). This spectrometer is very well suited for polarization measurements due to its rotational symmetry and full coverage of the azimuthal angle. For a beam momentum of p=3065 MeV/c corresponding to an excess energy of γ=129 MeVA is found to be compatible with zero.

  7. Analyzing power A{sub y} for {omega} meson production in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Bary, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Brinkmann, K.-Th. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Clement, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Dietrich, J. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Doroshkevich, E. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Dshemuchadse, S. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Eyrich, W. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Freiesleben, H. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Gillitzer, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gottwald, J.; Jae, R.; Karsch, L. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kilian, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kuhlmann, E. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Morsch, H.P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Pizzolotto, C. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Reimann, S. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Ritman, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-04-10

    We report on a determination of the analyzing power A{sub y} in the p{sup {yields}}p{yields}pp{omega} reaction studied with the TOF spectrometer located at the COSY-accelerator (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany). This spectrometer is very well suited for polarization measurements due to its rotational symmetry and full coverage of the azimuthal angle. For a beam momentum of p=3065 MeV/c corresponding to an excess energy of {epsilon}=129 MeVA{sub y} is found to be compatible with zero.

  8. Analyzing power Ay for ω meson production in proton-proton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Bary, M.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, J.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Freiesleben, H.; Gillitzer, A.; Gottwald, J.; Jä, R.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Kuhlmann, E.; Morsch, H. P.; Pizzolotto, C.; Reimann, S.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schroeder, W.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Sefzick, T.; Sun, G. Y.; Teufel, A.; Ullrich, W.; Wenzel, R.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Zupranski, P.; COSY-TOF Collaboration

    2008-04-01

    We report on a determination of the analyzing power Ay in the p→ p → ppω reaction studied with the TOF spectrometer located at the COSY-accelerator (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany). This spectrometer is very well suited for polarization measurements due to its rotational symmetry and full coverage of the azimuthal angle. For a beam momentum of p = 3065 MeV / c corresponding to an excess energy of ɛ = 129 MeVAy is found to be compatible with zero.

  9. Sustainable Production of Bio-Combustibles from Pyrolysis of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Volpe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the sustainability of biomass pyrolysis requires a thorough assessment of the product yields and energy densities. With this purpose, a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor (FBR was adapted from the standard Gray-King (GK assay test on coal to conduct fixed bed pyrolysis experiments on agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. The present study provides results on the pyrolysis of two types of biomass: chipped olive tree trimmings (OT and olive pomace (OP. Solid (char and liquid (tar product yields are reported. Mass yields are determined and compared with values obtained in similar works. Results indicate that char yield decreases from 49% (OT-db and 50% (OP-db at 325 °C to 26% (OT db and 30% (OP-db at 650 °C. Tar yield is almost constant (42% at different reaction temperatures for OT, while it decreases slightly from 42% to 35% for OP. Energy density of the products at different peak temperatures is almost constant for OT (1.2, but slightly increases for OP (from a value of 1.3 to a value of 1.4.

  10. Numerical Approach to the Evaluation of Atmospheric Pollution by Combustion Products of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdyakov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the results of mathematical modeling of acid rain formation and its fallout in the areas adjacent to the site of the energy complex. Four thermal periods that are typical for regions of sharply continental climate has been considered. The influence of convective parameters on the formation mechanism of atmospheric precipitation has been estimated. The contribution of solar energy flux to the research process has been analyzed.

  11. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Analyzing the Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency on the PHB Production of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyauk, E.

    2011-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable thermoplastic that is produced by various microorganisms. Because of its potential to replace conventional plastics, it has been closely researched in the past few years. Methanotrophic bacteria, bacteria that consume methane, produce this bioplastic when it lacks certain nutrients. The utilization of methane to produce PHB shows much promise as methane is a cheap, plentiful gas. In this study, we observed the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b , and its yield of PHB in the absence of nitrogen. The optical density of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was measured in order to observe cell growth and PHB production patterns over a 48 hour period.

  13. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Eriksson

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available A model for long-term analysis of the influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing (Cladina, Alectoria, Bryoria spp and others in Sweden is presented. The annual production of and demand for lichens are estimated and compared. Production of these lichens is presumed to set the upper limit for the reindeer population. Reindeer graze on both ground and tree lichens, which both must be accessible in sufficient amounts and at the right times of the year if reindeer husbandry is to succeed without supplementary feeding. The model is based mainly on existing data, and uses are estimations from the National Forest Survey and the Hugin system for calculation of longterm potential cut (Bengtsson, 1981. Geographically the study is limited to Vasterbotten and Norrbotten, the northernmost counties in Sweden, where most reindeer husbandry in Sweden is located, and where reindeer grazing takes place over almost the whole area. The calculations cover a period of one hundred years from 1980, and are based on a timber production programme which relies more on «multiple use» than the current Swedish forest policy (Bengtsson, 1986. The annual production of ground lichens is calculated by multiplying the area covered with ground lichens by their increment as estimated from their rate of biomass increase, which in turn depends on site factors and age of the stand. The estimation of the area is based on data from the National Forest Survey. Sample plots with ground lichens are assumed to maintain lichens during the whole hundred year period. Areas with stands that have been thinned within ten years and stands younger than 20 years are excluded due to logging residues from thinnings and packed snow. Some of the remaining area cannot practically be utilized for reindeer grazing. Representatives of three communities of reindeer herders classified 212 plots from the National Forest Survey with ground lichens and assessed that 3/4 of the plots can be

  14. SO/sub 2/ scrubbing downstream of combustion systems with raw gypsum as final product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-05-27

    This flue gas purification method first purifies the crude gas from HCl and HF in the prescrubber and from SO/sub 2/ and/or NO/sub x/ in the main scrubber. The CaSO/sub 3//CaSO/sub 4/ product occurring in the main scrubber is, according to the invention, pumped through a pipe into the prescrubber. In this process a well-oxidized CaSO/sub 4/ product with adequate content of calcium chloride develops in the scrubber liquid because of the high quantity of excess atmospheric oxygen in the crude gas. In this way raw gypsum is enriched by chlorides and can be directly used as building material, e.g. in mines. Thus, the salt load in the prescrubber is reduced.

  15. Demand and supply-based operating modes--a framework for analyzing health care service production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-12-01

    The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply-based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  16. The features of heterogeneous water droplet evaporation in high-temperature combustion products of typical flammable liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maxim V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results on heating and evaporation features of heterogeneous (with opaque solid particles – the size of 0.05-0.5 mm, relative mass concentration 0-1% water droplets (the initial size – radius 1-3 mm during their motion through high-temperature (500-1800 K gases. A significant increase in the integral characteristics of evaporation by introducing opaque inclusions into droplets was observed. The influence of energy accumulation on the conditions of droplet evaporation at the internal solid/liquid interfaces was established. For proportioned inclusions, the conditions of intensive vaporization (leading to the explosive disintegration of droplets at internal inclusion/liquid interfaces was set. To summarize research results, experiments were conducted with the combustion products of kerosene, gasoline, industrial alcohol, acetone, and oil. The particles of graphite, carbon, and aluminum as solid inclusions were used. The investigation compared integral characteristics of heterogeneous droplet evaporation under the conditions of non-stationary (gas temperature varied from 1800 K to 500 K over the length of channel and nearly stationary (gas temperature was maintained at about 1100 K heating.

  17. Effects of alternate fuels. Report No. 6. Analysis of low-alumina castable refractory degraded by residual oil combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G. C.; Tennery, V. J.

    1978-07-01

    This is the sixth of a series of reports on analyses of several types of refractories used in industrial furnaces with fuels considered alternate to natural gas. Analyses were performed on a low-alumina castable used for only two months in the roof of a residual-oil-fired boiler. The maximum hot-face temperature during operation was about 1530/sup 0/K. The original microstructure of the castable, which consisted of mullite aggregate bonded with iron-containing gehlenite (2 CaO . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . SiO/sub 2/), quartz and cristobalite, was totally altered during service in regions close to the hot face. At room temperature the altered microstructure consisted of corundum and gehlenite in a new oxide glass phase containing the elements Na, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Al, Ni, and Si. The reactions of the fuel oil impurities Na, Fe, and Ni with mullite, quartz, and cristobalite in the original castable refractory caused the rapid degradation at the hot face during service in the boiler. Increasing the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content of the castable by replacing mullite aggregate with alumina aggregate and using gehlenite with less iron impurity as the bonding material should improve the performance of this castable refractory or retard reactions of the castable with fuel oil combustion products including Na, Fe, and Ni.

  18. Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines: 1. Heterogeneous condensation of combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platov, Yu. V.; Semenov, A. I.; Filippov, B. V.

    2014-01-01

    Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines during last stages of Proton, Molniya, and Start launchers operating in the upper atmospheric with different types of fuels is considered. Particle heating is taken into account with emission of latent heat of condensation and energy loss due to radiation and heat exchange with combustion products. Using the solution of the heat balance and condensed particle mass equations, the temporal change in the temperature and thickness of the condensate layer is obtained. Practically, no condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhaust of a Start launcher occurs. In plumes of Proton and Molniya launchers, the condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide can start at distances of 120-170 m and 450-650 m from the engine nozzle, respectively. In the course of condensation, the thickness of the "water" layer on particles can exceed 100 Å, and the thickness of carbon dioxide can exceed 60 Å.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SiC DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROL OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN ENERGY PLANT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias

    2003-12-01

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. The response of these metal/insulator/SiC (MISiC) devices to reducing gases has been assumed to be due to the reduction in the metal work function at the metal/oxide interface that shifts the capacitance to lower voltages. From in-situ capacitance-voltage measurements taken under sensor operating conditions we have discovered that two independent mechanisms are responsible for the sensor response to hydrogen and oxygen. We present a model of the device response based on the chemically induced shift of the metal/semiconductor barrier height as well as the passivation and creation of charged states at the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. The latter mechanism is much slower than the barrier height shift. Preliminary photoemission experiments have been performed to independently monitor the contribution of the two phenomena. We discuss in detail the effect of these results on sensor design and the choice of operating point for high temperature operation.

  20. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  1. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2002-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the second annual technical progress report for the Vision 21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1

  2. SPLLIFT: Statically Analyzing Software Product Lines in Minutes instead of Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodden, Eric; Tolêdo, Társis; Ribeiro, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    IFDS framework for inter-procedural, finite, distributive, subset problems to an SPL-aware analysis formulated in the IDE framework, a well-known extension to IFDS. Using a full implementation based on Heros, Soot, CIDE and JavaBDD, we show that with SPLLIFT one can reuse IFDS-based analyses without....... In this work, however, we show how an important class of existing inter-procedural static analyses can be transparently lifted to SPLs. Without requiring programmers to change a single line of code, our approach SPLLIFT automatically converts any analysis formulated for traditional programs within the popular...... changing a single line of code. Through experiments using three static analyses applied to four Java-based product lines, we were able to show that our approach produces correct results and outperforms the traditional approach by several orders of magnitude....

  3. A production-quality UNIX Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) subset analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Randolph M.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of the Air Force Institute of Technology's (AFIT's) UNIX-based VHDL Analyzer. The purpose of this tool is to facilitate the introduction of VHDL into the academic environment, which may not be able to use the Department of Defense's VMS-based software. This research emphasized two areas: the criteria for a production-quality software product and the design of an efficient Intermediate Representation (IR) that serves as an interface between the Analyzer and other tools in the AFIT VHDL Environment (AVE). Background on other UNIX VHDL analyzers, as well as other IRs, was presented. A two-part IR, based on Dallen's Patois hardware description language and named the VHDL Intermediate Access (VIA), was designed, and examples were given that illustrate its use. Test results showed that the Analyzer passed over 75 percent of the conformance tests from the VHDL VMS Analyzer Test Suite and performed well in the areas of compile time, memory usage, and disk usage. Recommendations for future research include adding user options to the Analyzer and implementing a design library for VHDL designs.

  4. Stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and concrete production from bottom and circulating ashes produced in a power plant working under mono and co-combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde

    2011-01-01

    Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor of a thermo-electric power plant: (1) combustion of coal; (2) co-combustion of coal (68.7% w/w), sewage sludge (9.2% w/w) and meat and bone meal (MBM) (22.1% w/w). Three samples of ashes (bottom, circulating and fly ashes) were collected in each combustion test. The ashes were submitted to the following assays: (a) evaluation of the leaching behaviour; (b) stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and evaluation of the leaching behaviour of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) materials; (c) production of concrete from bottom and circulating ashes. The eluates of all materials were submitted to chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations. The crude ashes have shown similar chemical and ecotoxicological properties. The s/s materials have presented compressive strengths between 25 and 40 MPa, low emission levels of metals through leaching and were classified as non-hazardous materials. The formulations of concrete have presented compressive strengths between 12 and 24 MPa. According to the Dutch Building Materials Decree, some concrete formulations can be used in both scenarios of limited moistening and without insulation, and with permanent moistening and with insulation.

  5. Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, A.; Al-Kassir, A.; Cuadros, F.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [School of Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. De Elva, s/n, 06071, Badajoz (Spain); Mohamad, A.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestion of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain). The experiments were performed using a 2 l capacity discontinuous digester at 38 C. The loading rate were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 g COD for wastewater (washing water and blood; Mixture 1), and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g COD for the co-digestion of a mixture of 97% liquid effluent and 3% solid wastes v/v (Mixture 2) which represents the annual mean composition of the waste generated by the slaughterhouse. The maximal biodegradation rates obtained were: Mixture 1, 56.9% for a COD load of 1 g; and Mixture 2, 19.1% for a COD load of 2 g. For both mixtures, the greatest methane production was for the maximum COD load (4.5 g for Mixture 1, and 4 g for Mixture 2), at which values the amounts of methane obtained during and at the end of the co-digestion were practically indistinguishable between the two mixtures. The results will be used to design, construct, and establish the optimal operating conditions of a continuous complete-mixture biodigester. (author)

  6. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  7. Using the GREET model to analyze algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Christopher

    There is a growing interest in renewable, carbon-neutral biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. A life-cycle analysis is conducted in this study to determine the viability of using algae as a feedstock for biodiesel. The method involves assessing energy use, fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions using a simulation developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The energy and emissions of algae-derived biodiesel are compared to those of soybean biodiesel, corn ethanol, conventional gasoline, and low-sulfur diesel. Results show that there are sizeable greenhouse gas emission benefits attributed to the production of both types of biodiesel as compared to petroleum fuels. Energy expenditures are much larger when producing algae biodiesel than compared to the other four fuels. The alternative scenario of growing algae at a wastewater treatment plant is also evaluated and is proven to reduce fossil fuel consumption by 17%. The results suggest that producing biodiesel from algae, while not yet competitive regarding energy use, does have many benefits and is worthy of further research and development.

  8. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for efficient visible light driven hydrogen production from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Daya Mani; N Xanthopoulos; Daniele Laub; C H Subrahmanyam

    2014-07-01

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of C and N in the CdS matrix. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanomaterials for the hydrogen production from water (2120 mol/h) can be attributed to high crystallinity, low band gap and less exciton recombination due to the C and N doping.

  9. Denitrification mechanism in combustion of biocoal briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoon; Li, Tianji

    2005-02-15

    Pulp black liquor (PBL), an industrial waste from paper production, has been previously shown to be an effective binder and denitrification agent for coal briquettes. This study investigated the denitrification mechanism of PBL in both the volatile combustion and char combustion stages of coal briquettes. X-ray diffraction and ion chromatography were used to analyze the residual ashes of combustion. The exhaust gas was analyzed by a flue gas analysis system and a Q-mass spectrometry system. The denitrification mechanism of PBL in the volatile combustion stage was found to result from the emission of NH3. The denitrification of PBL in the char combustion stage was associated with the NaOH contained in PBL. The direct reaction of NaOH with NO gas was examined, and some interesting phenomena were observed. Pure carbon or pure NaOH showed only limited reaction with NO. However, the mixture of NaOH and carbon (NaOH + C) significantly enhanced the reaction. This mixture increased the NO removal up to 100%. Subsequently, denitrification lasted for a long time period, with about 25% of NO removal. The pyrolysis characteristic of NaNO3, a compound resulting from denitrification, was also affected by the presence of carbon. In the presence of carbon, the NOx emission resulting from the pyrolysis of NaNO3 was reduced by a factor of 6. Since the denitrification phenomena appeared only in the absence of oxygen, a model of oxygen distribution in a burning coal briquette was employed to explain the reactions occurring in real combustion of coal briquettes.

  10. Determination of thermal characteristics of combustion products of fire-tube heat generator with flow turbulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukjanov Alexander V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boiler construction is one of the major industries of any state. The aim is to determine the effect of the turbulator on the intensity of heat transfer in the convective part of the fire-tube heat generator of domestic production. The improvement of convective heating surfaces is one of the ways to increase the energy efficiency of the fire-tube heat generator. Since model of the process of heat transfer of gas flow in the convective tubes is multifactorial and does not have clear analytical solution at present, the study of process above is carried out using the experimental method. The results of applying the flow turbulator as a broken tape in the fire-tube heat generator of KV-GM type are presented. On their basis it can be concluded about increasing of heat transfer in convective part of the unit. The use of efficient, reliable, easy to manufacture, relatively inexpensive turbulator in domestic fire-tube heat generators will allow to increase their energy conversion efficiency and reduce fuel consumption, which will have a positive economic effect.

  11. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  12. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  13. Réduction de l'oxyde d'azote par la suie dans les produits de combustion Reduction of Nitric Oxyde by Soot in Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On a étudié dans un réacteur à lit fixe la réduction du NO par de la suie formée dans des flammes riches de mélanges éthane/oxygène/argon. Le mélange gazeux traversant le réacteur est de l'argon dopé avec du NO; dans certains cas ce mélange est enrichi d'hydrogène ou d'oxyde de carbone. En présence d'hydrogène ou d'oxyde de carbone, ces vitesses sont nettement plus grandes qu'avec la suie seule. La comparaison avec des vitesses réactionnelles obtenues sur des lits fixes composés d'autres matériaux solides, tels que l'alumine, montre que la réduction de l'oxyde d'azote se fait principalement par une réaction hétérogène avec l'hydrogène et l'oxyde de carbone catalysée par la suie. D'autres matériaux solides,tels que des oxydes réfractaires présentent une activité catalylique aussi importante que la suie. Cette observation fournit une nouvelle explication de l'effet connu de certains additifs sur la réduction de NO dans les flammes. Dans la seconde partie de l'étude, on mesure la réduction des oxydes d'azote dans les flammes fuligineuses de prémélange. De l'argon dopé par de l'oxyde d'azote est injecté dans les produits de combustion de ces flammes chargés de suie; l'introduction du NO est faite à différentes distances derrière le brûleur, correspondant à différents niveaux de température des produits de combustion. La réduction fractionnelle des oxydes d'azote est mesurée en fonction de la concentration en suie, en hydrogène et en oxyde de carbone, en faisant varier la composition du mélange inflammable. Les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec la réduction calculée en se basant sur les informations cinétiques obtenues en lit fixe. The kinetics of nitric oxide réduction by soot collected from hydrocarbon flames is studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The gas flow traversing thé reactor is either argon with NO, or argon with hydrogen and NO, or argon with carbon monoxide and NO. In th

  14. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. I. The influence on DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in the liver of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanosek, J.; Lewandowska-Tokarz, A.; Ludyga, K.; Pietras, A.; Kula, B.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the behaviour of DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in whole homogenate as well as the nuclear, mitochondrial and postmitochondrial liver fractions in guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia. A decrease of RNA level was found in the liver of animals exposed to combustion exhaust gases together with a decrease of soluble proteins in all the studied fractions. On the other hand, in the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products of combustion gases by ammonia, the studied components were increased.

  15. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. I. The influence on DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in the liver of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanosek, J; Lewandowska-Tokarz, A; Ludyga, K; Pietras, A; Kula, B

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the behaviour of DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in whole homogenate as well as the nuclear, mitochondrial and postmitochondrial liver fractions in guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia. A decrease of RNA level was found in the liver of animals exposed to combustion exhaust gases together with a decrease of soluble proteins in all the studied fractions. On the other hand, in the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products of combustion gases by ammonia, the studied components were increased. This increase may be the result of the simultaneous action of industrial noise.

  16. Collaborative Studies for Mercury Characterization in Coal and Coal Combustion Products, Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; van Alphen, Chris

    2014-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were obtained for 42 samples of feed coal provided by Eskom, the national electric utility of South Africa, representing all 13 coal-fired power stations operated by Eskom in South Africa. This sampling includes results for three older power stations returned to service starting in the late 2000s. These stations were not sampled in the most recent previous study. Mercury concentrations determined in the present study are similar to or slightly lower than those previously reported, and input Hg for the three stations returned to service is comparable to that for the other 10 power stations. Determination of halogen contents of the 42 feed coals confirms that chlorine contents are generally low, and as such, the extent of Hg self-capture by particulate control devices (PCDs) is rather limited. Eight density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal were also provided by Eskom, and these show a strong mineralogical association of Hg (and arsenic) with pyrite. The density separates were used to predict Hg and ash contents of coal products used in South Africa or exported. A suite of 48 paired samples of pulverization-mill feed coal and fly ash collected in a previous (2010) United Nations Environment Programme-sponsored study of emissions from the Duvha and Kendal power stations was obtained for further investigation in the present study. These samples show that in each station, Hg capture varies by boiler unit and confirms that units equipped with fabric filters for air pollution control are much more effective in capturing Hg than those equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Apart from tracking the performance of PCDs individually, changes resulting in improved mercury capture of the Eskom fleet are discussed. These include Hg reduction through coal selection and washing, as well as through optimization of equipment and operational parameters. Operational changes leading to increased mercury capture include increasing mercury

  17. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  18. Final Report: No{sub x} Emissions from By Product Fuel Combustion in Steel Making, September 15, 1996 - October 15, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershing, David W.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Eddings, Eric G.; Cacciatore, David A.

    1999-01-28

    Exhaust gases from the primary operations in the steel making process are almost exclusively utilized as supplemental fuels within the steel plant. These by-product fuels include blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) which contain mixtures of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and trace amounts of some heavier hydrocarbons and the impurities NH{sub 3} and HCN. These fuels are burned alone or in combination with natural gas to fire the coke ovens, blast furnace stoves utility boilers and metal working furnaces. The utilization of these by-product fuels reduces the waste gas emissions at the steel mill and reduces the requirements for outside fuel sources. However, as with primary fuel sources, the combustion of these by-product fuel blends does produce hazardous pollutants, in particular nitrogen oxides, and because these are atypical fuel blends of varying composition, the pollutant formation is not well understood. The objective of this research was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms controlling NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of by-product fuels from the steel industry and investigate control and design options to minimize emissions. The minimization strategies investigated were constrained by limits on CO and hydrocarbon emissions, both of which increased under fuel-rich combustion scenarios that resulted in reduced NO{sub x} emissions. Also, the minimization strategies were constrained by the need for reasonable heat generation rates in the furnaces that employ these by-product fuels, so that product steel quality is not adversely affected.

  19. Confiscated black market products and nutritional supplements with non-approved ingredients analyzed in the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Petrou, Michael; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Doping control laboratories are frequently confronted with new substances that may be misused by athletes. Besides new pharmaceuticals, where method development for their detection is dependent on the availability of the substance and corresponding administration studies, some professional and amateur athletes are using illicit 'black market' products, which either differ from known pharmaceuticals but cause similar effects or still are undergoing clinical trials and are therefore rarely available to doping control laboratories. In the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory, different confiscated products and legally obtained nutritional supplements were analyzed in 2009, and various findings were reported including GH-labelled injection vials without any pharmacologically active content; combinations of products indicating the attempt to mask growth hormone abuse; unpurified long-R(3) -IGF-1; nutritional supplements containing the growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2); and ampoules containing the selective androgen receptor modulator Andarine (S-4). This review provides an overview on the substances that were analyzed in 2009. Ingredients relevant for doping control were identified by means of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. The awareness of new products on the black market and in nutritional supplements is of utmost importance for laboratories to develop detection methods accordingly and screen for new substances as early as possible.

  20. Increase oil recovery of heavy oil in combustion tube using a new catalyst based nickel ionic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Garnica, M.A.; Hernandez-Perez, J.R.; Cabrera-Reves, M.C.; Schacht-Hernandez, P. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An ionic liquid-based nickel catalyst was used in conjunction with a combustion tube as an in situ process for heavy oil. The experimental system was comprised of a fluid injection system; a combustion tube; a fluid production system; a gas chromatograph; and a data recording system. Injected nitrogen and air was controlled by a mass flow controller. Nitrogen was used to pressurize the combustion tube and flush the system. Air was injected at a rate of 3 L per minute throughout the combustion run. Liquids leaving the combustion tube passed through a 2-stage separation process. Gases passing through the condenser were kept at low temperatures. Fractions of produced gas were analyzed by the chromatograph. Data loggers were used to obtain data at 30 second intervals. Two combustion experiments were conducted to obtain production times, temperature profiles, and the quality of the oil produced by the catalyst. Combustion tests were conducted with and without the catalyst. An analysis of the experimental data showed that use of the nickel catalyst resulted in increases in oil production as well as higher combustion efficiencies. Use of the catalyst also resulted in a faster combustion front and accelerated oil production. It was concluded that the produced oil contained fewer impurities than oil produced during the control experiment. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. How can we use a mathematical model in order to analyze and improve the efficiency of a productive activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nikolla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beer business industry is one of the most profitable agro-processing industries in the country. It has increased by expanding local and international market. There are 80 small and large beer factories that have their activity in Albania. The leading domestic beer manufacturers are: "Stela" beer, “Tirana” beer, “Korca” beer, “Kaon” beer, “Norga” beer, etc. They have invested millions of euros in terms of improving the quality of their production. Stela beer was the fi rst private beer active in the Albanian market. Its factory production founders of Stela beer responded to the market by investing in the development of technology, modern equipment and science. Stela beer processing and production systems have been improved continuously. The investments today are at around 20 million dollars. The factory has a considerable number of employees and a production capacity of around 250,000 hl per year. This article uses information obtained for beer production during the period 2003-2016. Through nonparametric mathematical model Dea, the impact of production factors such as investment, advertising, expenses, capital and number of employees in the production of beer during the study period is analyzed. The analysis showed that the best years or more efficient years in the use of the quantity of inputs for the period 2003-2016 are 2007, 2014 and 2015. The years 2003, 2010 and 2012 are less efficient by Dea analysis. The study also showed the best possible combinations of inputs improving the efficiency of inefficient years in the Stela Beer production.

  2. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  3. Simulation study on combustion of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M. L.; Liu, X.; Cheng, J. W.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass combustion is the most common energy conversion technology, offering the advantages of low cost, low risk and high efficiency. In this paper, the transformation and transfer of biomass in the process of combustion are discussed in detail. The process of furnace combustion and gas phase formation was analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results not only help to optimize boiler operation and realize the efficient combustion of biomass, but also provide theoretical basis for the improvement of burner technology.

  4. Heat production in depth up to 2500m via in situ combustion of methane using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicks, Judith Maria; Spangenberg, Erik; Giese, Ronny; Heeschen, Katja; Priegnitz, Mike; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In situ combustion is a well-known method used for exploitation of unconventional oil deposits such as heavy oil/bitumen reservoirs where the required heat is produced directly within the oil reservoir by combustion of a small percentage of the oil. A new application of in situ combustion for the production of methane from hydrate-bearing sediments was tested at pilot plant scale within the first phase of the German national gas hydrate project SUGAR. The applied method of in situ combustion was a flameless, catalytic oxidation of CH4 in a counter-current heat-exchange reactor with no direct contact between the catalytic reaction zone and the reservoir. The catalyst permitted a flameless combustion of CH4 with air to CO2 and H2O below the auto-ignition temperature of CH4 in air (868 K) and outside the flammability limits. This led to a double secured application of the reactor. The relatively low reaction temperature allowed the use of cost-effective standard materials for the reactor and prevented NOx formation. Preliminary results were promising and showed that only 15% of the produced CH4 was needed to be catalytically burned to provide enough heat to dissociate the hydrates in the environment and release CH4. The location of the heat source right within the hydrate-bearing sediment is a major advantage for the gas production from natural gas hydrates as the heat is generated where it is needed without loss of energy due to transportation. As part of the second period of the SUGAR project the reactor prototype of the first project phase was developed further to a borehole tool. The dimensions of this counter-current heat-exchange reactor are about 540 cm in length and 9 cm in diameter. It is designed for applications up to depths of 2500 m. A functionality test and a pressure test of the reactor were successfully carried out in October 2013 at the continental deep drilling site (KTB) in Windischeschenbach, Germany, in 600 m depth and 2000 m depth, respectively

  5. A practical approach to estimate emission rates of indoor air pollutants due to the use of personal combustible products based on small-chamber studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulejko, Jan E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    As emission rates of airborne pollutants are commonly measured from combusting substances placed inside small chambers, those values need to be re-evaluated for the possible significance under practical conditions. Here, a simple numerical procedure is investigated to extrapolate the chamber-based emission rates of formaldehyde that can be released from various combustible sources including e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, or scented candles to their concentration levels in a small room with relatively poor ventilation. This simple procedure relies on a mass balance approach by considering the masses of pollutants emitted from source and lost through ventilation under the assumption that mixing occurs instantaneously in the room without chemical reactions or surface sorption. The results of our study provide valuable insights into re-evaluation procedure of chamber data to allow comparison between extrapolated and recommended values to judge the safe use of various combustible products in confined spaces. If two scented candles with a formaldehyde emission rate of 310 µg h(-1) each were lit for 4 h in a small 20 m(3) room with an air change rate of 0.5 h(-1), then the 4-h (candle lit) and 8-h (up to 8 h after candle lighting) TWA [FA] were determined to be 28.5 and 23.5 ppb, respectively. This is clearly above the 8-h NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) time weighted average of 16 ppb.

  6. The training measure and empirical study on using the product design theory to analyze the college students' employed ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhonghang; Liu, Wei; Shan, Hai; Bi, Hongliang

    2011-10-01

    Analyzes the employment difficulty phenomenon of the college student by the product design theory , regards the college student as the product of the school face the employer, and take social, enterprise's demand as the guidance to train students, from improving the college students' initial quality, strengthening the college students' standard quality and increasing the college students' interest quality aspect, to propose the countermeasure, that paying great attention to undertaking the college students' innovative education and practice development and will be helpful in sharpens college student's employment ability and the employment quality as well as the ability of dealing with the social work place competition, to further alleviate the college students' employment difficulty this social question.

  7. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2004-04-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fourteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program

  8. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; K. Mondal; L. Stonawski; Krzysztof Piotrowski; T. Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2004-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program has determined the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrated experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is

  9. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-04-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program

  10. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-01-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the ninth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract

  11. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling with best-case scenario assumptions, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program

  12. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on Aspen Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the third annual technical progress report for the UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26

  13. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

    2008-03-31

    In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen

  14. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

    2005-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be

  15. Study of the structure and morphology of alumina prepared by combustion reaction using different containers production capacity; Estudo da estrutura e morfologia da alumina preparada por reacao de combustao usando recipientes de diferentes capacidades de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.C. da; Cunha, R.B.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Freitas, N.L. de, E-mail: normanda@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Tecnologia do Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    Research involving the synthesis of alumina by combustion reaction has intensified in recent years, aiming at the development of nanomaterials. Thus, this work aims at synthesis by combustion reaction using alumina containers with different production capacity of the final product, denominated R02 and R19, and its characterization. During the reaction was performed to measure the time and temperature of the combustion flame and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that depending on the volumetric capacity of the container occurs changes in temperature and time of the combustion flame. However the structure and morphology were not changed. The highest temperature of reaction was found for the container R19 (6020C) and longer (219 s) to the container R02. (author)

  16. Theoretical Analysis and Derivation of Combustion Wave Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical relations of pressure, density, velocity, temperature and Mach number of combustion waves are built. The parameters' curves with different combustion energy are illustrated in which four zones are pointed out to represent different combustion states. The expressions and curves of parameters are important to analyze the trends of combustion waves, and to determine conditions on which detonation waves or deflagration waves occur.

  17. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  18. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  19. THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional HeatTransfer through Building Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windows and Daylighting Group

    1997-12-08

    THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in heat transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other products where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a product's energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction heat-transfer analysis is based on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building products. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of products or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and heat transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, heat-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation heat transfer. This heat-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow

  20. Diesel combustion: an integrated view combining laser diagnostics, chemical kinetics, and empirical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinyami, O C; Dec, J E; Durrett, R P; Flynn, P F; Hunter, G L; Loye, A O; Westbrook, C

    1999-02-01

    This paper proposes a structure for the diesel combustion process based on a combination of previously published and new results. Processes are analyzed with proven chemical kinetic models and validated with data from production-like direct injection diesel engines. The analysis provides new insight into the ignition and particulate formation processes, which combined with laser diagnostics, delineates the two-stage nature of combustion in diesel engines. Data are presented to quantify events occurring during the ignition and initial combustion processes that form soot precursors. A framework is also proposed for understanding the heat release and emission formation processes.

  1. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas

  2. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas

  3. Rational design of medium supplementation strategy for improved influenza viruses production based on analyzing nutritional requirements of MDCK Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Xia-Hou, Kang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Luo, Jian; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-12

    Influenza vaccine production using cell culture technology has become popular nowadays. However, to meet the ever increasing demand of influenza vaccine, it is prerequisite to improve the yield of influenza virus in cells. To achieve this, in the present study, the nutritional requirements of MDCK cells in the virus production process were analyzed and a nutrient-feeding strategy was developed accordingly. Based on the consumption rates and corresponding concentration optimization, glucose and fast metabolized amino acids were supplemented into the maintaining medium at the time of infection. Compared with the non-supplemented culture, the average cell specific death rate during 0-48 h post-infection was 0.013 h(-1), which was 40.91% lower in the nutrient-supplemented culture. Total virus titer, HA antigen protein concentration and cell-specific virus yield were (1.88±0.23)×10(3) HA units/50μL, 11.70±0.22 μg/mL and (10.06±1.16)×10(3) virions/cell, respectively, which were 84.04±22.50%, 31.46±2.87% and 86.64±25.81% higher than those in the control, respectively. These data showed that the appropriate supplementation of nutrients during virus production process could reduce cell death, and improve cell-specific virus yield and total influenza virus output. This study laid foundation for the development of cell culture technology for influenza vaccine production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 富氧燃烧在水泥生产中的应用%The Application of Oxygen-enriched Combustion to the Cement Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志芳; 卿山; 王华; 邓文龙; 魏可

    2013-01-01

    随着全球能源危机的加剧,燃料价格的不断上涨及环保要求的不断提高,企业的生产成本越来越高,节能降耗和保护环境是每个企业发展的重要问题.富氧燃烧作为较新的燃烧技术在节能和减排方面的优良性能,在工业炉窑方面的应用得到了大力的推广.本试验在国内某4000 t/d水泥回转窑线上进行,根据富氧助燃试验所测定的数据,确定水泥回转窑在富氧生产工况下主要参数的运行变化规律,为水泥建材行业的节能减排工作提供重要理论和实践依据.%With the global energy crisis intensifies,rising prices for the fuel and environmental protection requirements continue to increase,causing the production cost of enterprises is more and more high,save energy and protect environment are the most important problems in the development of each enterprise.Oxygen-enriched combustion as a new combustion technology in saving energy and emission as the excellent performance,application in industrial furnaces has been strong promotion.This experiment in a domestic 4000 t/d cement rotary kiln line,according to the oxygen-rich combustion test measured data,determining the cement rotary kiln in oxygen-rich production conditions of main parameters of running changes,as the cement building materials industry energy-saving emission reduction work to provide an important basis for theory and practice.

  5. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  6. Using MOD16 products for analyzing evapotranspiration and evaporation on the surface of lakes. Case studies in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Florentina; Madelin, Malika; Zaharia, Liliana

    2017-04-01

    analyze the spatial distribution of PET on the surface of the studied lakes, based on the data derived from satellite images, using GIS analysis functions. The results indicate strong correlation (R2 up to 0.85) between E measured on the surface of the lakes and PET, and lower correlation between E and ET (R2 up to 0.31), based on eight-day cumulative data. Results are further improved when aggregated to the annually time scale (e.g. only for 2010), so for the relation between E and PET the R2 is up to 0.90, and for E and ET R2 is up to 0.92. Concerning the spatial distribution of PET on the lake surfaces, maximum values were identified, where the lake presents the greatest width. Based on the strong correlation identified between PET satellite product and E, we could use this relationship in the future for estimating the evaporation for unmonitored lakes. Considering the low spatial resolution of the MOD16 products, the possible errors related to land cover around the lake should be considered, especially if the lakes are small. Keywords: evapotranspiration, evaporation, lakes, MODIS, MOD16 products, Romania.

  7. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  8. Toxicity assessment of products of combustion of flexible polyurethane foam%柔性聚氨酯泡沫燃烧产物毒性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRAIG; BEYLER

    2007-01-01

    介绍了对弹性聚氨酯泡沫燃烧产物毒性的相关研究,并对其是否能用于毒性危害分析进行了评估.研究显示,暴露到聚氨酯燃烧产物中的人会导致中毒.窒息气体氮气有效剂量法能有效预测受害人因暴露于聚氨酯燃烧产物而导致的行为能力丧失情况.同时,也证明有效剂量法不能正确预测聚氨酯阴燃时情况.该方法不适用于热分解.研究发现,目前很多经验方法具有很大的局限性,对毒性危害研究造成了很多负面的影响.烟气粒子携带毒物的吸入和传播以及化学合成复杂的毒物,研究和考虑得很少.因此,很有必要对复杂毒性有机体的火灾燃烧产物进行更深入的物理和化学分析研究以及动物模型研究.%The scientific literature on the toxicity of products of combustion of flexible polyurethane foam is reviewed to assess its potential for use in toxic hazard analysis. Combustion modes examined include pyrolysis/thermal decomposition, smoldering, and open flaming, and under ventilated flaming combustion.The body of work indicates that victims exposed to products of combustion from flaming polyurethane will result in %COHb's generally consistent with simple CO exposure,despite the clear toxicological role of HCN.The N-gas fractional effective dose methodology for asphyxiant gases is an appropriate methodology for prediction of incapacitation due to exposure to products of combustion from flaming polyurethane. Conversely, there is significant scientific evidence that smoldering polyurethane foam produces as yet unidentified toxic species that results in deaths during the exposure and that the N-gas fractional effective dose methodology is not appropriate for smoldering combustion. Pyrolysis/thermal decomposition results in post-exposure deaths, consistent with irritant gases. The N-gas model is also not appropriate for pyrolysis/thermal decomposition. There are significant limitations in the experimental

  9. Elephant grass genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion Genótipos de capim-elefante para produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fiusa de Morais

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion. Five elephant grass genotypes grown in two different soil types, both of low fertility, were evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Agrobiologia field station in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The design was in randomized complete blocks, with split plots and four replicates. The genotypes studied were Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo and CNPGL F06-3. Evaluations were made for biomass production, total biomass nitrogen, biomass nitrogen from biological fixation, carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios, and contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash. The dry matter yields ranged from 45 to 67 Mg ha-1. Genotype Roxo had the lowest yield and genotypes Bag 02 and Cameroon had the highest ones. The biomass nitrogen accumulation varied from 240 to 343 kg ha-1. The plant nitrogen from biological fixation was 51% in average. The carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios and the contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash did not vary among the genotypes. The five genotypes are suitable for energy production through combustion.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. quanto ao potencial para a produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa. Avaliaram-se cinco genótipos de capim-elefante, em dois solos com baixa fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na estação experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, em Seropédica, RJ. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os genótipos estudados foram Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo e CNPGL F06-3. Determinaram-se a produção de biomassa, o acúmulo de nitrogênio na biomassa, o nitrogênio da biomassa proveniente da fixação biológica, as relações carbono/nitrogênio e talo/folha, e os teores de fibra, lignina

  10. Development of the DCHAIN-SP code for analyzing decay and build-up characteristics of spallation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kosako, Kazuaki

    1999-03-01

    For analyzing the decay and build-up characteristics of spallation products, the DCHAIN-SP code has been developed on the basis of the DCHAIN-2 code by revising the decay data and implementing the neutron cross section data. The decay data are newly processed from the data libraries of EAF 3.1, FENDL/D-1 and ENSDF. The neutron cross section data taken from FENDL/A-2 data library are also prepared to take account of the transmutation of nuclides by the neutron field at the produced position. The DCHAIN-SP code solves the time evolution of decay and build-up of nuclides in every decay chain by the Beteman method. The code can estimate the following physical quantities of produced nuclides: inventory, activity, decay heat by the emission of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-rays, and {gamma}-ray energy spectrum, where the nuclide production rate estimated by the nucleon-meson transport code such as NMTC/JAERI97 is used as an input data. This paper describes about the function, the solution model and the database adopted in the code and explains how to use the code. (author)

  11. Regulation possibilities of biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzdalenko, Vera; Gedrovics, Martins; Zake, Maija; Barmina, Inesa

    2012-11-01

    The focus of the recent experimental research is to analyze the regulation possibilities of biomass combustion. Three possibilities were chosen as part of this research: a) biomass cofiring with propane, b) swirling flow with re-circulation zone, and c) use of a permanent magnet. The aim of the research is to provide stable, controllable and effective biomass combustion with minimum emissions. The special pilot device was created where biomass can be combusted separately and co-fired with propane. Wood pellets were used during the experiments.

  12. Analyzing the impact of climate and management factors on the productivity and soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Fan, Jiazhi; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Yong; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to investigate how climate and management factors impact poplar plantation production and soil carbon sequestration interactively. We extracted above-ground net primary production (ANPP), climate and management factors from peer-reviewed journal articles and analyzed impact of management factor and climate on the mean annual increment (MAI) of poplar ANPP statistically. Previously validated mechanistic model (ED) is used to perform case simulations for managed poplar plantations under different harvesting rotations. The meta-analysis indicate that the dry matter MAI was 6.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=641, sd=4.9) globally, and 5.1 (n=292, sd=4.0), 8.1 (n=224, sd=4.7) and 4.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=125, sd=3.2) in Europe, the US and China, respectively. Poplar MAI showed a significant response to GDD, precipitation and planting density and formed a quadratic relationship with stand age. The low annual production for poplar globally was probably caused by suboptimal water availability, rotation length and planting density. SEM attributes the variance of poplar growth rate more to climate than to management effects. Case simulations indicated that longer rotation cycle significantly increased soil carbon storage. Findings of this work suggests that management factor of rotation cycle alone could have dramatic impact on the above ground growth, as well as on the soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations and will be helpful to quantify the long-term carbon sequestration through short rotation plantation. The findings of this study are useful in guiding further research, policy and management decisions towards sustainable poplar plantations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applicability of heat transfer equations to hydrogen combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2002-01-01

    Previous research by the authors showed that hydrogen combustion exhibits a higher cooling loss to the combustion chamber wall of an internal combustion engine compared to hydrocarbon combustion because of its higher burning velocity and shorter quenching distance. The high cooling loss means that reduction of the cooling loss is essential to establish a high thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion engines. This research analyzed the applicability of equations to describe the h...

  14. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  15. Experimental investigation on the combustion characteristics of aluminum in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunchao; Xia, Zhixun; Huang, Liya; Yan, Xiaoting

    2016-12-01

    With the aim of revealing the detailed process of aluminum combustion in air, this paper reports an experimental study on the combustion of aluminum droplets. In this work, the aluminum wires were exposed and heated by a CO2 laser to produce aluminum droplets, and then these droplets were ignited and burnt in air. The changing processes of aluminum wires, droplets and flames were directly recorded by a high-speed camera, which was equipped with a high magnification zoom lens. Meanwhile, the spectrum distribution of the flame was also registered by an optical spectrometer. Besides, burning residuals were collected and analyzed by the methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). Experimental results show that, during combustion, the aluminum droplet is covered by a spherical vapor-phase flame, and the diameter of this flame is about 1.4 times of the droplet diameter, statistically. In the later stages of combustion, the molten aluminum and condensed oxide products can react to generate gaseous Al and Al2O spontaneously. Little holes are found on the surface of residuals, which are the transport channels of gaseous products, namely the gaseous Al and Al2O. The combustion residuals are consisted by lots of aluminum oxide particles with diameters less than 1 μm.

  16. Isotopic signature of atmospheric phosphate emitted from coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Roi; Weiner, Tal; Angert, Alon

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric deposition of phosphorus (P) serves as an important nutrient input for many terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems, influencing their biogeochemistry and primary production. Fossil fuel combustion, principally coal, is estimated to be a major source of atmospheric-P in industrialized regions. In this research, we aim to find a distinct isotopic signature for fly coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion that is emitted to the atmosphere. This signature could be used to identify coal's contribution to atmospheric-P. For this aim, ten fly coal ash samples from different coal sources, collected by power station filters, were analyzed for P concentrations and stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18OP). Two inorganic phosphate fractions were analyzed: HCl-extractable and resin-extractable (bioavailable P). High HCl-P concentrations of up to 3500 μg P/g ash were found with a distinct δ18OP range of 17.1-20.5‰. The resin-P concentrations were substantially lower (biosphere since these combustion products likely acidify in the atmosphere to become bioavailable. This is also supported by our finding that smaller particles, which are more indicative of the particles actually emitted to the atmosphere, are significantly P-richer. Natural dust sources' δ18OP overlap fly ash's range, complicating the assessment of coal's contribution. Nonetheless, our results provide a new tool for identification of fossil fuel combustion sources in local and global atmospheric P deposition.

  17. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    required thrust-to-weight ratio goals. Shorter residence times in the combustion chamber may reduce the NOx emissions, but the CO and UHC emissions then...Emissions analyzing equipment is available to detect CO, CO2, NOx, O2, and total unburned hydrocarbons ( UHC ) at the combustor exit plane. Emissions... UHC ) emissions along with the CO data, as seen in Fig. 24, shows that Configuration 1 had much higher UHC levels. The reactions from hydrocarbons to

  18. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  19. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  20. Measurement and simulation of swirling coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan Hu; Lixing Zhou; Yonghao Luo; Caisong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV),thermocouples and flue gas analyzer are used to study swirling coal combustion and NO formation under different secondary-air ratios.Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) using the Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale stress model,presumed-PDF fast chemistry and eddy-break-up (EBU) gas combustion models,particle devolatilization and particle combustion models,are simultaneously used to simulate swirling coal combustion.Statistical LES results are validated by measurement results.Instantaneous LES results show that the coherent structures for swirling coal combustion are stronger than those for swirling gas combustion.Particles are shown to concentrate along the periphery of the coherent structures.Combustion flame is located in the high vorticity and high particle concentration zones.Measurement shows that secondary-air ratios have little effect on final NO formation at the exit of the combustor.

  1. Compilation of Sandia coal char combustion data and kinetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.E.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L.; Hardesty, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to characterize the physical and chemical processes that govern the combustion of pulverized coal chars. The experimental endeavor establishes a database on the reactivities of coal chars as a function of coal type, particle size, particle temperature, gas temperature, and gas and composition. The project also provides a better understanding of the mechanism of char oxidation, and yields quantitative information on the release rates of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species during char combustion. An accurate predictive engineering model of the overall char combustion process under technologically relevant conditions in a primary product of this experimental effort. This document summarizes the experimental effort, the approach used to analyze the data, and individual compilations of data and kinetic analyses for each of the parent coals investigates.

  2. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbets during coal combustion (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-jie; LIN Zhi-yan; LIU Jian-zhong; WU Xian; ZHOU Jun-hu; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide experimental guide to commercial use of fluorine pollution control during coal combustion, with fluorine pollution control during coal combustion in mind, this paper proposed the theory of combustion fluorine retention technology. Feasibility of fluorine retention reaction with calcium-based fluorine retention agent was analyzed through thermo-dynamic calculation during coal combustion. By simulating the restraining and retention effects and influential factors of calcium-based sorbets on vaporized fluoride during experimental combustion using fixed bed tube furnace, the paper systematically explored the influential law of such factors as combustion temperature, retention time, and added quantities of calcium-based sorbets on effects of fluorine retention. The research result shows that adding calcium-based fluorine retention agent in coal combustion has double effects of fluorine retention and sulfur retention, it lays an experimental foundation for commercial test of combustion fluorine retention.

  3. The content of melamine in milk based products, and milk powders analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmawati S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a white crystal of organic compound has a molecular weight of 126.12, difficult to solve in water. Cases of illegally adding melamine in milk powder is subjected to increase the nitrogen content of milk, because melamine contains high nitrogen (66%, so when milk is tested, seems contains high protein. This paper presented data the content of melamine in products based milk, and milk powders which entered and marketed in Indonesia. Melamine analysis is done by LC- MS 2010 EV, Shimadzu. Confirmation and validation tests indicate that melamine scanning found at m/z = 127, suitable system of analysis with relative standard deviation (RSD given of 1,18% (< 2,0%. Accuracy test gave the average of 89.1% recovery, detection limit of 5 ppb and limit of quantition 7 ppb. About 91.3% samples (n = 46 collected from animal quarantine Tanjung Priok contained melamine in the range of 6.7 ppb to 61.5 ppb which is 1/49 to 1/16 times less than standard limit. Whereas about 40%, 14 out of 35 samples collected from Bandung and Jakarta supermarket was not detected of melamine, and 60% samples positive contain melamine in the range of 5,1 to 26,5 ppb (1/200 to 1/38 standard limit. However, all the samples analyzed contain melamine below the standard limit of 1 ppm determined by WHO/FAO.

  4. Analyzing and Confirming the Model of innovation in food products (Case Study: Jaam Food Industry Group and Golden zar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzan Gholami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of knowledge-based economy, rapidly changing and uncertain business environment, means that the company's biggest challenge Confrontation with the problem of how to exploit the current market, achieve a competitive advantage. Some research Suggest that innovation is the most important tool for companies to maintain a competitive advantage from the use For this purpose This research seeks to measure the pattern is innovation. The population of the research staff collected food and roses. 2250 people who use formula cochran sample of 250 individuals were determined. Direction Determine the reliability of the composite reliability 0.92 was used. Factor analysis was used to test the validity of the questionnaire. Using structural equation modeling software to analyze the data lisrel and PLS . Results showed that the pattern Innovation evaluation model was perfect, and indicators needed to measure innovation in the field of research and development and investment 8In knowledge, human resources, innovation policies, performance, innovation, technology and the associated information Global flows Global economy, and productivity and trade classifications, and it was determined that the effect of each of the indicators Is positive.

  5. OXYGEN ENRICHED COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION IN STEEL PRODUCTION%富氧燃烧技术及其在钢铁生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艳丽; 曲余玲; 王涿

    2012-01-01

    阐述了富氧燃烧技术的节能减排原理,介绍其在钢铁生产过程包括烧结、热风炉、钢包烘烤器及轧钢加热炉和热处理炉上的应用以及国内外部分钢厂的应用效果.在全富氧情况下,DFI(直接火焰冲击)氧燃技术能使带钢处理线生产能力提高30%以上,无焰氧燃技术能使炉子处理能力提高25%,燃料用量和氧化铁皮生成量减半的同时,还能使NOx排放低于70 mg/MJ.%The principles for energy conservation and emission reduction of oxygen enrichment combustion were explained. Its application in steel production processes, including sinters, hot blast stoves, ladle preheaters, steel reheating furnaces and heat treatment furnaces, was introduced. For all oxygen combustion, using the DFI oxyfuel technique could increase the capacity of strip processing line by 30% or more, the flameless oxyfuel technology could increase the furnace capacity by 25% , reduce the fuel consumption and scale formation by a half as well as NO, emission below 70 mg/MJ.

  6. 元素分析仪和全自动凯氏定氮仪测定土壤全氮之比较%Comparison of element analyzer (Dumas Combustion) and automated Kjeldahl analyzer (Kjeldahl methods) for de-termining total nitrogen content in soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 叶小兰; 吕子古; 杨森; 温云杰; 刘云霞; 汪洪

    2015-01-01

    土壤全氮含量反映土壤中氮循环的状况,是评价土壤肥力与土壤资源的一项重要指标。选择黑土和潮土,分别利用元素分析仪(杜马斯催化燃烧法)和全自动凯氏定氮仪(凯氏消煮蒸馏法)测定土壤全氮含量,以揭示两种仪器测定结果的可比性,每个样品每种方法重复测定5次。结果表明:元素分析仪和全自动凯氏定氮仪测定的黑土全氮含量(平均值±标准偏差)分别为(1.37±0.01) g/ kg 和(1.36±0.01) g/ kg,潮土全氮含量分别为(0.75±0.02) g/ kg 和(0.78±0.03) g/ kg, t 检测表明,两种仪器测定结果之间无显著性差异。两种仪器土壤全氮测定结果精确度均较高,稳定性较好,相对标准偏差均小于5%。本研究结果可为采用仪器方法测定土壤全氮含量及评价土壤氮库变化提供参考。%Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements for plant nutrition. It is necessary to apply reliable methods for N determination in soils. Among the different methods of total N determination in soils, the Kjeldahl method (wet oxidation) and the elemental analyzer (Dumas dry combustion method) are more frequently used. In this study, black soil was sampled from Heilongjiang provinces in Northeast China and calcareous fluvo-aquic soil sample was from Shandong provinces in North China Plain. The objective of this study was to compare soil total N contents determined by a CNS elemental analyzer (vario PYRO cube, Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH) and an automated Kjeldahl N determination instrument (BÜCHI Labortech-nik AG). The results showed that total N contents of black soil samples measured by the elemental analyzer and the automated micro-Kjeldahl method were (1. 37 ± 0. 01) g/ kg and (1. 36 ± 0. 01) g/ kg (mean ± SD), respectively. The N contents of fluvo-aquic soil samples were (0. 75 ± 0. 02) g/ kg through the elemental analyzer method and (0. 78 ± 0. 03) g/ kg by the automated Kjeldahl method. The

  7. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Light Coal Fractions and the Thermal Reaction Products of These Clay Minerals during Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of clay minerals in light coal fractions to ash deposition in furnaces, we investigated their distribution and thermal reaction products. The light fractions of two Chinese coals were prepared using a 1.5 g·cm−3 ZnCl2 solution as a density separation medium and were burned in a drop-tube furnace (DTF. The mineral matter in each of the light coal fractions was compared to that of the relevant raw coal. The DTF ash from light coal fractions was analysed using hydrochloric acid separation. The acid-soluble aluminium fractions of DTF ash samples were used to determine changes in the amorphous aluminosilicate products with increasing combustion temperature. The results show that the clay mineral contents in the mineral matter of both light coal fractions were higher than those in the respective raw coals. For the coal with a high ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction thermally transformed more dehydroxylation products compared with those in the raw coal, possibly contributing to solid-state reactions of ash particles. For the coal with a low ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction produced more easily-slagging material compared with those in the raw coal, playing an important role in the occurrence of slagging. Additionally, ferrous oxide often produces low-melting substances in coal ash. Due to the similarities of zinc oxide and ferrous oxide in silicate reactions, we also investigated the interactions of clay minerals in light coal fractions with zinc oxide introduced by a zinc chloride solution. The extraneous zinc oxide could react, to a small extent, with clay minerals in the coal during DTF combustion.

  8. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  9. EMISIONES AL AIRE DE LA COMBUSTION DE LLANTAS USADAS (SPANISH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  10. EMISIONES AL AIRE DE LA COMBUSTION DE LLANTAS USADAS (SPANISH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  11. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of trace and major element leaching from coal combustion products by hydrothermally-treated coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnadjevic, B.; Popovic, A.; Mikasinovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The most important structural components of coal ash obtained by coal combustion in 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant located near Belgrade (Serbia) are amorphous alumosilicate, alpha-quartz, and mullite. The phase composition of coal ash can be altered to obtain zeolite type NaA that crystallizes in a narrow crystallization field (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}; H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios). Basic properties (crystallization degree, chemical composition, the energy of activation) of obtained zeolites were established. Coal ash extracts treated with obtained ion-exchange material showed that zeolites obtained from coal ash were able to reduce the amounts of iron, chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, lead, and manganese in ash extracts, thus proving its potential in preventing pollution from dump effluent waters.

  13. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  14. Craqueamento catalítico de polietileno em condições de refinaria: produção de frações combustíveis Catalytic cracking of polyethylene under refinery conditions: production of combustible fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em uma unidade de teste de microatividade para estudar o processo de craqueamento catalítico das cargas combinadas de polietileno de baixa densidade e polietileno de alta densidade com vaselina, frente a catalisadores comerciais de FCC (alta e baixa atividades, para avaliar a produção das frações combustíveis (gasolina, diesel e resíduo. As cargas combinadas de PEBD e PEAD/vaselina foram processadas em condições de refinaria. Para as cargas de PEBD/vaselina, a 2, 6 e 10% p/p, a produção da fração gasolina foi favorecida pelo catalisador de alta atividade, enquanto que a carga de PEAD/vaselina a 2% p/p, para produção da mesma fração, o catalisador de baixa atividade apresentou melhor eficiência. Todas as cargas combinadas, nas diversas concentrações, mostraram que o material inerte (caulim apresenta maior atuação, na produção da fração resíduo, indicando a ocorrência preferencial de craqueamento térmico.This work was carried out in an unit of microactivity test, to study the process of combined feeds of low density and high density polyethylenes with vaseline and commercial FCC catalysts (of low and of high activities, to evaluate the production of fuel fractions (gasoline, diesel and residue. The combined feeds of PEBD and PEAD/vaseline, at different concentrations, were processed under refinery conditions. For feeds of PEBD/vaseline at 2, 6 and 10% w/w, production of the gasoline fraction was favored with the high-activity catalyst, while for the PEAD/vaseline feed at 2%, in the production of the same fraction, the low-activity catalyst presented better performance. For all the combined feeds, in all concentrations, the inert material showed better performance for the production of residue fraction, indicating the preferential occurrence of thermal cracking.

  15. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Nanosafety by design: risks from nanocomposite/nanowaste combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Jacques X.; R'Mili, Badr; Moranviller, Daniel; Vignes, Alexis; Le Bihan, Olivier; Ustache, Aurelien; Bomfim, Joao A. S.; Frejafon, Emeric; Fleury, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Risks associated with the end-of-life of nanomaterials are an issue that needs to be addressed so that the public perception and opinion, with regard to these emerging technological products, can effectively be supported by experimental evidences. In order to find new ecological ways to treat nanoproducts at their end-of-life, a new home-made demonstrator system was setup at INERIS, specifically designed to perform burning tests, coupled to a differential thermal analyzer to monitor the combustion kinetics. To assess nanoobject release during combustion, a high-performance nanocomposite polymer commonly used in the automotive industry, namely the polymeric compound acrylonitrile butadiene styrene matrix mixed with 3 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was tested. To assess the potential release of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during the combustion with this tool, the particle size distribution in the fumes was measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, and CNTs were collected using an aspiration-based transmission electron microscopy grid sampler. One of primary objective of these preliminary tests described in this study consisted in validating whether CNT fibers can be released in the gas phase during the combustion of a polymeric matrix filled with CNTs. It was found indeed that MWCNT of about 12-nm diameter and 600-nm length can be released in the ambient environment during combustion of 3 % MWCNT ABS. Such information is critical to assess whether a nanoproduct can be deemed to be considered as "nanosafe by design" in its risk assessment.

  17. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in internal ... of alternative sources of energy that produce less amounts of carbon dioxide. ... The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen ...

  18. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  19. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  20. Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, B.C.; Esling, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Pisani, F. [Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands reclamation Council (United States); Wells, T. [Archer-Daniels-Midland Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Fluidized Bed Combustion of coal eliminates most emissions of S and N oxides but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements may make the technology uneconomic. Fluidized Bed residues are cementlike and when mixed with soil, produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that the residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of 7 acres and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. Materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters have been obtained. A contractor will build and deliver a mobile foam generator and spray to the field to demonstrate fugitive dust control from FBC fly ash (dust problem is one key barrier to more widespread use of FBC ash).

  1. Formation and chlorination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the post-combustion zone during MSW combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Stina; Fick, Jerker; Marklund, Stellan

    2008-07-01

    Non- to octa-chlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were analyzed in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at three different temperatures (450 degrees C, 300 degrees C and 200 degrees C, respectively) in the post-combustion zone during waste combustion experiments using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. PCN homologue profiles in all samples were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues (mono- to triCN), with successive reductions in abundance with each additional degree of chlorination. The isomer distribution patterns reflected ortho-directionality behavior of the first chlorine substituent, and the beta-positions, i.e. the 2,3,6,7-substitution sites, seemed to be favored for chlorination. Injection of naphthalene into the post-combustion zone resulted in increased PCN levels at 200 degrees C, demonstrating the occurrence of chlorination reactions in the post-combustion zone. However, the increases were restricted to the least-chlorinated homologue (monoCN), probably because there was insufficient residence time for further chlorination. In addition, an episode of poor combustion (manifested by high CO levels) was accompanied by extensive formation of 1,8-diCN, 1,2,3- and 1,2,8-triCN; congeners with substitution patterns that are not thermodynamically favorable. These are believed to be products of PAH breakdown reactions and/or chlorophenol condensation. Overall, PCN formation is likely to occur via more than one pathway, including chlorination of naphthalene that is already present, de novo synthesis from PAHs and, possibly, chlorophenol condensation.

  2. A model for organizing and analyzing integration of environmental concerns in product design and re-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2014-01-01

    of previous innovation processes, is developed. The approach is based on: 1) A scenario perspective on environmental aspects and impacts which implies a focus on the future roles of a product, its users and the surrounding society as imagined by the designers in their considerations about the problems...... addressed by the product and the solution it is offering. 2) A system’s perspective which implies a focus on the system, which a product is part of, including the need for supporting infrastructures like stakeholder training, waste management etc. 3) A lifecycle perspective to environmental aspects...... to the legitimacy of the environmental problems addressed and the solutions ‘offered’ by the product....

  3. Investigation of thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetkin, A. V.; Suris, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical investigations are fulfilled for some thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels used at present in tube furnaces of petroleum refineries. The effect of the fuel composition on these characteristics is shown and probable consequences of the substitution of natural gas to other types of fuels. Methane, ethane, propane, butane, propylene, and hydrogen are considered for comparison, which in most cases are constituents of the composition of the fuel burnt in furnaces. The effect of the fuel type, its associated combustion temperature, combustion product emissivity, temperature of combustion chamber walls, mean beam length, and heat release on the variation in the radiant heat flux within the radiant chamber of furnaces is investigated. The effect of flame characteristics, which are determined by the presence of diffusion combustion zones formed by burners used at present in furnaces for reducing nitrogen oxides emission, is analyzed. The effect of the fuel type on the equilibrium NO concentration is also investigated. The investigations were carried out both at arbitrary given gas temperatures and at effective temperatures dependent on the adiabatic combustion temperature and the temperature at the chamber output and determined based on solving a set of equations at various heat-release rates of the combustion chamber.

  4. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  5. Non-equilibrium Plasma-Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenting

    As a promising method to enhance combustion, plasma-assisted combustion has drawn considerable attention. Due to the fast electron impact excitation and dissociation of molecules at low temperatures, plasma introduces new reaction pathways, changes fuel oxidation timescales, and can dramatically modify the combustion processes. In this dissertation, the radical generation from the plasma and its effect on flame extinction and ignition were investigated experimentally together with detailed numerical simulation on a counterflow CH4 diffusion flame. It was found that the atomic oxygen production played a dominant role in enhancing the chain-branching reaction pathways and accelerating fuel oxidation at near limit flame conditions. To understand the direct coupling effect between plasma and flame, a novel plasma-assisted combustion system with in situ discharge in a counterflow diffusion flame was developed. The ignition and extinction characteristics of CH4/O 2/He diffusion flames were investigated. For the first time, it was demonstrated that the strong plasma-flame coupling in in situ discharge could significantly modify the ignition/extinction characteristics and create a new fully stretched ignition S-curve. To understand low temperature kinetics of combustion, it is critical to measure the formation and decomposition of H2O2. A molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) system was developed and integrated with a laminar flow reactor. H2O2 measurements were directly calibrated, and compared to kinetic models. The results confirmed that low and intermediate temperature DME oxidation produced significant amounts of H2O2. The experimental characterizations of important intermediate species including H2O2, CH2O and CH3OCHO provided new capabilities to investigate and improve the chemical kinetics especially at low temperatures. A numerical scheme for model reduction was developed to improve the computational efficiency in the simulation of combustion with detailed

  6. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  7. Ignition and wave processes in combustion of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M; Alymov, Michail I

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the application of classical combustion theory to ignition and flame propagation in solid-solid and gas-solid systems. It presents experimental investigations in the areas of local ignition, filtration combustion, self-propagating high temperature synthesis and nanopowders protection. The authors highlight analytical formulas used in different areas of combustion in solids and propose an approach based on classical combustion theory. The book attempts to analyze the basic approaches to understanding of solid-solid and solid - gas combustion presented in contemporary literature in a unified approach based on classical combustion theory. .

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Polyethylene and Coal Powder at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Shi-gang; CAO Feng; WANG Si-wei; SUN Liu-heng; PANG Jian-ming; SUN Yu-ping

    2008-01-01

    To study the combustion characteristics of the polyethylene (PE) particle and coal powder at blast temperature of the blast furnace, the contents of CO and CO2 of off-gas during the combustion of PE particle and coal powder at the 1 200 ℃ and 1 250 ℃ were measured using carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide infrared analyzer, and then the corresponding combustion ratio was calculated. The results showed that when the temperature is high, the combustion speed of PE and coal powder is high and the corresponding combustion ratio is high. Whereas, the combustion speed and ratio of PE are much higher than those of coal powder.

  9. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-07-04

    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Determining Heats of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Puster, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Enrichment-oxygen flow rate-ratio related to heat of combustion. Technique developed for determining heats of combustion of natural-gas samples. Based on measuring ratio m/n, where m is (volmetric) flow rate of oxygen required to enrich carrier air in which test gas flowing at rate n is burned, such that mole fraction of oxygen in combustion-product gases equals that in carrier air. The m/n ratio directly related to heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons present in natural gas.

  11. Accounting for water formation from hydrocarbon fuel combustion in life cycle analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, E. L.; Davidson, F. T.; Glazer, Y. R.; Beagle, E. A.; Webber, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel production and utilization are considered water intensive processes due to the high volumes of water used in source development and fuel processing. At the same time, there is significant water formed during combustion. However, this water is not currently widely harvested at the site of production. Instead, it is added to the hydrologic cycle, often in a different location from the fuel production site. This study quantifies the water formed from combustion of these fuels and analyzes the magnitudes of formation in the context of other hydrologic sources and sinks in order to facilitate future assessments of water harvesting technology and/or atmospheric impacts of combustion. Annual water formation from stoichiometric combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, oil- and natural gas liquid-derived products, and coal, in the United States and worldwide are presented and compared with quantities of water sequestered, evaporated, and stored in the atmosphere. Water production factors in terms of mass and energy of fuel consumed, WPFm and WPFe, respectively, are defined for the comparison of fuels and incorporation into future life cycle analyses (LCAs). Results show that water formation from combustion has increased worldwide from 2005 to 2015, with the largest increase coming from growth in combustion of natural gas. Water formation from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels equals or exceeds water sequestered from the hydrologic cycle through deep well injection in the US annually. Overall, water formation is deemed significant enough to warrant consideration by LCAs of water intensity in fuel production and use, and should be included in future analyses.

  12. Combustion study with synchrotron radiation single photon ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Jing; HUANG Chaoqun; YANG Bin; WEI Lixia; SHAN Xiaobin; SHENG Liusi; ZHANG Yunwu; QI Fei

    2005-01-01

    Here we report a combustion endstation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and some primary experimental results. Synchrotron radiation can provide the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon with the high intensity and the good collimation. VUV photoionization is a single-photon ionization process. Combined with molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), the VUV single-photon ionization can be applied to detect the combustion products, especially the intermediates and free radicals produced from combustion process. This method is proved to be a powerful tool for combustion study, which could be helpful for developing combustion kinetic models and understanding the mechanism of combustion reactions.

  13. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  14. Utilization of low NO{sub x} coal combustion by-products. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This project is studying a beneficiation process to make power plant fly ash a more useful by-product. The tasks include: (1) Laboratory characterization: Sample collection; Material characterization; and Lab testing of ash processing operations; (2) Pilot plant testing of the separation of carbon from fly ash; (3) Product testing: Concrete testing and Plastic fillers; and (4) Market and economic analysis. Appendices present information on material characterization, laboratory testing of a flotation process, pilot runs, and concrete testing results.

  15. Analyzing and modeling interdisciplinary product development a framework for the analysis of knowledge characteristics and design support

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Frank Neumann focuses on establishing a theoretical basis that allows a description of the interplay between individual and collective processes in product development. For this purpose, he introduces the integrated descriptive model of knowledge creation as the first constituent of his research framework. As a second part of the research framework, an analysis and modeling method is proposed that captures the various knowledge conversion activities described by the integrated descriptive model of knowledge creation. Subsequently, this research framework is applied to the analysis of knowledge characteristics of mechatronic product development (MPD). Finally, the results gained from the previous steps are used within a design support system that aims at federating the information and knowledge resources contained in the models published in the various development activities of MPD. Contents Descriptive Model of Knowledge Creation in Interdisciplinary Product Development Research Framework for the Analysis of ...

  16. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  17. Analyzing key constraints to biogas production from crop residues and manure in the EU—A spatially explicit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U. Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a spatially explicit method for making regional estimates of the potential for biogas production from crop residues and manure, accounting for key technical, biochemical, environmental and economic constraints. Methods for making such estimates are important as biofuels from agricultural residues are receiving increasing policy support from the EU and major biogas producers, such as Germany and Italy, in response to concerns over unintended negative environmental and social impacts of conventional biofuels. This analysis comprises a spatially explicit estimate of crop residue and manure production for the EU at 250 m resolution, and a biogas production model accounting for local constraints such as the sustainable removal of residues, transportation of substrates, and the substrates’ biochemical suitability for anaerobic digestion. In our base scenario, the EU biogas production potential from crop residues and manure is about 0.7 EJ/year, nearly double the current EU production of biogas from agricultural substrates, most of which does not come from residues or manure. An extensive sensitivity analysis of the model shows that the potential could easily be 50% higher or lower, depending on the stringency of economic, technical and biochemical constraints. We find that the potential is particularly sensitive to constraints on the substrate mixtures’ carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and dry matter concentration. Hence, the potential to produce biogas from crop residues and manure in the EU depends to large extent on the possibility to overcome the challenges associated with these substrates, either by complementing them with suitable co-substrates (e.g. household waste and energy crops), or through further development of biogas technology (e.g. pretreatment of substrates and recirculation of effluent). PMID:28141827

  18. Analyzing key constraints to biogas production from crop residues and manure in the EU-A spatially explicit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Rasmus; Persson, U Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a spatially explicit method for making regional estimates of the potential for biogas production from crop residues and manure, accounting for key technical, biochemical, environmental and economic constraints. Methods for making such estimates are important as biofuels from agricultural residues are receiving increasing policy support from the EU and major biogas producers, such as Germany and Italy, in response to concerns over unintended negative environmental and social impacts of conventional biofuels. This analysis comprises a spatially explicit estimate of crop residue and manure production for the EU at 250 m resolution, and a biogas production model accounting for local constraints such as the sustainable removal of residues, transportation of substrates, and the substrates' biochemical suitability for anaerobic digestion. In our base scenario, the EU biogas production potential from crop residues and manure is about 0.7 EJ/year, nearly double the current EU production of biogas from agricultural substrates, most of which does not come from residues or manure. An extensive sensitivity analysis of the model shows that the potential could easily be 50% higher or lower, depending on the stringency of economic, technical and biochemical constraints. We find that the potential is particularly sensitive to constraints on the substrate mixtures' carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and dry matter concentration. Hence, the potential to produce biogas from crop residues and manure in the EU depends to large extent on the possibility to overcome the challenges associated with these substrates, either by complementing them with suitable co-substrates (e.g. household waste and energy crops), or through further development of biogas technology (e.g. pretreatment of substrates and recirculation of effluent).

  19. Application of a High-Throughput Analyzer in Evaluating Solid Adsorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture via Multicomponent Adsorption of CO2, N-2, and H2O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, JA; McDonald, TM; Bae, TH; Bachman, JE; Sumida, K; Dutton, JJ; Kaye, SS; Long, JR

    2015-04-15

    Despite the large number of metal-organic frameworks that have been studied in the context of post-combustion carbon capture, adsorption equilibria of gas mixtures including CO2, N-2, and H2O, which are the three biggest components of the flue gas emanating from a coal- or natural gas-fired power plant, have never been reported. Here, we disclose the design and validation of a high-throughput multicomponent adsorption instrument that can measure equilibrium adsorption isotherms for mixtures of gases at conditions that are representative of an actual flue gas from a power plant. This instrument is used to study 15 different metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and activated carbons representative of the broad range of solid adsorbents that have received attention for CO2 capture. While the multicomponent results presented in this work provide many interesting fundamental insights, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines are shown to have any significant CO2 capacity in the presence of N-2 and H2O at equilibrium partial pressures similar to those expected in a carbon capture process. Most significantly, the amine-appended metal organic framework mmen-Mg-2(dobpdc) (mmen = N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, dobpdc (4-) = 4,4'-dioxido-3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylate) exhibits a record CO2 capacity of 4.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/g (16 wt %) at 0.1 bar and 40 degrees C in the presence of a high partial pressure of H2O.

  20. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  1. Corticosteroid production in H295R cells during exposure to 3 endocrine disrupters analyzed with LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christina S; Nielsen, Frederik K; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The adrenocortical human cell line H295R is a valuable tool for screening endocrine disrupting compounds. In general, previous research focus has been on the production of the 2 sex steroids, 17β-estradiol and testosterone, and less attention has been paid to other important steroid end points......295R cell line. The method was applied by studying the effects of 2 model endocrine disrupters, ketoconazole and prochloraz, the pharmaceutical budesonide, and the inducer forskolin on the steroid production in this cell line. Dose-response curves were obtained for the correlation between hormone...... concentrations and the concentration of the individual disruptors. Exposing cells to ketoconazole resulted in a decrease in cortisol and corticosterone concentrations in a dose-dependent manner with EC₅₀ values of 0.24 and 0.40 μmol/L, respectively. The same applied for cells exposed to prochloraz with EC₅₀...

  2. Analyzing the Influence of Customers’ Perception of Marketing Mix on Brand Equity: The Case of Razavi Nutritive Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Doaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since enhancement of the suitable and competitive position through consumer loyalty is of high importance, in this paper, brand equity as an effective element in achieving the mentioned position has been studied. Analysis of data has been done using structural equation modeling and PLS software. Statistical population includes customers of Razavi Nutritive Products in the city of Mashhad, and non random sampling has been used. The questionnaire developed by Chen (2007 has been used for data collection. Findings imply that the customer’s perception of marketing mix has positive and meaningful influence on brand equity; also its indirect influence has been ratified via features of purchase. Respectively, offering products with better prices, good image, widespread advertising and on time distribution in stores lead to better customer perception of brand equity, which in turn results in increase of frequency and amount of purchase and improvement of brand equity.

  3. Analyzing the Influence of Customers’ Perception of Marketing Mix on Brand Equity: The Case of Razavi Nutritive Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Doaei

    2011-09-01

    Since enhancement of the suitable and competitive position through consumer loyalty is of high importance, in this paper, brand equity as an effective element in achieving the mentioned position has been studied. Analysis of data has been done using structural equation modeling and PLS software. Statistical population includes customers of Razavi Nutritive Products in the city of Mashhad, and non random sampling has been used. The questionnaire developed by Chen (2007 has been used for data collection. Findings imply that the customer’s perception of marketing mix has positive and meaningful influence on brand equity also its indirect influence has been ratified via features of purchase. Respectively, offering products with better prices, good image, widespread advertising and on time distribution in stores lead to better customer perception of brand equity, which in turn results in increase of frequency and amount of purchase and improvement of brand equity.

  4. Model of analyzing and forecasting the dynamics of industrial production and space sector of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Yu. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to carry out a comparative analysis of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of Russia. Methods an asynchronous method of harmonic analysis comparative method. Results the forecasts of the development of rocket and space industry for 2015 and 2016 are obtained which are compared with the data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development. The comparison of the results showed that the analysis and forecast data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development coincide only partially. The tendency to increase the volumes in rocket and space industry is shown. Scientific novelty the mathematical models are presented for the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation built on the basis of the asynchronous harmonic analysis. The retrospective of the rocketspace complex development is considered. Practical significance using the proposed mathematical models of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation based on the economy cycles the more accurate forecasts of economic development can be made. nbsp

  5. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  6. A Production-Quality Unix Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) Subset Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    generally prefers UNIX . Using common UNIX tools, such as the programming language C ( Kernighan and Ritchie, 1978) and compiler-compilers like yacc...081S 832 A PfODUCTION-GUALITY UNIX VERY HIGH SPEED INTEGRATED 2 CIRCUIT (VHSIC) HARD..(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH HRIGHT-PATTERSON AFI OH SCHOOL OF...Base, Ohio glt -e bowSV a 3 88 2 4 046 -Vsr AFITIGCS/NA/87D-1 A PRODUCTION-QUALITY UNIX VERY HIGH SPEED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (VISIC) HARDWARE

  7. On-line measurement of heat of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

  8. Influence of the "Self-Radiation" of Combustion Products on the Intensity of Evaporation of an Inhomogeneous Water Droplet in the Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysokomornaya, O. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Piskunov, M. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    The processes of heat transfer during the heating, evaporation, and boiling of an inhomogeneous (with a solid inclusion) droplet of a liquid (water) in a high-temperature (800-1500 K) gas medium have been modeled numerically. The inclusion (carbonaceous particle) in the shape of a disk of height and diameter 2 mm has been considered. The volume of the water enveloping the inclusion ranged within 5-20 μL. It has been shown that the ″self-radiation″ of triatomic gases in combustion products (using commercial alcohol as an example) significantly intensifies (compared to the air heated to the same temperatures) the heating of the inhomogeneous liquid droplet. A comparative analysis of the influence of the temperature of the gas medium and of the thickness in the liquid film enveloping the inclusion on the basic characteristic of the process under study, i.e., the time of existence (complete evaporation) of the droplet, has been made. The reliability of the results of theoretical investigations and the legitimacy of the conclusions drawn have been assessed experimentally.

  9. Influence by physical properties of coal combustion residues (CCRs on dry root productivity of Withania somnifera grown in black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhisham Yadav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In India, presently ~40% Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs generated by burning of pulverized coal at Thermal Power Station is being used for cement, bricks, land reclamation etc. Now a day it has also been considered for agriculture applications. This study, an attempt was made to use of CCRs as soil modifier and micro fertilizer for cultivation of Withania somnifera under two cropping. Results revealed that production of dry root yields of Withania somnifera was found higher in T5 treatment (35.545g and 39.002g per plant as compared to control treatment (T1. It is showed significant (p<0.001% from all the treatments in both the years. The essential elements like Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn were found increasing trends in dry root of Withania somnifera with increase the concentration of CCRs application. This study is found the bulk utilization of CCRs for cultivation of Withania somnifera improved their root yield and chemical quality.

  10. Liquid-metal MHD energy conversion. Status report, March 1976--September 1977. [Coal combustion products are mixed with liquid copper and act as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M; Dunn, P F; Pierson, E S; Dauzvardis, P V; Pollack, I

    1979-05-01

    A new open-cycle coal-fired liquid-metal MHD concept has been developed, in which the combustion products are mixed directly with liquid copper and the mixture is then passed through the MHD generator. This concept yields a system with an efficiency comparable to that of open-cycle plasma MHD at combustor temperatures as much as 1000 K lower and MHD generator temperatures more than 1000 K lower than is the case for open-cycle plasma MHD. Significantly, the liquid-metal system uses components that are close to or within present-day technology, and it appears that readily available containment materials are compatible with the fluids. The first commercial system studies for the liquid-metal Rankine-cycle concept show that it yields a higher conversion efficiency than conventional steam cycles for lower-temperature heat sources, such as a liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, a light-water reactor, or solar collectors without any potential for hazardous reactions betweeen liquid metals (e.g., sodium) and water. Fabrication of the high-temperature liquid-metal MHD facility has been completed, and shakedown runs have been performed, using a substitute mixer-generator test section. Data obtained in this test section agreed well with existing single-phase and newly-developed two-phase correlations for the pressure gradient.

  11. Analyzing key performance indicators (KPIs) for E-commerce and Internet marketing of elderly products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuan-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Tien

    2012-01-01

    With the transformation of its population structure and economic environment, Taiwan is rapidly becoming an aging society. There is a growing need for elderly products, and therefore the operation of web shops that sell elderly products is important. In an era which values performance management, searching for key performance indicators (KPIs) helps to reveal, if the goals of a web shop are achieved. In the current study, researchers adopted the constructs of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate web shop performance. Additionally, the Delphi method, along with questionnaires, was used to develop 29 indicators. Finally, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method assisted in identifying the level of importance of the constructs, in which "internal process" ranked top, followed by "learning and growth", "customer", and "financial". "Internal process" was the key construct that impacted other factors, while "customer" was an important construct affected by other factors. By understanding the influences and relationships among the constructs, enterprises can conduct additional monitoring and management to achieve functions of prevention, continuous improvement, and innovation in order to shape their core competence.

  12. Scaling the Microphysics Equations and Analyzing the Variability of Hydrometeor Production Rates in a Controlled Parameter Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of microphysics equations is scaled based on the convective length and velocity scales. Comparisons are made among the dynamical transport and various microphysical processes. From the scaling analysis, it becomes apparent which parameterized microphysical processes present off-scaled influences in the integration of the set of microphysics equations. The variabilities of the parameterized microphysical processes are also studied using the approach of a controlled parameter space. Given macroscopic dynamic and thermodynamic conditions in different regions of convective storms, it is possible to analyze and compare vertical profiles of these processes. Bulk diabatic heating profiles for a cumulus convective updraft and downdraft are also derived from this analysis. From the two different angles, the scale analysis and the controlled-parameter space approach can both provide an insight into and an understanding of microphysics parameterizations.

  13. VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer-I, a Java-Based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lange, Miles D; Zhang, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG) at the 3' end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a "footprint" of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I), to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1) regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  14. The Abbott Architect c8000: analytical performance and productivity characteristics of a new analyzer applied to general chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Daniela; Seyfarth, Michael; Dibbelt, Leif

    2005-01-01

    Applying basic potentiometric and photometric assays, we evaluated the fully automated random access chemistry analyzer Architect c8000, a new member of the Abbott Architect system family, with respect to both its analytical and operational performance and compared it to an established high-throughput chemistry platform, the Abbott Aeroset. Our results demonstrate that intra- and inter-assay imprecision, inaccuracy, lower limit of detection and linear range of the c8000 generally meet actual requirements of laboratory diagnosis; there were only rare exceptions, e.g. assays for plasma lipase or urine uric acid which apparently need to be improved by additional rinsing of reagent pipettors. Even with plasma exhibiting CK activities as high as 40.000 U/l, sample carryover by the c8000 could not be detected. Comparison of methods run on the c8000 and the Aeroset revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98-1.00; if identical chemistries were applied on both analyzers, slopes of regression lines approached unity. With typical laboratory workloads including 10-20% STAT samples and up to 10% samples with high analyte concentrations demanding dilutional reruns, steady-state throughput numbers of 700 to 800 tests per hour were obtained with the c8000. The system generally responded to STAT orders within 2 minutes yielding analytical STAT order completion times of 5 to 15 minutes depending on the type and number of assays requested per sample. Due to its extended test and sample processing capabilities and highly comfortable software, the c8000 may meet the varying needs of clinical laboratories rather well.

  15. Total Productive Maintenance And Role Of Interpretive Structural Modeling And Structural Equation Modeling In Analyzing Barriers In Its Implementation A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth S. Poduval

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The aim of the authors is to present a review of literature of Total Productive Maintenance and the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance TPM. The paper begins with a brief description of TPM and the barriers in implementation of TPM. Interpretive Structural Modeling ISM and its role in analyzing the barriers in TPM implementation is explained in brief. Applications of ISM in analyzing issues in various fields are highlighted with special emphasis on TPM. The paper moves on to introduction to Structural Equation Modeling SEM and its role in validating ISM in analyzing barriers in implementation of TPM. The paper concludes with a gap analysis from the current literature research that can be carried out and expected outcomes from the proposed research.

  16. Tryptophan and Cysteine Oxidation Products Dominate in α-Lactalbumin-Derived Peptides Analyzed with LC-MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, Tuuli P; Gürbüz, Göker; Heinonen, I Marina

    2017-09-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-La), a major milk whey protein, is comprised of several amino acids prone to metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) typical in processing and during storage of foods. New tools are needed for the detection of characteristic oxidation products especially from tryptophan and cysteine that often remain unrecognized when using the traditional methods of carbonyl formation monitoring. In this study, the oxidative changes in α-La were investigated through tryptic digestion and collection of 3 descriptive peptides fitted into a metal-catalyzed oxidation (Fenton reaction) model. The peptide samples were oxidized at +37 °C for 14 d and explored with liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-MS(n) ). The fractionated α-La peptides were valyl-glycyl-isoleucyl-asparaginyl-tyrosyl-tryptophyl-leucyl-alanyl-histidyl-lysine (VGINYWLAHK), leucyl-aspartyl-glutaminyl-tryptophyl-leucyl-cysteinyl-glutamyl-lysine (LDQWLCEK), and tryptophyl(+16) -leucyl-alanyl-histidyl-lysyl-alanyl-leucyl-cysteine (W(+16) LAHKALC). Oxidation of several amino acids, such as cysteine, histidine, lysine, and tryptophan was observed. In the peptide LDQWLCEK, cysteine was rapidly trioxidized to sulfonic acid, followed by other amino acid side chains as secondary oxidation sites. Tryptophan oxidation was more pronounced in the peptides W(+16) LAHKALC and VGINYWLAHK, and also formation of the harmful N-formylkynurenine was observed. As a conclusion, several stable and promising oxidation markers are proposed for α-La, which could be implemented in the evaluation of quality and safety of dairy protein-containing products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. A numerical study of turbulent combustion characteristics in a combustion chamber of a scramjet engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE; ChunHian

    2010-01-01

    3D numerical simulation of flow fields in a combustion chamber of a scramjet engine using an SST turbulence model with an explicit compressibility correction was performed and the results were compared to the experimental results.The characteristics of the turbulent combustion flow fields were analyzed via the numerical results and presented.In order to identify the mechanisms of turbulent combustion in supersonic flows,the evolutions of governing dimensionless parameters in the flow fields were investigated based on the theory of combustion and the available numerical results.It was found that the supersonic combustion takes place in the region of fully developed turbulence and that the strongest effects of turbulence and combustion processes appear in the vicinity of the injector.The unsteady effects and the local flame extinction phenomenon induced by turbulent flows were found to be negligibly small,and the steady flamelet approximation will hold for practical applications.

  18. Reaction dynamics in the combustion synthesis system of Al-CrO3-Al2O3-NaF-N2-O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dazheng Yang; Yue Zhang; Degang Li; Dianwei Qi; Wei Deng; Dayong Xun

    2007-01-01

    A new material with heat-resistant and adiabatic characteristics and high strength was prepared using the combustion synthesis method by mixed powders of CrO3, Al, Al2O3, and NaF in atmospheric gas. The reaction dynamic process of the Al-CrO3-NaF-Al2O3-N2-O2 new material system by the combustion synthesis method was discussed based on the observation results by SEM,EDS, and XRD in combination with the combustion front quenching method (CFQM) and the relation curves between reaction free enthalpies and the corresponding temperatures. The combustion synthesis mechanism and the formation reasons of the phase in the combustion product were analyzed.

  19. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  20. 燃气锅炉掺烧甲醇弛放气的生产应用%Productive Application for Mix-firing Methanol Releasing Gas in Combustion Gas Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁轶; 董越茂

    2012-01-01

    In case of using coke-oven gas as productive raw material in methanol plant with a capacity of 240 000 t/a in the Shanxi Coking Stock Com- pany Ltd. , there was also released gas 9 000 m3/h remained from 15 000 m3/h of methanol released gas totally produced, excluding for using as fuel of preheating furnace of reformation and air blowing gas boiler, therefore energy conservation technology reformation was executed for mix-firing the methanol releasing gas in the combustion gas boiler. Author has analyzed the feasibility for mix-firing the methanol releasing gas in the combustion gas boiler; has selected the outlet location, conveying mode and mix-firing proportion for the releasing gas. Executed effect indicates that mix-firing releasing gas can pro- duce 22 t/h of steam, 4 400 kW ~ h of electric power, as per operating hours being 8 000 h, economic benefit can reach to 3.6milion Yuan RMB per year.%山西焦化股份有限公司24万t/a甲醇装置采用焦炉煤气为原料生产时,产生的15 000 m3/甲醇弛放气除用于转化预热炉及吹风气锅炉的燃料外,还富余9 000 m3/h,为此实施了燃气锅炉掺烧甲醇弛放气的节能技术改造。分析了燃气锅炉掺烧甲醇弛放气的可行性;选择了弛放气的引出位置、输送方式和掺烧比例。实施效果表明:掺烧甲醇弛放气可产蒸汽22 t/h,发电4 400 kW.h,按年运行8 000 h计,经济效益可达360万元/a。

  1. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  2. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Data Products and high-resolution flood model in Analyzing North African Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengumthara, K.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; David, J. L.; Melocik, K. A.; Huffman, G. J.; Anderson, M. C.; Ali, A. B.; Bacha, S.

    2013-12-01

    North Africa is an arid region characterized by isolated extreme events such as floods and droughts. Our present understanding of hydrological processes over North Africa is limited due to low rainfall, mixed response of evaporation to temperature and soil moisture gradients, and lack of high-resolution ground measurements. Remote sensing is an excellent way to obtain near real- time data of high spatial and temporal resolution. Satellite estimates of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET) have uncertainties due to topography, land-sea contrast, complex weather, and climate variability for high-elevated regions. Generally for arid regions, the satellite precipitation instruments are sensitive to soil moisture and land surface geometry. This study analyzes different components of hydrological processes over North Africa based on remote sensing data such as precipitation (NASA-TMPA, CMORPH and PERSIANN), evaporation (ALEXI and MODIS), and elevation (SRTM) along with ground measurements and model simulations. Here we use the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) hydrological model-version 2.0, which was originally developed by NASA-GSFC and the University of Oklahoma [Wang J et al., 2011]. The model is driven by real time TMPA and climatological PET, interpolated to model grids. The flexible simulation and calibration enables the model to provide high-resolution runoff and water depth at each time step. Our study mainly focuses on two major basins such as Medjerda over Tunisia and the Sebou basin of Morocco. Case studies of flood events over North Africa were analyzed based on CREST model simulations with respect to ground measurements. The floods are mainly modulated by rainfall associated with synoptic frontal and tropical plumes and orographic mesoscale systems. Occurrences of peak floods simulated by CREST are comparable with diagnostics such as vertically integrated moisture convergence, stratiform and convective precipitation from ECMWF reanalysis. These were

  3. Corrosion of oil-fired boilers caused by sour combustion products of the sulfur contained in fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1987-01-01

    A corrosion model helps to experimentally explain why industrial boilers are more susceptible to corrosion than smaller boilers and why vapour dew points are relevant to heating boilers while sulfuric acid dew points are relevant to steam boilers. Analyses are based on model verifications (measurement of critical boiler factors). Access is given to the sulfur trioxide measuring methods as well as to the respective tests of 30 actively operated boilers (sulfur oxide concentrations at burner outlets), the catalytic formation of sulfur oxides, and tests of the test stand boiler (sulfur oxide deposits). The paper concludes with a description of corrosion product analyses as such as well as with an account of the results obtained. Analyses and results (wet analysis, X-ray structure analysis, influence of temperatures, FeSO/sub 4/ x H/sub 2/O tracing) are presented in the form of eight brief statements. (HWJ)

  4. Subgrid Combustion Modeling for the Next Generation National Combustion Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Suresh; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Stone, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, a subgrid turbulent mixing and combustion methodology developed earlier at Georgia Tech has been provided to researchers at NASA/GRC for incorporation into the next generation National Combustion Code (called NCCLES hereafter). A key feature of this approach is that scalar mixing and combustion processes are simulated within the LES grid using a stochastic 1D model. The subgrid simulation approach recovers locally molecular diffusion and reaction kinetics exactly without requiring closure and thus, provides an attractive feature to simulate complex, highly turbulent reacting flows of interest. Data acquisition algorithms and statistical analysis strategies and routines to analyze NCCLES results have also been provided to NASA/GRC. The overall goal of this research is to systematically develop and implement LES capability into the current NCC. For this purpose, issues regarding initialization and running LES are also addressed in the collaborative effort. In parallel to this technology transfer effort (that is continuously on going), research has also been underway at Georgia Tech to enhance the LES capability to tackle more complex flows. In particular, subgrid scalar mixing and combustion method has been evaluated in three distinctly different flow field in order to demonstrate its generality: (a) Flame-Turbulence Interactions using premixed combustion, (b) Spatially evolving supersonic mixing layers, and (c) Temporal single and two-phase mixing layers. The configurations chosen are such that they can be implemented in NCCLES and used to evaluate the ability of the new code. Future development and validation will be in spray combustion in gas turbine engine and supersonic scalar mixing.

  5. Thermogravimetric investigation of hydrochar-lignite co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengang; Quek, Augustine; Kent Hoekman, S; Srinivasan, M P; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-11-01

    Co-combustion of hydrochar with lignite was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis. Hydrochars were produced from coconut fibers and eucalyptus leaves under hydrothermal conditions at 250°C. The hydrochar was added in varying amounts to lignite for combustion. The results indicated that hydrothermal treatment decreased the volatile matter content and increased the fixed carbon content of the biomaterials. The elevated energy density and decreased ash content of the hydrochar improved its combustion behavior when co-fired with lignite for energy production. The hydrochars derived from coconut fiber and eucalyptus leaves had similar chemical compositions and showed similar influences on lignite combustion. Hydrochar addition increased the burnout and shortened the combustion range of the hydrochar-lignite blends. High combustion efficiency was observed due to the synergistic interactions between hydrochar and lignite during the co-combustion process. A kinetic study showed that the combustion process of hydrochar-lignite blends followed first-order reaction rates.

  6. Torrefaction of empty fruit bunches under biomass combustion gas atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sellappah, Varsheta; Trinh, Thanh Hoai; Hassan, Suhaimi; Tanoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-06-13

    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  8. GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

  9. Evaluation and Analysis on the Corporation Innovation Capacity in Product Design and Development for Internal Combustion Engine%内燃机行业产品设计与技术创新能力评价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪芬; 戴旭东

    2011-01-01

    当前我国内燃机制造企业已越来越重视产品的自主开发.产品的自主开发对企业的产品设计与技术创新能力提出了更高的要求.企业的产品设计与技术创新能力主要体现在企业的研发积累、研发投入、研发产出与价值实现的活动过程中.基于AIOV( Accumulate - Investment - Output - Value)制造业企业产品设计与技术创新能力评价体系,以内燃机行业为对象,系统地进行了内燃机行业上市公司的产品设计与技术创新能力评价与分析.AIOV以产品现代设计理论与技术创新理论为理论基础,评价方法采用AHP方法计算.定量指标通过比较评分法计算,定性指标通过专家评判法打分.一个公司的技术创新能力综合得分反映了该内燃机制造企业的产品设计与技术创新能力.通过评价结果分析,从技术层面反映了不同企业在技术创新方面的差异与发展潜力.%The independent development of internal combustion engine is very important for the manufacturing corporation, which requires more powerful innovation capacity of the corporations in product design and technology development. The innovation capacity of the corporation in product design and technology development is defined to be quatified through four aspects; the technology accumulation, the product development devotion, the product and technology output and the market value. Based on the evaluation system AIOV (Accumulate - Investment - Output - Value), the innovation capacity of the corporations is systemically evaluated and analyzed for internal combustion engine. The product modern design theory provides the foundation for AIOV. The AHP method is applied to evaluate the innovation capacity in the evaluation system AIOV. The scores of the quantitative indexes are computed by comparison. The scores of the qualitative indexes are graded by experts. The composition score of the corporation denotes the innovation capacity of the

  10. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products: Description of sampling and analysis methods for rocket exhaust characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.

    1990-06-07

    A systematic approach has been developed and experimentally validated for the sampling and chemical characterization of the rocket motor exhaust generated from the firing of scaled down test motors at the US Army's Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The overall strategy was to sample and analyze major exhaust constituents in near real time, while performing off-site analyses of samples collected for the determination of trace constituents of the particulate and vapor phases. Initial interference studies were performed using atmospheric pressure burns of 1 g quantities of propellants in small chambers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined using non-dispersive infrared instrumentation. Hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and ammonia determinations were made using ion selective electrode technology. Oxides of nitrogen were determined using chemiluminescence instrumentation. Airborne particulate mass concentration was determined using infrared forward scattering measurements and a tapered element oscillating microbalance, as well as conventional gravimetry. Particulate phase metals were determined by collection on Teflon membrane filters, followed by inductively coupled plasma and atomic absorption analysis. Particulate phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH were collected using high volume sampling on a two stage filter. Target species were extracted, and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vapor phase species were collected on multi-sorbent resin traps, and subjected to thermal desorption GC/MS for analysis. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  13. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  14. Analyzing Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  15. Dumas combustion method for determination of crude protein content in oilseeds and products%杜马斯燃烧法测定油料粗蛋白含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田培; 马飞; 姜俊; 甘冬生; 李培武

    2012-01-01

    通过优化杜马斯燃烧法测定油料粗蛋白含量条件,比较了杜马斯燃烧法和凯氏定氮法测定大豆、花生、油菜籽、芝麻和菜籽饼粕等油料样品粗蛋白含量.结果表明:杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏定氮法测定结果呈显著线性相关(线性相关系数为0.998 8,P<0.001),杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏定氮法在测定样品粗蛋白时无显著性差异(P>0.05),并且燃烧法变异系数CV小于0.6%,测定结果准确、重现性好,更适用于油料样品粗蛋白含量检测.%Dumas combustion method for determination of crude protein content in oilseeds and products was optimized in this study. The crude protein contents in samples of soybean, peanut, rapeseed, sesame and rapeseed meal were comparatively tested with both Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl method. Detected values from Dumas combustion method showed a significant linear correlation (r =0.998 8,P 0. 05) and the coefficient of variation of Dumas combustion was lower than Kjeldahl ( CV < 0. 6% ). The results indicated that Dumas combustion method could be applied in the analysis of crude protein contents in oilseed samples.

  16. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  17. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    ;'Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

  18. Specifics of phytomass combustion in small experimental device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wood pellet combustion carries out with high efficiency and comfort in modern pellet boilers. These facts help to increase the amount of installed pellet boilers in households. The combustion process quality depends besides the combustion conditions also on the fuel quality. The wood pellets, which don`t contain the bark and branches represent the highest quality. Because of growing pellet demand, an herbal biomass (phytomass, which is usually an agricultural by-product becomes economically attractive for pellet production. Although the phytomass has the net calorific value relatively slightly lower than the wood biomass, it is often significantly worse in view of the combustion process and an emission production. The combustion of phytomass pellets causes various difficulties in small heat sources, mainly due to a sintering of fuel residues. We want to avoid the ash sintering by a lowering of temperature in the combustion chamber below the ash sintering temperature of phytomass via the modification of a burner design. For research of the phytomass combustion process in the small boilers is constructed the experimental combustion device. There will investigate the impact of cooling intensity of the combustion chamber on the combustion process and emissions. Arising specific requirements from the measurement will be the basis for the design of the pellet burner and for the setting of operating parameters to the trouble-free phytomass combustion was guaranteed.

  19. INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Cardis, Elisabeth; Pintos, Javier; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Benke, Geza; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Lavoue, Jerome; van Tongeren, Martie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2013-04-12

    The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000-2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

  20. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Spout-fluidized Bed Reactor--Analysis of Composition and Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Product from Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明强; 王君; 王新运; 张学才; 张素平; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷

    2006-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the fast pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and the relationship between bio-oil composition and pyrolysis reaction conditions, to assess the possibility for the raw bio-oil to be used as fuel, and to evaluate the concept of spout-fluidized bed reactor as the reactor for fast pyrolysis of biomass to prepare fuel oil, the composition and combustion characteristics of bio-oil prepared in a spout-fluidized bed reactor with a designed maximum capacity 5 kg/h of sawdust as feeding material, were investigated by GC-MS and thermogravimetry. 14 aromatic series chemicals were identified. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the bio-oil was liable to combustion, the combustion temperature increased with the heating rate, and only minute ash was generated when it burned. The kinetics of the combustion reaction was studied and the kinetic parameters were calculated by both Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Popsecu methods. The results agree well with each other. The most probable combustion mechanism functions determined by Popescu method are f(α)=k(1-α)2(400~406 ℃), f(α)=1/2k(1-α)3 (406~416 ℃) and f( α)=2k(1-α)3/2 (416~430 ℃) respectively.

  1. The use of halogen carriers and buffers in the spectrographic determination of boron in carbonaceous materials and their combustion products; Empleo de agentes halogenantes y reguladores en la determinacion espectrografica de Boro en carbones y productos derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1992-07-01

    For the determination of boron in carbonaceous materials (high purity graphite, coals and their processed products, such as ashes and slags from thermoelectric power plants) by atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic recording, the behaviour of the analyte in the presence of halide compounds or spectrochemical buffers has been studied. Among the halides, cupric fluoride at a low concentration (2%) becomes very suitable for the graphite analysis, and at a higher concentration (25 %) for coals, being necessary in this case to carry out a dilution of samples with graphite. Strontium carbonate as a spectrochemical buffer allows to analyse satisfactorily coals and their combustion products. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Mechanism of combustion synthesis of silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, J.; Raghunathan, R.; Chowdhury, R.; Jagannadham, K.

    1994-06-01

    The mechanism of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) or combustion synthesis of SiC has been investigated using pellets consisting of silicon and carbon powders. The combustion reaction was initiated by rapidly heating the pellet on a graphite strip. The reaction products were analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that it is possible to produce β-SiC without any residual silicon and carbon. Occasionally, a very small number density of α-SiC precipitates embedded in the β-SiC matrix was observed. Based upon the microstructural features, it is proposed that the formation of SiC involves the dissolution of carbon into liquid silicon, diffusion of C into liquid silicon, and subsequent precipitation of SiC. The size of the SiC crystallites is determined by the diffusion coefficient of carbon in liquid silicon and the time available for SiC precipitation. The activation enthalpy for the SHS process is estimated to be 59±3 kcal/mol.

  3. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This overview compiles the on-going research in Europe to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the reaction mechanisms and pathways associated with the combustion of an increased range of fuels. Focus is given to the formation of a large number of hazardous minor pollutants and the inability of current combustion models to predict the  formation of minor products such as alkenes, dienes, aromatics, aldehydes and soot nano-particles which have a deleterious impact on both the environment and on human health. Cleaner Combustion describes, at a fundamental level, the reactive chemistry of min

  4. Combustive management of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  5. 砂岩储层出砂段套管强度分析%Analyze of Production Casing Failure for Sand Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴怀志; 翟晓鹏; 姬辉; 管虹翔

    2013-01-01

    砂岩储层开采过程中储层砂岩会与储层流体一起流向井筒,易在井筒附近油层形成出砂空洞,使储层出砂段套管失去地层的保护作用,引起套管失效.分析出砂段套管强度校核采用的圆柱壳屈曲模型理论的局限性,提出依据普氏理论,建立疏松砂岩出砂后套管的受力模型;并采用数值方法确定出砂段套管强度值.研究表明:出砂段空洞高度与套管轴向力呈一定线性比例,出砂段空洞与出砂量是一定指数关系.该理论可用来进行出砂段套管的校核和设计.%Loose sandstone reservoir improve oil recovery with reasonable sand control, but cavities around the wellbore are formed when sand is produced, which makes the casing lost the protection of the formation and casing failure comes about. Comparing with the limitation of thin cylindrical shell theory , a mechanical model of stable sand arch acting on casing when sand production is established by M. M- ΠpoTOΠb(R)KOHOB. It is found that strength failure is the main casing failure under sand arching action and casing ultimate strength calibration formula is given. The research shows the cavity height and sand production volume are in a power relationship; the cavity height and axial force are in a linear relationship. With the increase of the overburden pressure, the used he used higher steel grade to keep the reliability of the casing. The research provides theoretical foundation for production casing design and casing strength verify.

  6. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  7. Production and validation of nuclear data for reactor and fuel cycle applications; Production et validation des donnees nucleaires pour les applications reacteurs et cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakas, C. [Framatome ANP GmbH NBTT, Erlangen (Germany); Verwaerde, D. [Electricite de France EDF, 75 - Paris (France); Toubon, H. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this technical meeting is the improvement of the existing nuclear data and the production of new data of interest for the upstream and downstream of the fuel cycle (enrichment, fabrication, management, storage, transport, reprocessing), for the industrial reactors, the research reactors and the new reactor concepts (criticality, dimensioning, exploitation), for the instrumentation systems (external and internal sensors), the radioprotection, the residual power, the structures (neutron bombardment effect on vessels, rods etc..), and for the activation of steel structures (Fr, Ni, Co). The expected result is the collection of more reliable and accurate data in a wider spectrum of energies and temperatures thanks to more precise computer codes and measurement techniques. This document brings together the communications presented at this meeting and dealing with: the process of production and validation of nuclear data; the measurement facilities and the big international programs; the users needs and the industrial priorities; the basic nuclear data (BND) needs at Cogema; the expression and evaluation of BND; the evaluation work: the efficient cross-sections; the processing of data and the creation of activation libraries; from the integral measurement to the qualification and the feedback on nuclear data. (J.S.)

  8. 多点法测定可燃物质自燃特性的可靠性研究%Study on the multipoint method for analyzing the self-ignition characteristics of the combustible material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文文; 刘乃安; 张林鹤

    2015-01-01

    The multipoint temperature method is a new method for exploring self‐ignition kinetics .In this paper ,we used this method to conduct self‐ignition tests in order to testify its reliability by experimental study and theoretical analysis . By establishing a one‐dimensional heat conduction system and varying the thermocouple locations , the critical self‐ignition temperature ,activation energy and the product of reaction heat and pre‐exponential factor of tobacco powders were determined . It was shown that the thermocouple distribution was important for the experimental results .Under the symmetrical distribution of thermocouples , the results were in accordance with the classical F‐K temperature model . As compared to traditional methods ,the multipoint method is time saving and can be used to accurately determine the kinetic parameters of self‐heating .%多点法是一种新提出的自热反应动力学分析方法。采用实验研究和理论分析相结合的方式对多点法的操作过程以及实验结果的可靠性展开研究。通过构建一维导热系统、采用不同形式的热电偶布设方式,对烟叶粉末的自燃临界环境温度、活化能以及反应热与指前因子的乘积等参数进行了测定。研究表明:所构建的一维系统能较好地模拟一维导热;热电偶的分布方式对测量结果有较大影响,对称分布状况下,温度结果与经典的F‐K对称模型一致;多点法相比于传统方法省时省力,测定结果有较好的线性拟合相关度,求解的动力学参数较为可靠。

  9. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  10. Positive Research on China's Economic Growth Quality——Analyze the Fluctuating Situation of the Factor Input and Aggregative Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBtanhua

    2005-01-01

    To analyze China's fluctuating situation of the factor input and aggregative productivity is not only the main method to seek the source of the economic growth but also the main way to weigh the level of economic growth quality. As to economic growth of a country, the improvement of the productivity is extremely important. The growth of the output can be realized through two kinds of ways: increasing the quantity of factor input of orimproving the effciency of the input and output. Therefore, the level of economic growth quafity does not mainly depend on the amount of invesTed factor, but the importance of improving the produtivity since Pesources are rare.The relative improvement of efficiency in use of the invested factor marks the economic growing quality. So, in order to understand the economic growth quafity of China to some extent, it must analyze Chinese factor input and aggregative productivity. This is the main topic that this text wilt be probed into.

  11. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  12. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NATIO& NAk H(fJI At tl TANUAHTOb 19 A ~omm.81-0287 LVL RADIATION/CATALYTIC AUGMENTED COMBUST ION MOSHE LAVID CORPORATE RESEARCH-TECHNOLOGY FEASIBILITY...refinements as necessary. i. Perform cannular combustor experiments to Investigate ignition and flame attachment in flowing, liquid -fuel, unpremixed...stabilizer, with a sintered metal disk on the downstream side through which hot gases or products of partial fuel oxidation can be passed. Experimental

  13. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  14. Evaluating the thermal stability of mercury and other metals in coal combustion residues used in the production of cement clinker, asphalt, and wallboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is underway by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to document any changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) as a result of implementation of mercury and multiipollutant control technology at coal-fired power plants. This work was cited as a pr...

  15. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from

  16. Effects of water treatment residuals and coal combustion byproduct amendments on properties of a sandy soil and impact on crop production – A pot experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byproducts of coal combustion (such as fly ash: FA), livestock industry (such as chicken manure: CM, or animal manure, etc), or water treatment residuals (such as sewage sludge: SS, or incinerated sewage sludge: ISS) can be used as amendments to agricultural soils, provided that these byproducts (ap...

  17. Intraspecific diversity of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides associated with vacuum-packed meat product spoilage analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Rosa; Chenoll, Empar

    2006-10-01

    The intraspecific diversity of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus plantarum was analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR with universal primers M13 and T3. The study included 100 reference strains and 210 isolates recovered from two vacuum-packed Spanish meat products, fiambre de magro adobado and morcilla, previously identified by rDNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. The RAPD-M13 profiles identified isolates at species level in L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, while RAPD-T3 provided profiles in L. sakei. The combination of RAPD-M13 and RAPD-T3 fingerprints revealed a total of 17 profiles in L. mesenteroides, 6 in L. sakei, 12 in L. plantarum, and 6 in L. curvatus. Of these, six profiles corresponding to L. mesenteroides and one corresponding to L. sakei were found in both products. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H'), calculated according to RAPD-M13 and RAPD-T3 profiles during storage, revealed that most profiles appeared only in single samplings in both products, indicating a high strain substitution rate during chilled storage of vacuum-packed meat products. When bloating appeared, only one profile corresponding to L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was present throughout the storage period.

  18. Calculations of the enthalpies of combustion of organic compounds by the additive scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadeev, E. V.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2006-11-01

    The enthalpies of combustion of more than 200 organic compounds were analyzed. Group contributions to Δc H o were calculated and used to estimate the enthalpies of combustion of a wide range of organic substances of various classes.

  19. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  20. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  1. Combustion Synthesis of h-BN-SiC Ceramic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-bo; ZHENG Yong-ting; ZHOU Li-juan; HAN Jie-cai

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility was demonstrated to fabricate h-BN-SiC ceramics through combustion synthesis of the mixture of boron carbide and silicon powders under 100 MPa nitrogen pressure. The mass fraction of BN and SiC in the combustion products were found to be 72 % and 28 % respectively. The thermodynamics of the synthesis reaction and the adiabatic combustion temperature were calculated on the theoretical ground. The bending strengths of the ceramics were measured to be 65.2 MPa at room temperature and 55 MPa at 1350 ℃. The phase composition and microstructure of the combustion products were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Method and apparatus for achieving hypergolic combustion by partial catalytic combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1987-03-24

    This patent describes an apparatus for pretreatment of a hydrocarbon fuel for hypergolic combustion in an oxidizing atmosphere in the combustion chamber of a combustion device comprising: a source of fuel; a source of oxidizing fluid; a mixing chamber for receiving oxidizer fluid from the source; means for directing fuel received from the fuel source into the oxidizer fluid in the mixing chamber so as to create a rich fuel-oxidizer fluid mixture therein substantially above the stoichiometric ratio; catalytic reactor means receiving the rich fuel-oxidizer fluid mixture from the mixture from the mixture chamber and partially catalytically combusting the mixture to form a high temperature, hydrogen-rich product gas at temperatures on the order of 1,000 degrees farenheit. It is thereby activated by the formation of a sufficient proportion of fuel molecules to enable hypergolic combustion thereof; means controllably directing the high temperature product gas in the activated state into the combustion chamber, whereby enabling hypergolic combustion therein as a result of the high temperature activated condition of the product gas.

  3. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species.

  4. Research on Marine Boiler's Pressurized Combustion and Heat Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingjian MING; Renqiu JIANG; Yanjun LI; Baozhi SUN

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on combustion and heat transfer is analyzed. The research is based on the basic combustion and heat transfer theorem. A correction for the heat calculation method for pressurized furnace is made on the basis of the normal pressure case. The correction takes the effect of pressurizing into account. The results show that the correction is reasonable and the method is applicable to combustion and heat transfer of the marine supercharged boiler.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Combustion Wave in SHS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The characteristic of combustion wave and its change were analyzed by numerical value calculation and computer simulation,based on the combustion dynamical model of SHS process. It is shown that with the change of condition parameters in SHS process various time-space order combustion waves appear.It is concluded from non-liner dynamical mechanism analysis that the strong coupling of two non-linear dynamical processes is the dynamical mechanism causing the time-space order dissipation structures.

  6. Study on Environmental Impact Assessment of Heavy Metals in Coal Combustion Products%电厂燃煤产物中重金属元素的环境影响评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 冯启言; 武旭仁; 孟庆俊

    2013-01-01

    Taking coal combustion products from two coal -fired power plants in Shandong as example , the envi-ronmental impact assessment method of heavy metals in coal combustion products was studied .4 heavy metals of As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg in raw coal, fly ash,bottom ash of the power plants were determined .The leaching rate of heavy metals in the coal combustion products were determined by immersion test .Atmospheric pollution index, water pollution index were calculated .The results showed that the volatility of the heavy metals in the coal during coal combustion is high.The integrated pollution indices of the heavy metals in the coal from the two plants to at-mospheric environment are 6.83 and 7.93, which belong to heavy pollution indices.The integrated pollution in-dices of heavy metals in the coal -fired products to water environment are 4.35 and 3.38 respectively, belonging to heavy pollution indeces.%  以山东矿区某两个电厂燃煤为例,探讨了燃煤产物中重金属元素的环境影响评价方法。测定了电厂原煤、飞灰、底灰中As、Cu、Zn、Pb这4种重金属元素的含量,通过浸泡实验测得了燃煤产物中重金属元素的浸溶率,计算出了燃煤产物中重金属元素对大气、水环境的污染因子。结果表明,电厂燃煤过程中,重金属元素挥发性较高,两电厂对大气环境的综合污染因子分别为6.83和7.93,污染等级为重污染。对于水环境的综合污染因子为4.35与3.38,也属重污染。

  7. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2004-12-15

    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.

  8. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  9. A highly combustible composite solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonetaka, K.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Y.

    1983-07-12

    To increase the combustibility, the briqueted solid fuel is coated with an auxiliary fuel which is characterized by high flamability. The composition ofthe basic fuel includes a solid fuel with a high combustion temperature and seeming density (mineral coal, activated charcoal, coke, graphite and a carbonized product), a desulfurizing agent (CaCO3 or MgO), a combustion promotor (Ca(CO3)2, KNO3, sodium acetate, iron oxalate) and forming additives (bentonite, clay or talc) or a binder (pitch, tar, methylcellulose or cement). The auxiliary fuel has the very same composition, but is characterized by a low ignition temperature and density (for instance, due to the addition of sawdust). The obtained two layer composite fuel is characterized by improved ignitibility and combustibility.

  10. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-03-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; re-analyzed the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; updated the topical summary report; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

  11. Chemical kinetic simulation of kerosene combustion in an individual flame tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of detailed chemical reaction mechanisms of kerosene is still very limited in analyzing the combustion process in the combustion chamber of the aircraft engine. In this work, a new reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for fuel n-decane, which selected as a surrogate fuel for kerosene, containing 210 elemental reactions (including 92 reversible reactions and 26 irreversible reactions and 50 species was developed, and the ignition and combustion characteristics of this fuel in both shock tube and flat-flame burner were kinetic simulated using this reduced reaction mechanism. Moreover, the computed results were validated by experimental data. The calculated values of ignition delay times at pressures of 12, 50 bar and equivalence ratio is 1.0, 2.0, respectively, and the main reactants and main products mole fractions using this reduced reaction mechanism agree well with experimental data. The combustion processes in the individual flame tube of a heavy duty gas turbine combustor were simulated by coupling this reduced reaction mechanism of surrogate fuel n-decane and one step reaction mechanism of surrogate fuel C12H23 into the computational fluid dynamics software. It was found that this reduced reaction mechanism is shown clear advantages in simulating the ignition and combustion processes in the individual flame tube over the one step reaction mechanism.

  12. An Approach for Analyzing ISO / IEC 25010 Product Quality Requirements based on Fuzzy Logic and Likert Scale for Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Iqbal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSS are collaborative software systems that are built to support controlling of an organization in decision making process when faced with non-routine problems in a specific application domain. It’s important to measure portability, maintainability, security, reliability, functional suitability, performance efficiency, compatibility, and usability quality requirements of DSS properly. ISO / IEC 25010 which replaced ISO 9126, used for three different quality models for software products, such as: a Quality in use model, b Product quality model, and c Data quality model. There is a lack of methodologies to measure and quantify these quality requirements. Fuzzy logic used to specify quality requirements of DSS, because it’s an approach to computing based on degrees of truth, rather than true or false logics. Likert scale is a method in which it converts qualitative values into quantitative values to make a best statistical analysis. The measurement and quantification of quality requirements of DSS is a challenging task, because these quality requirements are in qualitative form and can’t be represented in quantitative way. Although, several quality requirements methods for DSS have been proposed so far, but the research on analyzing quality requirements of DSS are still limited. In this paper, quantitative approach proposed for analyzing ISO / IEC 25010 product quality requirements based on fuzzy logic and likert scale for DSS which aims to quantify quality requirements. Moreover implemented proposed framework on a case study ‘Internet Banking’ and got data from 25 respondents i.e. System Analysts and Domain Experts of banking sector.

  13. Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

  14. Artisanal production of Colonial cheese analyzed under Normative Instruction noº 30/2013 (municipalities in the Cantuquiriguaçu region, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Casali Tesser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study took place in 17 rural properties that produce colonial cheese in three towns of the Cantuquiriguaçu region (Paraná state, Brazil. A questionnaire was applied, in order to collect data on the milk and colonial cheese production, so that data could be analyzed according to the Normative Instruction nº 30/2013 from MAPA (Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The results indicated that the visited farms did not have a certificate attesting them as free from brucellosis and tuberculosis (100%, nor even a program for mastitis control, nor good practices on milking and handling of cheese, not to mention poor control of water quality, poor pest control and minimum cheese ripening. Thus, according to the criteria from the Normative Instruction nº 30 / 2013, those farms were considered unsuitable for the production. It is worth noting, however, that one of the towns has already taken measures that partially met requirements of the legislation, indicating that the adoption of public policies and more technical support might assist producers to become apt for the adequate production of cheese from raw milk.

  15. The relationships of water and air when pumping a mixture into a stratum and in a productive level with intrastratum oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.; Racz, D.; Voll, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results are cited of theoretical studies of optimization of the water and air relationship with pumping of a mixture into a stratum, as well as the disposition of perforations with moist, intrastratum combustion. The studies were conducted in a single slanted, uniform model and in a nonuniform model which corresponds to the stratification of the Demyenvostok field. An analysis of the distribution of the water and air relationships in the collector, identified by modeling a three phase section, is conducted.

  16. Alkali-Alumina Sorbents for Regenerable SO_2 Removal in Fluidized-Coal Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Gavalas, George R.; Weston, Theresa A.; Stephanopoulos, Maria F.

    1985-01-01

    Sodium and sodium-lithium oxides supported on porous alumina have been investigated as regenerable SO_2 sorbents for fluidized coal combustion. In adsorption the oxides are converted to sulfates. In regeneration, carried out by reduction with CO, the sulfates are converted back to oxides while sulfur is removed in elemental form (S_2), SO_2 and COS. The transient composition of sorbent and gaseous products was measured in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed-bed microreactor in order to ...

  17. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginni

  18. Strobes: An Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginni

  19. Lectures on combustion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A. (eds.)

    1978-09-01

    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  20. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  1. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  2. Combustion of coffee husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.; Hartge, E.-U.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Chemical Engineering 1, Hamburg (Germany); Ogada, T.; Siagi, Z. [Moi Univ., Dept. of Production Engineering, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2001-05-01

    Combustion mechanisms of two types of coffee husks have been studied using single particle combustion techniques as well as combustion in a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility (FBC), 150 mm in diameter and 9 m high. Through measurements of weight-loss and particle temperatures, the processes of drying, devolatilization and combustion of coffee husks were studied. Axial temperature profiles in the FBC were also measured during stationary combustion conditions to analyse the location of volatile release and combustion as a function of fuel feeding mode. Finally the problems of ash sintering were analysed. The results showed that devolatilization of coffee husks (65-72% volatile matter, raw mass) starts at a low temperature range of 170-200degC and takes place rapidly. During fuel feeding using a non water-cooled system, pyrolysis of the husks took place in the feeder tube leading to blockage and non-uniform fuel flow. Measurements of axial temperature profiles showed that during under-bed feeding, the bed and freeboard temperatures were more or less the same, whereas for over-bed feeding, freeboard temperatures were much higher, indicating significant combustion of the volatiles in the freeboard. A major problem observed during the combustion of coffee husks was ash sintering and bed agglomeration. This is due to the low melting temperature of the ash, which is attributed to the high contents of K{sub 2}O (36-38%) of the coffee husks. (Author)

  3. Operating strategies on HCCI combustion; Betriebsstrategien fuer die Benzinselbstzuendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babic, Goran; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrzeuge (IVK)

    2010-09-15

    The gasoline self-ignition represents an alternative part load combustion strategy, which radically reduces the nitrogen-oxide emissions in combination with improved process efficiency. At the request of the Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV) the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) of the University of Stuttgart investigated different operating strategies on gasoline self-ignition and developed methods for mode switches under close-to-production conditions. (orig.)

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study of Jet Controlled Compression Ignition on Combustion Phasing Control in Diesel Premixed Compression Ignition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to directly control the premixed combustion phasing, a Jet Controlled Compression Ignition (JCCI for diesel premixed compression ignition systems is investigated. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder natural aspirated diesel engine without EGR at 3000 rpm. Numerical models were validated by load sweep experiments at fixed spark timing. Detailed combustion characteristics were analyzed based on the BMEP of 2.18 bar. The simulation results showed that the high temperature jets of reacting active radical species issued from the ignition chamber played an important role on the onset of combustion in the JCCI system. The combustion of diesel pre-mixtures was initiated rapidly by the combustion products issued from the ignition chamber. Moreover, the flame propagation was not obvious, similar to that in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI. Consequently, spark timing sweep experiments were conducted. The results showed a good linear relationship between spark timing in the ignition chamber and CA10 and CA50, which indicated the ability for direct combustion phasing control in diesel PCCI. The NOx and soot emissions gradually changed with the decrease of spark advance angle. The maximum reduction of NOx and soot were both over 90%, and HC and CO emissions were increased.

  5. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  6. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  7. Reduction in Difficulties of Phytomass Combustion by Co-Combustion of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Holubcik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the most used biofuel in Slovak republic is log wood. Alternatively, there are also biofuels based on vegetal biomass (phytomass like wheat straw or grass. The advantage of these biofuels is lower cost price because they are usually considered as waste product. The major disadvantage of these vegetal biofuels is their problematic combustion. It is mainly due to the low ash melting temperature because of chemical composition of ash from phytomass. The low ash melting temperature causes slagging and sintering, which reduce the efficiency of the combustion process. This disadvantage causes very difficult and problematic combustion of phytomass. The article deals the way of trouble reduction during combustion of pellets made from phytomass (specific hay through the wood pellet co-combustion in a standard automatic boiler for combustion of wood pellets. During the experiments, the mixing ratio of hay pellets and wood pellets is varied and subsequently, there is determined its impact on the combustion process, namely on heat output of the boiler, and there is also evaluated the effect of the mixing ratio on the production of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, organic hydrocarbons (OGC and particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5.

  8. Diesel oil combustion in fluidized bed; Combustion de aceite diesel en lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazares, Mario [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The effect of the fluidized bed depth in the combustion in burning diesel oil in a fluidized bed, was analyzed. A self sustained combustion was achieved injecting the oil with an injector that utilized a principle similar to an automobile carburetor venturi. Three different depths were studied and it was found that the deeper the bed, the greater the combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiencies were attained from 82% for a 100mm bed depth, up to 96% for a 200mm bed depth. The diminution in the efficiency was mainly attributed to unburned hydrocarbons and to the carbon carried over, which was observed in the black smoke at the stack outlet. Other phenomena registered were the temperature gradient between the lower part of the bed and the upper part, caused by the fluidization velocity; additionally it was observed that the air employed for the oil injection (carbureting air) is the most important parameter to attain a complete combustion. [Espanol] Se analizo el efecto de la profundidad del lecho en la combustion al quemar aceite diesel en un lecho fluidizado experimental. Se logro combustion autosostenida inyectando el aceite con un inyector que utilizo un principio similar al venturi del carburador de automovil. Se estudiaron tres diferentes profundidades del lecho y se encontro que a mayor profundidad del lecho, mayor eficiencia de la combustion. Se lograron eficiencias de la combustion desde 82% para el lecho de 100 mm de profundidad hasta 96% para el de 200 mm. La disminucion de la eficiencia se atribuyo, principalmente, a los hidrocarburos no quemados y al carbon arrastrado, lo cual se observo en el humo negro a la salida de la chimenea. Otros fenomenos registrados fueron el gradiente de temperatura entre la parte baja del lecho y la parte superior causado por la velocidad de fluidizacion; ademas, se observo que el aire utilizado para inyectar el aceite (aire de carburacion) es el parametro mas importante para lograr una combustion completa.

  9. Review of Membrane Oxygen Enrichment for Efficient Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariono, Danu; Kusuma Wardani, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Oxygen enrichment from air is a simple way of increasing the efficiency of combustion process, as in oxy-combustion. Oxy-combustion has become one of the most attracting combustion technologies because of its potential to address both pollutant reduction and CO2 capture. In oxy-combustion, the fuel and recycled flue gas are combusted with oxygen enriched air (OEA). By using OEA, many benefits can be obtained, such as increasing available heat, improving ignition characteristics, flue gas reduction, increasing productivity, energy efficiency, turndown ratio, and flame stability. Membrane-based gas separation for OEA production becomes an attractive technology over the conventional technology due to the some advantages, including low capital cost, low energy consumption, compact size, and modularity. A single pass through membrane usually can enrich O2 concentration in the air up to 35% and a 50% concentration can be achieved with a double pass of membrane. The use of OEA in the combustion process eliminates the presence of nitrogen in the flue gas. Hence, the flue gas is mainly composed of CO2 and condensable water that can be easily separated. This paper gives an overview of oxy-combustion with membrane technology for oxygen enrichment process. Special attention is given to OEA production and the effect of OEA to the efficiency of combustion.

  10. Analyzing power in inclusive. pi. sup + and. pi. sup - production at high x sub F with a 200 GeV polarized proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L. (T.W. Bonner Nuclear Lab., Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Belikov, N.I.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Grachov, O.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N. (Inst. of High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (USSR)); Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de (CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); En' yo, H.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S. (Dept. of Physics, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R; FNAL E704 Collaboration

    1991-08-01

    The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in {chi}{sub F} is observed in which A{sub N} increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing {chi}{sub F} for the {pi}{sup +} data and decreases from 0 to -0.38 with increasing {chi}{sub F} for {pi}{sup -} data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2{<=}{chi}{sub F}{<=}0.9 and 0.2{<=}p{sub T}{<=}2.0 GeV/c. In a simple model our data indicate that at large {chi}{sub F} the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents. (orig.).

  11. Mechanism of Combustion Synthesis of TiC-Ti Cermet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of combustion synthesis of TiC-Ti cermet, a mixture of Ti and C was used for a combustion front quenching test, and the microstructural evolution in the quenched sample was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Also,a temperature-time profile of the combustion reaction was measured. Based on the experimental results, a reaction-dissolution-precipitation mechanism of the combustion synthesis of TiC-Ti was proposed.

  12. The Intermodulation Lockin Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Tholen, Erik A; Forchheimer, Daniel; Schuler, Vivien; Tholen, Mats O; Hutter, Carsten; Haviland, David B

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear systems can be probed by driving them with two or more pure tones while measuring the intermodulation products of the drive tones in the response. We describe a digital lock-in analyzer which is designed explicitly for this purpose. The analyzer is implemented on a field-programmable gate array, providing speed in analysis, real-time feedback and stability in operation. The use of the analyzer is demonstrated for Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy. A generalization of the intermodulation spectral technique to arbitrary drive waveforms is discussed.

  13. STUDY ON MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jun; Xu Jingcai; Zhang Xinghai

    2000-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes major factors influencing spontaneous combustion of coal, such as molecule structure of coal, porosity, temperature, concentration of oxygen, coal thickness, velocity of face advance, and so on; and probes into how they affect the process of spontaneous combustion of coal, which is of momentous significance to predict or control self-ignition of coal.

  14. Design and experimental investigation of an oxy-fuel combustion system for magnetohydrodynamic power extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Manuel Johannes

    A general consensus in the scientific and research community is the need to restrict carbon emissions in energy systems. Therefore, extensive research efforts are underway to develop the next generation of energy systems. In the field of power generation, researchers are actively investigating novel methods to produce electricity in a cleaner, efficient form. Recently, Oxy-Combustion for magnetohydrodynamic power extraction has generated significant interest, since the idea was proposed as a method for clean power generation in coal and natural gas power plants. Oxy-combustion technologies have been proposed to provide high enthalpy, electrically conductive flows for direct conversion of electricity. Direct power extraction via magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can occur as a consequence of the motion of "seeded" combustion products in the presence of magnetic fields. However, oxy-combustion technologies for MHD power extraction has not been demonstrated in the available literature. Furthermore, there are still fundamental unexplored questions remaining, associated with this technology, for MHD power extraction. In this present study, previous magnetohydrodynamic combustion technologies and technical issues in this field were assessed to develop a new combustion system for electrically conductive flows. The research aims were to fully understand the current-state-of-the-art of open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic technologies and present new future directions and concepts. The design criteria, methodology, and technical specifications of an advanced cooled oxy-combustion technology are presented in this dissertation. The design was based on a combined analytical, empirical, and numerical approach. Analytical one-dimensional (1D) design tools initiated design construction. Design variants were analyzed and vetted against performance criteria through the application of computational fluid dynamics modeling. CFD-generated flow fields permitted insightful visualization of the

  15. Evaluation of co-pyrolysis petrochemical wastewater sludge with lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed-bed reactor: Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetics, and products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin; Chen, Jianbiao; Yao, Pikai; Zhou, Dapeng; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Hongchao

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge and Huolinhe lignite were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer and packed-bed reactor coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics of the blends at various sludge blending ratios were compared with those of the individual materials. Thermogravimetric experiments showed that the interactions between the blends were beneficial to generate more residues. In packed-bed reactor, synergetic effects promoted the release of gas products and left less liquid and solid products than those calculated by additive manner. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis showed that main functional groups in chars gradually disappeared with pyrolysis temperatures increasing, and H2O, CH4, CO, and CO2 appeared in volatiles during pyrolysis. Gas compositions analysis indicated that, the yields of H2 and CO clearly increased as the pyrolysis temperature and sludge blending ratio increasing, while the changes of CH4 and CO2 yields were relatively complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  17. Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

  18. Advanced combustion turbines and cycles: An EPRI perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchton, G.; Cohn, A. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    EPRI conducts a broad program of research in combustion turbine technology on behalf of its funders which is directed toward improving their competitive positions through lower cost of generation and risk mitigation. The major areas of EPRI interest are: (1) Combustion Turbine Technology Development, Assessment, and Procurement Information and Products. (2) Risk mitigation of emerging combustion turbines through durability surveillance. (3) Existing Fleet Management and Improvement Technology. In the context of the DOE ATS Review, the present paper will address new advanced turbines and cycles and durability surveillance, of emerging combustion turbines. It will touch on existing fleet management and improvement technology as appropriate.

  19. Mathematical Model of Combustion in Blunt Annular Ceramic Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The computer simulation of the combustion process in blast furnace (BF) stove has been studied by using the k-ε-g turbulent diffusion flame model. The combustion process in blunt annular ceramic burner was calculated by using the software. The profiles of gas and air velocity, temperature of the combustion products, concentration of the components, and the shape and length of the flame during combustion have been researched . Compared with the original annular ceramic burner, the new design of the blunt one improves the mixing of the gas and the air significantly, and shortened the length of the flame.

  20. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  1. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  2. Characteristics of oily sludge combustion in circulating fluidized beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingsheng; Jiang, Xiumin; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-10-15

    Incineration of oily sludge in circulating fluidized beds may be an effective way for its management in some cases. The objective of the present paper is to investigate combustion characteristics of oily sludge, which would be helpful and useful for the design and simulation of a circulating fluidized bed. Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion of oily sludge were studied through some thermal analyses, which included the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and the differential thermal analytical (DTA) analysis. It was found that the combustion of oily sludge might be the combustion of its pyrolysis products. Secondly, an experiment for measuring of main components of the volatile from oily sludge pyrolysis was carried out. Some mathematic correlations about the compositions of volatile from oily sludge devolatilization were achieved from the experimental results. Finally, the combustion characteristics of oily sludge was studied in a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed, which could obtain some information about the location of release and combustion of the volatiles.

  3. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  4. Large eddy simulation and combustion instabilities; Simulation des grandes echelles et instabilites de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, G.

    2004-11-15

    The new european laws on pollutants emission impose more and more constraints to motorists. This is particularly true for gas turbines manufacturers, that must design motors operating with very fuel-lean mixtures. Doing so, pollutants formation is significantly reduced but the problem of combustion stability arises. Actually, combustion regimes that have a large excess of air are naturally more sensitive to combustion instabilities. Numerical predictions of these instabilities is thus a key issue for many industrial involved in energy production. This thesis work tries to show that recent numerical tools are now able to predict these combustion instabilities. Particularly, the Large Eddy Simulation method, when implemented in a compressible CFD code, is able to take into account the main processes involved in combustion instabilities, such as acoustics and flame/vortex interaction. This work describes a new formulation of a Large Eddy Simulation numerical code that enables to take into account very precisely thermodynamics and chemistry, that are essential in combustion phenomena. A validation of this work will be presented in a complex geometry (the PRECCINSTA burner). Our numerical results will be successfully compared with experimental data gathered at DLR Stuttgart (Germany). Moreover, a detailed analysis of the acoustics in this configuration will be presented, as well as its interaction with the combustion. For this acoustics analysis, another CERFACS code has been extensively used, the Helmholtz solver AVSP. (author)

  5. RESULTS OF CREATING A COMBUSTION CHAMBER MODEL FOR SOLVING AN OPTIMISATION TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vrublevskyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CFD tools were used to investigate the influence of combustion chamber geometrical parameters on the engine performance indexes. A number of geometrical shapes of the combustion chamber are analyzed. The results have proved that there is an impact of the combustion chamber geometry on pollutant emissions amount.

  6. Toxic emissions during co-combustion of biomass-waste wood-lignite blends in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, P; Skodras, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P; Blumenstock, M; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the PCDD/F emissions during the co-combustion of waste wood/coal co-combustion in an industrial boiler and to determine the relation of the toxic emissions to the fuel properties. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a 13.8 MWthermal industrial moving grate combustor. The fuels which were examined in this study included Greek lignite, natural uncontaminated wood, power poles and medium density fibers (MDFs) which were by-products of the plant production process. Fuel blends were prepared by mixing single components in various concentrations. PCDD/F emissions were collected during experimental runs and were analyzed according to standard methods. Low PCDD/F emissions were obtained during the co-combustion tests, lower than the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3. The lowest values were observed during the combustion of fuel blends containing MDF, possibly due to the inhibitory action of some of the N-containing MDF ingredients, such as urea. No direct correlation was found between the PCDD/F and the copper emissions, while examination of the PCDD/F homologue patterns revealed the predominance of the lower chlorinated isomers over the higher ones.

  7. Combustion characteristics of aluminium-iron oxidein SHS-gravitational process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to get high quality of products, the combustion of aluminium-iron oxide thermite in SHS-gravitational process must be under control. The effects of thermite filling density, hole in thermite and inclined angle of pipe on combustion rate were studied. It shows that the combustion rate decreases with the decrease of filling density. The thermite combusts downwards the pipe much more quickly if there are holes in the thermite. And the combustion rate increases with the increase of the inclined angle of pipe. The experiment results show that the combustion of thermite is predominantly controlled by gas phasereaction, which is attributed to the high temperature of the thermitecombustion.

  8. Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, B.C.; Esling, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Pisani, F. [Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council, IL (United States); Wells, T. [Archer-Daniels-Midland Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) of coal eliminates most emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements would render the technology economically inviable. Fluidized Bed residues are cement-like and when mixed with soil produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that Fluidized Bed Combustion Residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as a liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of seven acres, and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. The materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters as soon as the weather improves this spring have been purchased and delivered. Also experiments suggest that it may be possible to control dust by foam conditioning the FBC ash at the power station.

  9. Improving combustion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solutions Oy (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes how nonlinear models are used to improve the efficiency of coal combustion while keeping NOx and other emissions under desired limits in the Naantali 2 boiler of Fortum Power and Heat Oy. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  11. Modelling diesel combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A; Shi, Yu; Reitz, Rolf D

    2010-01-01

    The underlying principles of combustion phenomena are presented here, providing the basis for quantitative evaluation. These phenomena - ignition delay, fuel air mixing, rate of release, etc. - are then modelled for greater understanding and applicability.

  12. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  13. 声音制作技术的现象学解读%Analyzing Sound Production Technology in Phenomenology of Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松林

    2011-01-01

    声音是自然界存在的一种属性,也是人类最古老的交流方式之一。声音制作技术是对声音的录制、传播过程,它的发展与人类发展、进步的历史是息息相关的,经历了从原始社会、近代乃至当代社会漫长的历史时期。技术现象学是有关技术与人类关系的学说,运用伊德的技术现象学理论,可以把声音制作技术发展的历史分为萌芽阶段、产生阶段、发展阶段、成熟阶段与后现代阶段。声音制作技术前进、发展过程中的基本规律就是通过对声音的制作与传播,使意识得到了延绵,其本质是"声音现象学",制作一种"存在"。声音制作技术还具有改变人的存在方式的深层次哲学意义,哲学的基本命题"存在"也许将成为一种新的存在方式。%Sound is a property of natural existence,and one of the most ancient forms of communication.Sound production technology is a sound recording and its the communication process.Sound development and progress of history is closely related with human beings,which has gone for a long historical period from primitive society and modern to contemporary society.Phenomenology of technology deals with the theory of the technology and the phenomenology of human relations.Buy using the Idhe's theory,this paper analyzes the history of sound production technology development stage,which could be divided into the embryonic stage,production stage,development stage,mature stage and the post-modern stage.The basic law of sound production technology in the development process is the consciousness of the stretches through the production and communication of sound.Its essence is the "voice of phenomenology",producing a kind of "existence".Sound production technology also has the deep philosophical meaning changing the way of human existence,the basic philosophy of the proposition "existence" may become a new kind of existence.

  14. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  15. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  16. Particle emissions from biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabadová, Jana; Papučík, Štefan; Nosek, Radovan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the impact of fuel feed to power and emissions parameters of the automatic domestic boiler for combustion of wood pellets. For the analysis has been proposed an experimental methodology of boiler measuring. The investigated boiler is designed for operation in domestic heating system. It has heat power equal to 18 kW. Concentrations of flue gas species were registered at the exit the boiler and based on the measured parameters was carried out evaluation of the impact of the fuel feed to heat power and production of emissions.

  17. Analysis and Combustion of Biodiesel Prepared by Transesterification of Palm Oil Without By-Product Glycerol%无甘油副产生物柴油的组分分析及其燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树桢; 张丽平; 孟鑫; 辛忠

    2012-01-01

    以氢氧化钾为催化剂催化棕榈油和新型甲酯化试剂MC进行酯交换反应制备生物柴油,采用气相色谱和气质联用的方法对反应产物进行了定性、定量分析.分析结果表明,由该工艺制得的生物柴油由主产物脂肪酸甲酯和副产物甘油碳酸酯组成.测定了生物柴油的主要物理性能指标,同时在柴油机未作任何调整的情况下进行了台架试验,考察了生物柴油与0 #柴油混合燃料对柴油机燃烧过程、经济性和排放性的影响.实验结果表明,制得的生物柴油的密度、酸值和运动黏度均符合国家标准,将其与0#柴油混合(生物柴油体积分数20%)后可直接应用于柴油机,MC和甘油碳酸酯对缸内燃烧过程和经济性影响很小;燃用添加MC和甘油碳酸酯的混合燃料能有效降低柴油机碳烟、碳氢化合物和CO的排放量,NOx排放量稍有增加.%Transesterification of palm oil with MC(a methyl esterification reagent) on a solid base (KOH) catalyst for biodiesel production was investigated. The products were analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. The results showed that fatty acid methyl esters were the main components with glycerol carbonate as the by-product. The main physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were measured. The effects of the blended oil of the biodiesel and 0# diesel oil on the combustion process, economics and emissions of the diesel engine were studied through bench experiments without any engine adjustment. It was showed that the density, acid value and kinematic viscosity of the blended oil(the biodiesel content 20%(φ)) conformed to the Chinese standard and the blended fuel could be applied to diesel engine. The effect of the blended fuel with MC and glycerol carbonate on economics of the engine was a little. Smoke, hydrocarbon and CO emissions of the engine with the blended fuel could be reduced effectively, but the NO., emission increased slightly.

  18. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  19. METC Combustion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. High pressure combustion research is also important to other DOE programs. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems and second-generation, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems use gas turbines/electric generators as primary power generators. The turbine combustors play an important role in achieving high efficiency and low emissions in these novel systems. These systems use a coal-derived fuel gas as fuel for the turbine combustor. The METC facility is designed to support coal fuel gas-fired combustors as well as the natural gas fired combustor used in the advanced turbine program.

  20. Effect of CO Combustion Promoters on Combustion Air Partition in FCC under Nearly Complete Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 罗雄麟; 许锋

    2014-01-01

    With CO combustion promoters, the role of combustion air flow rate for concerns of economics and control is important. The combustion air is conceptually divided to three parts:the air consumed by coke burning, the air consumed by CO combustion and the air unreacted. A mathematical model of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, which includes a quantitative correlation of CO heterogeneous combustion and the amount of CO combustion promoters, is introduced to investigate the effects of promoters on the three parts of combustion air. The results show that the air consumed by coke burning is almost linear to combustion air flow rate, while the air consumed by CO combustion promoters tends to saturate as combustion air flow rate increases, indicating that higher air flow rate can only be used as a manipulated variable to control the oxygen content for an economic concern.

  1. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  2. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Identifying combustion intermediates in premixed MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame probed via synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chunde; QI Fei; LI Jing; LI Qi; JI Qing; HUANG Chaoqun; WEI Lixia; WANG Jing; TIAN Zhenyu; LI Yuyang

    2007-01-01

    Molecular-beam sampling mass spectrometry (MBMS) combined with tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization technique offers obvious advantages for the study of flame chemistry over other techniques because of the precision measurement of the combustion intermediates and products in flame.In this paper,the results to identify combustion intermediates in low-pressure premixed gasoline/oxygen flame with the synchrotron radiation were reported.Based on the results obtained,the formation process of five products and the difference between gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame were emphatically analyzed.The results achieved provide data basis for the analysis of intermediates and radicals in flame,and are helpful to establish the kinetic modeling of gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flames.

  4. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  5. Distribution of radionuclides between atmosphere and ash during combustion of contaminated vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liufang Jenny; Rao, Raghu; Corcoran, Emily; Kelly, David

    2016-12-01

    A series of laboratory-scale combustion tests were conducted under well-controlled conditions to measure the release of (90)Sr and (137)Cs nuclides to the atmosphere (air) from combustion of vegetation and organic soil samples contaminated with radioactivity. These vegetation and soil samples were collected from a controlled contaminated forest area within the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories - Chalk River site. The combustion products including ash and smoke particulates, along with gaseous emissions, were collected and then analyzed for (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations by radiometric techniques. The experimental results reveal that the releases of (90)Sr to the atmosphere (air) from combustion of vegetation are very low with most of the (90)Sr activity remaining in ash residues, even at a temperature of 800 °C. The detailed combustion experiments with surface litter and twigs, alder twigs, alder leaves, and organic soil indicate that 0.5 ± 0.1%, 0.3 ± 0.1%, 0.9 ± 0.1%, and 0.3 ± 0.1% of (90)Sr is released to the atmosphere (air), respectively. On the other hand, the releases of (137)Cs are found to be highly dependent on the combustion temperature as well as the nature of vegetation. The releases of (137)Cs obtained at 800 °C are 45 ± 7%, 77 ± 9%, 92 ± 5%, and 2.4 ± 0.5% for surface litter and twigs, alder twigs, alder leaves, and organic soil, respectively. The mechanism associated with the high release of (137)Cs at a high temperature of 800 °C was explored. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  7. Fly and bottom ashes from biomass combustion as cement replacing components in mortars production: rheological behaviour of the pastes and materials compression strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Stefano; Tonello, Gabriele; Piani, Luciano; Furlani, Erika

    2011-10-01

    In the present research mortar pastes obtained by replacing a commercial cement with the equivalent mass of 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of fly ash or bottom ash from fir chips combustion, were prepared and rheologically characterized. It was observed that the presence of ash modifies their rheological behaviour with respect to the reference blend due to the presence, in the ashes, of KCl and K2SO4 which cause precipitation of gypsum and portlandite during the first hydration stages of the pastes. Hydrated materials containing 5 wt.% of ash display compression strength and absorption at 28 d of same magnitude as the reference composition; conversely, progressive increase of ash cause a continuous decline of materials performances. Conversely, samples tested after 180 d display a marked decline of compression strength, as a consequence of potassium elution and consequent alkali-silica reaction against materials under curing.

  8. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  9. Combustion Enhancement Using a Silent Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis; Platts, David; Coates, Don; Stange, Sy

    2003-10-01

    Electric fields affect flame propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry. External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been used to combust gas mixtures outside their flammability limits. Experiments with silent electrical discharges (SEDs) and propagating flames have shown that flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when an SED is applied directly to the flame region, but velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. More recent work has proposed electric arc/microwave-driven plasma-generating fuel nozzles to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel for aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers. In contrast to prior works, we have used a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals/active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. A cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks for fuel and combustion products are observed (i.e., combustion is enhanced). Results of changes in the degree of combustion will be discussed in terms of variations in the plasma specific energy.

  10. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.

    1986-06-03

    A variable power internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a separate air compressor for receiving and compressing a flow of air to a given pressure, the compressor having an inlet valve introducing a flow of air into the compressor and an outlet valve for exhausting compressed air out of the compressor into a compressed air storage means, at least one expander having a cylinder, a cylinder head closing an end of the cylinder, a piston reciprocally mounted in the cylinder for movement away from the cylinder head in a power stroke from an initial position defining a combustion chamber within the cylinder between the cylinder head and the piston, the compressed air storage means receiving the pressurized flow of air from the compressor and being of a volume adequate to provide compressed air in the combustion chamber essentially at the given pressure essentially over the power output of the engine, means for introducing an amount of combustible fuel in the compressed charge to be present with compressed air in the combustion chamber and providing combustion of the amount of fuel in the cylinder with the inlet and exhaust valves closed, cam shaft means in contact with the piston for absorbing and storing the energy of the power stroke of the piston and controlling movement of the piston within the cylinder during the exhaust stroke; the means for varying the volume of the combustion chamber being controlled in accordance with power requirements to provide variable power output and improved efficiency of the engine at power outputs reduced relative to a given design power output of the engine by providing a variable expansion ratio of a minimum of at least about 30 to 1 at the given design power output and higher with reduced power output.

  11. Technical Report: Rayleigh Scattering Combustion Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Wyatt [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hecht, Ethan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS) temperature diagnostic was developed over 8 weeks with the goal of studying oxy-combustion of pulverized coal char in high temperature reaction environments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Algorithms were developed to analyze data collected from the optical diagnostic system and convert the information to temperature measurements. When completed, the diagnostic will allow for the kinetic gasification rates of the oxy-combustion reaction to be obtained, which was previously not possible since the high concentrations of high temperature CO2 consumed thermocouples that were used to measure flame temperatures inside the flow reactor where the combustion and gasification reactions occur. These kinetic rates are important for studying oxycombustion processes suitable for application as sustainable energy solutions.

  12. Kinetic data base for combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

  13. Ignition and combustion features of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Silin, V. E.; Bogatova, T. F.; Nadir, S. M.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the ignition and combustion of plant biofuels (wood particles, date stones) and products of their mechanical and thermal treatment (pellets, charcoal) at temperatures typical of the burning process in nonforced furnaces and fixed-bed and fluidized-bed gas producers. The influence of the furnace heat treatment of a fuel on its inflammation and combustion has been revealed. The results have been compared with the known data on the burning of pellets, brown coals, and anthracites and with the calculation by the classical diffusion-kinetic model.

  14. Air Pollution Assessment Combusting Fermented Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Čepanko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the problem of air pollution burning organic waste from agricultural and drinks production sectors. Chicken and pig manure and biogas dregs after extraction, i.e. after the process of fermentation in laboratory bioreactors were selected as an object of research. The article presents the method of fermented waste incineration and the experimental results of waste incineration. Periodic surveys of kiln load disclosed that under combustion, pollutant concentrations change over time depending on the stage of combustion.Article in Lithuanian

  15. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Renée S; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S

    2015-12-21

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events, as these usually produce few seeds, and traditional methods of large field experiments under aflatoxin-conducive conditions were not an option. In the field, the probability of finding naturally contaminated seeds is often 1/100 to 1/1,000. In addition, aflatoxin contamination is not uniformly distributed. Our method uses few seeds per transgenic event, with small pieces processed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or small RNA sequencing, and for analysis of aflatoxin accumulation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). RNAi-expressing peanut lines 288-72 and 288-74, showed up to 100% reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in aflatoxin B1 and B2 compared to the control that accumulated up to 14,000 ng · g(-1) of aflatoxin B1 when inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. As reference, the maximum total of aflatoxins allowable for human consumption in the United States is 20 ng · g(-1). This protocol describes the application of RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in transgenic peanut seeds and methods for its evaluation. We believe that its application in breeding of peanut and other crops will bring rapid advancement in this important area of science, medicine and human nutrition, and will significantly contribute to the international effort to control aflatoxins, and potentially other

  16. Computation of combustion and gasifying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozaczaka, J. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics (Poland); Horbaj, P. [Kosice Univ., Dept. of Power Engineering (Poland)

    2003-08-01

    Engineer computation methods of combustion and gasifying processes, their application and taking into account NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} contents in resulting gases using chemical equilibrium considerations. The paper deals with stoichiometric calculation of combustion processes with equilibrium on the side of products; with calculations of gasifying processes and with calculations of quasi - equilibrium processes. The main part of the article is oriented on problem - directional equilibrium combustion calculation. The engineer calculation methods of fuel conversion processes presented in this paper can be applied for thermodynamic analyses of complex power systems wherever the heat supply has been assumed in hitherto considerations. It will make these analyses more reliable and closer to the real conditions. (orig.)

  17. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  18. Distribution and Enrichment of Trace Elements in Coal Combustion Products from Southwestern Guizhou%黔西南煤燃烧产物微量元素分布特征及富集规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓飞; 张国平; 李玲; 项萌; 蔡永兵

    2012-01-01

    通过对黔西南高砷煤及燃烧产物(底灰、粗飞灰、细飞灰和烟气)中微量元素含量、水溶性及赋存状态的测定,分析了微量元素在燃煤产物中的分布特征及富集规律,探讨了燃煤过程中微量元素迁移转化机制.结果表明,As和Sb是黔西南高砷煤的主要危害元素,含量分别为(256±195)μg.g-1和(26±21)μg.g-1.根据元素在燃煤产物中富集程度的差异,将其分为4类:Ⅰ底灰富集型(Cr和W);Ⅱ均匀富集型(Cu和Ba);Ⅲ飞灰富集型(Mn和Mo);Ⅳ细飞灰超富集型(As、Cd、Sb和Pb).As的挥发性强于Sb和Pb.As在细飞灰上表现出强烈的富集;而Sb和Pb在原煤和燃烧产物中的分配具有明显的正相关关系(R2=0.990 1,P〈0.05).亲石元素容易在底灰沉积或组成飞灰颗粒基质,亲硫元素燃烧后易于吸附在飞灰颗粒表面.而飞灰颗粒粒径越小,比表面积越大,所吸附的微量元素含量越高.%The main aim of this study was to research the distribution and enrichment of trace elements in the high arsenic coal and the combustion products(bottom ash,coarse fly ash,fine fly ash and flue gas) from southwestern Guizhou.The characteristics of enrichment behavior,elements transformation mechanism during combustion were analyzed.The results indicated that arsenic and antimony were the main toxic elements,their concentrations were(256±195)μg·g-1 and(26±21)μg·g-1,respectively.The elements were classified into four groups based on their enrichment behavior in combustion products: ClassⅠ,Enriched in the bottom ash(Cr,W);Class Ⅱ,Equally distributed between bottom ash and fly ash(Cu,Ba);Class Ⅲ,Enriched in the fly ash(Mn,Mo);Class Ⅳ,Enriched in the fine fly ash(As,Cd,Sb,Pb) strongly.The volatile of arsenic is stronger than that of antimony and lead.Arsenic shows a strong enrichment in fine fly ash,while the distribution of antimony and lead shows a positive

  19. Combustion velocity of coal in seat of an underground fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanchenko, G.A.; Kuzyaev, L.S.; Serra-Suares, L.Kh.

    1988-02-01

    Using the example of an underground fire in a very long coal channel, analyzes the processes of energy interchange between the gas phase and the coal surface in the channel and explains that calculations to assess the duration of burning (and hence assist in extinguishing or containing the fire) need to be able to account for the speed of transition of the coal from the solid phase (burning mass) to the gaseous phase in conditions of oxygen (in the form of products of complete combustion), reduction and dry distillation (in the form of products of incomplete combustion). Demonstrates in formulaic form the correlation between the mass velocity of the coal burning, the volume velocity of the arrival of air at the seat of the fire, the excess oxidant coefficient and the volume of air which is theoretically required to completely burn 1 kg of coal and presents the coefficients of excess oxygen and a generalized, statistical coefficient averaged for eight basic coal groups in tabular form. 1 ref.

  20. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  1. combustion properties of briquettes produced from maize cob

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joke

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... combustible materials are often not useable in the way they ... conventional fuels (kerosene and gas) and help in converting the .... production of solid fuel called briquettes. This will ... low density coal for sustainable livelihood.

  2. Methodology for Evaluating Encapsulated Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this document is to present an evaluation methodology developed by the EPA for making determinations about environmental releases from encapsulated products containing coal combustion residuals.

  3. How to Analyze and Quantify Similarities between Configured Engineer-To-Order Products by Comparing the Highlighted Features Utilizing the Configuration System Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Kristjansdottir, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    the engineering hours and to improve the accuracy of the product specifications. In this article we suggest a framework where product features from the company’s configuration system are listed up in order to compare with previously made products by retrieving information from internal ERP/PLM systems. The list...

  4. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  5. Experiment study of optimization on prediction index gases of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛会永; 邓湘陵; 李石林; 蔡康旭; 朱豪; 李芳; 邓军

    2016-01-01

    The coal of Anyuan Mine has the characteristic of easy spontaneous combustion. Conventional method is difficult to predict it. Coal samples from this mine were tested in laboratory. The data obtained from laboratory determination were initialized for the value which was defined as “K”. The ratio of each index gas and value of “K”, and the ratio of combination index gases and value of “K”, were analyzed simultaneously. The research results show that for this coal mine, if there is carbon monoxide in the gas sample, the phenomenon of oxidation and temperature rising for coal exists in this mine; if there is C2H4 in the gas sample, the temperature of coal perhaps exceeds 130 °C. If the coal temperature is between 35 °C and 130 °C, prediction and forecast for coal spontaneous combustion depend on the value ofΦ(CO)/K mainly; if the temperature of coal is between 130 °C and 300 °C, prediction and forecast for coal spontaneous combustion depend on the value ofΦ(C2H6)/Φ(C2H2)andΦ(C2H6)/K. The research results provide experimental basis for the prediction of coal spontaneous combustion in Anyuan coal mine, and have better guidance on safe production of this coal mine.

  6. A Thermogravimetric Study of the Behaviour of Biomass Blends During Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Jiříček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ignition and combustion behavior of biomass and biomass blends under typical heating conditions were investigated. Thermogravimetric analyses were performed on stalk and woody biomass, alone and blended with various additive weight ratios. The combustion process was enhanced by adding oxygen to the primary air. This led to shorter devolatilization/pyrolysis and char burnout stages, which both took place at lower temperatures than in air alone. The results of the ignition study of stalk biomass show a decrease in ignition temperature as the particle size decreases. This indicates homogeneous ignition, where the volatiles burn in the gas phase, preventing oxygen from reaching the particle surface.The behavior of biomass fuels in the burning process was analyzed, and the effects of heat production and additive type were investigated. Mixing with additives is a method for modifying biofuel and obtaining a more continuous heat release process. Differential scanning calorimetric-thermogravimetric (DSC-TGA analysis revealed that when the additive is added to biomass, the volatilization rate is modified, the heat release is affected, and the combustion residue is reduced at the same final combustion temperature.

  7. Formation of particulate matter monitoring during combustion of wood pellete with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacka, Matej; Holubčík, Michal; Vician, Peter; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Application additives into the material for the production of wood pellets achieve an improvement in some properties such as pellets ash flow temperature and abrasion resistance. Additives their properties influence the course of combustion, and have an impact on the results of issuance. The experiment were selected additives corn starch and dolomite. Wood pellets were produced in the pelleting press and pelletizing with the additives. Selected samples were tested for the production of particulate matter (PM) during their direct burn. The paper analyzing a process of producing wood pellets and his effect on the final properties.

  8. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilized soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Project has started 1995 by determination of fertilized areas in Finland, Portugal and Spain. According to the results obtained from the analysis proper amount of pine and eucalyptus samples were selected for combustion and gasification tests. After that atmospheric and pressurized combustion and gasifications tests, including few series of gas clean up tests, have been performed by INETI and VTT. The 1 MW-scale long term test, were conducted by CIEMAT. The results are indicating that fertilization increases the potassium content in trees up to 50% or more depending upon the climate and conditions in soil. Alkali release seems to be an inverse function of the pressure indicating that the highest alkali release take place under atmospheric conditions corresponding to 111 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is over 25 wt.-% of total potassium in pine and 214 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is 32 wt.-% of total potassium in eucalyptus as received in the 1 MW ABFBC-tests. The potassium release is higher than allowed for the gas turbine process. Therefore the flue gas need to be cleaned up before it enters the gas turbine. For alkali removal at the operation conditions in oxidizing environment, the sorbent technology looks promising. According to the gasification tests the alkali release seems to be somewhat lower. Using for example filter system such as ceramic cancel filter the alkali emissions can be kept below requirements for gas turbine process using temperatures between 460-480 deg C. The research conducted here shows that fertilized biomass accumulate nutrients such potassium more than the non fertilized biomasses. Also the soil conditions has an effect to that. Due to the fact that alkalies in biomass are bonded differently than that of coal, the release is also higher. It could be shown that in combined gas turbine process the release of potassium is too high and need to be removed from the flue gas. It could also be shown that alkalies can be captured between 95-100 % at high temperature

  9. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Glarborg, Peter; Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, whic h has traditionally been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the usage of selected waste, biomass, and by-products with recoverable calorific value, defined as alternative fuels, is increasing and their combustion is mo re challenging compared to fossil fuels, due to the lack of experience in handling the different and va rying combustion characteristics caused by different chemical and physical properties, e.g. higher moisture content an...

  10. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  11. Combustion characteristics and kinetics of bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia ZHANG; Zhaoping ZHONG; Yaji HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of bio-oils derived from rice husk and corn were studied by thermogravimetry analysis. According to the thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of bio-oils in air and nitrogen atmosphere, we analyzed the combustion characteristics of different kinds of bio-oils in different atmospheres and worked out the combustion kinetics parameters of the bio-oil, providing reliable base data for the burning of bio-oil. The thermogravimetry indicated that the combustion process of bio-oil was divided into three stages. At the same time, the combustion process can be described by different order reaction models, and with the method of Coats-Redfern, the activation energy and frequency factor of different kinds of bio-oils were obtained.

  12. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  13. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  14. Transition nozzle combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  15. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  16. An Automatic Engine Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian-Fu, Li; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, simple, microprocessor-based instrument which quickly and accurately measures and displays the indicated power and the pressure-volume indicator diagram of a reciprocating compressor or internal combustion engine. Hardware requirements, software considerations, and the instrument's educational value are discussed. (JN)

  17. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  18. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher H; Catallo, W James; Wilson, Vincent L; Mitchell, James B

    2009-10-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from DNA damage in NHBE cells. Thus, our aims were to determine the effect of butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and the expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (alpha-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized biomolecules may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both alpha-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage.

  19. Low emission U-fired boiler combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, Terence (North Brookfield, MA); Beittel, Roderick (Worcester, MA); Lisauskas, Robert A. (Shrewsbury, MA); Reicker, Eric (Barre, MA)

    2000-01-01

    At least one main combustion chamber contains at least one pulverized coal burner. Each pulverized coal burner is operatively arranged for minimizing NO.sub.X production and for maintaining a predetermined operating temperature to liquefy ash within the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber includes a slag drain for removing slag from the combustion chamber. A slag screen is positioned in a generally U-shaped furnace flow pattern. The slag screen is positioned between the combustion chamber and a radiant furnace. The radiant furnace includes a reburning zone for in-furnace No.sub.X reduction. The reburning zone extends between a reburning fuel injection source and at least one overfire air injection port for injecting air.

  20. Nitrogen Chemistry in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn

    plant were used for model verification. The simulations of the NO emission during staged combustion and NH3 injection for NO reduction were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. A parametric study of the influence of operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-N to NO showed...... are subjected to some uncertainty, and a sensitivity analysis of the predicted NO emission was carried out. The analysis showed that the predicted NO emission is sensitive to both hydrodynamic and combustion-related parameters. The most important hydrodynamic parameters were the minimum fluidization velocity......, the gas interchange coefficient, the bubble size and the bubble rise velocity. The most important combustion parameters were the rate of CO and CH4 combustion and the fraction of CO produced from char combustion. By using a rate of production analysis, the important reactions in the NO model were...

  1. PSO 7171 - Oxyfuel Combustion for below zero CO2 emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Hansen, Brian Brun

    for the continuous utilisation of the existing energy producing system in the transformation period. Oxyfuel combustion is one of the possible CCS technologies which show promising perspectives for implementation in industrial scale within a relatively short period of time. Oxyfuel combustion deviates from......) and mixtures thereof, formation and emission of pollutants, ash characteristics, flue gas cleaning for SO2 by wet scrubbing with limestone and for NOx by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), corrosion of boiler heat transfer surfaces, operation and control of large suspension-fired boilers......, and the perspectives for the implementation of oxyfuel combustion s a CO2 sequestration solution in the Danish power production system. Regarding the fundamental combustion characteristics (combustion, emissions, and ash), the project has not identified any disqualifying characteristics. On the contrary, oxyfuel has...

  2. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  3. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  4. MODIS NDVI Change Detection Techniques and Products Used in the Near Real Time ForWarn System for Detecting, Monitoring, and Analyzing Regional Forest Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS NDVI change detection methods and products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) for near real time (NRT) recognition and tracking of regionally evident forest disturbances throughout the conterminous US (CONUS). The latter has provided NRT forest change products to the forest health protection community since 2010, using temporally processed MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI time series data to currently compute and post 6 different forest change products for CONUS every 8 days. Multiple change products are required to improve detectability and to more fully assess the nature of apparent disturbances. Each type of forest change product reports per pixel percent change in NDVI for a given 24 day interval, comparing current versus a given historical baseline NDVI. EMODIS 7 day expedited MODIS MOD13 data are used to obtain current and historical NDVIs, respectively. Historical NDVI data is processed with Time Series Product Tool (TSPT); and 2) the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) software. While each change products employ maximum value compositing (MVC) of NDVI, the design of specific products primarily differs in terms of the historical baseline. The three main change products use either 1, 3, or all previous years of MVC NDVI as a baseline. Another product uses an Adaptive Length Compositing (ALC) version of MVC to derive an alternative current NDVI that is the freshest quality NDVI as opposed to merely the MVC NDVI across a 24 day time frame. The ALC approach can improve detection speed by 8 to 16 days. ForWarn also includes 2 change products that improve detectability of forest disturbances in lieu of climatic fluctuations, especially in the spring and fall. One compares current MVC NDVI to the zonal maximum under the curve NDVI per pheno-region cluster class, considering all previous years in the MODIS record. The other compares current maximum NDVI to the mean of maximum NDVI for all previous MODIS years.

  5. Experimental combustion an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D P

    2014-01-01

    ""… other books available in this area do not cover the detailed topics covered here. Energy and combustion is a hot issue. It is expected to be even hotter with more demand in this area as we search for cleaner methods of energy conversion from chemical to thermal energy.""-Ashwani K. Gupta, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, USA

  6. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  7. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    . JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  8. Combustion Models in Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2001-01-01

    Combustion reaction kinetics models are used for the description of a special class of bursty Financial Time Series. The small number of parameters they depend upon enable financial analysts to predict the time as well as the magnitude of the jump of the value of the portfolio. Several Financial Time Series are analysed within this framework and applications are given.

  9. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-20

    operating hours, to produce low emission levels of NOx, CO and UHC . Gas turbine combustion stability has increasingly become a crucial design issue as...achieved proved: "* Safe and reliable operation ofgas turbine combustors "* Low emissions of NO., CO and UHC These results have clear economically

  10. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  11. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  12. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion.

  13. Combustion Synthesis of Fe-Incorporated SnO2 Nanoparticles Using Organometallic Precursor Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Barkley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nanomaterials within flames has been demonstrated as a highly scalable and versatile approach for obtaining a variety of nanoparticles with respect to their chemistry, composition, size, morphology, and dimensionality. Its applicability can be amplified by exploring new material systems and providing further control over the particle characteristics. This study focused on iron-incorporated SnO2 nanoparticles generated using an inverse coflow diffusion flame burner that supported a near-stoichiometric methane-air combustion. A liquid organometallic precursor solution of Sn(CH34 and Fe(CO5 was used to produce 11–14 nm nanocrystalline particles. Synthesized particles were analyzed using TEM, XRD, and XEDS to characterize for size and composition. A flame temperature field was obtained to map particle evolution within the flame. A range of conditions and parameters were studied to specifically generate targeted particles. The study augments related research towards increasing the production potential of combustion synthesis.

  14. MODIS NDVI Change Detection Techniques and Products Used in the Near Real Time Forwarn System for Detecting, Monitoring, and Analyzing Regional Forest Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS NDVI change detection methods and products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) for near real time (NRT) recognition and tracking of regionally evident forest disturbances throughout the conterminous US (CONUS). This EWS has provided NRT forest change products to the forest health protection community since 2010, using temporally processed MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI time series data to currently compute and post 6 different forest change products for CONUS every 8 days. Multiple change products are required to improve detectability and to more fully assess the nature of apparent disturbances. Each type of forest change product reports per pixel percent change in NDVI for a given 24 day interval, comparing current versus a given historical baseline NDVI. EMODIS 7 day expedited and MODIS MOD13 data are used to obtain current and historical NDVIs, respectively. Historical NDVI data is processed with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) software. While each change product employs maximum value compositing (MVC) of NDVI, the design of specific products primarily differs in terms of the historical baseline. The three main change products use either 1, 3, or all previous years of MVC NDVI as a baseline. Another product uses an Adaptive Length Compositing (ALC) version of MVC to derive an alternative current NDVI that is the freshest quality NDVI as opposed to merely the MVC NDVI across a 24 day time frame. The ALC approach can improve detection speed by 8 to 16 days. ForWarn also includes 2 change products that improve detectability of forest disturbances in lieu of climatic fluctuations, especially in the spring and fall. One compares current MVC NDVI to the zonal maximum under the curve NDVI per pheno-region cluster class, considering all previous years in the MODIS record. The other compares current maximum NDVI to the mean of maximum NDVI for all previous MODIS years. The

  15. Analyzing the returns of the first transaction satisfaction on intention to purchase and willingness to pay: Evidence for new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2016-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the kind of relationships that link first transaction consumer satisfaction (CS), purchase intention, and willingness to pay for new food products. The article presents a comparative evaluation of linear and nonlinear quadratic and cubic specifications used...... to assess the relationships involved. The study uses empirical evidence from three product-testing field experiments with consumers in different natural settings such as at-home and out-of-home. Statistical tests with structural equation modeling reveal that, for new food products, the CS–purchase intention...

  16. Combustion calorimetry experimental chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sunner, Stig

    1979-01-01

    Combustion Calorimetry deals with expertise knowledge concerning the calorimetry of combustion reactions of an element or compound. After defining the use of units and physical constants, the book discusses the basic principles of combustion calorimetry and the various instruments and calorimeters used in the experiments to measure operations concerning temperatures and its time variations. One paper discusses the theory and design criteria of combustion calorimeter calibration. Another paper discusses the results obtained from a combustion calorimeter after it has measured the energy or entha

  17. Intraspecific Diversity of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides Associated with Vacuum-Packed Meat Product Spoilage Analyzed by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aznar, Rosa; Chenoll, Empar

    2006-01-01

    ...) PCR with universal primers M13 and T3. The study included 100 reference strains and 210 isolates recovered from two vacuum-packed Spanish meat products, fiambre de magro adobado and morcilla, previously identified by rDNA-restriction...

  18. A study to investigate changes in the levels of biomarkers of exposure to selected cigarette smoke constituents in Japanese adult male smokers who switched to a non-combustion inhaler type of tobacco product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Yuki, Dai; Minami, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    In a clinical study, changes in 14 biomarkers of exposures (BOEs) from 10 tobacco smoke constituents and mutagens detected by the urine mutagenicity test were investigated using a non-combustion inhaler type of tobacco product (NCIT) by switching from a conventional cigarette. This study was conducted in 80 Japanese healthy adult males with a 4-week residential, controlled, open-label, parallel group design. After randomization, 40 smokers used NCIT with approximately 750 aspirations, other 20 smokers smoked approximately 20 pieces of an assigned 1-mg ISO tar conventional cigarette (CC1) every day. Twenty non-smokers (NS) did not use any tobacco product. Under this study condition, switching from cigarette to NCIT showed significant reduction in all BOEs measured. On day 29, the levels of these BOEs were almost the same as those in the NS group, except BOEs of nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). This suggested that the exposure to 8 constituents and mutagens in the NCIT group was similar to that in the NS group, while the exposure to nicotine was higher. Although the precise exposure level to NNK was not estimated because of the long half-life of its BOE, it would be substantially lower in the NCIT group than in the CC1 group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  20. Effect of turbulence on NO formation in swirling combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence affects both combustion and NO formation. Fluctuation correlations are ideally used for quantitative analysis. From the instantaneous chemical reaction rate expression, ignoring the third-order correlation terms, the averaged reaction rate will have four terms, including the term of averaged-variable product, a concentration fluctuation correlation term, and temperature-concentration fluctuation correlation term. If the reaction-rate coefficient is denoted as K, the temperature fluctuation would be included in the K fluctuation. In order to quantitatively study the effect of turbulence on NO formation in methane-air swirling combustion, various turbulence-chemistry models are tested. The magnitudes of various correlations and their effects on the time-averaged reaction rate are calculated and analyzed, and the simulation results are compared with the experimental measurement data. The results show that among various correlation moments, the correlation between the reaction-rate coefficient K fluctuation with the concentration fluctuation is most important and is a strong nonlinear term.