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Sample records for combustion inverkan av

  1. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff - for energy purposes. Influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics; Samtidig skoerd av halm och agnar foer energiaendamaal - inverkan paa avkastning, baldensitet, faelttorkningsfoerlopp och foerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Gunnar; Roennbaeck, Marie

    2010-04-15

    Introductory field experiments were carried out in central Sweden during 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Two different types of combine harvesters were used with somewhat different methods of kernel separation. Both harvesters were equipped with the Combi System from Rekordverken. This enabled them to mix the chaff in the straw swath as well as distribute this fraction over the working width. The measurement of crop residue moisture immediately after combine harvesting showed that admixture of chaff reduced the initial moisture in the straw swaths. The added chaff increased the total yield of crop residue with 14%, showing that about half the biologically available chaff was harvested. The combustion analyses showed a slight increase in ash content when chaff was mixed in. This did not cause any significant change in net calorific value or ash melting behavior

  2. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  3. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  4. Redovisning till verkligt värde : En studie om IAS 40:s inverkan på aktievärderingen av noterade fastighetföretag på Stockholmsbörsen

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    De senaste decenniernas globalisering har medfört att redovisningen behöver bli mer harmoniserad. Både företag och användare av redovisningsinformation är idag i större behov av att kunna jämföra redovisningsinformation inte bara mellan företag nationellt utan även mellan länder och mellan världsdelar. Detta är bakgrunden till införandet av IASB: s redovisningsregler i hela EU. En av de standarder som har påverkats mest av införandet av IASB: s regler benämnda IFRS/IAS är redovisningsstandard...

  5. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  6. Disposal of residue from sifting of combustible waste; Avsaettning av siktrest fraan foerbehandling av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    In waste to energy plants, unwanted species in the fuel may cause corrosion, deposits, agglomeration in the fuel bed, and emissions of pollutants. Countermeasures to such problems are often costly. For at least some of the waste, the fuel properties can be improved by introducing a pretreatment system in which the fine fraction is separated from the waste by sifting. This method has been studied in an earlier Waste Refinery project, WR-06. That study pointed at advantages in performance of the boiler plant and a rough economical analysis indicated substantial benefits. The drawback of the pretreatment was that the residue (the fine fraction) showed as high content of total organic carbon (TOC) as 37 %, by weight. Such a waste fraction is not allowed to be landfilled in Sweden. High TOC content is also a limiting factor for usage as a secondary construction material. To become an applicable pretreatment method, it is necessary to find an appropriate disposal method for the residue material. Present work investigates different possibilities to handle the sifting residue, assuming it has the same properties as in previous study. The residue from sifting needs further treatment, preferably with energy recovery. There are some alternatives, such as combustion, gasification, anaerobic or aerobic digestion. To reduce problems associated by combustion, the waste may be burnt in another more suitable furnace. An alternative is gasification, but that treatment method is not yet an established process for waste fuels. Another option is treatment by anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The high concentrations of metals, however, limit the use of the biologically treated waste to landfilling sites, where it may be utilized as a construction material. The high metal concentrations in the sifting residue imply that it must be kept separate from other biodegradable wastes which are used to produce fertilizers. Thus, this treatment alternative will likely require substantial new

  7. Energy recovery of combustible fraction from shredding of wastes containing metals; Energiaatervinning av braennbar fraktion fraan fragmentering av metallhaltigt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne [Stena Metall, Goeteborg (Sweden); Victoren, Anders; Niemi, Jere [Metso Power, Tammerfors (Finland); Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Combustible products from fragmentation are not allowed to be deposited on landfills any more in Sweden. These products have to be material recovered or energy recovered. The combustible fraction from recovered metal scrap, SLF (shredder light fraction), contains metals and the chlorine content is relatively high. Due to this there could be a risk with deposits and corrosion on convection surfaces in combustion plants. Co-combustion with sewage sludge could be a solution for solving problems with the difficult contents in SLF. The aim of the project was to do a theoretical judgment of how sewage sludge could affect deposit formation and corrosion when co-combusted with SLF. Due to the high amount of water in the sewage sludge the percentage of sewage sludge in the fuel mixture was limited. The maximum percentage of energy used was 3.5 % (ca 13% on weight basis). The thermodynamic calculations showed that at combustion with 100% SLF the lead and zinc chlorides in gaseous form increased 5-6 times in comparative with combustion with ordinary waste combustion in Boraas. But as the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations will not consider the kinetics and just calculate independent of time the results should be considered as indicative and not directly comparative to actual boiler conditions. All lead and zinc were assumed reactive which will probably not be the case in a boiler. In the calculations the aluminum was removed from the calculations (not taken into account) and the alkali-phosphor reactions are incomplete due to lack of reliable thermodynamic data. These defiance's should be considered when evaluating the results from the thermodynamic chemical equilibrium calculations as well as the fact that the calculations cannot yet take into account the possible erosive effect the high ash amount could have on the deposits. The calculations showed that co-combusting with SLF (ca 20%) gave high amounts of gaseous lead chlorides. Also high amount of zinc chlorides

  8. Improved combustion performance of waste-fired FB-boilers -The influence of the dynamics of the bed on the air-/fuel interaction; Foerbaettrad foerbraenningsprestanda vid avfallsfoerbraenning i FB-pannor -Baeddynamikens inverkan paa luft-/braensleomblandningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johanna (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); Pallares, David; Thunman, Henrik; Johnsson, Filip (Chalmers (Sweden)); Andersson, Bengt-Aake (E.on/Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); Victoren, Anders (Metso Power AB (Sweden)); Johansson, Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    One of the key benefits of fluidized bed combustion is that the bed - through mixing of fuel and air and accumulated heat - facilitates combustion at low stoichiometry and with low emissions. Even so, it is not unusual that waste-fired FB-boilers are operated at 6-8% oxygen that corresponds to 30-40% higher flows of gas than theoretically needed. In addition to that and in comparison to grate furnaces, FB-boiler can cause high pressure drop losses because of the fluidization of the bottom bed, which in turn are associated with high costs for power (fans). This work aims therefore at increasing the knowledge for how the dynamics of the bed affects the air and fuel mixture. Methods to explain and characterize the phenomenon have been derived within this work showing: - Distribution of air in a bed for various cases and the influence of pressure drop, bed height and fluidization velocity - A semi-empiric method to calculate an even bubble distribution - The relation between fluidization and fuel distribution for various fluidization flows and fuels - Dispersion rates for various fuels - Volatilization rates for waste in relation to biomass The result can be useful when optimizing units, for instance through finding as low pressure drops as possible with an even bubble distribution, low risk for sintering and unwanted emissions. The work has thereby reached its ultimate goal of increasing the generic knowledge about waste combustion in FB-boiler

  9. Small scale combustion of solid biofuels; Smaaskalig foerbraenning av fasta biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this assignment is to explore the need and the consequences of giving municipalities more power to intervene in the case of individual plants of local heating creates a nuisance in the surrounding areas as high emissions of hazardous air pollutants. The mission does not include an analysis of general instruments for small-scale combustion of biofuels

  10. Legislation of combustion of recovered bio fuels; Regelverk foer eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik; Olvstam, Marie Louise [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    A research programme, concerning combustion of sorted waste wood with the objective to solve and answer the following questions has been started: * What types of problems can arise?, * What causes the problems?, and * How can the problems be solved? This first stage of the programme has focused on the first two questions. The problem when using chips from waste wood can be divided into different categories; operational problems, environmental problems as well as restrictions related to new EC-regulations. The environmental problems when burning wood waste are related to the chemical composition of the fuel. In some fuel deliveries, sorted waste wood has a content of heavy metals in the same range as for ordinary biofuels. In other cases, the degree of contamination is unacceptable. Fouling of heating surfaces is one of the most significant combustion problems for chips from waste wood. The rate of fouling and deposition on the heating surfaces will increase three to five times compared to ordinary biomass combustion in the same boiler and under the same conditions. Fouling has been shown to occur regardless of the furnace used, whereas the dimensions and design of the heating surfaces have a more significant influence. The deposits formed are more corrosive over a broader temperature range compared to deposits formed during combustion of ordinary wood chips. This expands the corrosion problems to surfaces constructed of lower alloyed steels such as furnace walls and primary superheaters. In addition to the typical components of wood ash (such as calcium, potassium and sulphur), zinc, lead and sometimes titanium are enriched in the deposits. Most fuel fractions of sorted waste wood will be affected by the new EC-restrictions for combustion of waste. This is due to the fact that analysis of these fuels show higher content of halogens and most heavy metals than for example analysis of clean wood chips. The EC-restriction will mean more stringent rules for emissions

  11. Pelletizing and combustion of wood from thinning; Pelletering och foerbraenning av gallringsvirke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan; Thyrel, Mikael; Kalen, Gunnar; Larsson, Sylvia

    2007-12-14

    This work has been done in order to find new raw material sources for an expanding pellet industry, combined with finding a use for a forest product that has no market today. The raw material has been forest from early thinning in two typical stands in Vaesterbotten. The purpose has been to evaluate this material as a raw material for producing pellets. Two typical stands have been chosen. One stand with only pine trees and one mixed stand dominated by birch. The soil of these stands was poor. Half of the trees were delimbed by harvest and half of the trees were not delimbed. This formed four different assortments that were handled in the study. After harvesting the assortments were transported to an asphalt area to be stored. Half of the material was stored during one summer and half of the material was stored during one year and one summer. The different assortments were upgraded to pellets and test combusted in the research plant BTC at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Umeaa. The upgrading process contains of the following steps: 1.Chipping by a mobile chipper. 2.Low temperature drying (85 deg C). 3. Coarse shredding ({phi}15 mm). 4. Fine shredding ({phi}4-6 mm) and 5. Pelletizing (Die: {phi}8). Samples for fuel analysis were taken during the chipping. Analyses shows that the net calorific value for delimbed assortments are about 0,3 MJ/kg DM higher than for limbed assortments. Pellets made of the assortments Mixed limbed and Pine limbed has shown a net calorific value comparable to stem wood pellets. Pellets made of Birch delimbed show a net calorific value 0,4 MJ/kg DM lower than stem wood pellets. Analyses show that ash contents of the assortment Mixed delimbed was 1 %-unit higher compared to stem wood pellets. The assortment Pine delimbed and Birch delimbed has showed an ash contents comparable with stem wood pellets. The ash melting characteristics can reduce the value of a raw material. Low ash melting temperature for a fuel might cause

  12. Measurements, characterizing and reduction of dust during combustion of energy grain; Maetning, karaktaerisering och reduktion av stoft vid eldning av spannmaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Johansson, Mathias

    2008-07-01

    There is a potential for cereal grain for combustion use in Sweden, as well as for other agricultural fuels with similar qualities. Today, grain is combusted mainly in small-scale appliances. As all fast growing crops, the ash content is higher compared to wood fuels, resulting in a higher emission of particles. There are no limits for particle emission from appliances smaller than 500 kW in Sweden today. Nevertheless, it is important to consider these emissions because dust from small scale combustion of biofuels is one of the larger sources of particles to air in Sweden and in Europe today. Lately, is has been observed that the ultra fine particles (< 0.1 mum) is a cause of increased mortality. During large-scale combustion, the flue gas is cleaned from particles by electrostatic or fabric filters. During small-scale combustion primary measures is preferred by economical reasons. Particles can be reduced by design of the appliances or control of the combustion process. It might also be possible to reduce particles by use of additives that ties the volatile matters to the bottom ash and/or causes them leave as gas instead of particles. The aim of this project is to characterize and reduce particle emissions from combustion of cereal grain by use of additives. Limestone and kaolin were tested in a burner for oat grain. Particle emission was measured as total dust, as mass size distributed and as number size distributed. Fuel, bottom ash and dust were characterized chemically. In the flue gas carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride was measured. Equilibrium calculations were performed for combustion with and without additives. The combustion was not negatively influenced by the additives. The results confirm that lime stone reduces emissions of acidifying and corrosive gases such as sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Both lime stone and kaolin increase the ash fusion temperature. Results from

  13. Effect of raw material particle-size distribution on combustion characteristics of stem wood pellets; Paaverkan av partikelfraktionsfoerdelningen paa utbraenningshastigheten hos traepellets vid nyttjande av olika soenderdelningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelsson, Samuel; Henriksson, Gunnar; Boman, Christoffer; Oehman, Marcus

    2007-01-15

    The objective of the project was to determine the effect of raw material particle-size distribution on combustion characteristics of stem wood pellets. Several well defined pellet qualities were produced from raw materials (stem wood of pine and spruce) which had both different particle-size distributions and were produced with different milling equipments (hammer mill/refiner). The pellets were produced in a traditional (bench-scale) pellet mill and in a laboratory pellet mill/press. The combustion characteristics of the individual pellets were determined in a laboratory scale oven. Char yield, -shrinkage, -density and the micro pore volume of the produced char were also determined. Differences in total conversion times of approximately 5 % at experimental condition relevant for typical pellets equipment were determined for the different pellet qualities. The underlying reasons for the obtained differences in the combustion characteristics between the different pellet qualities are discussed in the report

  14. Small scale combustion of reed canary grass - inventory and evaluation of available technology; Smaaskalig foerbraenning av roerflen - inventering och vaerdering av tillgaenglig teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Paulrud, Susanne

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of commercially available boilers in the interval 50 kW to 1 MW for use with reed canary grass (RCG) as fuel has been preliminary evaluated. The capacity to handle the large ash volumes generated by RCG both in terms of ash withdrawal and combustion quality was used as the main criteria. Nine boilers and two burners were identified and classified in a three-step scale from verified functioning on RCG to possible functioning with some design changes

  15. Influence of land improvement on soil oxidation. Inverkan av grundfoerbaettring paa markens syrehalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents the theoretical analysis of influence of the land reclamation on soil oxidation. Examination was carried out on dependencies existing among soil moisture content, respiratory activity of the soil, absolute soil porosity, gas-filled soil porosity, coeffficient of oxygen diffusion in soil air and soil liquid, oxygen concentration in soil air and in soil water, oxygen diffusion flux, oxygen diffusion rate and the depth of zone of aeration in soil profile. Some remarks about the influence of soil oxidation on root growth and morphology of soil profile were presented too. Results of own empirical investigations and similar data from literature verify theoretical ideas pointed out in the paper. The methods and results of own measurements of ODR (oxygen diffusion rate) has been presented in detail. The research explains the relationship between soil moisture content and soil oxidation. As a result of the analysis there have been proposed such methods of land improvement that the water and oxygen demands of plant roots and microorganisms would be satisfying. The paper proposes a new method of account of the so-called anaerobic soil moisture content. This moisture should be the highest for irrigation practice and more or less lowest for drainage of soil water. Soil moisture a little lower than anarobic soil water content is enough for warranting the sufficient soil aeration during drainage and irrigation activity. With 82 refs.

  16. Energy recovery of combustible fraction from fragmentation of metal scrap - Phase 2; Energiaatervinning av braennbar fraktion fraan fragmentering av metallhaltigt avfall - Steg 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Jonsson, Torbjoern; Pettersson, Jesper (HTC, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Victoren, Anders; Andersson, Hans (Metso Power AB (Sweden)); Widen, Christoffer (Lidkoepings Vaermeverk AB (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    More recovered fuels have been put on the fuel market since the landfill ban of organic wastes was implemented. SLF (shredder light fraction = fluff) which is a waste from recovery of metal scrap has mostly been put on landfill until now. Due to high chlorine and metal content in this fuel there is a risk of increased deposit and corrosion problems in incineration plants. This project investigated if co-combustion with sewage sludge could reduce these problems. The purpose of the project was also to document the influence of SLF when it comes to deposits and corrosion in an incineration plant. In this project SLF has been co-combusted with normal waste with and without sewage sludge in the 20 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler in Lidkoeping. Three combustion tests have been performed: - Ref - Reference test (normal fuel mix = 50% household waste/50% industrial waste). - F1 - Test 1 (75% normal fuel mix , 21% SLF and 4% sewage sludge) - F2 - Test 2 (77% normal fuel mix and 23% SLF) The fuel mix is specified as percentage of energy content. The tests lasted 3 days and during the last 24 hours corrosion and deposit probes were exposed inside the boiler. The surface temperatures of the corrosion probes were 280, 350 and 420 deg C in each test. At the same time as the probes were exposed the boiler operation was followed and samples of fuel, ash and flue gas were taken. The results clearly show that sewage sludge initially decreases the deposit and corrosion problems at SLF combustion. Lower amounts of deposits were measured and the deposits were less corrosive when 4% of sewage sludge was added to the fuel mix with normal waste and SLF (F1). Co-combustion of more than 20% SLF and wastes (F2) increase initially the amount of the deposits and the deposits were also initially more corrosive. Long-term consequences are not investigated in this project. The project has not shown a distinct explanation why sewage sludge gives these good effects. Several possible causes, as

  17. On the need for new continues measurement techniques at combustion plants; Anlaeggningars behov av ny kontinuerlig maetteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Samuelsson, Jessica [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to make an inventory regarding the need for new continuous measurement techniques at combustion plants in Sweden. In total 15 interviews at 15 different combustion plants were made. The interviewed plants are of different sizes and use different combustion techniques, fuels, and cleaning equipments. They thereby well reflect the combustion plants present in Sweden today. Among many interesting interview results, we chose to highlight: Continuous measurement of the moisture content of the fuel, which can be used to decide the value of a fuel delivery, or for monitoring or to controlling the combustion (e.g. the speed of the grate); Continuous measurement of the heating value of the fuel, which can be used to decide the value of a fuel delivery, or for monitoring or to controlling the combustion. There is a need for temperature sensors which better withstand the environment in the furnace. Moreover, there is also a need for 3-dimensional measurements of the temperature in the furnace, especially for fluidized beds. This information can be used to control the combustion in different ways, e.g. preventing the bed from sintering. At some plants there was a need to measure the rate of corrosion and the growth of deposits. The measurements can be used to control the fuel mix at an early stage and to thereby avoid problems caused by corrosion and deposits. The measurement results can also be used to control the soot cleaning equipment, fuel mixture and adding of additive. At some of the interviewed plants there was a need to continuously measure the amount of unburned fuel in the ash. The continuous measurement results can be used for automatic control or monitoring of the combustion process. Several plants had problems with their dust instruments. Suitable topics for future work include investigating how the measurement techniques mentioned above may be developed/improved and implemented at the plants.

  18. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    When rape oil is chemically extracted, rape seed meal, a solid residue remains. Currently, it is used as animal feed. Several plants for the production of rape methyl ester (RME, biodiesel) are in operation or under construction. Combustion properties have been studied for rape seed meal produced as a by product to rape-methyl esther (RME, biodiesel). Composition of the material has been measured, using proximate and ultimate analysis. The lower heating value was 18.2 +- 0.3 MJ/kg d.w. and the ash content was 7-8 percent d.w. The material is rich in nitrogen and sulphur. Concentrations of K, P, Ca and Mg are high in the fuel. Rape seed meal was mixed with bark and pelletised. Bark pellets were also used as a reference fuel. Pellets with 10 and 30 percent rape seed meal were produced. Material with 80 percent rape seed meal and 20 percent planer shavings was also pelletised. Wood had to be added to provide enough friction in the pelletising process, with adapted equipment rape seed meal could probably be easily pelletised). The material was studied using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and compared with data from tests with wood powder. The pyrolysis of the rape seed meal has a characteristic temperature of 320 deg C. Devolatilisation starts at 150 deg C (at a lower temperature than for wood powder), and proceeds within a rather wide temperature range. The probable cause is the difference in organic content, in particular protein content. The result does not suggest that the material will be difficult to ignite. Experiments in a bench-scale fluidised bed (5 kW) showed that pellets containing only bark, and the mixture rape seed meal/wood had a bed agglomeration temperature well over the normal operational bed temperature. For the fuel mixtures rape seed meal and bark, the agglomeration temperature was slightly over the operational temperature. Particle emissions from fluidised bed combustion and grate combustion were, the latter simulated using a commercial

  19. Genus inverkan på personcentrerad vård

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Daniel; Sundström, David

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund: Utifrån erfarenheter och teoretisk kunskap har sjuksköterskestudenter uppmärksammat hur stereotyper kring kön finns starkt närvarande i sjukvården. Vården är dominerad av kvinnor men styrs av maktstrukturer utifrån patriarkala hierarkier. Problem: Kan förutfattade meningar om vad som är manligt och kvinnligt bli ett hinder för personcentrerad vård? Förminskas patienten från att vara en individ till att bli en generalisering utifrån genusnormer? Kan sjukvården bortse från fördomsfull...

  20. Emissions from residential combustion of different solid fuels. Roekgasemissioner vid anvaendning av olika fasta braenslen i smaaskaliga system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudling, L

    1983-01-01

    The emission from different types of solid fuels during combustion in residential furnaces and stoves has been investigated. The following fules were investigated: wood pellets, peat-bark pellets, wood chips, wood logs,wood-briquets, peat briquets, lignite briquets, fuel oil. Three different 20-25 kW boilers were used and one stove and one fire place. The flue gases were analysed for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, particulates, tar and fluoranthen.

  1. Quantification and characterization of emissions from small-scale biofuel combustion; Kvantifiering och karakterisering av faktiska utslaepp fraan smaaskalig biobraensleeldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Linda; Gustavsson, Lennart; Johansson, Mathias; Oesterberg, Stefan; Tullin, Claes; Persson, Henrik [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Cooper, David; Sjoedin, Aake; Potter, Annika; Brorstroem-Lunden, Eva [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report is the final report of a project within the BHM research program. A comprehensive set of emission measurements has been conducted on domestic biomass boilers for wood logs and wood pellets. Within the project development of a simple method for field sampling has also been included. During the emission studies, different boilers with respect to age, design, and biomass fuels are included in the study, which also covers two oil-fired boilers for comparison. The total number of measurements cases was 29, from which 25 were measured at the laboratory and the remaining in field. Two of the cases were domestic oil burning, and were included as a comparison. The gas measurements comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ), oxygen (O{sub 2} ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). Particle emissions were characterised by mass concentration, number concentration, and the corresponding particle size distributions. The mass concentration of particles ranged from 13 mg/MJ (wood pellets) up to 2200 mg/MJ for a water cooled wood boiler without heat storage tank. The CO emission increased with increased air ratio, which indicates that air supply was not the limiting parameter for CO burnout. Poor combustion conditions could instead be explained by poor mixing conditions, or that the excess air was that large that it can be suspected to cool the combustion chamber, resulting in high CO emissions. The TOC emission was shown to correlate to the CO emission. TOC varied between 1 and 4800 mg/MJ, presented as methane-equivalents, and CO-emissions between 30 and 16400 mg/MJ. Both TOC and CO are indicators of combustion conditions. The large variations in concentrations can be explained by the large differences in combustion devices, operation of the equipment, and fuel-quality, investigated. Methane made up the largest fraction of the VOC emissions in all of

  2. Development of a dynamic drying model for for a combustion grate; Framtagande av en dynamisk torkmodell foer en foerbraenningsrost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, Henrik; Ramstroem, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of wet wood fuel at high grate loading requires good control of the burnout position to avoid unacceptably high content of unburnt fuel in the ash. To control the burn-out position, control actions on the grate feeding must be made with sufficient range and anticipation. One way to improve the understanding of the dynamic fuel bed response on changes in control system parameters is mathematical modelling. The research task has been to develop a mathematical model of a drying fuel bed on a moving grate. The model includes a simplified description of drying, pyrolysis and char combustion and also pusher/grate movement and primary air flow/distribution. The objectives of the project have been to establish the most likely mechanism for drying and ignition of a wet fuel bed on a moving grate by the use of mathematical modelling and also to create a tool for simulation of control system step responses. The target group for the project are individuals working in the area of control system development of grate fired boilers. Three different assumptions on drying and ignition front propagation in a bio fuel bed with 50 and 53 % moisture have been modelled: 1. Drying and ignition from an underlying char layer in a co-current primary air flow 2. Drying and ignition from an overlaying char layer in counter-current primary air flow 3. Drying and ignition from both an underlying and overlaying char layer The model with drying and ignition driven by an underlying char layer is the projection, which gives the fastest and time-wise the most similar course to what one normally sees in grate fired boilers. The model with drying and ignition from above is not capable of upholding a stable diffusion controlled burning char layer since too small quantities of heat is transferred into the fuel bed. The model with drying and ignition from both directions results in similar combustion rate as the first model. The similar course of combustion is due to the energy for drying

  3. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  4. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  5. Combustion of impregnated wood. Test combustion in a biofuel boiler at Orrefors; Foerbraenning av impregnerat virke. Testfoerbraenning i en biobraenslepanna, Orrefors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Goeran; Erlandsson, Martin; Hemstroem, Kristian; Hoegberg, Bengt; Oesterberg, Helen

    2010-10-15

    It is possible to burn impregnated wood containing copper in a biofuel boiler if the boiler has suitable flue gas cleaning equipment. The studied facility needs to complete its flue gas treatment with a dust control step (such as electrostatic precipitator, fabric or bag filter). If the incineration surpasses 50 tonnes of waste per year a special permission is required. Smaller quantities requires only a notification. In combustion of wood chips with an admixture of up to 20% copper-impregnated wood (50% sapwood and 50% kernel) the bottom ash stands clear of all minimum and maximum levels according to the Forestry Board's recommendations for using the ash as a fertilizer in forestry. The findings from the ash leaching tests show that chromium leaching from bottom ash of samples 4 and 5 is too high to allow deposition of the ashes in landfills along with non-hazardous wastes (the rest of the ash passed all the benchmarks). A hazard analysis has been carried out where the concept of toxicity index (TI) has been applied

  6. Developing of FTIR- and new probe technique for combustion gas analysis; Utveckling av FTIR- och sondteknik foer gasanalys i foerbraenningsrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Annika; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Thulin, C [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Karlsson, Maria; Aamand, L E [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the reported project has been to develop and field test a versatile measurement system for combustion gases based on the FTIR technique. The project has included the following stages: Development of gas sampling methods, Further development of the FTIR technique, Field testing of the measurement system. The development of evaluation routines based on CLS and PLS methods has lead to the conclusion that both methods are well suited for the application in question, which enables an automation of the evaluation procedure. However, the elaboration of versatile and quality controlled methods is time consuming and the application requires a qualified user. With the dilution probe prototype, a satisfactory rejection of particles is achieved at the same time as a good mixing of the dilution gas and the sample gas takes place. Sampling is performed without using a filter at the probe tip. The intended function of the probe requires that most particles can be rejected without giving rise to a too high dilution ratio. This was achieved in the middle and upper part of the CFB boiler. Comparisons of measurement data from field measurements with the developed probe concept and the `conventional` CTH extractive probe show that the results are in good agreement in many cases, but also that interesting discrepancies exist. Sampling artefacts have been noticed for the gases HCN and SO{sub 2}, where HCN and SO{sub 2} are found in higher concentrations when sampling with the dilution probe. Analyzed concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons (methane, ethene and acetylene) are throughout all the measurements lower when the dilution probe is used. 21 refs, 34 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  8. An exploratory screening of organic substances in combustion residues; En orienterande screening av organiska aemnen i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Lennart; Lind, Bo (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Bjurstroem, Henrik (AaF-Process, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    the detector at higher molecular masses and the identification of a substance from a recorded spectrum, is uncertain. A comparatively limited number of substances was indicated, 45 with satisfactory confidence and an approximately equally large group with lower confidence. Well-known groups of substances such as PAH's and phthalates were found in the analyzed samples, as well as alkanes, aliphatic acids, degradation products of lignin etc. Among the other substances, some are toxic, but none of them is known to be so hazardous as to warrant a particular warning. The concentration of the identified substances is generally low with only a few above 1.0 mg/kg. It is probable that several of the compounds that have been identified do not primarily originate from combustion, but rather that they are the result of contamination of the samples during sample acquisition, transport, storage, sample preparation and the process of analysis. The extent of contamination and means to account for it should be investigated before definitive conclusions may be drawn

  9. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei

    2010-03-15

    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash

  10. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  11. Characterization of solid heterogeneous waste fuel - the effect of sampling and preparation method; Karaktaerisering av fasta inhomogena avfallsbraenslen - inverkan av metoder foer provtagning och provberedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Franke, Jolanta; Johansson, Ingvar

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities to simplify the methods used during sampling and laboratory preparation of heterogeneous waste materials. Existing methods for solid fuel material is summarized and evaluated in the project. As a result of the project two new simplified methods, one for field sampling and one for laboratory preparation work has been suggested. One large challenge regarding waste sampling is to achieve a representative sample due to the considerable heterogeneity of the material. How do you perform a sampling campaign that will give rise to representative results without too large costs? The single largest important source of error is the sampling procedure, equivalent to about 80% of the total error. Meanwhile the sample reduction and laboratory work only represents 15 % and 5 % respectively. Thus, to minimize the total error it is very important that the sampling is well planned in a testing program. In the end a very small analytical sample (1 gram) should reflected a large heterogeneous sample population of 1000 of tons. In this project two sampling campaigns, the fall of 2006 and early winter 2007, were conducted at the waste power plant Renova in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first campaign consisted of three different sample sizes with different number of sub-samples. One reference sample (50 tons and 48 sub-samples), two samples consisting of 16 tons and 8 sub-samples and finally two 4 tons consisting of 2 sub-samples each. During the second sampling campaign, four additional 4 ton samples were taken to repeat and thus evaluate the simplified sampling method. This project concludes that the simplified sampling methods only consisting of two sub-samples and a total sample volume of 4 tons give rise to results with as good quality and precision is the more complicated methods tested. Moreover the results from the two sampling campaigns generated equivalent results. The preparation methods used in the laboratory can as well be simplified, especially by effective sample and particle size reduction through gradually grinding processes. Consequently, the plant owner can reduced their cost for each sampling campaign by using the simplified methods described in this project. A finding that either can be used to lower the cost for waste sampling or to increase the number of samples and sampling frequency which will increase the plant owners knowledge about the waste composition, properties and qualities. Increased quality and an even quality of the waste mixture has an large impact on the life cycle cost of the plant since it's affect the accessibility as well as the cost of maintenance.

  12. The estimated additional costs for combustion of agro fuel and the potential of farmers to influence fuel quality; Identifiering av energiverkens merkostnader vid foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen samt lantbrukarens moejlighet att paaverka braenslekvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myringer, Aase; Petersen, Martin; Olsson, Johanna; Roennbaeck, Marie; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya

    2009-05-15

    The main objectives of this study were to identify and calculate the additional costs to energy plants of combustion of agro fuels instead of wood chips, and to determine the potential farmers have to influence fuel quality and thus identify parameters that could be used for pricing in the future. The overall aim is to increase the volume of agro fuels produced. Four agro fuels were considered in this study: willow, straw, husks and reed canary grass. These four were selected because data were available on their combustion at energy plants and because they are representative of different categories of agro fuels: short rotation coppice, crop by-products, seeds and grass. Data were obtained through literature surveys, telephone interviews with farmers, researchers, advisors and contractors, and visits to six energy plants. Combustion properties for each crop and data on combustion were compared. Measures that could be taken by farmers to improve fuel quality today and perhaps in the future were estimated. Although information and experience proved to be lacking in this area, it was possible to identify some potential measures, which are listed below for each fuel. To promote expansion of the agro fuel market, issues concerning business contacts and forms of organisation were examined. The choices and preferences of farmers as regards sale and delivery are influenced by a number of different factors, which were investigated here by studies of the literature and interviews with farmers. There was little documentary evidence available on combustion of agro fuels. Short-term trials have been carried out on small amounts of a number of crop species without specific documentation of emissions, maintenance costs, ash handling, etc. The additional costs to energy plants for combustion of agro fuels compared with wood chips were investigated on visits to energy plants by collecting data directly and by interviewing plant personnel. The additional costs were then calculated

  13. The influence of particle shape on the combustion properties and emission of nitrogen oxides when using pulverized biofuels; Partikelformens betydelse foer foerbraenningsegenskaper och utslaepp av kvaeveoxider (NO{sub x}) vid anvaendning av biobraenslepulver 970701-991231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Calle [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-08-01

    The objectives of the project are: 1. to make a detailed fuel characterisation of wood- and reed canary-grass powder with respect to particle size distribution and particle shape, 2. to compare the result from this characterisation with a more quick and simple field method, 3. to perform studies of how the powder characteristics influences combustion performance and emissions and to define critical parameters using a 150 kW powder burner, and 4. to make more detailed flame studies by simulations. This report gives the result from the project covering 970701-991231 and includes the installation and function verification of the 150 kW powder burner using wood and reed canary grass powder. It also includes a performance test using wood powder utilising experimental design and parameter study. In addition characterisation of powder fuel from various mills by sieving, laser diffraction and image analysis is reported. The results shows that after some minor modifications the burner performed well, the ignition of the powder was easy and a stable combustion was achieved. Optimisation with wood powder showed stable, low emission levels at an air excess of 4-5 % (mean values CO 30-40 ppm, HC 2-3 ppm, NO 40-50 mg/MJ). These emissions were obtained using a low level of secondary air and high primary and tertiary air levels. Three different industrial mills were tested for reed canary-grass. A preliminary combustion test was performed, however not showing the same stable emission levels as for wood powder. Mean CO and HC were low but peaks were noted for CO. The combustion chamber became covered with porous slag products due to the ash composition and high ash content of the fuel. For powder characterisation the techniques sieving, laser diffraction and image analysis were used on different powder qualities obtained using lab mills as well as industrial mills. Valving experiments were also performed. Principal component analysis was used for evaluation of the results from

  14. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  15. Characterization of limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2} and sulfur capture modelling under fluidized bed combustion conditions; Bestaemning av kalkstensreaktivitet med avseende paa SO{sub 2} och modellering av avsvavling foer foerbraenning i fluidiserad baedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1996-12-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels, SO{sub 2} is released to the atmosphere. Because of environmental concern with acid rain, the capture of SO{sub 2} is a very important process. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion method where limestone may be added to the furnace chamber to capture SO{sub 2} as the stable product CaSO{sub 4}. In the present work a relatively simple laboratory method has been developed for characterizing limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2}. The reactivity data from such investigations are used, together with residence time and particle size distribution, in a sulfur capture model for fluidized bed boilers that predicts the sulfur capture as a function of the Ca/S molar ratio. In addition, the model predicts the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} for all particle sizes present in a boiler. The model was developed and verified using data from two boilers, a 12 and a 40 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler, and showed reasonable agreement for both boilers. In addition to the development of a sulfur capture model, the effects of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations, particle size, temperature variations, and reducing conditions on the sulfation reaction was studied using a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The sulfation reaction was also studied for long periods of time, up to 60 hours. This was done because of the long residence times of certain particle sizes that may exist in a fluidized bed boiler. From the parameter study it was found that particle size and variations between oxidizing and reducing conditions had a large effect on the sulfation behaviour. The investigation of long sulfation times showed that the reaction continued even at high degrees of conversion, although at a very slow rate. CO{sub 2} concentration had a moderate effect on the sulfation reaction while temperature variations showed no effect on the final conversion between CaO and CaSO{sub 4}. 29 refs, 25 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Läget i berggrummet : En kvalitativ undersökning av inverkande faktorer i arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum

    OpenAIRE

    Miladi, Lubna

    2014-01-01

    Strävan efter att minska risker för arbetsskador och uppnå en god arbetsmiljö är betydelsefull idag inte minst på byggarbetsplatser.   Syftet med examensarbetet var att, utifrån kartläggning av arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats, belysa några faktorer som har inverkan på arbetsmiljön. Magisteruppsatsen har begränsats till att undersöka arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum. Några organisatoriska faktorer som säkerhetskultur, attityder, kunskap samt fysiska faktorer som belysning, b...

  17. Combustion of paper industry sewage sludge in existing boilers. Progress report 1; Tillfoersel av skogsindustriellt slam till eldstaeder. Delrapport etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Christer; Lundborg, Rickard; Myringer, Aase

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this project is to find a feasible method for combustion of sewage sludge in existing boilers of the paper industry. Biological sludge is complicated to handle since it contains a lot of bound water. Problems arise at dehydration and subsequent treatment. Moreover, the trend is that the amount of biological sludge increases whereas the amount of easily dehydrated fibre sludge decreases. Today, mixed sludge is combusted at more then half of the paper and pulp mills in Sweden. In order to evaluate the existing problems and the characteristics of different sludge, five mills have been studied. Sludge from three of these mills has also been analysed with regards to content and combustion properties. The content of sludge from different mills varies greatly. If the ash content is high, some substances, especially the alkali metals can cause problems at combustion such as sintering and deposits in the boiler. The analysed sludge did not contain important amounts of substances that causes problems at combustion, nor any toxic substances, except from one mill that had relatively high content of mercury. The combustion tests proved that combustion and especially drying of sludge is made preferably when the sludge particles are small, on as big an area as possible. One feasible method to combust sludge from the forest industry is to dehydrate so called fibre sludge to the same dry substance content as bark, in order to introduce it with existing fuel feeding devises and combust it together with the other fuel on the grate in a grate boiler. Dehydrated biological sludge, with considerably higher moisture content than pure fibre sludge, is added with a burner devise above the bed. The sludge particles are dried (in the furnace) and combusted before they leave the furnace. In this way, wet sludge that plug the bed is avoided. The location of the sludge feeding device in the boiler is important and should be adjusted individually to each furnace. Simulations show that

  18. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be

  19. Separation of submicron particles from biofuel combustion with flue gas condensation or wet condensing electrostatic precipitator. Analysis of possibilities; Avskiljning av submikrona partiklar vid biobraenslefoerbraenning med roekgaskondensering eller kondenserande vaata elfilter. Analys av moejligheterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Dust particles in flue gas larger than 1 {mu}m are well separated by conventional techniques, while submicron particles are poorly separated. As the use of biofuels with high ash content is increasing, as well as knowledge about negative health effects from inhalation of submicron particles, the interest for reduction of emissions of submicron particles will probably increase. The aim of this project is to investigate possible techniques for separation of submicron particles during flue gas condensation through modification of conventional technique, or with available techniques not usually used with combustion of biofuels, e.g. a wet electrostatic precipitator. Mechanisms for separation of dust particles are briefly described. Cyclones separates particles larger than about 1 {mu}m. Fabric filters separates all particles sizes, but the efficiency reduces as the size reduces. In flue gas condensers and scrubbers the speed and size of water droplets are important for the reduction efficiency. Dry electrostatic precipitators work for all particle sizes, but with reduced efficiency for sizes between 0.1 and 3 {mu}m. Wet electrostatic precipitators separates submicron particles much better. One reason for this is that the potential between the electrodes can be higher. Among conventional flue gas condensers and scrubbers there are two types that, properly designed, can separate submicron particles, namely 'type venturi scrubbers', i.e. a scrubber where a high flue gas velocity is used to form many, small water droplets by friction forces in a nozzle, and 'type scrubber with nozzles', i.e. a scrubber where nozzles supply droplets to the flue gas. For a scrubber with nozzles, the falling velocity of the droplets must be lower and the size smaller than is common today. Also the wet electrostatic precipitator separates submicron particles with high efficiency. They are used today mainly for problematic particles, e.g. sticky or corrosive ones, or for

  20. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  1. Operation related on-line measurements of low temperature fire side corrosion during co-combustion of biomass and oil; Driftrelaterad direktmaetning av laagtemperaturkorrosion i en braensleeldad kraftvaermeanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Thomas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    A number of combustion plants have experienced corrosion attack on air preheaters and economisers when fired with biomass fuels. In certain plants the problems are great and reconstruction has been performed so that exposed components can be exchanged during operation. The electrochemical techniques offer on-line measurements of the changes in corrosion rate in the low temperature region in a waste incinerator. The purpose with this study was to evaluate the technique in a biomass fired boiler where the corrosion rate is considerable lower compared to a waste incinerator. Experiments were performed at the Haesselby plant, boiler 3, which was fired with pure biomass as well as a mixture of biomass and oil during the test period. It was found that the electrochemical technique is a useful tool for on-line measurements of the changes in corrosion rate in biomass fired utilities. Since the corrosion rate in the low temperature region is dependent on the boiler construction, electrochemical measurements give valuable information on the corrosion rate during optimisation of the fuel mixture, SNCR and temperature or the low temperature components. This is of special importance when introducing new fuels or fuel mixtures. Soot blowing is of prime importance for the total corrosion. During a few minutes an individual soot blower can initiate such a high corrosion rate that it represents the total corrosion. The material temperature is another important parameter. Above a certain temperature the corrosion rate is negligible. During co-combustion this temperature was found to be in the region 65-85 deg C. The influence of the SNCR with ammonia, with respect to corrosion, is dependent on the fuel mixture used. In utilities where acidic combustion products are formed, ammonia has a neutralising effect e.g. in Hoegdalen. At the Haesselby plant this neutralising effect was not found. During cocombustion with oil the ammonia forms ammoniahydrosulphate which increases the corrosion

  2. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and energy-rich waste fuels or forest fuels; Sameldning av roetslam och energirika avfallsbraenslen eller skogsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Kristina [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    In this report literature on incineration of sewage sludge is summarises. In Sweden there is a yearly production of about 0,24 million-ton dry sewage sludge of which 50% is deposited. Recent changes in legislation will restrict and later prohibit the dumping of sewage sludge. Alternative methods for handling the material have not yet been found. In other parts of Europe the problem has been solved by incineration. Sludge incineration can be performed in several ways depending of the pretreatment. The sludge can be raw or digested, dewatered or dried. The sludge can be burnt as single fuel or in mixtures with other fuels. Focus in this work has been on co-combustion with biofuel or waste, as it will make use of existing plants. Digested sludge is also of major interest as 70% of the Swedish sludge is digested. The report describes the situation both in Sweden and in the rest of Europe. Sludge has a varying quality depending on origin and treatment, which affects the combustion properties. Ash and moisture contents differ from other fuels. The heating value of sewage sludge is approximately 20 MJ/kg per dry combustible matter and the amount of organic is around 70%. Compared to forest residue and demolition wood, sludge contains high levels of nitrogen and sulphur, which will cause emissions. The nitrogen level is about 10 times higher and the sulphur level 25 to 50 times higher. Sulphur, in combination with alkali metals, can cause deposit problems in boilers. However, sludge contains low levels of alkali. In the experimental investigation leaching of digested sludge showed low values on water conductivity which indicates a low concentration of sintering ash species in the sludge. A comparison of the aerodynamic properties of dried digested sludge and wood chips from energy coppice showed that sludge has a lower fraction of fines. This indicates that the sewage sludge is not likely to be carried over in the furnace but rather to stay in the fuel and ash bed on the

  3. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3

  4. Reduced ash-related operational problems by co-combustion peat and agricultural fuels; Minskade askrelaterade driftsproblem genom inblandning av torv i aakerbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Skoglund, Nils; Grimm, Alejandro; Boman, Christoffer; Kofod-Hansen, Marie

    2010-06-15

    The objectives of the project were: To determine the admixing levels for different peat classes to various energy crops (straw, Salix and Reed canary grass) that are required to reach positive effects regarding slagging, deposit formation/(high temperature corrosion) and bed agglomeration; and, To demonstrate the possibilities to reduce the occurrence of ash related operational problems in combustion of energy crops upon admixing peat. Operational experiences and research of effects of co-firing peat and energy crops are scarce. Some previous tests in bench scale indicated though, on a strong reduction of the agglomeration tendency and lowering of the agglomeration temperature for straw and Salix at a peat admixing level corresponding to 15 - 20 weight% (on DS basis). A reduction in the amount of emitted fine particles was also observed in these experiments. However, care must be taken in the choice of peat. Some Carex dominated peats with high Si contents may cause problems with slagging. Another conclusion from the mentioned bench scale tests was that peats with relative high Ca/Si ratios should be selected to minimize the risk of slagging and bed agglomeration. Thermochemical modelling was performed to determine the effects of peat admixture, on slagging-, deposit formation- (corrosion)- and bed agglomeration tendencies during combustion of straw, willow and reed canary grass with high and low ash content. These results and previously conducted bench scale experiments were used as a basis for determining combinations of fuel and peat admixtures for the demonstration experiments. The calculations were performed with admixing levels of 0-, 5-, 15, 25-, and 40 weight% (on DS basis) of four peat samples to the investigated four crop fuels. The used peat samples were typical carex-containing Swedish peat with differences in e.g. silicon-, calcium- and sulfur contents. A number of the model calculations were qualitatively validated against previously conducted

  5. Guidance for classification of residues from combustion and incineration in accordance with the Swedish ordinance for waste; Vaegledning foer klassificering av foerbraenningsrester enligt Avfallsfoerordningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Peter [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Haglund, Jan-Erik [Soederenergi AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    A new ordinance for waste came into force in Sweden on the first of January 2002, replacing some previous ordinances. The new ordinance is based on certain EU directives and contains amongst other things new rules regarding how certain streams of waste are to be classified into hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste. In a number of cases, the classification is to be made according to whether or not the waste possesses one or more of a number o properties H1 - H14, i e if the waste contains hazardous substances. The new rules are based on the regulation that exists for chemical substances and preparations. When attempts have been made to use these new rules in practice - e g for residues from incineration and combustion - it has become apparent that they are very difficult or even impossible to apply. The primary reason for this is that the residues contain a very large number (thousands) of substances which would have to be analysed and for which the hazard would have to be assessed correctly in accordance with the criteria for the properties (H4 - H8 and H10 - H11). Furthermore, some of the properties listed in the ordinance for waste lack criteria for assessment of hazard. These are H13 (can give rise to another substance which may be hazardous, e g leachate) and H14 (hazardous to the environment). Moreover, there are significant differences between the Ordinance of waste and the regulation of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. It is on the latter that the rules in the Ordinance of waste are based, and this is also the cause of many of the questions and of the uncertainties in the classification. In the present report, a method is developed and described for classification of residues from combustion and incineration. The method is to be applicable in practice without compromising environmental and health aspects. As a part of the present work, a compilation of content and alteration of chemical substances in is carried out. In another chapter, the experience

  6. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions are that: It is possible to apply a sealing layer of ashes on mine tailings independent of season due to the quick hardening process of the ashes. Sewage sludge can, on the other hand, only be applied when the tailings are frozen. The application leads to a rise in the ground water level in the tailings Covering of mine tailings with sewage sludge and fly ash decreases the metal leakage. The higher proportion of sewage sludge in the cover layer the more N and P and less metals is released. The leakage decreases with time. Plant establishment in general decreases the leakage of metals and nutrients, especially by decreasing the amount of leakage water. Because of great amounts of nitrate in sewage sludge plants with a high uptake of nitrate is to prefer to decrease the nitrogen leakage. Some plant species can loosen up the surface of hardened fly ash, and in that way influence the sealing layer structure. This may lead to increased breaking down of secondary minerals, which can be important for the stability of the sealing layer. It is possible that excretion of sacharids from plant roots can increase shattering of ash, and that such exudation increases in the presence of ash. Estimation of the resistance needed to avoid root penetration were made to approx2,5 MPa. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration of a sealing layer. Since roots can affect a thin sealing layer a thickness of approximately 0.5 meter is recommended

  7. Livskrisens inverkan på arbetslivet - En kvalitativ studie om individers upplevelser av att återgå till arbetet efter att en livskris inträffat

    OpenAIRE

    Perret, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Research in personal crises and their impact on an individual's life has largely focused on specific diseases and external tragedies. Studies on personal life crises have however, during the last decades shifted from a focus on psychiatric research to including socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Research in employment and work-life balance also shows a growing interest in incorporating the individual perspective, whereas these two disciplines have a lot to offer in studying individuals’ ...

  8. Person till person kommunikation : Sociala mediers inverkan på det uppkopplade samhället

    OpenAIRE

    Kärrholm, Dan; Johansson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Denna kandidatuppsats undersöker eventuella risker för person till person kommunikation som kan härstammar i användning av moderna tekniken och de sociala medierna. Syftet är att ta reda på vilka konsekvenser som förekommer när man överkonsumerar modern teknik och diverse sociala medier (t.ex. Facebook, Twitter, instagram och Myspace). Undersökningen kommer sedan ligga till grund för ett gestaltningsarbete där fokusen ligger på att söka en teknik som kan förbättra kommunikationen person till ...

  9. Helseeffekter av byluftpartikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Refsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Svevestøv i byluft består av forbrenningspartikler og mineralpartikler med svært forskjellige størrelser og kjemiske egenskaper. Svevestøvet kan deles inn i størrelsesfraksjoner som PMAmbient particulate matter (PM comprises particles from different combustion processes and a variety of mineral particles. The particles vary widely in size distribution and chemical/physical characteristics. PM is often divided into size fractions with different aerodynamic diameters: PM10 (PM ! 10 mm, PM2.5 (PM ! 2.5 mm and PM0.1 (PM ! 0.1 mm. Recent population studies have found an association between an increase in mortality and morbidity due to lung and/or cardiovascular disease and short-term increases in PM. The relative risk (RR was approximately 1.005 for an increase in 10 mg/m3 PM10, without an observed threshold even at concentrations below 10 mg/m3. Chronic exposure has been investigated to a lesser extent, but longterm exposure to PM2.5 has been found to be associated with an approximately 10-fold greater increase in RR than short-term exposures. Experimental studies with volunteers in chamber and field studies show mild lung or cardiovascular responses at concentrations of ambient particles (PM2.5/PM10: 100-200 mg/m3 that may occur during episodes of air pollution. Animal studies at higher concentrations have shown stronger responses. The experimental studies support the epidemiological evidence for an adverse health effect of PM. Both population- and experimental studies indicate the existence of vulnerable individuals. At low to average ambient concentrations there seems to exist a discrepancy between the results of population- and experimental studies that might be due to the absence of the most vulnerable individuals in the experimental studies. Together with cell culture experiments, human and animal studies indicate the importance of physical and chemical properties of the particles (size, content of metals, organics, endotoxins, etc. for

  10. AUTOMATION AV GALLERKLIPPARE

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada Vargas, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om automatisering och assistans att CE-märka en maskin. Arbetet innefattade automationsplanering, tillverkning av elskåp, montering på maskin och igångkörning. Automationsplaneringen bestod av elritningar och programmering. Elsystemet bestod av elskåp med bl.a. programmerbar logik, touch-panel och säkerhetskomponenter. CE-märkning utfördes enligt de direktiv, standarder och säkerhetsföreskrifter som bör följas. Nu med det nya automatiserade systemet är samm...

  11. Effects of liming and ash recycling on the outflow of mercury from forest soils - a theoretical study; Inverkan av kalkning och askaaterfoering paa utfloedet av kvicksilver fraan skogsmark - en teoretisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Arne; Nilsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In this report, a theoretical review is made of the probable effects that spreading of lime and woodash in forests will have on the turnover of mercury in soil and on the outflow of mercury into water systems. As a result of historic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, a large proportion of Swedish forest land has significantly increased concentrations of mercury, which is gradually leaching into lakes and watercourses. If an increased application of lime or woodash to forest soils were to result in a major change in the outflow of mercury, it could in time have a considerable effect on the mercury concentrations in lake fish. The fish in a large number of lakes in the southern part of Sweden already have mercury concentrations which are so high as to make them unsuitable for use as food. In conclusion, the theoretical assessment indicates in general that any effects on the mercury situation in lakes as a result of liming or woodash treatment of forest land are marginal or towards the positive side. It is not likely that these treatments increases the outflow of organic matter from soil. Any worsening of the mercury situation in lakes and watercourses will therefore hardly be the result of soil changes, but rather of processes in lakes and streams. Most of the evidence, however suggests that liming/ash treatment has predominantly positive effects with regard to the lake processes that control mercury levels in fish. At this juncture, available experience indicates that the mercury situation in the environment is in no way a decisive factor in determining where and how lime or ash should be applied to forest land. 64 refs, 2 figs

  12. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  13. Forenkling av tekniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne; Bramslev, Katharina; Halderaker, Ingrid

    De fleste moderne kontorbygg har omfattende tekniske installasjoner. Mange byggeiere opplever at dagens kompliserte tekniske anlegg ikke fungerer som de skal. De ender med å få reklamasjoner, høyt energiforbruk og klager på inneklima. Kan en kraftig forenkling av ventilasjons-, oppvarmings- og...

  14. Hydrologi i Ulleråker : En studie om dagvattenhantering och dess inverkan på grundvatten

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlquist, Josefin; Larsson, Martin; Rickfält, Tea

    2017-01-01

    Vattenbehovet stiger i världen till följd av ökande befolkning. Med ökad urbaniseringskapas mer hårdgjorda ytor där föreningar ackumuleras. Dagvattnet transporterar dessa föroreningar som således kan nå grundvattnet. Ett miljömål har antagits i Sverigeför att skydda grundvattentäkter och därmed säkra framtida dricksvattenförsörjning. Rullstensåsar innehåller stora grundvattenmagasin och har hög infiltrationsförmåga för vatten från markytan. Uppsala kommun tar 95 % av sitt dricksvatten från ru...

  15. Reduced ash related operational problems (slagging, bed agglomeration, corrosion and fouling) by co-combustion biomass with peat; Minskade askrelaterade driftsproblem (belaeggning, slaggning, hoegtemperatur-korrosion, baeddagglomerering) genom inblandning av torv i biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Marcus; Boman, Christoffer; Erhardsson, Thomas; Gilbe, Ram; Pommer, Linda; Bostroem, Dan; Nordin, Anders; Samuelsson, Robert; Burvall, Jan

    2006-12-15

    Combustion studies were performed in both a fluidized bed (5 kW) and in an under-feed pellets burner (20 kW) to elucidate the responsible mechanisms for the positive effects on ash related operational problems (i.e. slagging, fouling, corrosion and bed agglomeration) during co-combustion of several problematic biomass with peat. Three typical carex-containing Swedish peat samples with differences in e.g. silicon-, calcium- and sulfur contents were co-fired with logging residues, willow and straw in proportions corresponding to 15-40 weight %d.s. Mixing of corresponding 20 wt-% of peat significantly reduced the bed agglomeration tendencies for all fuels. The fuel specific agglomeration temperature were increased by 150-170 deg C when adding peat to the straw fuel and approximately 70-100 deg C when adding peat to the logging residue- and the willow fuel. The increased level of calcium in the inner bed particle layer caused by the added reactive calcium from the peat and/or removing alkali in the gas phase to a less reactive particular form via sorption and/or reaction with reactive peat ash (containing calcium, silica etc.) during which larger particles (>1{mu}m) are formed where collected potassium is present in a less reactive form, is considered to be the dominated reason for the increased agglomeration temperatures during combustion of logging residues and willow. During straw combustion, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky particles in the bed. The iron, sulphur and calcium content of these individual ash particles were significantly increased when adding peat to the fuel mix thereby decreasing the stickiness of these particles i.e. reducing the agglomeration tendencies. Adding peat to the relatively silicon-poor fuels (willow and logging residues) resulted in higher slagging tendencies, especially when the relative silicon rich peat fuel (Brunnskoelen) was used. However, when co-combusting peat with the relatively silicon and potassium

  16. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  17. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide. Hvor...

  18. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in 2000. The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources. Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. NOEC-values (NO Effect Concentration) state manageable substance concentrations for an organism. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment. Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added. Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions

  19. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  20. Validering av Evolution 220

    OpenAIRE

    Krakeli, Tor-Arne

    2013-01-01

    - Det har blitt kjøpt inn et nytt spektrofotometer (Evolution 220, Thermo Scientific) til BioLab Nofima. I den forbindelsen har det blitt utført en validering som involverer kalibreringsstandarder fra produsenten og en test på normal distribusjon (t-test) på to metoder (Total fosfor, Tryptofan). Denne valideringen fant Evolution 220 til å være et akseptabelt alternativ til det allerede benyttede spektrofotometeret (Helios Beta). På bakgrunn av noen instrumentbegrensninger må de aktuelle an...

  1. Ultralydfremstilling av fostervekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Lian Johnsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultralyd billeddanning er i dag den beste undersøkelsesmetoden vi har til å overvåke fosterets utvikling og vekst. Ultralydmåling av fosterets størrelse og biometriske referansetabeller for svangerskapet brukes til å fastsette svangerskapets alder, beregne termin og vurdere fosterets vekst. Optimal studiedesign er ulik for hvert av disse formålene. Det er stor variasjon i fysiologisk vekst og en utfordring å identifisere fostre som har dårlig tilvekst. En enkeltmåling av fosteret kan fortelle oss om det er lite eller stort i forhold til andre fostre, men ikke om størrelsen er passelig i forhold til forventet fysiologisk vekst for dette fosteret. Tilpassede referansemodeller ("customised" justerer forventet størrelse i relasjon til føtale og maternelle faktorer og har vist seg å bedre identifisere sanne veksthemmede fostre enn bare å klassifisere i henhold til 2,5, 5 eller 10 persentilen. Men et foster som i utgangspunktet er stort for alderen, men etter hvert vokser langsomt vil ikke nødvendigvis bli fanget opp ved en slik enkeltmåling. Serielle målinger vil hjelpe, men en slik longitudinell metode blir ikke fullt ut utnyttet før det appliseres betinget ("conditional" vekstberegning. Betingelsesleddene for variasjon i vekst og målemetode kalkuleres ut fra longitudinelle data og kan så anvendes for det enkelte foster. En første måling brukes til å beregne forventet vekst og variasjon for en neste måling. Denne metoden forventes å skjerpe diagnostikken for vekst-avvik i alle vektklasser og kan sammen med tilpasningen av andre faktorer bedre overvåkningen av risikosvangerskapUltrasonographic imaging is today the best method for assessing fetal size and monitoring fetal growth. Ultrasound measurements of fetal size are used for age, size and growth assessment, but the statistical design and analysis are different for each of these purposes. Physiological ranges for fetal growth are wide and the identification of fetal

  2. Effects of Fluidization Velocity and Bed Particle Size on Bed Defluidization during Biomass Combustion in FB boilers; Effekten av fluidiseringshastighet och kornstorlek paa agglomereringsrisk vid biobraensleeldning i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Morgan; Oehman, Marcus [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Applied Physics and Electronics; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Studies on the effect of bed particle size and fluidization velocity on the agglomeration/defluidization risk during biomass combustion in BFB/CFB plants have not previously been published. Therefore, the objective of this project has been to determine the influence of these two parameters on the risk for agglomeration in typical biofuel fired fluidized beds. The study has also resulted in information on how variations in the coating characteristics of the bed particles are depending on the fuel ash content and the particle size of the bed material. Furthermore, the conditions at large scale commercial plants have been surveyed with respect to the choice of bed material, fluidization velocity, bed sand consumption etc. Bed materials have been sampled from seven full-scale boilers, four CFB and three BFB. The samples have been sieved to achieve sieve curves, analyzed with respect to the coating characteristics, and studied by experiments in a bench-scale fluidized bed. It could be concluded from the analyses that there are no significant differences in the coating thickness or the coating composition between fine and coarse particles in the bed samples. The bench-scale agglomeration experiments showed that increased fluidization velocity results in bed agglomeration at a higher temperature. This effect was stronger at relatively low fluidization velocities. The fluidization velocity has probably no significant effect on the risk for agglomeration at normal gas velocities in a commercial CFB boiler. Though, it could have an influence on the agglomeration in for example the recycling part of a CFB, where the gas velocity is relatively low. Also in BFB-boilers the fluidization velocity is often low enough to have a significant effect on the risk for agglomeration. By the experiments in this project it has not been possible to determine if the bed particle size has an influence on the agglomeration. Further studies with modified methods are required to find out if the

  3. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Boilers/Combustion/Steam cycle for district heating and cogeneration; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Pannor/Foerbraenning/Aangcykel foer fjaerrvaerme och kraftvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert (AaF Process, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    of some kind, though they can be expected to be decreased due to warmer climate and energy efficiency measures in buildings. The big manufacturers and energy companies are today heavily involved in RandD to develop climate friendly fossil fuel plants. The goal is to increase the efficiency and to develop the CCS-technology. With the amount of money involved it is plausible that they are going to be successful and that Post Combustion technology will be commercial around the year 2015, OxyFuel/Carbon around 2020 and Chemical looping after year 2030. This development includes also a significant efficiency increase, mainly based on material development and development of oxygen and carbon dioxide separation. It can be assumed that Sweden in the year 2030, as the other countries in the EU union, will produce electricity mainly in large high efficiency plants with low CO{sub 2} emissions. The plants could be natural gas fired combined cycles (efficiency without CCS of eta{sub el} = 65%), coal fired CHP-plants (efficiency without CCS eta{sub el} >55%) and/or nuclear power plants at our coast line. Inland there could be waste and bio fired CHP plants and Pulp and paper plants, both types producing biofuel from all the different types of biomass that are available

  4. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  5. Mödrars upplevelser av att drabbas av postpartumdepression

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Rebecca; Pitkämäki, Kia

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Postpartumdepression (PPD) drabbar mellan 8-15% av alla kvinnor som föder barn och innebär stora påfrestningar för både modern, partnern och spädbarnet. Utvecklandet av PPD har multifaktoriella orsaker som tidigare psykiatrisk sjukdom, dåligt parförhållande och brist på socialt stöd. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av postpartumdepression. Metod: Studien är en litteraturöversikt där vetenskapliga artiklar motsvarande studiens syfte granskades. Samtliga a...

  6. Verdsettelse av Bremnes Seashore AS

    OpenAIRE

    Selle, Simon Flatebø

    2017-01-01

    Siden etablering i 1946 har Bremnes Seashore AS ønsket å levere verdens beste lakseprodukt. Det startet i det små med pigghå og regnbueørret før det i 1970 ble satset på det vi i dag kjenner som kommersiell lakseoppdrett. Bremnes beskrives av Innovasjon Norge som bransjerevolusjonær. Spesielt viktig var deres utvikling og implementering av pre-rigor foredling som i dag utgjør standarden for ethvert moderne fiskeslakteri. I nyere tid ønsker de å gjøre det igjen med utvikling av ...

  7. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  8. Motorsystem : Roderstyrning av autonom segelrobot

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Examensarbetet har gjorts på begäran av ÅSR (Åland Sailing Robots) genom Anna Friebe. Syftet med arbetet är att skapa energisnålt motorsystem för styrning av vindflöjeln och roder till 4 meter lång segelrobot som ägs av ÅSR. Ett exemplar av den styranordningen som jag anser kommer att fungera bäst för en robotsegelbåt har konstruerats och kopplats upp på testbänk där jag sedan har lämnat över arbetet för programmering. I detta arbete har jag undersökt motorer, givare, motorstyrni...

  9. Effektivisering av arbetet med rumsbeskrivningar

    OpenAIRE

    Enström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    För att ta byggbranschen till nästa steg i utvecklingen är BIM det naturliga steget. Iteorin tycks många av lösningarna som medföljer implementationen av BIM varaenkla att förstå och skapa, i praktiken ligger dock de tekniska lösningarna långt ifrånen full implementation i branschen. I arbetet med olika typer av beskrivningar inomett byggprojekt har utvecklingen med hjälp av BIM stått still länge. Då det inte finnsnågot vedertaget sätt att utnyttja en BIM-modells information för att fylla oli...

  10. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, V.; Alekseev, V.; Akim, E.; Eubanks, M.; Kingham, K.; Treuhaft, R.; Sukhanov, K.

    1995-01-01

    A proposed new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry is described. The Astrometry VLBI (very long baseline) in Space (AVS) nominal mission includes two identical spacecraft, each with a 4-m antenna sending data to a 70-m ground station. The goals of AVS are improving astrometry accuracy to the microarcsecond level and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames.

  11. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Reyes, George

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) called Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS). The ultimate goals of AVS are improving the accuracy of radio astrometry measurements to the microarcsecond level in one epoch of measurements and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames. This study will also assess the impact of this mission on astrophysics astrometry and geophysics.

  12. Effect of phosphorus addition in combustion of biomass fuels; Effekter av fosfortillsats vid foerbraenning av biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Alejandro; Skoglund, Nils; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus

    2010-11-15

    The results from this project show that phosphorous-rich additives could be of interest to reduce fouling and high temperature corrosion without causing increase in slagging and/or bed agglomeration tendency for typical biofuels. General results in this series of experiments show that in order to achieve a good potassium-binding effect the calcium and magnesium content should be low in the phosphorous-rich fuel and additive. If the content of Ca and Mg is high in the final fuel mixture (including both P-fuel/additive and the bulk fuel) the K-binding effect is reduced and more P needs to be added. Of course, this also means that the additive of choice (fuel or chemical) should have a low content of calcium and magnesium. It is therefore probable that the best results will be obtained when using a fuel mix where the final blend has a molar ratio of P/(K+Na+2/3Ca+2/3Mg) approaching 1. For instance, using monoammonium phosphate, this would be equivalent to a cost (autumn 2009) of about 9-14, 10-15 and 30-40 SEK in P-additive cost per MWh of added fuel to achieve this molar ratio for typical logging residue, salix and wheat straw biofuels.

  13. Klubbhusverksamheten - Betydelse av dagligt arbete

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva klubbhusmedlemmarnas uppfattning om det dagliga arbetet och dess betydelse för välmående i vardagen. Undersökningen utfördes i form av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem medlemmar av klubbhuset Pelaren i Mariehamn. Forskningsfrågorna som skulle besvaras var hur klubbhusmedlemmarna uppfattar arbete, vad arbete har för betydelse för deras hälsa, vilka aktiviteter de upplever som betydelsefulla i klubbhusverksamheten samt vad i klubbhusmiljön som stöder dem ...

  14. Simulering av muskelaktivitet vid pedalbromsning

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdepalm, Erik; Westerdahl, Walter

    2009-01-01

    En muskeloskeletal kroppsmodell har undersökts med avseende på maximal muskelbelastning genom biomekanisk simulering i programmet AnyBody. En kroppsmodell har låtits interagera med ett reglage i form av en bromspedal från en Saab 9-3 och muskelbelastningen till följd av att pedalen trampas ned har minimerats. De parametrar hos pedalen som har varierats är initialvinkeln och returfjäderns fjäderkonstant. Den sits på vilken kroppsmodellen sitter har flyttats vertikalt och horisontellt i förhåll...

  15. Bruk av kartleggingsresultater i forbedringsarbeid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Thomas; Hansen, Line Skov

    . Barnehagen har gjerne tilgang på informasjon fra kartlegginger, men det er ikke alltid denne informasjonen blir systematisk analysert og aktivt brukt i forbedringsarbeid. Forfatterne viser hvordan slike analyser kan gjennomføres på forskjellige nivåer i den enkelte barnehage, og vektlegger viktigheten av...

  16. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  17. Analyse av LOD-tiltak

    OpenAIRE

    Kunduraci, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Endrede klimatiske forhold og større urbanisering medfører økte oversvømmelsesskader i urbane områder. Ekstreme nedbørhendelser opptrer oftere og kraftigere. Utbygging med tette flater hindrer infiltrasjon til grunnen. Den naturlige utjevningen av overvann reduseres. Dette resulterer i økende belastninger på det eksisterende avløpssystemet. Kapasiteten på avløpsnettet er mange steder overbelastet og er ikke i stand til å håndtere overvannsmengder under styrtregn. Lokal overvannsdisponering el...

  18. Modelling of Effects of Operating Conditions and Coal Reactivity on Temperature of Burning Particles in Fluidized Bed Combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2004), s. 261-274 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072201; GA AV ČR IAA4072001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : fluidized bed combustion * char temperature * modelling Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality

  19. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  20. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  1. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  2. VISUALISERINGSTAVLA : Visualisering av Kanban boards

    OpenAIRE

    Y. F. Sam, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Hos många företag används whiteboards för att visualisera arbetsprocessen. En vanlig metodik för detta är så kallade Kanban boards, ett system av tabeller och lappar för att indikera olika avvikelser eller moment i projekt med datum och annan relevant information. Företag kan även välja att använda en mjukvara som simulerar samma metodik, ett exempel på detta är så kallade Elektroniska kanban boards. I detta arbete har båda dessa metoder (whiteboard samt en digital lösning) observerats hos tr...

  3. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  4. Effekt av ulike desinfeksjonsstrategier mot Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fossmo, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Kontroll med bakterier som Listeria utgjør en stor utfordring for mange matprodusenter. Listeria monocytogenes er hovedsakelig et produksjonshygienisk problem, forbedret hygiene kan derfor være tiltak for å redusere overlevelse og smitteoverføring av bakterien i produksjonsmiljø. Hensikten med forsøkene i oppgaven var å undersøke effekten av ulike desinfeksjonsstrategier på drap av L. monocytogenes, både når bakteriene var i biofilm og i suspensjon. Dette inkluderte bruk av tradisjonelle desi...

  5. Efficient Software HEVC to AVS2 Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second generation of Audio and Video coding Standard (AVS is developed by the IEEE 1857 Working Group under project 1857.4 and was standardized in 2016 by the AVS Working Group of China as the new broadcasting standard AVS2. High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC is the newest global video coding standard announced in 2013. More and more codings are migrating from H.264/AVC to HEVC because of its higher compression performance. In this paper, we propose an efficient HEVC to AVS2 transcoding algorithm, which applies a multi-stage decoding information utilization framework to maximize the usage of the decoding information in the transcoding process. The proposed algorithm achieves 11×–17× speed gains over the AVS2 reference software RD 14.0 with a modest BD-rate loss of 9.6%–16.6%.

  6. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  7. Undersøkelse av forekomst av elvemusling i Grense Jakobselv

    OpenAIRE

    Aspholm, Paul Eric; Brodersen, Christopher; Nilsen, Even; Terentjev, Nikolai; Kashulin, Nikolai; Polykarpova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Sensommeren 2014 ble det midtre partiet av Grense Jakobselv fra Elvheim til sørenden av Lasaruskulpen undersøkt for forekomst av elvemusling. De nedre delene av Grense Jakobselv og sideelver har vært undersøkt tidligere (2003 og 2005). I disse tidligere undersøkelsene har det ikke blitt påvist elvemusling eller skall av døde muslinger. Under undersøkelsen i 22. – 23. juli 2014 ble de første elvemuslingene funnet like oppstrøms Sandvasselva. Denne undersøkelsen omfattet i alt 12 forhåndsutvalg...

  8. Behaviour of Inorganic Constituents of Municipal Sewage Sludge during Fluidized-Bed Combustion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3 (2007) , s. 181-185 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sewage sludge * heavy metals * fluidized-bed combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.367, year: 2007

  9. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  10. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  11. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  12. Embolization of AV intra-hepatic fistulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallarini, G; Saitta, S; Cariati, M; Nicorelli, M; de Caro, G

    1982-05-01

    The use of therapeutic embolization in a case of hepatic AV fistula with portal flow inversion and portal hypertension is described. Indications, technique and an illustrative case followed up for one year after the intervention are presented.

  13. Evaluering av KS’ ulike ledelsesutviklingstilbud for kommunesektoren

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Hanne; Hafting, Tore; Haugstveit, Yngve; Odden, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    Norsk: Denne rapporten presenterer en evaluering av ledelsesutviklingstilbud i KS. De ledelsesutviklingsprogrammene som omfattes av evalueringen er i første rekke: Rådmentor, Krefter i bevegelse, Jazz endringsledelse, Medarbeiderskap, B-link og Skreddersydde program. Evalueringens hovedproblemstilling er å undersøke om og i hvilken grad KS’ ledelsesutviklingstilbud samsvarer med dominerende perspektiver og mål i KS’ arbeidsgiverstrategi «Stolt og unik, arbeidsgiverstrateg...

  14. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  15. Analyse av overvannsnettet i Ås sentrum ved bruk av simuleringsprogrammet SWMM

    OpenAIRE

    Dvergsnes, Eirunn

    2016-01-01

    Jorden står ovenfor klimaendringer med økende temperaturer og en hyppigere forekomst av intense nedbørshendelser. For overvannssystemer i urbane strøk er den økte nedbørintensiteten en stor utfordring. Urbanisering har medført en stor andel tette flater, og lukking av naturlige bekkesystemer. Dette krever en raskere bortledning av regnvannet gjennom rør i bakken. Store deler av det norske overvannssystemet er ikke dimensjonert etter dagens norske standard. Denne ble revidert se...

  16. Microemulsions in the Preparation of Highly Active Combustion Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rymeš, Jan; Ehret, G.; Hilaire, L.; Boutonnet, M.; Jirátová, Květa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 75, 1-4 (2002), s. 297-303 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : microemulsion s * catalytic combustion * VOC Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.146, year: 2002

  17. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  18. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  19. Veileder for kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne

    Investorer og leietakere blir stadig mer interessert i helse- og miljøkvaliteter. Men kunnskapen er lav hos de fleste om hva de skal etterspørre og hvordan slike kvaliteter kan dokumenteres. Meglere har en viktig rolle som formidler av kvaliteter. Grønn Byggallianse har i samarbeid med blant annet...... Norsk Eiendom, Enova og NGBC utarbeidet en mal for standard kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorlokaler. Målet med malen er å bidra til at leietager får det produktet han trenger til riktig pris og at man unngår unødig miljøbelastning. Målet er videre at å bidra og stimulere til, at innleie....../utleie prosesser startes med en dialogbasert prosess. Standarden er tenkt som et hjelpemiddel til en systematisk gjennomgang av, og diskusjon av hvilke kvaliteter som har prioritet, høy, middel eller lav prioritet for leietaker. Resultatet av dialog og diskusjon fastlegger endelige krav til kvalitet og...

  20. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  1. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  2. Å speide etter spiritualitet. En analyse av spiritualitetsbegrepet i speiderbevegelsen

    OpenAIRE

    Holmefjord, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven inneholder analyser av speiderbevegelsens bruk av begrepet "spiritualitet" i to bøker skrevet av bevegelsens grunnlegger; "Scouting for Boys" og "Rovering to Succes" og to dokumenter av The World Organization of he Scoutmovement . Robert Baden-Powell grunnlag speiderbevegelsen i 1908 og hans litteratur og bøker publisert på tidlig 1900-tallet setter rammeverk for mye av dagens speiderbevegelses ideologi og visjon. Speiderbevegelsen har et r...

  3. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS)- a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The review by Rickard and Morse (this volume) adequately summarizes our current understanding with respect to acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). At the same time, this review addresses some of the misunderstandings with regard to measurements and dynamics of this important sedimentary sulfur pool. In

  4. Tilsetningsstoff og tekniske hjelpestoff ved produksjon av filet av hvitfisk. Faglig sluttrapport

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentzen, Grete Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Målsettingen med dette prosjektet har vært å øke den generelle kunnskapen om bruk av tilsetningsstoffer og tekniske hjelpestoffer ved produksjon av hvitfiskfilet. I prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudium på hvilken effekt ulike tilsetningsstoffer har på fiskefilet. Deretter er det laget en veileder hvor målet har vært å gi en lettfattet og oversiktlig informasjon om hvilke tilsetningsstoffer det er lov å bruke, hvilken effekt de har, og eksempler på praktisk bruk av tilsetningssto...

  5. Bruk av urtemedisiner blant gravide i Mali : Intervju av 72 healere i Bamako, Siby og Dioila

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zayadi, Waled

    2012-01-01

    WHO’s rapport fra 2001 viser til at hele 75 % av Mali sin populasjon bruker tradisjonell medisin. Det er beregnet til å være 1 medisinmann pr 500 innbyggere. Hovedmålet med denne oppgaven var å undersøke tradisjonelle medisinmenns behandling av sykdom og plager i svangerskapet i Mali. Det er lite som vites om bruk av urtemedisiner blant gravide i Mali. Det er heller ingen studier gjort fra healerens side. Studien var med på å kartlegge hvilke urter som brukes til den enkelte plagen. I ette...

  6. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  7. Forskere i norske avisers dekning av skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andersson-Bakken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skolen er stadig i medienes søkelys, og i denne artikkelen ser vi nærmere på hvordan forskere bidrar med sine fagkunnskaper i skoledebatten i mediene. Den problemstillingen vi ønsker å besvare, er: Hvilken rolle har forskere i norske avisers dekning av skole? For å svare på dette har vi gjort en analyse av samtlige artikler om skole i VG, Bergens Tidende og Aftenposten i 2013. Resultatene viser at det forekommer en navngitt forsker i ca. 12 % av avisenes artikler om skole (209 av 1712 artikler. Det er imidlertid forskjell mellom avisene, og i VG opptrer det forskere i ca. 24 % av artiklene om skole, mens andelen både i Aftenposten og BT er ca. 11 %. Undersøkelsen viser videre at det er mange forskere som får mulighet til å uttale seg om skole i disse tre avisene, men det store flertallet av disse uttaler seg kun én gang. Vi fant også at forskere ofte uttaler seg om rammene for skolens undervisningsvirksomhet, og sjelden om det som foregår i klasserommene. Resultatene av vår empiriske undersøkelse stemmer i stor grad overens med hovedtendensene i tidligere studier av forskere i media, noe som indikerer at forskernes rolle i norske avisers skoledekning ikke skiller seg markant ut fra den rollen forskere har i media generelt. Våre resultater peker imidlertid på én viktig forskjell: Forskere ser ut til å være uvanlig godt synlige i norske avisers dekning av skole.Nøkkelord: skoleforskning, media, forskningsformidlingAbstractSchool is a frequently debated topic in the media, and this article investigates how researchers contribute with their knowledge in this media debate. The research question is: What characterizes researcher participation in Norwegian newspaper coverage of school? To answer this question we have analyzed all articles about school in the Norwegian newspapers VG, Bergens Tidende and Aftenposten during 2013. The results show that there is a named researcher in about 12 % of the newspaper articles about school

  8. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  9. Redesign av Escola forlag sine skoleordbøker

    OpenAIRE

    Heggen, Inger Helene

    2007-01-01

    Rapporten består av en litteraturstudie (med begrepsavklaringer og en gjennomgang av ordboktypografiens historie – med hovedvekt på engelsk ordboktypografi), en analyse av ettspråklige ordbøker i dag (både norske og engelske), og en analyse av Escola Forlags ordbøker (bokmål og nynorsk utgave). Til slutt – en demononstrasjon av min resulterende redesign av ordbøkene (omslag og innmat). Her har det vært særlig viktig å tydeliggjøre oppslagsordene og oppslagsordenes underelementer s...

  10. Kartlegging av PCB i sedimenter fra Indre Sørfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, J.; Klungsøyr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Som følge av forhøyede nivåer av PCB i fiskelever innerst i Sørfjorden er det gjennomført en sedimentundersøkelse for om mulig å finne kilden til PCB. Det ble ikke registrert høye nivåer av PCB i sedimentene. Høyeste konsentrasjoner ble målt i munningen av Eitrheimsvågen. Analyser av trafooljer brukt i Tyssedalsområdet viste spor av PCB. Statens forurensningstilsyn (SFT)

  11. Distributed Trust Management and Rogue AV Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    Integrate with QTM – Particularly important in federated systems (e.g., dynamically composable SOAs) • Investigate the use of reactive mechanisms – Global...of demonstrators surfaced on Capitol Hill in opposition to the Democrats’ health care legislation. MAGAZINE PREVIEW Making Health Care Better By...sale will be sent on saving green forests in Amazonia . Have more questions? You can contact us easy via Online Supoort. Green AV an award-winning

  12. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  13. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  14. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  15. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  16. Combustion of Dried Sewage Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2005), s. 3432-3441 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized-bed combustion * dried sewage sludge * CO, NOx, and N2O emissions Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  17. Design av oppbevaringsprodukt: Utvikling av et entrémøbel for IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Bosvik, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Et av IKEAs store satsingsområder er oppbevaring. IKEA ønsker å nå ut til så mange mennesker som mulig med sine produkter. Deres visjon om å skape en bedre hverdag for de mange menneskene er et bevis på dette. Temaet for dette masterprosjektet har vært oppbevaring. En del av oppgaven har også vært å finne fokusområde innenfor temaet oppbevaring. Valget falt på entreen og utviklingen av entrémøbelet RÅDE. Oppgaven er gjort i samarbeid med IKEA Leangen i Trondheim. RÅDE er utviklet blant an...

  18. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  19. Barns opplevelse av postoperativ smerte og smertebehandling

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Torgun

    2016-01-01

    Master i intensivsykepleie Bakgrunn: Postoperativ smerte hos barn er underbehandlet til tross for mye smerteforskning. Ulike studier har vist at barn opplever moderat til sterk smerte postoperativt. Ubehandlet smerte kan skape unødvendig lidelse for barn og øker risiko for komplikasjoner. Hensikt: Det finnes ingen forskning på norske barns opplevelse av postoperativ smerte og smertebehandling. Studiens hensikt er å få en større forståelse for hvordan barn opplever postoperativ smerte og sm...

  20. Implementering av BIM i bærekraftig oppgradering av bygninger: Mulighetsstudie for utføring av tilstandsanalyser med nettbrett

    OpenAIRE

    Vik, Vidar Samson

    2012-01-01

    Vi opplever i dag en økt hyppighet av klimakatastrofer som flom og tørke som følge av økt konsentrasjon av klimagasser i atmosfæren. Dette har ført til et behov for å redusere klimagassutslippene fra industrien på jorden. Byggebransjen, ofte kalt 40 % -bransjen, står for om lag 40 % av klimagassutslippene, og har dermed et stort potensial for reduksjon. BIM er en prosess som søker å redusere ressursbruken, og er dermed en bærekraftig prosess som har blitt tatt i bruk i stor skala i nybygg. Re...

  1. Surhetsvariasjoner som følge av nedtapping av et regulert vann.

    OpenAIRE

    Selmer-Olsen, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Det har vært utført analyser og lagringsforsøk med prøver av tørrlagt bunnmateriale fra Trevatn tatt våren 1976. Prøver tatt ute i terrenget om høsten etter en lang tørr sommer viste stort sett samme bilde som prøvene fra våren etter lagring i laboratoriet under aerobe betingelser. Tabell 2 viser hvordan pH og SO4-S varierer med Iagringsbetingelsene. Oksydasjonsprosessene som slikt materiale blir utsatt for ved lufttilgang over et lengre tidsrom kan resultere i utvasking av meget sure forbind...

  2. Utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå

    OpenAIRE

    Trofast, Tobias; Haugum, Dag; Lundberg, Jonas; Nygren, Victoria; Nyström, Tommie; Svensson, Gary; Thunborg, Maria; Törnqvist, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Detta paper beskriver arbetet med att utveckla en modell för utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå (UEX) vid Institutionen för Teknik och Naturvetenskap, Linköpings Universitet under läsåret 2010-2011. Modellen har utvecklats och testats vid utbildningsprogrammet Grafisk Design och Kommunikation (GDK), men med syfte att kunna appliceras även på andra kandidatprograms examensarbete. Det projektet prövat är om man kan höja kvaliteten på examensarbeten och effektiviteten i ...

  3. Upplevelser av "Employer Branding" : En kvalitativ fallstudie av anställda hos BA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Otto; Elisabeth, Mackenhauer

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur medarbetarna på BA (fiktivt namn) upplever organisationens interna Employer Branding-arbete samt att belysa de aspekter som eventuellt skiljer strategi mot upplevelse. Det gjordes ett målinriktat urval av organisation medan valet av deltagare var ett slumpmässigt urval vilket resulterade i åtta respondenter (n= 8). Studien var en kvalitativ fallstudie med ett psykologiskt angreppssätt och innehöll en ostrukturerad intervju som tillsammans m...

  4. AVS user's guide on the basis of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Kume, Etsuo; Fujii, Minoru.

    1997-07-01

    The special guides for the use of visualization software AVS have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The purpose of these guides is to help the AVS users understand easily the use of the one, due to the fact that it is so difficult for beginners to understand the original manuals. In this report, 'Transportation Evacuation Simulation' is taken up as an object of visualization, and the procedure of visualization and images recording by using the AVS are described. By using the AVS according to this report, a series of the procedure which are necessary for use of the AVS can be acquired. (author)

  5. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  6. Influence of Operating Conditions and Coal Properties on NOx and N2O Emissions in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Subbituminous Coals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 83, 7-8 (2004), s. 1095-1103 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : NOx and N2O emissions * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2004

  7. Effects of Operating Conditions and Dusty Fuel on the NOx, N2O and CO Emissions in PFB Co-Combustion of Coal and Wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Hartman, Miloslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2003), s. 1091-1099 ISSN 0887-0624 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : pressurized fluidized bed * co-combustion * wood Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2003

  8. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  9. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  10. Pt Combustion Catalysts Prepared from W/O Microemulsions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rymeš, Jan; Ehret, G.; Hilaire, L.; Jirátová, Květa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 143, - (2002), s. 121-129 ISSN 0167-2991. [International Symposium Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts /8./. Louvain-la-Neuve, 09.09.2002-12.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072904 Keywords : combustion catalysts * microemulsion s Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.468, year: 2002

  11. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  12. Bruk av amniocenteser og chorionbiopsier i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Haugen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGInvasiv prenatal diagnostikk i form av amniocentese (fostervannsprøve og chorionbiopsi (morkakeprøveutføres i ca. 2% av alle svangerskap i Norge per år. Dette er betydelig færre undersøkelser ennhva som utføres i de andre nordiske land. De fleste får utført amniocentese pga. høy maternell alder(aldersindikasjon som her i landet er ≥ 38 år ved fødselstermin. Chorionbiopsi er forbeholdt kvinnermed kjente arvelige lidelser i familien, dvs. kvinner med høy risiko for å få et affisert foster. De undersøkelsersom foreligger over svangerskapsutfall samt forekomst av komplikasjoner etter amniocenteseog chorionbiopsi er hovedsakelig utført i andre land på kvinner med generelt lavere risiko ( ≥ 35 år ennfor dem som får utført invasiv prenatal diagnostikk i Norge. Pga. vår restriktive praksis kan ikke disseresultatene uten videre overføres til Norge. Vi mangler eksakte data over svangerskapsutfall og evt.komplikasjoner etter disse undersøkelsene i en norsk populasjon.Haugen G, van der Hagen CB. The use of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in Norway.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYAmniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are performed in about 2% of all pregnancies in Norwaywhich is far less than in the other Nordic countries. Most of the amniocenteses are performed due toadvanced maternal age. In Norway this is defined as maternal age ≥ 38 years at term. Couples withknown chromosomal aberrations or genetic diseases in their families, i.e. women at a high risk of havingan affected fetus, are offered chorionic villus sampling. Earlier studies on complications and pregnancyoutcome following amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling have been performed in other countriesmainly on women at a lower risk ( ≥ 35 years than for the women having such tests in Norway. We donot have data on pregnancy outcome and possible complications following amniocentesis and chorionicvillus sampling in a Norwegian

  13. Effect of Non-Stationary Combustion Phases on Emission Factors of Selected Pollutants and PCDD/F from Domestic Combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Horák, J.; Krpec, K.; Hopan, F.; Ocelka, T.; Stáňa, M.

    LVI, č. 2 (2010), s. 183-187 ISSN 1210-0471 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A2/116/07; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : combustion * emission factors * pollutants Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://transactions.fs.vsb.cz/2010-2/1798.pdf

  14. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  15. Analys av nickel med ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wallman, Karin; Löfgren, Stefan; Sonesten, Lars; Demandt, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vid en granskning av nickelhalter för perioden 1985-2007 upptäcktes ett nivåskifte i tidsserierna på flera stationer mellan 2001 och 2002. Skiftet visade sig bero på att prover innan 2002 inte korrigerades för kalciuminterferens, medan prover under åren 2002-2007 korrigerades. Syftet med denna rapport är att utreda om resultaten före 2002 i efterhand kan korrigeras för kalciuminterferensen. Från 2002 finns ett antal prover (N=347) med resultat som både är kalciumkorrigerade och som inte är de...

  16. Sifting of waste; Siktning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Johnsson, Anders [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Yoshiguchi, Hitomi [Stena Metall, Goeteborg (Sweden); Steenari, Britt-Marie [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bostroem, Sara [Renova AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Fredaeng, Julia [Dalkia, Stockholm (Sweden); Bisaillon, Mattias [Profu AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Andersson, Hans [Metso Power, Tammerfors (Finland)

    2008-08-15

    Waste as a fuel is characterized by high levels of inert components (ash) that may cause problems in a combustion process that result in high costs for operation and maintenance (e.g. large ash flows, high need for additives). A potential method for reduction of these costs is to separate inert components through sifting prior the combustion process. Previously it has been found that a major share of the unwanted components is found in the fine grains. However, the practical relevance of sifting has not been verified against boiler performance. Therefore, the prospects for sifting as a pre-treatment method was investigated at Boraas Energi och miljoe with the aim to characterize the composition in the fine-grained residues and to determine the effects from sifting on the boiler performance. The project includes also a short report on possible markets for the fine-grained residues. The effect target is to increase the boiler availability and to reduce the cost for operation and maintenance. The target groups for the work are owners of Energy-from-Waste plants as well as constructors of plants and sieves. The work shows that sifting can be beneficial from an economical point of view if a suitable market for the fine-grained residues is found. Several theoretical markets exist but the governing parameter is the actual costs for the post-treatment.

  17. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmark, Ephraim

    2005-01-01

    .... "Flameless Combustion" is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability limits and therefore extremely low NOx production, efficient...

  18. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  20. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  1. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Yonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking connectivity. Moreover, HomePlug AV2 guarantees backward interoperability with other HomePlug systems. In this paper, the HomePlug AV2 system architecture is introduced and the technical details of the key features at both the PHY and MAC layers are described. The HomePlug AV2 performance is assessed, through simulations reproducing real home scenarios.

  2. Avveckling av aktiebolag : Case: Likvidation av Företag X Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med detta lärdomsprov är att ta reda på hur man idag i Finland kan avveckla ett aktiebolag. De fyra olika avvecklingssätten likvidation, konkurs, fusion och delning av aktiebolag är de sätt som används i Finland för att upplösa aktiebolag. I lärdomsprovet har fokus mest lagts på likvidation av aktiebolag. Lärdomsprovet ger svar på bl.a. hur en likvidation går till, vem som kan vara likvidator, vad som är skillnaden mellan en frivillig likvidation och en tvångsmässig likvidation m.m. Lä...

  3. Når kontakter betyr alt : En studie av bruken av nettverksmediet LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blaalid, Maren Hyvang

    2012-01-01

    LinkedIn er et av de mest populære sosiale mediene i Norge og tiltrekker seg stadig flere medlemmer. I denne masteroppgaven studerer jeg bruken av LinkedIn for å undersøke hva som er det særegne ved dette nettverksmediet. Jeg har utført en spørreundersøkelse blant 280 brukere for å få innsikt i hvem de er, hvorfor de bruker LinkedIn og hvordan de gjør det. Funnene fra analysen viser at brukerne kjennetegnes ved at de er selvstendige og formålsrasjonelle, som bruker LinkedIn strategisk for å n...

  4. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  5. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  6. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  7. Combustion of Liquid Bio-Fuels in an Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Kalisz, S.; Baxter, D.; Svoboda, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2008), s. 172-179 ISSN 1385-8947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : internal circulating fluidized bed * liquid fuel * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  8. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  9. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  10. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  11. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  12. Spa-typing av stammer av Staphylococcus aureus fra blodkulturer analysert ved UNN Tromsø 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Staphylococcus aureus er et av de vanligste patogenene som kan skape sykdom hos mennesket. Mange av oss er bærere av bakterien i nese eller hals, og det er vist at persisterende bærere har høyere risiko for å utvikle S. aureus-infeksjoner enn andre. De fleste S. aureus-infeksjonene blant bærere er forårsaket av pasientens egen bakteriestamme. Materiale og metode: 140 blodkulturisolater fra pasienter med S. aureus bakteriemi analysert ved Avdeling for mikrobiologi og smitte...

  13. Effekt av melkesyrebakteriers metabolisme på utviklingen av Escherichia coli O157:H7 i melk

    OpenAIRE

    Westblad, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Dagens regelverk sier at all melk som omsettes skal være varmebehandlet, men åpner samtidig for salg av melkeprodukter basert på upasteurisert melk, forutsatt overholdelse av visse krav. Dermed kan småskalavirksomheter framstille melkeprodukter av upasteurisert melk hvis de skulle ønske det. Et slikt ønske er ofte begrunnet i tradisjoner og praktiske forhold. I tillegg er det flere som påstår at råmelk er sunnere enn pasteurisert melk og at råmelkas mikroflora hemmer vekst av uønskede bakteri...

  14. EST Table: AV398539 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398539 NV021929 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...0769|gb|EEZ97216.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC011009 [Tribolium castaneum] AV398539 NV02 ...

  15. AVS-1357 inhibits melanogenesis via prolonged ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seo-Hyoung; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that a derivative of imidazole, AVS-1357, is a novel skin-whitening compound. AVS-1357 was found to significantly inhibit melanin production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Furthermore, we found that AVS-1357 induced prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, while it downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. It has been reported that the activation of ERK and/or Akt is involved in melanogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVS-1357 on melanogenesis in the absence or presence of PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway) and/or LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of the Akt pathway). PD98059 dramatically increased melanogenesis, whereas LY294002 had no effect. Furthermore, PD98059 attenuated AVS-1357 induced ERK activation, as well as the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase. These findings suggest that the effects of AVS-1357 occur via downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which is caused by AVS-1357-induced prolonged ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that AVS-1357 has the potential as a new skin whitening agent.

  16. Fuel Combustion Laboratory | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion Laboratory Fuel Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the combustion chamber platform for fuel ignition kinetics research, was acquired to expand the lab's

  17. Mineralogical Mapping of Quadrangle Av-2 (belicia) and Av-3 (caparronia) on 4 Vesta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.; Frigeri, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Sunshine, J.; Jaumann, R.; Palomba, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Yingst, A.; Marchi, S.; De Sanctis, C. M.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, Th.; Preusker, F.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at 4 Vesta on July 16, 2011 the Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (VIR) has acquired hyperspectral images of Vesta's surface, which enable to characterize Vesta's mineralogical composition in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 5.1µm. As part of the analysis of Vesta's surface composition the science team is preparing a series of 15 quadrangle maps showing the results derived from the spectroscopic analysis of the VIR and FC color data. We present preliminary results of the spectroscopic analysis achieved for the quadrangles Av-2 (Belicia) and Av-3 (Caparronia), which show Vesta's surface between 21°N - 66° N°, 0° - 90°E and 90° - 180° E, respectively. These results are based on the analysis of the combination of the visible albedo, spectral parameters including the position, depth of the pyroxene absorptions, as well as color ratio composites using the VIR channels centering at 749nm/438nm (Red), 749nm/917nm (Green) and 438nm/749nm (Blue). Vesta's rotation axis, however, is tilted ~29° with respect to its orbital plane. Since Dawn arrived during northern winter, portions of Vesta north of ~45° N are dominated by extended shadows or have not yet been imaged due to permanent night. Thus, limited FC color or VIR hyperspectral data have been available for the quadrangles Av-2 and Av-3. The illuminated parts are dominated by a heavily-cratered northern terrain with ancient troughs and grooves and named after the prominent relatively large impact craters Belicia (~37°N/48°E) and Caparronia (~36°N/167°E). Numerous impact craters of different size, morphology, and state of surface degradation are apparent. Most spectral variations are strongly affected by the extreme illumination conditions, making the analysis of albedo variations and spectral signatures rather difficult. Their interpretation thus remains. Nevertheless, VIR spectra show clear evidence of Vesta's surface composition similar to those of HED

  18. Cofactor requirement of HpyAV restriction endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Hong Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M systems in microorganisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg(++. The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms.

  19. [AVS concentrations in Xinan Creek and the influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Bing; Wen, Yan-Mao; Li, Feng; Wu, Chang-Hua; Duan, Zhi-Peng

    2012-07-01

    Sediment and overlying water samples were collected at 10 sampling stations at Xinan Creek, a tidal river in Pearl River Delta, and analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics as well as microbial incicators, in order to reveal the main factors dominating the spatial distribution of acid volatile sulfide (AVS). The effects of Eh, SRB OC and TS on the spatial distribution of AVS were investigated and the impact of AVS on the toxicity of heavy metals in the studied area was evaluated. The results showed that the range of AVS was 0.207-41.453 micromol x g(-1), with an average of 6.684 micromol x g(-1), which is relatively high compared to the results in other studies. The AVS value of the surface layer was higher than the bottom layer in 5 stations. The AVS values in both the surface layer and the bottom layer were highly variable, the coefficients of variation being 93.61% and 153.09% , respectively. The analytical results revealed that TS was the factor with the greatest impact on the spatial distribution of AVS, and the order was TS > OC > Eh > SRB. Potential ecological risk of heavy metals existed in 60% of the smpling stations based on the value of Sigma (SEM5-AVS), however, with the criterion of [Sigma(SEM5-AVS)]/foc, none of them had inacceptable ecological risk. Furthermore, in terms of single species of heavy metals, there was certain risk of toxic effect for all the five heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb). The above mentioned results will provide valuable data for the in-depth study of the formation mechanism of AVS and helpful reference for environmental impact assessment and scientific rehabilitation of heavy metals in polluted rivers.

  20. Modellering av urbane pluviale flommer ved bruk av værradar

    OpenAIRE

    Kjølseth, Tora Marie Hveem; Vatne, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Ekstreme nedbørhendelser med påfølgende pluviale flommer forårsaker store skader på infrastruktur og bebyggelse. Skadene fører til betydelige samfunnskostnader, og problemet er økende. Avrenningsmodeller kan benyttes for å simulere flomforløpet til en nedbørhendelse, og er et mye brukt verktøy i planlegging, prosjektering, dimensjonering og drift av overvann-systemer. Som inngangsdata i avrenningsmodeller er det vanlig å bruke konstruert nedbør, der det tas utgangspunkt i målinger og statisti...

  1. Transport og akkumulering av jern i profiler av et dyrket myrareal

    OpenAIRE

    Ødelien, M.; Selmer-Olsen, A. R.; Lie, Ole

    1980-01-01

    En mindre del av et stort dyrket myrareal på eiendommen Vivang, Våler i Solør, har uvanlig jernrik torv. Her har havre hatt god vegetativ vekst, men meget dårlig kjerneutvikling (5,10). Det siste har vist seg å skyldes molybdenmangel, som særlig må antas å ha årsakssammenheng med det store jerninnholdet i torva. I denne artikkelen er arealet med molybdenmangel kalt A og et tilgrensende areal uten synlige tegn til slik mangel B. Tabellene 1-3 viser kjemiske analyseresultater for torv fra 3 pro...

  2. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  3. En undersökning av Norwegians kriskommunikation under flygstrejken 2015. : En textanalys av Facebookinlägg och pressmeddelanden.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma, Mickelsson

    2016-01-01

    Numera lever vi i ett krissamhälle där vi nästan varje dag nås av budskap från olika typer av kriser. När en organisation drabbas av en kris är det viktigt att tänka på vilken kommunikation man använder för att nå ut med sitt budskap. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur en organisation använder sig av olika försvarsstrategier och retoriska appeller i sin kriskommunikation. Organisationen som valdes ut var flygbolaget Norwegian och deras hantering av den 11 dagar långa flygs...

  4. Slutrapport - utökad samordning av landskapsövervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Göran; Gardfjell, Hans; Glimskär, Anders; Hagner, Åsa; Holm, Sören; Walheim, Mats

    2007-01-01

    I denna kortversion av 2006 års slutrapport från projektet ”utökad samordning av landskaps- övervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000” redovisas de viktigaste resultaten på ett sätt som gör dem enklare tillgängliga för inriktningsbeslut om ambitionsnivå för uppföljnings- arbetet. Nuvarande målsättning är att Naturamoment införlivas i Nationell Inventering av Landskapet i Sverige (NILS) och Riksinventeringen av Skog (RIS) från och med 2008; under 2009 beräknas kompletteran...

  5. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  6. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  7. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  8. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  9. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yonge, Larry; Abad, Jose; Afkhamie, Kaywan; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Katar, Srinivas; Lioe, Hidayat; Pagani, Pascal; Riva, Raffaele; Schneider, Daniel M.; Schwager, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking co...

  10. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-06-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  11. Förändring av förpackning som utökning av marknadsmixen : En studie av fem snabbrörliga konsumentvaror inom livsmedelsbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Carolina; Eriksson, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Denna uppsats behandlar förändring av förpackning som en möjlig utökning av produktkategorin i Kotler & Kellers utvidgade marknadsmix. I marknadsmixen behandlas förpackningen som statisk under en varas livstid och studiens syfte var att se om förpackningsförändringar istället bör ske vid flertalet tillfällen. Genom existerande litteratur identifierades tre centrala begrepp som ansågs betydelsefulla för studien; förpackning, förändring av förpackning och differentiering. Fem olika företag ...

  12. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  13. Practically perfect: learning by doing at AVS congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-18

    It has been some time since Cambridge vet school last hosted the annual AVS congress, which meant that this year's congress committee faced a steep learning curve. However, as Gill Harris reports, it rose to the occasion. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Knihovna Sociologického ústavu AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesová, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : library Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies https://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/knihovna-sociologickeho-ustavu-av-cr/

  15. EST Table: AV399390 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399390 NV120162 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/181 aa ref|YP_002884244.1| Ac13-like ...yhedrovirus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399390 NV12 ...

  16. AVS (Application Visualization System) user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Gorai, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Kazuhiko

    1996-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS for image processing software and an animation processing system (video, frame scan converter). This report summarizes the information to use AVS and to develop and maintain computer and network environment for image processing. (author).

  17. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  18. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  19. Effekt av ulike kjemiske- og biologiske preparater på forekomsten av Fusarium og mykotoksiner i havre

    OpenAIRE

    Shakery, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Aksfusariose er en vanlig sykdom på korn forårsaket av flere ulike Fusarium-arter. En Fusarium-infeksjon på akset gir tap av avling i tillegg til en reduksjon i kvaliteten på kornet. Reduksjonen i kvalitet skjer i hovedsak gjennom produksjon av en rekke toksiske metabolitter (mykotoksiner) som kan være en helserisiko for både dyr og mennesker. I de senere årene har det vært økt fokus på Fusarium og mykotoksiner i korn både i Norge og i store deler av verden. En årsak til det...

  20. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  1. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  2. Internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  3. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a clear definition of “fuel and combustion stratifications” is obvious in literature. Hence, it is difficult to compare stratification levels of different PPC strategies or other combustion concepts. T...

  4. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  5. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  6. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  7. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  8. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  9. Combustion stratification for naphtha from CI combustion to PPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johansson, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrated the change in combustion homogeneity from conventional diesel combustion via partially premixed combustion towards HCCI. Experiments are performed in an optical diesel engine at a speed of 1200 rpm with diesel fuel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is

  10. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  11. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  12. Manganite perovskite nanoparticles for self-controlled magnetic fluidhyperthermia: about the suitability of an aqueous combustion synthesis route

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Epherre, R.; Duguet, E.; Mornet, S.; Pollert, Emil; Louguet, S.; Lecommandoux, S.; Schatz, Ch.; Goglio, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2011), s. 4393-4401 ISSN 0959-9428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : manganese perovskite nanoparticles * aqueouc combustion synthesis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  13. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  14. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    was in collaboration with Prof. R. Bowersox (Texas A&M University) and Dr. K. Kobayashi ( Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA). 4.2 Ignition... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  15. Infrared monitoring of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.C.; Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Solomon, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for combustion monitoring is described. A combination of emission, transmission, and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy yields data on the temperature and composition of the gases, surfaces and suspended particles in the combustion environment. Detection sensitivity of such trace exhaust gases as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and unburned hydrocarbons is at the ppm level. Tomographic reconstruction converts line-of-sight measurements into spatially resolved temperature and concentration data. Examples from various combustion processes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Industrial measurements are described that have been performed directly in the combustion zone and in the exhaust duct of a large chemical recovery boiler. Other measurements of hot slag show how FT-IR spectroscopy can determine the temperature and optical properties of surfaces. In addition, experiments with water droplets show that transmission FT-IR data yield spectra that characterize particle size and number density

  16. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  17. The role of AV and VV optimization for CRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Brabham, M.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective therapy for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a ventricular conduction delay; however, approximately 30% of patients do not experience significant clinical improvement with this treatment. Modern devices allow individualized programming of the AV delay and VV offset, which offer the possibility of improving clinical response rates with optimized programming. AV and VV delay optimization techniques have included echocardiography, device-based algorithms, and several other novel noninvasive techniques. While an acute improvement in hemodynamic function has been clearly demonstrated with optimized device settings, long-term clinical benefit is limited. In the majority of cases, an empiric AV delay with simultaneous biventricular or left ventricular pacing is adequate. The value of optimization of these intervals in “non-responders” still requires further investigation.

  18. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  19. Lesing av delvis motstridende tekster i syvende klasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Mork Rogne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen ser vi på hvilken type informasjon elever i 7. klasse vektlegger for å konstruere en sammenhengende oppsummering av fire til dels motstridende tekster. Elever møter ofte flere tekster om samme tema – multiple tekster – og vi trenger økt kunnskap om hvordan de leser slike tekster. Elevene leste fire ulike tekster om en sykkelulykke. Tekstene presenterte informasjon som var delvis sammenfallende på tvers av alle tekstene, og delvis motstridende informasjon som innebar at enkelte tekster ga ulike beskrivelser av hendelsesforløpet. Vi testet elevenes ordavkodingsferdigheter, fikk dem til å fylle ut et spørreskjema om lesevaner og vi innhentet elevenes resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve. Etter lesing ba vi elevene gi en oppsummering av sykkelulykken. Elevene gjenga relativt mer sammenfallende informasjon enn motstridende informasjon. Gode resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve ser ut til å ha en sammenheng med elevenes ferdigheter i å konstruere en sammenhengende forståelse av de fire tekstene. Elever som oppga å lese mye på Internett hadde imidlertid fått med mindre av informasjonen som var felles for de fire tekstene i sine oppsummeringer. Vi fant også en negativ sammenheng mellom fritidslesing på Internett og resultatene fra Nasjonal leseprøve. Samlet sett indikerer resultatene at når elevene skal skape sammenheng mellom flere delvis motstridende tekster, så blir sammenfallende informasjon vektlagt mer enn motstridende informasjon. Dessuten ser det ut til at de elevene som bruker mest fritid til å lese på Internett, sliter mer med å sammenfatte innholdet i de fire tekstene enn de andre elevene.

  20. EST Table: AV403981 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terminase large subunit (DNA packaging protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV403981 pg-- ... ...AV403981 pg--0297 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/265 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packag...ing protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1|

  1. Kvantifisering av overvann: Case Brøset

    OpenAIRE

    Huurnink, Jon Egenberg

    2012-01-01

    Oppgaven forsøker å vise den systemresponsen som er særegen for konvensjonelle tiltak og blå-grønne tiltak. Dette er aktuelt på Brøset bydel som en del av Fremtiden byer prosjektet og skal bygges om til boligområde. MIKE URBAN og MIKE 21 er benyttet til å lage en konseptuell modell.Ved å sammenligne sommer- og vinterforhold, i tillegg til ulike gjentaksintervaller (1, 20 og 100år), vil kurver for videreført vannmengde gi et inntrykk av tiltakenes effekt. Dette gir beslutningsstøtte for Komm...

  2. EST Table: AV398396 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398396 NV021762 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...ding) 10/09/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 30 %/120 aa AGAP003111-PA Protein|2R:32505726:32508690:1|gene:AGAP003111 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV398396 NV02 ...

  3. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  4. Vindkraftverk av UHPC 2.2 : En undersökning av högpresterande betong med syntetfiberarmeringen STRUX

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Michaéla; Nilsson, Thina

    2013-01-01

    Användandet av betong som ersättare för stål vid produktionen av vindkraftverkstorn har ökat den senaste tiden. Betongtorn är betydligt billigare än ståltorn men problem som sprickbildningar, frostsprängningar och följaktligen armeringskorrosion har uppstått bl a på grund av vibrationer från rotorn. I fundamentet i vindkraftverk kan ovan nämnda problem också uppstå och det uppfyller således inte alltid funktionskraven. Det här examensarbetet undersöker möjligheten att eliminera dessa problem ...

  5. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  6. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  7. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Tracking an individual streamer branch among others in a pulsed induced discharge J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 2823--9 [29] van Veldhuizen E M and Rutgers...2005) AIAA–2005–0405. [99] E.M. Van Veldhuizen (ed) Electrical Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fun- damentals and Applications (New York: Nova...Vandooren J, Van Tiggelen P J 1977 Reaction Mechanism and Rate Constants in Lean Hydrogen–Nitrous Oxide Flames Combust. Flame 28 165 [201] Dean A M, Steiner

  8. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  9. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  10. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  11. Emission of PCDD/Fs from Domestic Combustion Using Various Woods, Biofuel and Coals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ocelka, T.; Tomšej, T.; Horák, J.; Šyc, Michal; Krpec, K.; Hopan, F.; Stáňa, M.

    LVI, č. 2 (2010), s. 149-154 ISSN 1210-0471 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A2/116/07; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : combustion * solid fuels * emission factors Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality http://transactions.fs.vsb.cz/2010-2/1793.pdf

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in ashes from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Havelcová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2012), s. 481-490 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : biomass combustion * ash * PAHs Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2012_04/6.Straka_%20Havelcova.pdf

  13. User guide of AVS/ITBL for numerical environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Nobuko; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro; Arakawa, Takuya; Kuraishi, Hideaki

    2005-02-01

    The Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the ITBL (Information-Technology Based Laboratory) project which is one of e-Japan priority policy programs. The goal of the ITBL project is to create the vertical research environment in which intellectual resources such as remote computers, programs and data can be shared in Japanese research institutions and cooperative studies among researchers can be supported. AVS/ITBL is the visualization tool which has been developed aiming at realizing the efficient visualization in the ITBL environment. This visualization tool is one of the tools of ITBL infrastructure software and operates in cooperation with AVS/Express. Main functions of AVS/ITBL are as follows: it can directly read data files located on remote computers, it can display and control an image on the web browser, it can collaboratively display an image among remote researchers, and it can perform visualization process as a batch. In this paper, utilization of AVS/ITBL to the numerical environmental system, which is one of the applications in ITBL project, is presented. And the outline of the operation in this utilization is indicated. (author)

  14. EST Table: AV403752 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403752 pg--0009 10/09/28 100 %/257 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging... protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging

  15. EST Table: AV403922 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403922 pg--0214 10/09/28 91 %/142 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  16. EST Table: AV404246 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404246 pg--0747 10/09/28 91 %/130 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  17. EST Table: AV403894 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ref|XP_001605691.1| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 52...%/206 aa gi|189241712|ref|XP_968082.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] AV403894 pg-- ...

  18. EST Table: AV399990 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399990 br--0239 10/09/28 100 %/110 aa ref|NP_001037364.1| cellular retinoic acid .../09/10 57 %/107 aa gnl|Amel|GB15299-PA 10/09/10 59 %/107 aa gi|282165782|ref|NP_001164130.1| cellular FABP-like protein isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043899 br-- ...

  19. Rektorers forståelse av mobbing i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    2008-01-01

    PÅ opfordring fra redaktionen gives en kommentar med dansk vinkel til den norske artikel 'Rektorers forståelse av mobbning i skolen'.Den omtalte artikel er at betragte som første trin i indførelse af en nordisk mobbeforståelse med undgangspunkt i Dan Olweus begrebsafgrænsning.Der savnes også en i...

  20. EST Table: AV400897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400897 br--1948 10/09/28 47 %/180 aa ref|XP_967144.2| PREDICTED: similar to corneal wound healing...TED: similar to corneal wound healing-related protein [Tribolium castaneum] CK493011 br-- ...

  1. EST Table: AV399507 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399507 NV120319 10/09/28 70 %/144 aa ref|YP_803401.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticars...ia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus] gb|ABI13791.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticarsia gemmatali

  2. EST Table: AV401629 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401629 e96h0968 10/09/28 70 %/161 aa ref|XP_002431431.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, ...putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18693.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, putative [Pediculus humanus cor

  3. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabach, Martin; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Hanssen, Linda; Routti, Heli; Borgen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a screening study into the occurrence of selected perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and dechloranes in Arctic top predators. The emerging PFCs F53 F53B, and PFBS were not detected neither in bird eggs nor in mammals. However, different dechloranes were detected in all samples. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

  4. EST Table: AV400925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400925 br--1989 10/09/28 35 %/122 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...nl|Amel|GB19565-PA 10/09/10 35 %/122 aa gi|91093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  5. EST Table: AV400204 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400204 br--0896 10/09/28 36 %/111 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  6. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  7. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  8. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  9. Analysis of AVS-penogram in 3000 impotent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Young Guy; Choi, Hyung Ki [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-01

    Audio visual simulation penogram(AVS-penogram) is used as a screening method for evaluation of erectile dysfunction. In this study, 3000 patients were evaluated from Dec. 1986 to Dec. 1992 and finally diagnosed by comprehensive diagnostic methods. The patients were classified according to AVS-penogram curves into 4 types and correlated with the patient`s final diagnosis. For 800 patients who were evaluated with combined AVS-penogram and NPT monitoring, compatibility ratios between psychogenic and organic group were compared. After correlating each of the curve type with the patients and comparing erotic and nocturnal erection, following results were obtained. 1. The mean age of the patients was 41.25 years. 2. The overall rate of final diagnosis were 57.5%, 14.3%, 8.9% in psychogenic, arteriogenic and veogenic impotence. 3. Type I group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 87% of the patients. 4. Type IIA group was proved as organic impotence in 79% of the patients and most of them had neurogenic and arteriogenic impotence. 5. Type IIB group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 51%, organic impotence in 49% of the patients. Among the organic impotence group, most of them had arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic impotence. The difference of both group was statically insignificant. 6. Type IIC group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 39%, organic impotence in 61% of the patients. Further studies are needed for sub-classification of both groups. 7. The compatibility ratio of the AVS-penogram and NPTM was 85.9% in psychogenic group with normal finding in both tests and 44.7% in organic group with abnormal finding in both tests. In conclusion, AVS-penogram is a primary diagnostic method in screening impotent patients and type I is regarded as psychogenic impotence. In Type IIB and IIC, sub-classification of curve type is needed for differential diagnosis between psychogenic and organic impotence. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Kokken lagar mat! Utøving og utvikling av yrkeskunnskap på kjøkenet sett i lys av 2300 år gamle kunnskapsformer.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascogne, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Master i yrkespedagogikk Tema for masteroppgåva er utøving og utvikling av yrkeskunnskap i kokkfaget. Bakgrunnen for arbeidet er resultat frå andre forskingsprosjekt i masterstudiet og innføringa av den nye reforma, kunnskapsløftet, i den vidaregåande skulen. Analyse av litteratur, observasjon og intervju av yrkesutøvarar er metodane som er brukt for å finne svar på problemstillinga: Korleis kan Aristoteles sine gnosis-former brukast til å skildre yrkeskunnskap og utvikling av yrkesk...

  11. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  12. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  13. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  14. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  16. Påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. Svalbardstudien 1988-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Høyer m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSvalbard er spesielt godt egnet til å vurdere påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. På grunn av detlave prisnivået for alkohol er ulovlig import eller hjemmeproduksjon av alkohol ukjent på Svalbard. Dessutener samfunnet lite og oversiktlig, slik at det er praktisk mulig å undersøke hele befolkningen. I den aktuellestudien registrerte vi alt salg av alkohol til fastboende nordmenn på Svalbard i oktober og november 1988. Isamme tidsperiode ble alle nordmenn 18 år eller eldre invitert til å ta del i en helseundersøkelse der det inngikkspørsmål om alkoholbruk. Vi fant at selvrapportert alkoholkonsum utgjorde rundt 40% av salgsvolumet.På grunn av de spesielle forhold når det gjelder alkoholomsetning på Svalbard er det grunn til å anta atestimatet i denne studien er mer pålitelig sammenlignet med tilsvarende studier fra andre områder.Høyer G, Nilssen O, Brenn T, Schirmer H. The reliability of self-reported alcohol consumption.The Svalbard study 1988-89. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 109-113.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reportedalcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making a complete registrationof all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol onSvalbard over a two month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbardwere invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire onalcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted forapproximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, theestimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume tovalidate self-reports.

  17. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  18. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  19. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  20. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a

  1. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  2. Hvilken rolle spiller hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk?

    OpenAIRE

    Varem, Andrea; Nervik, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Temaet for denne bacheloroppgaven er hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk. Etter en omfattende gjennomgang av eksisterende teori rundt kundereisen fikk vi et inntrykk av at det er et gap i forskningen knyttet til kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk, på tross av størrelsen på dette markedet. Det vi fant av teori på feltet var i stor grad basert på kvantitative undersøkelser, og vi ønsker derfor å belyse kundereisen i denne konteksten gjennom et kvalitativt forskningsdesign. Med ut...

  3. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Brandrud, Tor Erik; Dima, Bàlint

    2017-01-01

    Brandrud, T.E. & Dima, B. 2017. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016. – NINA Kortrapport 80. 15 s. Kartlegging (start av overvåking) av habitat-spesifikke, jordboende kalksopper i nordre del av Røsskleiva NR ble gjennomført i 2016, før oppstart av skjøtselstiltak med storfébeiting. Tilsammen 27 habitat-spesifikke arter, inkludert 18 rødlistede arter ble registrert i løpet av to registreringsrunder i 2016. Funnene fordelte seg på 10 kalkbarskogsopper, 5 kalklinde-skogs...

  4. Validation of a Real-time AVS Encoder on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Fang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole I frame AVS real-time video encoder is designed and implemented on FPGA platform in this paper. The system uses the structure of the flow calculation, coupled with a dual-port RAM memory between/among the various functional modules. Reusable design and pipeline design are used to optimize various encoding module and to ensure the efficient operation of the pipeline. Through the simulation of ISE software and the verification of Xilinx Vritex-4 pro platform, it can be seen that the highest working frequency can be up to 110 MHz, meeting the requirements of the whole I frame real- time encoding of AVS in CIF resolution.

  5. Leaning av arbetspunkt för urindiagnostik

    OpenAIRE

    Romar, Arne Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Lean är en metod som ämnar förbättra arbetsprocesser, öka kvalitén och förhindra slöseri av resurser. Fler och fler företag och institutioner i västvärlden har den senaste tiden börjat implementera läran och verktygen som ursprungligen kom från Toyota och deras produktionssystem. Sjukhus och sjukhuslaboratorier är inget undantag, patienterna och provmängderna blir större samtidigt som krav på inbesparningar sker. Därför behövs alternativa lösningar i form av lean för att få tillstånd en effek...

  6. Wirevagn : Utvecklingen av en utrullare för hisslinor

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnsfeldt, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Kandidatexamensarbetet som utgick från en förfrågan från företaget Irongrip AB hade som mål att utveckla ett produktförslag på en utlindare av stålvajer för hissmontörer. Irongrip AB som tillverkar och säljer verktyg för hantering av stålvajer hade uppmärksammat att en efterfrågan på en sådan produkt fanns på marknaden då befintliga lösningar var bristfälliga och inte hade alla de funktioner som är önskvärda hos en sådan produkt.Arbetet inleddes med en förstudie där studiebesök vid lindragnin...

  7. Nyttan av franchising i den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Herke, Marie; Olivers, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    Franchising är det mest vanliga kedjekonceptet i fastighetsmäklarbranschen och flera av de största fastighetsmäklarkedjorna är franchisekedjor. De fristående mäklarbyråerna får allt svårare att klara sig i den ökade konkurrensen. Det är främst fristående mäklarbyråer på mindre orter med ett etablerat varumärke samt nischade mäklarbyråer som klarar sig i konkurrensen med de stora kedjorna. På senare år har antalet kedjeanslutna fastighetsmäklare ökat betydligt och flertalet av mäklarkedjorna ä...

  8. Utforming av stålrammer til ridehall

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsrud, Roar

    2013-01-01

    NORSK: Oppgaven går ut på å dimensjonere forskjellige bærerammer til en ridehall på kobberud gård i Lier kommune i Buskerud. Kriterier i oppgaven er at alle forbindelser mellom søyler og bjelker skal kunne utføres som en boltet forbindelse for en så praktisk oppreising av bygget som mulig. Det gir også mulighet for og montere selve bæresystemet på egenhånd om man har nødvendig utstyr. Det er dermed viktig at man bruker så lite stål som mulig for å redusere vekt av søyler og bjelker. Bearbe...

  9. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  10. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  11. Electrical storm after CRT implantation treated by AV delay optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Nicolas; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Albenque, Jean-Paul

    2010-02-01

    We present a case of symptomatic ischemic heart failure with an indication for cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy in primary prevention. After implantation, the patient developed a severe electrical storm with multiple shocks. Hemodynamic improvement based only on AV delay, guided by echocardiography and ECG, brought about a dramatic improvement in the situation. We discuss the pathophysiology of electrical storm occurring immediately after LV pacing.

  12. EST Table: AV401797 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401797 heS00172 10/09/28 94 %/235 aa ref|NP_001036831.1| saposin-related [Bombyx ...9/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 41 %/191 aa gi|91077504|ref|XP_966852.1| PREDICTED: similar to saposin isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS791050 heS0 ...

  13. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  14. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  15. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  16. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  17. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  18. Combustion & Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLDRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLRDC) supports the experimental and computational study of fundamental combustion phenomena to...

  19. ANALYSE AV SAMVARIASJON MELLOM MÅLT ARBEIDSBELASTNING (NAS) OG DEN SUBJEKTIVE OPPLEVELSEN AV ARBEIDSBELASTNINGEN (NASA-TLX) VED INTENSIVAVDELINGER

    OpenAIRE

    Graarud, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Sykehus generelt og intensivavdelinger spesielt er under økende press for å kunne drive god og riktig ressursforvaltning. Dermed øker også behov for å kunne dokumentere intensiv-avdelingenes aktivitet og ressursbehov. Nursing Activities Score (NAS) blir ved flere av landets intensivavdelinger brukt som scoringsverktøy for arbeidsbelastning. Det er et verktøy som har til hensikt å kartlegge behovet for antall sykepleiere per pasient. Det er i Norge flere sykepleiere per intensivpasi...

  20. Å LESE MEDIETEKSTER PÅ IPADEN. Observasjoner av en medievant fireårings bruk av iPad i hjemmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Jæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i tre observasjoner av en gutt på fire år som bruker iPad på fritiden. Den søker å synliggjøre de strategiene dette barnet velger for å skaffe seg tilgang til ulike medietekster, hvordan han leser og tolker dem, og den undersøker eventuelle spor av kritisk refleksjon hos barnet over disse tekstene. Teoretisk sett hviler den på en forståelse av mediekompetanse som en parallell prosess til utvikling av lese- og skrivekyndighet (literacy, og medieopplevelsene omtales som viktige møter med tekst. Artikkelen undersøker hvordan å lese medietekster kan legge et grunnlag for å utvikle en utvidet tekstkompetanse eller mediekompetanse. Konklusjonen legger vekt på motivasjon og lekenhet som barns primære inngang til medietekstene og som et grunnlag for å utvikle mediekompetanse (media literacy. The article is based on three observations of a four-year-old boy who uses the iPad in his spare time. It demonstrates the strategies that this boy applies to gain access to various media texts, and how he reads and interprets them. It also seeks to examine traces of critical reflection that he may demonstrate in relation to these texts. Theoretically, it rests on an understanding of media literacy as a parallel process to the development of literacy, and it seeks to demonstrate how reading media texts can create an important starting point for the development of media literacy. The Kindergarten practitioner’s role and opportunities to develop children's media literacy within a kindergarten context is a focus towards the end of the article. In conclusion, I argue that motivation and playfulness are important approaches to media texts and create an important foundation for the development of media literacy

  1. Har forhold under svangerskapet betydning for utviklingen av otitis media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMed utgangspunkt i data fra et populasjonsbasert utvalg av 7 992 norske tvillinger ble sammenhengenmellom gjentatte ørebetennelser og forhold under svangerskapet studert. Som parametre på intrauterinevekstforhold ble informasjon om fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder fra Medisinsk Fødselsregister benyttet.Informasjon om rapporterte øreinfeksjoner ble basert på spørreskjemaer som ble besvart av tvillingene ialderen 18–25 år. Først studerte vi individuelle effekter av fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder på forekomsten avotitis media (OM. Rapportert fødselsvekt hos individer med OM var signifikant lavere enn hos kontrollene,med en gjennomsnittsforskjell på 86 gram. Hos de som rapporterte OM var gjennomsnittlig gestasjonsalder3 dager kortere enn i kontrollmaterialet. Deretter beregnet vi effekten av fødselsvekt ved bruk av co-twinkontroll metoden. Blant monozygote (MZ tvillingpar gjenspeiler fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparetintra-uterine miljøforskjeller. Blant dizygote (DZ par kan vektforskjellen være både genetiske ogmiljøbetinget. Ved sammenligning av fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparene er tvillingen som ikkehar gjentatte øreinfeksjoner en matchet kontroll blant OM diskordante par. Resultatene antyder at lavfødselsvekt er en risikofaktor for otitis media. Gjennomsnittlig vektforskjell blant par diskordante for OMvar 48 gram, og den av tvillingen som ikke rapporterte OM hadde signifikant høyere fødselsvekt.Kværner KJ, Tambs K, Harris J, Magnus P. Do pregnancy-related factors influence the development ofotitis media? Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 55-58.  ENGLISH SUMMARYThe association between intrauterine growth, as measured by weight and gestational age, and the occurrenceof recurrent ear infections was studied using data from a population based sample of 7992 Norwegian twins.Perinatal measures were collected from the Medical Birth Registry, and reports of recurrent ear infectionswere based on

  2. Overvåking av norsk kosthold - metoder og resultater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKunnskap om endringer i matvarenes sammensetning og befolkningens kosthold er grunnleggende for utformingog oppfølging av en helsefremmende mat- og ernæringspolitikk. Dagens system for overvåking avkostholdet bygger først og fremst på en matvaredatabase og opplysninger om forbruket av matvarer fra tretyper datasett; matforsyningsstatistikk, forbruksundersøkelser og kostholdsundersøkelser. Det avgis årlig envurdering av utviklingen i norsk kosthold i forhold til mat- og ernæringspolitiske målsettinger. Det norskesystemet for overvåking av kostholdet er blitt betydelig styrket i løpet av 1990-årene ved innføringen avregelmessige kostholdsundersøkelser blant landsrepresentative utvalg av befolkningen i ulike aldersgrupperog økte ressurser til analyse av næringsinnholdet i matvarer. Det er imidlertid beskjedent sammenlignet meddatainnsamlingen i land som USA og Storbritannia. Det norske overvåkingssystemet er forsatt i enutviklingsfase, og det må justeres og kompletteres etter hvert. Dessuten vil det arbeides med å kvalitetssikredatainnsamlingen.Johansson L. Surveillance of the diet in Norway – methods and results.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYKnowledge about changes in composition and intake of foods, as well as changes in the prevalence of dietrelatedhealth problems is fundamental for an effective food and nutrition policy. The National Council onNutrition and Physical Activity is responsible for evaluating changes in the diet. Annually the Council publishesreports about trends in the Norwegian diet, and suggests measures to improve the diet. The Council, incooperation with the National Food Authority and the Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo,has established a national food and dietary surveillance system. This system is mainly based on a fooddatabase and food consumption data. The food consumption data include three principally different datasets: food supplies, household consumption surveys

  3. Diffusjon av influensa i Norge under spanskesyken 1918-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSpanskesyken var en verdensomspennende influensaepidemi som tok livet av minst 30 millioner mennesker,de fleste i løpet av noen få høstmåneder i 1918, men den strakk seg også inn i 1919. En siste svakbølge fant sted vinteren 1920. De første sporadiske tilfellene av spanskesyken i Norge oppsto i militærleirei begynnelsen av april 1918. Over tre måneder senere kom de første spredte tilfellene av det som skullevise seg å være starten på en ny stor influensapandemi. De første av disse oppsto i Kristiania, mest sannsynligetter smitteimport fra Skottland over Nordsjøen. Sommeren 1918 spredte spanskesyken seg raskt frasør til nord, fra kysten til innlandet innover fjordene, og fra de største byene og industrisentra via mindrebyer og andre tettsteder til landsbygda langs de viktigste ferdselsveiene. Da spanskesyken blusset opp igjenhøsten 1918 spredte den seg langsommere og trolig fra nord til sør, fortsatt fra kysten innover fjordene,men spredning fra byene langs kommunikasjonsveiene var mindre fremtredende. Vinteren 1918/19opptrådte influensaen spredt og sporadisk, tilsynelatende uten bestemt spredningsmønster og rekkefølge.Jernbanen, hurtigruten og automobilrutene spilte trolig en viktig rolle i spredningsprosessen, spesielt andrehalvår 1918. Ulik sosial interaksjon, for eksempel et marked som samlet store folkemengder, kan bidra til åforklare eksplosive utbrudd av influensa og diffusjon på lavt geografisk nivå.Mamelund S-E. The diffusion of influenza in Norway during the 1918-19 Pandemic.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYIn 1918-1919, a world-wide pandemic, the Spanish Influenza, swept over the entire globe, killing at least30 million people, most of them during the fall of 1918. A last, but small and less defined wave occurred inthe winter of 1920. The first sporadic cases of Spanish Influenza in Norway are known from army campsin the early days of April 1918. More than three months later, the first scattered

  4. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadullin, A N; Ahmethanov, E N; Iovleva, O V; Mitrofanov, G A

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW)

  5. IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data (IPPLV1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems flown...

  6. IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude (IPAPP1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 POS AV system flown with the Digital...

  7. KS-LAB Kontroll av hydrometer ASTM 152H : (prosess 14-433 i hb014 og NS8005)

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, El Hadj

    2007-01-01

    I forbindelse med kvalitetssikring av slemmeanalyser ved bruk av hydrometer har det vist seg å være behov for systematisk kontroll ved innkjøp og bruk av hydrometre. Rapporten beskriver registrerte avvik ved sammenligning av hydrometre og angir hvorledes kontroll av hydrometer skal foregå for å sikre at anvendt utstyr tilfredsstiller gjeldende krav.

  8. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  9. Et studium av samfunnsansvar (CSR) for norske utenlandsetablerte akvakulturselskaper; Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream i Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er et studium av samfunnsansvar for norsk utenlandsetablert akvakulturnæring. Valg av tema er motivert av interessen for den eksisterende samfunnsdebatten omkring næringen og internasjonale næringsstrukturer med fotfeste i utviklingsland. Norsk tilstedeværelse i Chile eksemplifisert ved Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream er anvendt som case studium. Presentasjon og drøfting av Corporate social responsibility (CSR), oversatt til norsk som Selskapers samfunnsansvar, ...

  10. Det afghanska valet i svensk media : En diskursanalys av svensk medias rapportering om parlamentsvalet 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Den här uppsatsen analyserar svensk medias rapportering om valet i Afghanistan 2010. Med hjälp av metoder framtagna av Van Dijk har en analys av artiklar som berör valet 2010 gjorts. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna är postkolonialism och orientalism. Med hjälp av de perspektiven och Van Dijks medieanalys analyseras materialet för att tydliggöra strukturer i media.

  11. Ungdommers opplevelser med overdreven bruk av online-rollespillet World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaaten, Øivind; Torp, Steffen; Aarseth, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Ungdommers bruk av online-rollespill blir ofte problematisert (Falkner 2007). På bakgrunn av kvalitative intervjuer med ti ungdommer og fem pårørendekontakter beskrives i denne artikkelen ungdommenes opplevelser av online-spillet World of Warcraft (WoW). Denne pilotstudien gir en nyansert...... for konflikt og hjelpeløshet. Helsefremmende arbeid basert på dialog og tidlig intervensjon kan forhindre at online-spilladferd kommer ut av kontroll....

  12. En obekväm sanning eller en stor bluff? : En analys av den visuella gestaltningen av fenomenet "global uppvärmning" i filmmediet

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anton; Oretoft, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    En uppsats som kritiskt granskar och analyserar den visuella gestaltningen i två dokumentärfilmer. Huvudtemat i filmerna är global uppvärmning och konsekvenserna av detta. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka den visuella gestaltningen av den miljödebatt som filmerna är en del i och genom detta belysa frågor som berör visuell kultur och popularisering av vetenskap.

  13. A study of thermaů decomposition and combustion products of disposable polyethylene terephtalate plastic using high resolution fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Kristýna; Ferus, Martin; Matulková, Irena; Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Dvořák, O.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 106, 9-10 (2008), s. 1205-1214 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : polyethylene terephtalate (PET) * combustion * high resolution FTIR spectroscopy * GC-MS * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2008

  14. Forbuden frukt smaker best en studie av nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av sjokolade, søtsaker, salt snacks, sukkerholdige leskedrikker og lignende

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2010-01-01

    Denne studien er en del av forskningsprosjektene Young Food og HealthMeal. Begge prosjektene er finansiert av Norges forskningsråd. Temaet i rapporten er nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av en type mat og drikke som helsemyndighetene ønsker at befolkningen skal redusere forbruket sitt av – slik som sjokolade, søtsaker, søte bakervarer, salt snacks og sukkerholdige drikker. Selv om forbruksutviklingen de seneste par årene har vist positive tendenser, har altså nordmenn fremdeles et langt høye...

  15. …med andre ord. ”10 stadier i oversettelse av sangtekst”. Oversettelse av Stevie Wonder og Stephen Sondheim til norsk

    OpenAIRE

    Iveland, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Norges musikkhøgskole. Masteroppgave. Utøving med fordypningsemne SAMMENDRAG AV OPPGAVEN --- Denne masteroppgaven er en del av en utøvende master og inneholder en analytisk og en praktisk del. Formålet er å finne en metode, et verktøy, for oversettelse av sangtekst, og å identifisere faktorer i språket som må tas hensyn til i oversettelse. Samlet viser den ulike språklige egenskaper som er med på å prege arbeidet med oversettelser av sangtekster. Med utgangspunkt i teorier om tolknin...

  16. Fouling and slagging problems at recovered wood fuel combustion; Orsaker till askrelaterade driftproblem vid eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Hoegberg, Jan [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    CHP-plants that use a large portion of sorted wood waste fuel can face ash-related problems. By analysing the circumstances about these problems, the goal is to find causes for the problems and measures that can be taken. This knowledge can then be utilised in plants where it is desired to increase the portion of sorted wood waste fuel. For the measurements, a deposit probe is a good tool to use since the result is independent of many boiler-specific factors. Compared with forest residues, sorted wood waste causes a more problematic ash. The risk of troublesome fouling and corrosion seems to increase with increased admixture of sorted wood waste fuel. Plugging of the grate is associated with melts that are formed from metallic contamination in the fuel. These melts obstruct the air holes. The melts that have been seen during the project have had a content of aluminium, brass and zinc. In order to solve these problems, the construction and cooling of the grate and quality assurance of the fuel are important aspects. One problem that was found in all of the studied boilers (grates as well as fluidized beds) is growth of fouling on surfaces for heat transfer. Measurements with deposit probe show that the initial growth rate on superheaters are approximately 3 - 5 times higher when sorted wood waste is used than if forest residues is used. Even if this growth rate can not be extrapolated to a complete operating season, the relative difference between the fuels remains. The extent of the problem depends on the dimensioning of the boiler. The fouling tends to have a light outer layer that can be disadvantageous for the absorption of heat radiation. Haendeloe P11 needs for example to be stopped for cleaning with an interval of 2 - 3 months because of lost heat absorption in the furnace and the convection path. The most obvious ash related problem that was found in Haendeloe P11 when 100 % sorted wood waste fuel was used was corrosion on the walls of the lower parts of the furnace. The corrosion has forced an exchange of large parts of the panel walls. More or less severe corrosion on the superheaters is reported from all of the boilers that were studied in the project. Since most of them use sorted wood waste mixed with some other fuel, it is difficult to make conclusions about the specific role of the sorted wood waste fuel for this corrosion. Long-term measurements with a deposit probe in Haendeloe P11 shows that the deposit growth rate varies with a factor five from day to day, although the load is relatively constant. In addition to the typical components in wood fuel ash such as calcium, potassium and sulphur, also zinc, lead, and in some cases titanium are concentrated in the deposits. Zinc is common in the deposits from the grate furnaces and the CFB within the concentration interval 5 - 20 % (also higher contents occur). The zinc content was lower in the deposits from the CFB. Lead and titanium was found to a higher extent in the fluidized bed boilers.

  17. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola

    2009-10-15

    The new chemical regulation, REACH (1997/2006/EC), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals, took effect the 1st of June 2007. The background to this report was the introduction of REACH and the difficulties to understand the implications for ash. The most important consequence of REACH is that all chemical substances that are manufactured, handled and used above one tonne per annum per legal entity shall be registered according to this regulation. The registration includes specifying the chemical, physical, toxicity and ecotoxicity properties of the substance and risk assessing the identified areas of use. The report describes the use of ash in connection to the waste legislation and its planned end-of-waste-criteria, the chemical legislation and the Construction Products Directive. The target audience of this report is companies producing ashes and having a use or seeing a use for its ash. The report describes how to make a REACH registration of ash independent if a company did or did not pre-register ash during 2008. It describes how to change from one ash registration into another if the pre-registration was done for one type of ash but the company changes opinion during the sameness check, i.e. changing SIEF (Appendix A). Taking part in REACH registration projects during 2009-2010 can be advantageous since knowledge and financing are shared. Ash can be REACH registered also in the future but it is important to know that the registration have to be done prior the production and marketing starts. If ash is consider to be a waste the handling is covered by the community and national waste legislation. In Sweden ashes are by and large being regarded as waste, and recycling is risk assessed and permits are given case by case. End-of-waste criteria for different waste material are being elaborated within the EU. Such criteria will among other details cover chemical safety. When a material fulfils the end-of-waste criteria such material will have the possibility to leave the waste legislation and be covered by the chemical legislation in becoming a product or an article. It is not know in detail how far the chemical legislation will reach for material having end-of-waste criteria. Currently, end-of-waste criteria have not yet been initiated for ashes. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvaardsverket) is currently elaborating end-of-waste criteria for the use of material in construction works. Recovering waste is according to REACH identical with manufacturing. A chemical substance, preparation/mixture or article manufactured from waste, i.e. via a recovering operation will have to follow chemical legislation. The enterprise responsible for the recovering operation is the legal entity responsible to follow REACH for the manufactured material. One example of recovering ash into a chemical substance is the manufacturing of cement when ash is the raw material. It is the responsibility of the cement plant to have its substance or product REACH-registered before manufactured and provided to a third party. The waste legislation, instead of the chemical legislation, applies when the waste recovering operation does not results in manufacturing of a substance, preparation or article provided to a third party and the waste has a use at the end of its life cycle. This is identified as late recovery. The waste legislation applies during the life cycle of the waste in such cases. Examples in Sweden are ashes used in landfill sealing and covering layers and in roads or soil stabilization. Use of ashes in constructions is covered by the Constructions Product Directive (2008/98/EC), CPD, irrespective if it is identified as a waste or a chemical product. The CPD harmonizes only testing and CE-marking of construction products. Chemical safety requirements originate from national legislation which in many cases is based on chemical regulation. Standardized testing methods to measure emitted hazardous substances from construction products were initiated in 2006 on the EU level. The proposed method s are similar to leaching methods used today in characterization of waste properties for landfill. The report describes pros and cons with REACH registration of ashes. It is believed that uses of ashes will more easily be available if the ashes are registered according to REACH. The reason is that a REACH registration generates extensive information about properties and emissions during uses and that safety instructions will be available to guarantee that emissions will not be higher than what man and nature can sustain. The fee for a joint submission of a REACH registration is 23,250 Euro per legal entity if the company put more than 1,000 tonnes of the dry substance on the market per year.

  18. Fly ashes from co-combustion as a filler material in concrete production; Anvaendning av energiaskor som fillermaterial vid betongtillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundblom, Hillevi

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish concrete producers have decided to work towards a common goal to limit the production of concrete with naturally rounded aggregate. A consequence is when use of a substitute, crushed aggregate, the demand of filler material increases. During the last years ashes form the CFB boiler in Perstorp has been utilised as a filler material, with success, in concrete production at Sydsten, Malmoe, Sweden. To examine the potential of using Swedish fly ashes as a filler material in concrete production, have different Swedish fly ashes above been studied to see if they fit the requirements for a filler material. The fly ashes studied in the project can be divided into four different groups, considering fuel mix and boiler type; 1. Bio and sludge fired CFB/BFB boiler from the paper industry, 2. Bio and peat fired CFB/BFB boiler, 3. Pulverized peat/coal firing furnace, 4.Bio and peat fired grate-fired boiler. From Sydsten experiences of using Swedish fly ashes two demands have emerged concerning the chemical composition of the ashes. The total amount of chloride in the concrete should not be higher than 0,1% and the LOI, (Loss Of Ignition) must be less than 10 %. The different ash analyses showed that the fluidised bed boilers and pulverized firing furnaces, in this study, passed all the chemical requirements but the grate fire boilers had difficulties to fulfil the requirement of LOI. The ashes chosen to be studied in further rheological investigations in different fresh concrete mixtures were, Category 1 (Hallstavik's and Hyltebruk's papermill), Category 2 (Vaesteraas Vaermeverk och Vaertaverket) and from Category 3 (Vattenfall Vaerme Uppsala). The results presented an increased water consumption of ashes from paper mills comparing with the other ashes, a probable reason could be the shape of the ash grains. The experiments also showed that all ashes contributed to the final strength of the hardened concrete, the paper mill ashes also contributed to the initial strength development. During mixture of the fresh concrete with an ash quantity of 60 kg/m{sup 3}, it different degrees of loss of consistency was observed during the first hour after mixing. When decreasing the amount of ash to 30 kg/km{sup 3}, it was only the paper mill ashes that could not maintain the consistency during the first hour. The mechanisms that are dominating in the interaction between ash and cement during the hardening of the fresh concrete are complex. The reasons why certain ashes create a greater loss of consistency than others are not fully understood. It is necessary to continue research in this issue for simplifying the choices when using ashes in different concrete application. This project resulted in full-scale demonstration. Sydsten in Malmoe delivered concrete with ash from the pulverized peat-firing furnace in Uppsala as a filler material to a concrete casting in Lund. The concreting was very successful. The concrete did not loose the consistency as noted in the laboratory experiments. The concrete also demonstrated an excellent workability. The overall conclusion is, some of the Swedish fly ashes are very suitable to use as a filler material in concrete. A full-scale demonstration and delivery to customer has already been made in south of Sweden (Sydsten). There is also potential to find methods to refine ashes, which today don't fulfil the requirements of consistency for example sieving, to reduce the quantity of LOI.

  19. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  20. Rettferdige minutter: Fordeling av spilletid i fotballkamper for aldersbestemte klasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Anker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available På et fotballag i overgangen mellom barne- og ungdomsfotballen er spilletid på fotballbanen under kamp både en knapp ressurs og en kilde til diskusjoner om fordeling. Spørsmålet som er utgangspunkt for denne artikkelen, er hvilke hensyn som bør tas når trener og lagleder skal fordele samlet spilletid på enkeltspillere. Er det viktigst å vinne fotballkampen, eller har det størst betydning å fordele spilletiden mest mulig likt mellom spillerne? Skal det tas hensyn til guttenes evner, motivasjon og preferanser? Er deres familiebakgrunn og personlighet av betydning? Diskusjonen baserer seg på en gjennomgang av ulike politiske rettferdighetsteorier for fordeling av knappe goder.Nøkkelord: rettferdighet, practice, fordelingsrettferdighet, diskursetikk, idrettsetikkEnglish summary: Minutes of justice: Distribution of time during football matches in a boys' teamDuring a football match, time for playing can be considered as a limited good. In this article the point of departure is the redistribution of time in a boys' football team in the transition phase between children and youth football. The questions are how and under which conditions time for playing should be distributed among the players. Is winning the game more important than trying to let every player play for an equal amount of time? Should the boys' talents, motivation, and preferences be considered while distributing time, or are family background and personality of importance? Different theories of political justice for the distribution of limited goods underpin the discussion of how to distribute the minutes of playing time during a football match.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1737

  1. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  2. Producer for vegetal combustibles for internal-combustion motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-12-28

    A producer is described for internal-combustion motors fed with wood or agricultural byproducts characterized by the fact that its full operation is independent of the degree of wetness of the material used.

  3. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  4. Tillämpning av IAS 40 i onoterade fastighetsbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Fredrik; Nilsson, Karolina; Ericsson, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Enligt IAS 40 – Förvaltningsfastigheter, definieras förvaltningsfastigheter som ”mark eller byggnader eller del av byggnad som innehas i syfte att generera hyresinkomster eller värdestegring”. Onoterade fastighetsbolag i Sverige har idag möjlighet att välja mellan att värdera sina fastigheter till anskaffningsvärde eller verkligt värde. IAS – International Accounting Standards är en internationell redovisningsstandard inom EU som började tillämpas i januari 2001, men blev obligatorisk för bör...

  5. EST Table: AV404130 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 53...78 aa gnl|Amel|GB30360-PB 10/09/10 54 %/199 aa gi|189241063|ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expres...sed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 pg-- ... ...AV404130 pg--0509 10/09/28 54 %/199 aa ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to resti

  6. Kjønnsforskjeller i forekomst av legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Nordeng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKvinnelig kjønn er blitt identifisert som risikofaktor for legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger både i primærhelsetjenestenog under sykehusopphold. Hyppigere forekomst av bivirkninger kan forklares delvis,men ikke fullstendig, av at kvinner som gruppe konsumerer oftere og flere legemidler. Videre har legemiddelbrukhos kvinner i mange tilfeller tilknytning til biologiske tilstander som menstruasjon, graviditetog menopause, og den øker med alderen. Det er viktig å ta i betraktning kulturelle forskjeller hoskvinner og menn som kan være med på å overestimere kjønnsforskjellene i bivirkningsforekomsten.Kvinner bruker helsevesenet hyppigere og rapporterer oftere bivirkninger. Høyere bivirkningsfrekvenshos kvinner kan også være resultat av at kvinner generelt får høyere dose per kg enn menn fordikvinner veier mindre. Kjønnsforskjeller i bivirkninger kan i tillegg være knyttet til forskjellig aktivitet ileverenzymene cytochrom P450, som metaboliserer de fleste legemidler. Strukturelle og funksjonellekjønnsforskjeller finnes også i nyrer, lunger, hjerte/kar- og mage/tarmsystemet, og påvirker i varierendegrad effekt og sikkerhet av legemidler.Nordeng H. Gender differences in the occurrence of adverse drug events.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYBoth pharmacoepidemiological and clinical studies have identified female gender as a risk factor foradverse events of drugs, both in primary care and in a hospital setting. Frequent occurrence of adverseevents can partly, but not totally, be explained by the fact that women as a group consume more drugsthan men. Women’s drug consumption can to a certain degree be related to menstruation, pregnancyand menopause, and increases with age. It is essential to take into account cultural differences that cancontribute to an overestimation of the gender effect of adverse drug events. Women use the health caresystem more frequently and report more often and more willingly adverse events. Higher

  7. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  8. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  9. Fuels and Combustion | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuels and Combustion Fuels and Combustion This is the March 2015 issue of the Transportation and , combustion strategy, and engine design hold the potential to maximize vehicle energy efficiency and performance of low-carbon fuels in internal combustion engines with a whole-systems approach to fuel chemistry

  10. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R.; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    1997-01-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data

  11. Environmental sensing and combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoleri, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Environmental Sensing and Combustion Diagnostics. Topics covered include: Incineration Systems Applications, Permitting, And Monitoring Overview; Infrared Techniques Applied to Incineration Systems; Continuous Emission Monitors; Analyzers and Sensors for Process Control And Environmental Monitoring

  12. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  13. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ..., rubber, drugs, dried blood, dyes, certain textiles, and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium..., furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal products and machinery manufacturing, pesticide... standard that will comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dust. The Agency...

  14. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called {sup p}hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency{sup .} Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology.

  15. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called p hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency . Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology

  16. UNIPASS for AvSP? A Broader View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2001-01-01

    UNIPASS is a general-purpose probabilistic computer program consisting of three major modules, including preprocessor, solver and postprocessor. UNIPASS contains a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), numerous state-of-the-art probabilistic analysis techniques, a large library of statistical distributions and a function module with a large library of support functions that can easily define any complex limit-state function in a scripting FORTRAN-like syntax format. Its inverse probability analysis and sensitivities analysis capabilities make it a powerful design aid in any product cycle. Its precise numerical analysis engine is accurate enough to push the failure probabilities of a design to well below 10 (exp -50). UNIPASS is equipped with advanced artificial intelligence that is designed to handle systems with an essentially unlimited number of random variables with ease and efficiency. Its modular arrangement allows you to tailor an analysis to the desired level of accuracy and efficiency. The depth and comprehensiveness of UNIPASS are built upon the decades of experience and expertise of industry leaders including Boeing Aircraft, NASA and the DoD. Its rich content also makes UNIPASS a valuable instructional tool for random processes and probabilistic mechanics. The topics include: 1) Reliability in AvSP; 2) Role of UNIPASS in AvSP; and 3) Examples. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  17. Cerebral av angiomas: 3-dimensional demonstration by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Hosten, N.; Neumann, K.; Lemke, A.J.; Langer, R.; Lanksch, W.R.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    In 20 patients with known or suspected supratentorial arteriovenous malformations, an attempt was made to see how far CT angiography with 3-dimensional reconstructions is able to make a diagnosis and to differentiate the various components of the angioma. Spiral CT was performed following an intravenous bolus injection of 60-80 ml of iodine containing contrast medium. In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed by intra-arterial DSA of the vertebral vessels. In 13 patients, av malformations could be diagnosed following multiplanar 3-D reconstructions which agreed with the findings on DSA. The large supplying vessels, the nidus and the large draining veins could be defined with certainty. In 6 patients follow-up examination after embolisation was performed. The results could be demonstrated in three dimensions and the success of treatment could be documented unequivocally. CT angiography with 3-D reconstruction is able to supply important information in the majority of intracranial av malformations, both during initial investigation and following treatment. (orig.) [de

  18. Selvbestemmelse og oppdragelse : en teoretisk analyse av oppdragelsens påvirkning på utviklingen av selvbestemmelse

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Marit Svennevig; Haugstvedt, Merete Lehne Rugdal

    2007-01-01

    1) Problemstilling Hensikten med oppgaven er å rette fokus mot oppdragelse som en påvirkningsfaktor på utviklingen av selvbestemmelsen, og hvilken betydning behovstilfredsstillelse har for individets subjektive velvære. Oppdragelse er et populært tema som stadig blir debattert i mediene. Det diskuteres blant annet hvorfor oppdragelse er viktig, hvordan det er mulig å oppdra barn på best mulig måte og hvem som er viktige oppdragere i dagens samfunn. Vår oppgave handler om individets selvbes...

  19. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  20. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  1. Are acid volatile sulfides (AVS) important trace metals sinks in semi-arid mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Hermano Melo; Nóbrega, Gabriel Nuto; Otero, Xose L; Ferreira, Tiago Osório

    2018-01-01

    Acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) formation and its role on trace metals bioavailability were studied in semi-arid mangroves. The semi-arid climatic conditions at the studied sites, marked by low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates, clearly limited the AVS formation (AVS contents varied from 0.10 to 2.34μmolg -1 ) by favoring oxic conditions (Eh>+350mV). The AVS contents were strongly correlated with reactive iron and organic carbon (r=0.84; r=0.83 respectively), evidencing their dominant role for AVS formation under semi-arid conditions. On the other hand, the recorded ΣSEM/AVS values remained >1 evidencing a little control of AVS over the bioavailability of trace metals and, thus, its minor role as a sink for toxic metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combustion means for solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, D.

    1987-09-23

    A combustion device for solid fuel, suitable for coal, coke, charcoal, coal-dust briquettes etc., comprising:- a base stand with an opening therein, an imperforate heat resistant holding board locatable to close said opening; a combustion chamber standing on the base stand with the holding board forming the base of the combustion chamber; a wiper arm pivoted for horizontal wiping movement over the upper surface of the holding board; an inlet means at a lower edge of said chamber above the base stand, and/or in a surrounding wall of said chamber, whereby combustion air may enter as exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber; an exhaust pipe for the exhaust gases; generally tubular gas-flow heat-exchange ducting putting the combustion chamber and exhaust pipe into communication; and means capable of moving the holding board into and out of the opening for removal of ash or other residue. The invention can be used for a heating system in a house or in a greenhouse or for a boiler.

  3. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  5. HERCULES Advanced Combustion Concepts Test Facility: Spray/Combustion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, presents a review of work being done within the framework of HERCULES (High Efficiency R and D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) - the international R and D project concerning new technologies for ships' diesels. The work involves the use and augmentation of simulation models. These are to be validated using experimental data. The report deals with the development of an experimental set-up that will simulate combustion in large two-stroke diesel engines and allow the generation of reference data. The main element of the test apparatus is a spray / combustion chamber with extensive possibilities for optical observation under variable flow conditions. The results of first simulations confirm concepts and shall help in further work on the project. The potential offered by high-speed camera systems was tested using the institute's existing HTDZ combustion chamber. Further work to be done is reviewed.

  6. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  7. O tornar-se avó no processo de individuação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dal Ri Kipper

    Full Text Available O tornar-se avó assinala um período de transição no ciclo de vida familiar, marcado por transformações psíquicas significativas para os avós, caracterizando a quarta individuação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a experiência de tornar-se avó e sua importância no processo de individuação. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo de caso coletivo. Onze avós maternas, com idades entre 49 e 66 anos, cujas filhas tiveram seu primeiro filho, responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Todas as avós tinham tido seus primeiros netos e a entrevista referia-se a sua experiência como avós desses netos. Os dados mostraram que o ser avó é uma fonte de renovação e renascimento. O estudo propiciou que as participantes refletissem sobre seus diferentes papéis familiares: avó, mãe, neta e filha. Os dados sugerem que tornar-se avó possibilita que antigos conflitos sejam repensados, renovando antigos vínculos e desejos, o que permite que a avó dê mais um passo rumo à sua individuação.

  8. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  9. EST Table: AV399395 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399395 NV120168 10/09/28 100 %/139 aa ref|NP_001037386.1| glyceraldehyde-3-phosph...ate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABA43638.2| glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 81 %/139...id:CAA88697.1 10/09/10 89 %/142 aa AGAP009623-PA Protein|3R:37154051:37155049:1|gene:AGAP009623 10/09/10 79 %/139... aa gnl|Amel|GB14798-PA 10/09/10 84 %/139 aa gi|91088023|ref|XP_974181.1| PREDICTED: similar to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Tribolium castaneum] DN237090 NV12 ...

  10. Finansiering av investeringar i immateriella tillgångar

    OpenAIRE

    Voltaire, Christian; Gillebrink, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Vid en bedömning av ett kreditärende ser banken till projektets företagsekonomiska förutsättningar. För företag som har immateriella tillgångar som de viktigaste tillgångarna i sin redovisning kan det uppstå problem när de ansöker om kredit hos banker. Detta beror på att immateriella tillgångar inte fungerar på samma sätt som materiella och därigenom tillbringar vag säkerhet för en beviljad kredit. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka finna vad det är som krävs för att ett tjänsteföretag ska ...

  11. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  12. Verksamhetsanalys, Planering och Utveckling av en webbtjänst

    OpenAIRE

    Kindstedt, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Arbetet behandlar utvecklingsprocessen av programmet SECTMA, ett cirkeltränings-program designat för människor som utövar kampsporter. Programmet är designat för alla konditionsnivåer från toppidrottare till de som endast vill förbättra sin kondition. Arbetet är tudelat, i den första delen går jag igenom teori för STOF och Agile för att skapa en grund och en förståelse för hur jag vill utveckla programmet. Den andra delen följer med utvecklingsprocessen stegvis. STOF erbjuder ett ramverk...

  13. Twenty-fifth symposium (international) on combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the papers presented at this conference are contained in this volume. The other one-third appear in special issues of ''Combustion and Flame'', Vol. 99, 1994 and Vol. 100, 1995. Papers are divided into the following sections: Supersonic combustion; Detonations and explosions; Internal combustion engines; Practical aspects of combustion; Incineration and wastes; Sprays and droplet combustion; Coal and organic solids combustion; Soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Reaction kinetics; NO x ; Turbulent flames; Turbulent combustion; Laminar flames; Flame spread, fire and halogenated fire suppressants; Global environmental effects; Ignition; Two-phase combustion; Solid propellant combustion; Materials synthesis; Microgravity; and Experimental diagnostics. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  14. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram C Poller

    Full Text Available Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI.We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129 and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31. Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a normal, b too long (E/A wave fusion or c too short (A wave truncation. In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography.All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%. In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI: 12.6-26.2%. A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms.Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2% of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  15. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  16. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Van Griethuysen, C; Koelmans, A A

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics.

  17. Rommet som den tredje pedagog - En studie av pedagogers forståelse av rommets betydning - med fokus på estetisk virksomhet

    OpenAIRE

    Krokstad, Inger Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven «Rommet som den tredje pedagog i tre Reggio Emilia-inspirerte barnehager. En studie av pedagogers forståelse av rommets betydning –med fokus på estetisk virksomhet» har til hensikt å bidra til økt kunnskap om estetisk virksomhet som er forbundet med Reggio Emilias tanke om rommet som den tredje pedagog. Avhandlingens problemstilling er: Hvilke mønster kan identifiseres i barnehagepedagogens forståelse av rommet som den tredje pedagog-med fokus på estetisk virksomhet? ...

  18. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  19. Vad vill kvinnor ha? : En undersökning av en lokaltidnings bilaga i form av ett livsstilsmagasin.

    OpenAIRE

    Heurling, Åsa; Lovisa, Lesse

    2011-01-01

    Folkbladet är en dagstidning i Norrköping med en stark lokal prägel vars prenumeranter till största delen är sportintresserade män. För att försöka bredda sin läsekrets har man sedan 2009 gett ut en tidning kallad Trend, som vänder sig till kvinnor i åldern 20 - 50 år. Denna tidning med lokal prägel, i form av ett livsstilsmagasin för kvinnor, handlar om mode, skönhet, heminredning och resor. Maga- sinet ges ut i fyra nummer per år och delas ut gratis till alla hushåll i Norrköping med omnejd...

  20. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  1. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  2. Dialogmøte om teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Kristian; Sunde, Leif Magne; Digre, Hanne; Svendsen, Erik; Rundtop, Per; Erikson, Ulf Gøran

    2013-01-01

    SINTEF Fiskeri og havbruk arrangerte den 19. mars 2013, i samarbeid med Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF), et dialogmøte med fokus på teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd. Under møtet ble status for gjeldene teknologi og operasjoner for trenging av fisk i merd, samt resultater fra forskningsprosjekter tilknyttet trengeprosessen, presentert. Videre ble det samlet innspill om utfordringer tilknyttet trenging av fisk i produksjons- og ventemerd fra oppdrettsbedrifter, leverandø...

  3. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  4. "Dem vil at barna skal ha noe å gjøre" : En casestudie av Habbo.no

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaale, Torkel

    2012-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en kvalitativ casestudie av Habbo.no, en virtuell verden der hovedgruppen av brukere er barn og unge. Det kvalitative forskningsintervju representerer metodeverktøyet som er brukt for innsamlingen av data, og datamaterialet består av 10 intervjuer med tilsammen 13 brukere av Habbo.no, i alderen 10-12 år. Habbo ble skapt av det finske selskapet Sulake i 2000 som hevder at denne er verdens største virtuelle verden for tenåringer. Habbo.no er kun én av til sammen 35 unike H...

  5. Improvement of fuel combustion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A.G.; Babii, V.I.; Enyakin, Y.P.; Kotler, V.R.; Ryabov, G.V.; Verbovetskii, E.K.; Nadyrov, I.I. [All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-01

    The main problems encountered in the further development of fuel combustion technologies at thermal power stations in Russia are considered. Experience is generalized and results are presented on the efficiency with which nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by means of technological methods when burning natural gas, fuel oil, and coal. The problems that arise in the introduction of new combustion technologies and in using more promising grades of coal are considered. The results studies are presented that show that low grade Russian coals can be burnt in circulating fluidized bed boilers. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  7. Lyden av de mørke sjeler - Lyd og musikk i videospillet Dark Souls

    OpenAIRE

    Burdal, Kristin Johnsrud

    2014-01-01

    Dark Souls er et videospill som skiller seg fra måten de fleste moderne videospill er bygget opp. Lyd og musikk er en viktig del av dette, og i denne oppgava har vi sett på hvordan lyd og musikk brukes i videospillet. Målet var å finne ut hva lyd og musikk har å si for spillopplevelsen. Dette har vi kommet fram til ved analyse av lyden, og analyse av et utvalg av musikkstykker. For å peke på hvordan lydbruken i Dark Souls skiller seg ut, har vi i tillegg sammenligna det med lydbruken andre vi...

  8. Magnetic hard disks for audio-visual use; AV yo jiki disk baitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tei, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Uwazumi, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Computers, consumer, and communications are converging and fusing. The key device in homes in the near future will be an audiovisual hard disk drive (AV-HDD). The reason is that there is no other AV cash memory with high capacity, high speed, and a low price than the HDD. Fuji Electric has early started developing an AV magnetic hard disk, a core-functional element of the AV-HDD, to take the initiative in the market. This paper describes the state of plastic medium development, which is regarded as a next-generation strategic commodity. (author)

  9. Effekt av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å fremme sunne levevaner

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne systematiske oversikten er å svare på spørsmålet: Hva er effekten av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å påvirke holdninger, kunnskap og atferd knyttet til sunne levevaner? Metode: Systematiske søk ble gjort i 11 bibliografiske baser. Tilleggssøk ble gjort i Google Scholar. Utvelgelse og vurdering av publikasjoner ble gjort av to personer uavhengig av hverandre. Risiko for systematiske feil ble vurdert med sjekklisten til Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation...

  10. Open-Loop Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS): A Useful Tool for Management of Insomnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hsin-Yi Jean; Riegel, Barbara; McCurry, Susan M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2016-03-01

    Audio Visual Stimulation (AVS), a form of neurofeedback, is a non-pharmacological intervention that has been used for both performance enhancement and symptom management. We review the history of AVS, its two sub-types (close- and open-loop), and discuss its clinical implications. We also describe a promising new application of AVS to improve sleep, and potentially decrease pain. AVS research can be traced back to the late 1800s. AVS's efficacy has been demonstrated for both performance enhancement and symptom management. Although AVS is commonly used in clinical settings, there is limited literature evaluating clinical outcomes and mechanisms of action. One of the challenges to AVS research is the lack of standardized terms, which makes systematic review and literature consolidation difficult. Future studies using AVS as an intervention should; (1) use operational definitions that are consistent with the existing literature, such as AVS, Audio-visual Entrainment, or Light and Sound Stimulation, (2) provide a clear rationale for the chosen training frequency modality, (3) use a randomized controlled design, and (4) follow the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and/or related guidelines when disseminating results.

  11. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk

    OpenAIRE

    Foldvik, Anders; Pettersen, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Foldvik, A. & Pettersen, O. 2017. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk. - NINA Kortrapport 75, 18 s. Reguleringen av Suldalslågen til kraftproduksjon har hatt negative effekter for habitat for laksefisk, blant annet i form av sedimentering og begroing av substratet. Disse prosessene har blitt forsøkt motvirket ved å ha en serie med spyleflommer på over 200 m3/s om høsten. På oppdrag fra Statkraft inverterte NINA oppvekst- og gyteforhold for laks i Su...

  12. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  13. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  14. Enhancement of Combustion and Flame Stabilization Using Transient Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    Plasma Chemistry, Taormina, Italy, ISPC-564, 22-27 June 2003. 8Ozlem, M.Y., Saveliev A.V., Porshnev, P.I., Fridman, A., Kennedy, L.A., "Non-Equilibrium...Kennedy, L.A., Saveliev , A. and Yardimci, O.M., "Gliding Arc Gas Discharge," Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 25,1999, pp. 211-231...34Optical Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasmas,"Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 12, May 2003, pp. 125-138.31Ozlem, M.Y., Saveliev

  15. IAS 40 i ljuset av ägarförhållanden : Värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i börsnoterade respektive statliga bolag

    OpenAIRE

    Klarin, Olof; Sandell, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Redovisningen av förvaltningsfastigheter enligt IAS 40 har tidigare beskrivits i ett stort antal olika vetenskapliga alster. Merparten av dessa har dock tittat på börsnoterade bolag men det finns även andra företag som tillämpar IAS-reglerna. En grupp företag som gör det är de bolag som ägs av svenska staten. Ett av målen med IFRS är att skapa jämförbarhet och då bör inte ägarformen ha någon betydelse för redovisning och värdering. Denna studies syfte är därför att skapa insik...

  16. Idag lever Kjell med Britt-Marie : En kritisk diskursanalys av framställningen av homosexualitet i TV-reklam

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensson, Sophia; Olsson, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur homosexualitet skildras i svensk TV-reklam. Detta med anledning av mediers möjligheter till att påverka publiken samt utifrån heteronormen i samhället. För att uppfylla målet med studien har ett par frågeställningar formulerats: “Vilka diskursiva teman framkommer i resultatet och vad säger de om framställningen av homosexualitet i TV-reklam?” och “Skiljer sig framställningen av homosexualitet från framställningen av heterosexualitet och i så fall hur?”. Sex...

  17. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sö ren; Jarząbek, Michał; Hadrich, Torsten; Michels, Dominik L.; Palubicki, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical

  18. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  19. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  20. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  1. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  2. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  3. Combustion Research Facility | A Department of Energy Office of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Research Facility Back to Sandia National Laboratory Homepage Combustion Research Search the CRF Combustion Chemistry Flame Chemistry Research.Combustion_Chemistry.Flame_Chemistry Theory and Modeling Theory and Modeling Combustion Kinetics High Pressure Chemistry Chemistry of Autoignition

  4. Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline emissions in advanced engine technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's combustion research and combustion and engine research activities include: Developing experimental and simulation research platforms

  5. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion

  6. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Powell; M. Reich

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 {+-} 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards.

  7. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 ± 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards

  8. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  9. An incinerator for combustable radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingquan; Jiang Yun; Zhang Yinsheng; Chen Boling; Zhang Shihang

    1989-01-01

    An incinerator has been built up in Shanghai. In this paper, the devices of the incinerator, main parameters of the process, and the results of non-radioactive waste and simulated radwaste combustion tests were contributed. That provides reference information for radwaste treatment with incineration process

  10. 75 FR 32142 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... Contact Mat Chibbaro, P.E., Fire Protection Engineer, Office of Safety Systems, OSHA Directorate of..., and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium). Industries that may have combustible dust hazards include..., chemical manufacturing, textile manufacturing, furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal...

  11. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Kiil, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Several options are available to control the emission of SO2 from combustion processes. One possibility is to use a cleaner technology, i.e. fuel switching from oil and coal to natural gas or biomass, or to desulphurize coal and oil. Another possibility is to change to a different technology...

  12. Multi-zone modelling of PCCI combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egüz, U.; Somers, L.M.T.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion is a promising concept for the diesel combustion. Although EDI PCCI assures very low soot and NO xemission levels, the injection is uncoupled from combustion, which narrows down the operating conditions. The main

  13. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  14. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  15. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  16. Geologic and Mineralogic Mapping of Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria) Quadrangles of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R. A.; Jaumann, R.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Preusker, F.; Palomba, E.; Roatsch, T.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4 Vesta in July 2011 and is now collecting imaging and spectroscopic data during its one-year orbital mission. The maps we present are based on information obtained by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer VIR-MS and the multi-color Framing Camera FC. VIR covers the wavelength range between 0.25 to 5.1 µm while FC covers the range 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The VIR instrument has a significant higher spectral resolution than FC but the latter achieves higher spatial resolution data. As part of the geological and mineralogical analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangles have been defined covering the entire surface of Vesta. We report about the mapping results of quadrangle Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria). The Gegania quadrangle is dominated by old craters showing no ejecta blankets and rays while several small fresh craters do. The most obvious geologic features are a set of equatorial troughs, a group of three ghost craters of similar diameter (~57 km), an ejecta mantling of the Gegania crater and three smaller craters showing bright and dark ejecta rays. The quadrangle contains two main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain and 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain. The quadrangle shows moderate variation in Band II center wavelength and Band II depth. FC color ratio variations of some recent craters and their ejecta are linked to the bright and dark material. The bright material is possibly excavated eucritic material while the dark material could be remnants of a CM2 impator(s) or an excavated subsurface layer of endogenic origin. The most prominent geologic features in the Lucaria quadrangle are the 40 km long hill Lucaria Tholus, a set of equatorial troughs, some relatively fresh craters with bright and dark material and mass wasting. The quadrangle contains three main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain, 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain, and 3) the

  17. Elevers oppfatning av lærers tilbakemeldingspraksis: om sammenheng mellom graden av VfL-praksis og elevenes opplevde nytte av lærers skriftlige tilbakemeldinger i skriftlig norsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Eriksen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke elevers oppfatninger av norsklærerens tilbakemeldingspraksis i skriftlig norsk. På bakgrunn av omfattende internasjonal forskning innen feltet ‘Vurdering for læring’ (VfL er det i denne studien utviklet teoridrevne hypoteser som testes ved å analysere et datasett fra to videregående skoler. Hypotesene er at elevene oppfatter lærers tilbakemelding som mer nyttig hvis den 1 retter seg mot målet med opplæringen, 2 gir elevene informasjon via en forklaring eller instruks om hvordan de skal komme nærmere målet og 3 at lærer legger til rette for bruk av tilbakemeldingen. Strukturell likningsmodellering (SEM av resultater fra en spørreundersøkelse blant elever (N = 213 er brukt som metode til å estimere forholdet mellom de fire latente variablene kriterier, forklaring, bruk og nytte (avhengig variabel. SEM er brukt fordi metoden egner seg til å undersøke sammenhenger i komplekse datasett. Funn er at elevene oppfatter at hvis lærer forklarer hvordan de kan forbedre seg, er dette positivt statistisk assosiert med opplevd nytte. Et mer overraskende funn er at lærerens tilrettelegging for bruk av tilbakemeldinger ikke er signifikant assosiert med opplevd nytte. Resultatene blir diskutert i artikkelen.

  18. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  19. Modeling of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki

    2012-10-01

    Recently, many experimental study of plasma-assisted combustion has been done. However, numerous complex reactions in combustion of hydrocarbons are preventing from theoritical study for clarifying inside the plasma-assisted combustion, and the effect of plasma-assist is still not understood. Shinohara and Sasaki [1,2] have reported that the shortening of flame length by irradiating microwave without increase of gas temperature. And they also reported that the same phenomena would occur when applying dielectric barrier discharges to the flame using simple hydrocarbon, methane. It is suggested that these phenomena may result by the electron heating. To clarify this phenomena, electron behavior under microwave and DBD was examined. For the first step of DBD plasma-assisted combustion simulation, electron Monte Carlo simulation in methane, oxygen and argon mixture gas(0.05:0.14:0.81) [2] has been done. Electron swarm parameters are sampled and electron energy distribution function (EEDF)s are also determined. In the combustion, gas temperature is higher(>1700K), so reduced electric field E/N becomes relatively high(>10V/cm/Torr). The electrons are accelerated to around 14 eV. This result agree with the optical emission from argon obtained by the experiment of reference [2]. Dissociation frequency of methane and oxygens are obtained in high. This might be one of the effect of plasma-assist. And it is suggested that the electrons should be high enough to dissociate methane, but plasma is not needed.[4pt] [1] K. Shinohara et al, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys., 42, 182008 (1-7) (2009).[0pt] [2] K. Sasaki, 64th Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, 56, 15 CT3.00001(2011).

  20. Combustive management of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris

  1. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems; Miljoeanalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Berglund, Maria

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse various biogas systems from an environmental point of view. The analyses are based on a systems analysis approach and an energy perspective. Biogas systems included are based on various combinations of substrates and final use of the biogas (heat, power and transportation fuel). The overall aims are to calculate fuel cycle emissions, quantify indirect environmental effects when various reference systems are replaced (e.g. current systems for waste treatment, agricultural production and energy generation), and to present data, calculations and results in a clear and transparent way, making the study useful for other environmental systems analyses. A general conclusion is that the environmental impact from biogas systems can vary significantly due to such factors as which substrate, energy service and reference system are chosen, and if indirect environmental effects and the need of systems enlargement are considered. The introduction of biogas systems normally leads to a reduced contribution of greenhouse gases, with some exceptions such as when biogas is used for heat and the alternative is combustion of the biomass. Biogas from manure seems to result in particularly large reductions due to indirect benefits in the form of reduced leakage of methane compared with conventional methods for handling and storing manure. A prerequisite is, however, that the losses of methane are small or that methane is combusted and thus converted into carbon dioxide. This study shows that the losses of methane can be up to 8-26%, due to what kind of biogas system is studied, before the contribution of greenhouse gases exceeds the contribution from reference systems based on fossil fuels. The contribution of emissions that leads to eutrophication and acidification is almost always reduced when biogas systems are introduced. The indirect environmental benefits could be significant for biogas based on sugar beet tops when leaving the beet tops at

  2. AVS/Express (application visualization system) user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS/Express for image processing software and Stereo viewing system. This report summarizes the information to use AVS/Express efficiently in the computer environment for image processing. (author)

  3. Association of temporary complete AV block and junctional ectopic tachycardia after surgery for congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paech, Christian; Dähnert, Ingo; Kostelka, Martin; Mende, Meinhardt; Gebauer, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a postoperative complication with a mortality rate of up to 14% after surgery for congenital heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors of JET and explored the association of postoperative temporary third degree atrioventricular (AV) block and the occurrence of JET. Data were collected retrospectively from 1158 patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease. The overall incidence of JET was 2.8%. Temporary third degree AV block occurred in 1.6% of cases. Permanent third degree AV block requiring pacemaker implantation occurred in 1% of cases. In all, 56% of patients with JET had temporary AV block (P < 0.001), whereas no case of postoperative JET was reported in patients with permanent AV block (P = 0.56). temporary third degree AV block did not suffer from JET. A correlation between temporary third degree AV block and postoperative JET could be observed. The risk factors identified for JET include younger age groups at the time of surgery, longer aortic cross clamping time and surgical procedures in proximity to the AV node

  4. InterProScan Result: AV399409 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 429 Baculovirus LEF-11 Biological Process: viral infectious cycle (GO:0019058)|Biological Process: regulation of transcription (GO:0045449) ... ...AV399409 AV399409_1_ORF2 07DC81A7C7B2FA42 PFAM PF06385 Baculo_LEF-11 3e-33 T IPR009

  5. InterProScan Result: AV399408 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399408 AV399408_2_ORF1 5D6D9219C673BB29 PFAM PF05274 Baculo_E25 1.3e-78 T IPR007938 unintegrated Cellular... Component: viral envelope (GO:0019031)|Cellular Component: host cell nucleus (GO:0042025) ...

  6. Temporal dynamics of AVS and SEM in sediment of shallow freshwater floodplain lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.; Lange, de H.J.; Heuij, van der M.; Bies, S.C.; Gillissen, F.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Acid volatile sulfide (AVS) is an operationally defined sulfide fraction, which is considered important for trace metal fate in reduced sediments. Understanding AVS formation rates is important for the management of metal polluted sediment. However, little lis known about the fate and dynamics of

  7. InterProScan Result: AV399740 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399740 AV399740_3_ORF2 7A42A41D4F3F6388 PFAM PF00067 p450 1.2e-19 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  8. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel; Fukthaltsmaetning av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Njurell, Rolf; Ehleskog, Rickard [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Direct determination of the moisture content, i.e. analysis of the fuel, is the most dominating moisture measuring method of today, and is usually done manually by weighing and drying a sample. By measuring on the exhaust gases the moisture content is determined indirect. This method is based upon the fact that there is a relation between the moisture content in the fuel and in the exhaust gases. This is an alternative that is only considered briefly in this report. Acceptance test of the fuel today takes place in several ways. The methods vary from advanced automatic mechanical devices to manually taken tests made by the driver him self. In the simplest case when the plant only has one fuel supplier, deduction is maid against the amount of produced energy. There are no systems today that can automatically take tests for continuous measuring. This project aims to find methods that are practical for direct, automatic and continuous measurement of the moisture content for the following applications: Moisture determination of fuel supplies, acceptance test. Moisture determination for combustion control in furnaces and boilers. The possibilities to automate the sampling are discussed in detail, at which important background information concerning the handling problems associated with the point of measuring is illustrated. The measurement techniques that are described more in detail are NIR (Near Infra Red), radar technique, microwave technique, radio frequency scan, radioactive technique, double energy X-ray and some combinations of these techniques. In the report, suppliers of interesting instruments are presented. The fundamental technical demands and the basis that should be included in a specification of a measuring device are gathered. Our appraisal is that a sequel to this project should be concentrated on the following main issues: Automatic acceptance test: The measuring is suggested to be done with a test probe direct in the incoming batch. The most suited

  9. Use of combustible wastes as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Salamov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Achievements of science and technology in creating and using units for combustion of wastes with recovery of heat of the escaping gases has been systematized and generalized. Scales and outlooks are examined for the use of general, industrial and agricultural waste as fuel, composition of the waste, questions of planning and operating units for combustion of solid refuse, settling of waste water and industrial and agricultural waste. Questions are covered for preparing them for combustion use in special units with recovery of heat and at ES, aspects of environmental protection during combustion of waste, cost indicators of the employed methods of recovering the combustible waste.

  10. Examination of office visit patient preferences for the after-visit summary (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Marolee; Dontje, Katherine; Holzman, Greg; Corser, Bill; Keskimaki, Abigail; Chant, Ericka

    2014-01-01

    The federal government advocates the practice of routinely providing an after-visit summary (AVS) to patients after each office-based visit as an element of stage 1 meaningful use. A significant potential benefit of the AVS is improved patient engagement achieved by enabling patients and family members to better understand and retain key health information. The methodology for this study was a mixed-methods pilot study to examine, through the perspectives of adult primary care patients, how relevant and actionable data can be better formatted in the AVS. Results of this study suggest that the goal of the AVS to serve as a communication tool to engage and support patients is frequently not being met. Further study is needed to understand, from the viewpoints of patients and providers, what barriers are keeping them from optimally providing and using the information on the AVS.

  11. En kartlegging av forekomsten av forskjellige rusmidler blant norske motorvognførere pågrepet av politiet, med mistanke om påvirket kjøring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari-Mette Beylich m. fl Beylich m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSjåfører som mistenkes for påvirket kjøring blir i første omgang vurdert av politiet med henblikk på om det kunskal rekvireres alkoholanalyse eller om det også skal tas prøve med hensyn på andre rusmidler (narkotika,medikamenter med ruspotensial ved Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI. Rutinemessig vil SRI undersøkedet politiet rekvirerer, men prøvene lagres inntil to år etter at de er analysert. Ved supplerende analyse i ettertidkan man således få et mer fullstendig bilde av hva mistenkte, påvirkede bilførere hadde i kroppen da de avgaprøve. I den foreliggende undersøkelsen ble 1197 prøver fra februar og september 1993 analysert på et bredtspekter av andre rusmidler foruten alkohol, uavhengig av hva politiets mistanke hadde vært. Vi fant da at alkoholalene var til stede i 55 % av prøvene, andre rusmidler alene i 16%, både alkohol og andre rusmidler i 14%, mensverken alkohol eller andre rusmidler ble påvist i 15% av prøvene. Politiets mistanke med hensyn til alkoholpåvirkningble bekreftet av analyseresultatene i 71% av tilfellene, og mistanke om forekomst av andre rusmidler i58% av tilfellene. Tidligere studier og denne undersøkelsen viste at bilførere som mistenkes for påvirket kjøringsynes å representere en gruppe med storbruk av alkohol og misbruk av andre stoff.Beylich K-M, Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Bjørneboe A, Mørland J. Frequency of different drugs in  ENGLISH SUMMARYDrivers apprehended under the suspicion of drunken or drugged driving are primarily evaluated by the police withregard to whether alcohol or drugs should be looked for in the blood samples taken shortly after apprehension.Until March 1996 all blood samples were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT, for analysis.NIFT routinely perform only those analyses requested, but the samples are stored for up to two years afteranalysis. By later additional analyses of this material one could obtain a more

  12. Hvor moralsk tenker fotballspillere? – en empirisk studie av toppfotball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tore Ødegård

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Det er en utbredt oppfatning at det økende prestasjonskravet i toppfotball fører til en svekkelse av moral og fair play-holdninger. Men hvordan tenker toppfotballspillere i forhold til ulike dilemmaer som oppstår på banen, og er det forskjeller mellom toppfotballspillere og spillere på lavere nivå?  For å avklare dette gjennomførte vi en empirisk undersøkelse der vi intervjuet spillere og trener i én toppklubb og én breddeklubb. Vi var interessert i to hovedproblemstillinger:  1 Hva tenker fotballspillere på ulike prestasjonsnivå om etikk og moralske dilemmaer i fotball? 2 Hvilke faktorer påvirker spillerne, direkte og indirekte, i deres vurderinger og handlinger? Resultatene fra undersøkelsen viser at det er store forskjeller mellom de to prestasjonsnivåene. Spillerne på breddenivået føler generelt et større ansvar for å opptre ærlig på banen enn hva som er tilfelle på toppnivået. Vi fant 4 spesifikke faktorer i toppfotballen som bidrar til umoralsk opptreden. For det første opplever spillerne en forventning om at de prioriterer resultat foran fair play. For det andre bidrar tilstedeværelsen av supportere på kamper til en slik prioritering. For det tredje vil handlinger som er i strid med fair play signaliseres som akseptable internt i miljøet, selv om de ofte signaliseres som uakseptable overfor media og omverdenen. For det fjerde kan spillere oppleve det som vanskelig å gå i mot trenerens oppfordringer til en pragmatisk og resultatfokusert opptreden.Nøkkelord: moral, etikk, fair play, footballEnglish summary: How morally do football players think? – an empirical study of moral dilemmas in elite footballIt is a common view that the increasing focus on achievement and success in elite football leads to a weakening of moral and fair play attitudes. But how do elite players think and what do they think about different dilemmas that appear on the field, and is there a difference between elite players and lower

  13. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    behaviour as compared to ethanol. The latter fuel has also been considered along with methane. Work has also been performed on the further assessment of... behaviour as compared to ethanol. The latter fuel has also been considered along with methane. Work has also been performed on the further assess- ment of...identification of various combustion gas states. A range of Damköhler numbers (Da) from the conventional propagating flamelet regime well into the distributed

  14. Vurdering av andrespråksinnlærere - en utfordring i skolen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Palm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vurdering av andrespråkselevers språkkompetanse og språkutvikling er en sentral del av læreres arbeid, og forskning har vist at dette er en utfordring for skolene. Det er stor variasjon i vurderingsformer, og skolene mangler ofte vurderingskompetanse. På bakgrunn av dette utarbeidet Utdanningsdirektoratet i 2007 vurderingsverktøyet Kartleggingsmateriell. Språkkompetanse i grunnleggende norsk for språklige minoriteter. Materiellet er utarbeidet blant annet med referanse til Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. I artikkelen redegjør vi for en undersøkelse der målet var å finne ut hvorvidt dette kartleggingsmateriellet er hensiktsmessig for å vurdere andrespråkselevers språkkompetanse. Hoveddataene er innhentet gjennom kasusstudier ved tre grunnskoler, der vi intervjuet skoleledelse og lærere samt observerte kartleggingssituasjoner og klasseromsundervisning. Kasusstudiene ble senere fulgt opp av to spørreundersøkelser, én til de samme skolene, og én til et større antall skoler for å få bredere innsikt i kartleggingspraksis og skolers oppfatninger av denne formen for vurdering. Undersøkelsen viser at flere av informantene mener verktøyet kan bidra til mer tilpasset og systematisk andrespråkopplæring og bedre vurdering av andrespråkselevenes språkkompetanse. Samtidig er det utfordringer knyttet til å bruke vurderingsverktøyet, dette skyldes blant annet mangelfull kompetanse i skolen når det gjelder andrespråkstilegnelse og vurdering av elevenes språkkompetanse. Det er ikke tidligere forsket på bruk av et slikt konkret kartleggingsverktøy i norsk grunnskole. Undersøkelsen kan gi et bidrag til økt kunnskap om vurdering av andrespråkskompetanse og tilpasset undervisning for andrespråksinnlærere.

  15. Molten salt combustion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.; Richards, W.L.; Oldenkamp, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible β-γ contaminated transuranic waste by utilizing air in a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. Typically, incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are below detection limits (i.e., 3 ) is directly related to the sodium chloride vapor pressure of the melt; >80% of the particulate is sodium chloride. Essentially all metal oxides (combustion ash) are retained in the melt, e.g., >99.9% of the plutonium, >99.6% of the europium, and >99.9% of the ruthenium are retained in the melt. Both bench-scale radioactive and pilot scale (50 kg/hr) nonradioactive combustion tests have been completed with essentially the same results. Design of three combustors for industrial applications are underway

  16. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  17. Microscale combustion and power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cadou, Christopher; Ju, Yiguang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of these devices to realize their full potential. Engineers and scientists working in energy-related fields will find: An overview of the fundamental physics and phenomena of microscale combustion; Presentations of the latest modeling and simulation techniques for gasphase and catalytic micro-reactors; The latest results from experiments in small-scale liquid film, microtube, and porous combustors, micro-thrusters, a...

  18. Combustion process science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An important and substantial area of technical work in which noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) is desired is that involving combustion process research. In the planning for this workshop, it was hoped that W. Serignano would provide a briefing regarding the experimental requirements for thermal measurements to support such research. The particular features of thermal measurement requirements included those describing the timeline for combustion experiments, the requirements for thermal control and diagnostics of temperature and other related thermal measurements and the criticality to the involved science to parametric features of measurement capability including precision, repeatability, stability, and resolution. In addition, it was hoped that definitions could be provided which characterize the needs for concurrent imaging as it relates to science observations during the conduct of experimentation.

  19. Dynamical issues in combustion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, P.C.; Williams, F.

    1991-01-01

    This book looks at the world of combustion phenomena covering the following topics: modeling, which involves the elucidation of the essential features of a given phenomenon through physical insight and knowledge of experimental results, devising appropriate asymptotic and computational methods, and developing sound mathematical theories. Papers in this book describe how all of these challenges have been met for particular examples within a number of common combustion scenarios: reactive shocks, low Mach number premixed reactive flow, nonpremixed phenomena, and solid propellants. The types of phenomena examined are also diverse: the stability and other properties of steady structures, the long time dynamics of evolving solutions, properties of interfaces and shocks, including curvature effects, and spatio-temporal patterns

  20. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  1. Steady state HNG combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L. [TNO Prins Maurits Lab., Rijswijk (Netherlands); Brewster, M.Q. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Son, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Two simplified modeling approaches are used to model the combustion of Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF, N{sub 2}H{sub 5}-C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}). The condensed phase is treated by high activation energy asymptotics. The gas phase is treated by two limit cases: the classical high activation energy, and the recently introduced low activation energy approach. This results in simplification of the gas phase energy equation, making an (approximate) analytical solution possible. The results of both models are compared with experimental results of HNF combustion. It is shown that the low activation energy approach yields better agreement with experimental observations (e.g. regression rate and temperature sensitivity), than the high activation energy approach.

  2. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  3. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  4. Example Problems in LES Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Lesieur, M., Turbulence in Fluids , 2nd Revised Ed., Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications, Vol. 1, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts, 1990...34, Journal of Fluid Mechanics , Vol. 238, 1992, pp. 155-185. 5. Hirsch, C., Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows, Vol. 2, Computational...reaction mechanisms for the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels in flames", Combustion Science and Technology, Vol. 27, 1981, pp. 31-43. 14. Spalding, D.B

  5. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  6. Combustion char characterisation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, P; Ingermann Petersen, H; Sund Soerensen, H; Thomsen, E; Guvad, C

    1996-06-01

    The aim was to correlate reactivity measures of raw coals and the maceral concentrates of the coals obtained in a previous project with the morphology of the produced chars by using a wire grid devolatilization method. Work involved determination of morphology, macroporosity and a detailed study by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Systematic variations in the texture of chars produced in different temperature domains and heating rates were demonstrated by using incident light microscopy on polished blocks and by SEM studies directly on the surfaces of untreated particles. Results suggest that work in the field of char reactivity estimates and correlations between char morphology and coal petrography can be accomplished only on chars produced under heating rates and temperatures comparable to those for the intended use of coal. A general correlation between the coals` petrography and the the morphology of high temperature chars was found. The SEM study of the chars revealed that during the devolatilization period the particles fuse and the macroporosity and thus the morphotypes are formed. After devolatilization ceases, secondary micropores are formed. These develop in number and size throughout the medium combustion interval. At the end of the combustion interval the macrostructure breaks down, caused by coalescence of the increased number of microspores. This can be observed as a change in the morphology and the macroporosity of the chars. Results indicate that char reactivity is a function of the macroporosity and thus the morphology of combustion chars. (AB) 34 refs.

  7. Management of coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    It has been estimated that 780 Mt of coal combustion products (CCPs) were produced worldwide in 2010. Only about 53.5% were utilised, the rest went to storage or disposal sites. Disposal of coal combustion waste (CCW) on-site at a power plant may involve decades-long accumulation of waste, with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tonnes of dry ash or wet ash slurry being stored. In December 2008, a coal combustion waste pond in Kingston, Tennessee, USA burst. Over 4 million cubic metres of ash sludge poured out, burying houses and rivers in tonnes of toxic waste. Clean-up is expected to continue into 2014 and will cost $1.2 billion. The incident drew worldwide attention to the risk of CCW disposal. This caused a number of countries to review CCW management methods and regulations. The report begins by outlining the physical and chemical characteristics of the different type of ashes generated in a coal-fired power plant. The amounts of CCPs produced and regulations on CCW management in selected countries have been compiled. The CCW disposal methods are then discussed. Finally, the potential environmental impacts and human health risks of CCW disposal, together with the methods used to prevent them, are reviewed.

  8. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  9. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  10. Bruk av rusmidler blant norske 15-16 åringer. Resultater fra den norske delen av de europeiske skoleundersøkelsene - ESPAD 1995, 1999 og 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bye, Elin Kristin; Skretting, Astrid

    2003-01-01

    - Tobakk Omkring 60 prosent av 15 - 16 åringene oppga i 2003 at de noen gang har røykt tobakk, omkring 30 prosent hadde røykt i løpet av de siste 30 dager. En andel på 18 prosent hadde røykt daglig i løpet av siste måned. Det er flere jenter enn gutter som oppgir at de røyker. Mens det var en økning fra 1995 til 1999 i andelen 15 - 16 åringer som røyker tobakk, var det en nedgang fra 1999 til 2003. En andel på fire prosent oppga i 2003 at de hadde røykt ...

  11. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  12. Helsekonsekvenser av vektendring - er slanking fordelaktig? En litteraturoversikt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johanne Søgaard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGLangsom vektøkning gjennom livet inntil kroppsmasseindeks (KMI 27 ser ikke ut til å gi særlige negative utfallmht. total dødelighet. En økning på ! 20 kg fra 18 års alder er trolig negativt – det samme er vektøkning ut fra enhøy utgangsvekt. Selv om mange studier finner økt dødelighet hos yngre og middelaldrende personer med KMI > 27,er det foreløpig ingen studier som har vist at vektreduksjon blant friske overvektige personer gir økt levetid. Flerestudier viser tvert imot en assosiasjon mellom vektreduksjon og økt dødelighet. Heller ikke studier som prøver åbegrense analysene til personer med frivillig vekttap, finner redusert dødelighet etter vektreduksjon blant friskeovervektige individer. Noen få studier har vist redusert dødelighet blant overvektige personer med etablertesykdommer eller høy risiko for hjerte-karsykdom og diabetes. Når det gjelder sykelighet har de fleste studier entenikke funnet noen assosiasjon mellom vektreduksjon og sykelighet, eller funnet økt sykelighet. Unntaket er diabetes,der vekttap i enkelte studier samvarierer med redusert sykelighet. Det er i mange studier funnet sammenheng mellomvekttap og økt risiko for lårhalsbrudd og gallesten. De fleste studier har imidlertid vist at moderat vektreduksjon(vekttap på opp til 10% fører til redusert blodtrykk, forbedret glukosekontroll, redusert kolesterolnivå, forbedretdyslipidemi, forbedret lungefunksjon, bedre søvnkvalitet og redusert søvnapnè. Moderat vekttap vil også kunnelindre leddsmerter. Dette tilsynelatende paradoks diskuteres i artikkelen – bl.a. drøftes de metodeproblemer som erinnebygget i mange av studiene. Fordi det har vist seg vanskelig for personer med kraftig overvekt å redusere vektenpermanent – og fordi resultatene mht. helseeffektene av vektreduksjon er usikre, bør hovedinnsatsen settes inn iforhold til å forebygge overvekt/fedme overfor enkeltpersoner med potensielle problemer. Personer med

  13. Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joakim; Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Gharibi, Arash [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics

    2003-05-01

    We have shown that high concentrations of fine particles of the order of 2-7x10{sup -7} particles per cm{sup 3} are being formed in all the combustion units studied. There was a higher difference between the units in terms of particle mass concentrations. While the largest differences was found for gas-phase constituents (CO and THC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In 5 out of 7 studied units, multi-cyclones were the only measure for flue-gas separation. The multicyclones had negligible effect on the particle number concentration and a small effect on the mass of particles smaller than 5 {mu}m. The separation efficiency was much higher for the electrostatic precipitators. The boiler load had a dramatic influence on the coarse mode concentration during combustion of forest residue. PM0.8-6 increased from below 5 mg/m{sup 3} to above 50 mg/m{sup 3} even at a moderate change in boiler load from medium to high. A similar but less pronounced trend was found during combustion of dry wood. PM0.8-PM6 increased from 12 to 23 mg/m{sup 3} when the load was changed from low to high. When increasing the load, the primary airflow taken through the grate is increased; this itself may lead to a higher potential of the air stream to carry coarse particles away from the combustion zone. Measurements with APS-instrument with higher time-resolution showed a corresponding increase in coarse mode number concentration with load. Additional factor influencing observed higher concentration of coarse mode during combustion of forest residues, could be relatively high ash content in this type of fuel (2.2 %) in comparison to dry wood (0.3 %) and pellets (0.5 %). With increasing load we also found a decrease in PM1 during combustion of forest residue. Whether this is caused by scavenging of volatilized material by the high coarse mode concentration or a result of a different amount of volatilized material available for formation of fine particles needs to be shown in future studies. The

  14. Percepções e sentimentos de adolescentes criados por avós

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Flávia Juliana Dourado

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo conhecer as percepções e os sentimentos de adolescentes criados por avós. Busca-se, especificamente: 1) descrever a percepção dos adolescentes sobre seus avós, seus sentimentos por eles e as relações estabelecidas com os mesmos; 2) descrever como percebem as figuras parentais biológicas, seus sentimentos por eles e suas relações com os mesmos; 3) compreender a experiência dos adolescentes acerca do fato de serem criados pelos avós; e 4) descrever a...

  15. Migrering av en webbsida från Joomla! till WordPress.

    OpenAIRE

    Konu, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Denna rapport bygger på examensarbetet för Högskoleexamen i Medieteknik vid Umeå Universitet.Examensarbetet har utförts med VK Effekt på uppdrag av Västerbottens-Kuriren. Denna rapport kommer att behandla en migrering mellan systemen Joomla! och WordPress.Rapportens syfte är att kortfattat berätta om vilka valmöjligheter som finns vid en migrering, samtdemonstrera och visa en av vägarna som kan tas vid en migrering av en hemsida mellan olika CMS. This report is based on the thesis for the...

  16. IEA combustion agreement : a collaborative task on alternative fuels in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larmi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the alternative fuels in combustion task of the International Energy Agency is on high efficiency engine combustion, furnace combustion, and combustion chemistry. The objectives of the task are to develop optimum combustion for dedicated fuels by fully utilizing the physical and chemical properties of synthetic and renewable fuels; a significant reduction in carbon dioxide, NOx and particulate matter emissions; determine the minimum emission levels for dedicated fuels; and meet future emission standards of engines without or with minimum after-treatment. This presentation discussed the alternative fuels task and addressed issues such as synthetic fuel properties and benefits. The anticipated future roadmap was presented along with a list of the synthetic and renewable engine fuels to be studied, such as neat oxygenates like alcohols and ethers, biogas/methane and gas combustion, fuel blends, dual fuel combustion, high cetane number diesel fuels like synthetic Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel and hydrogenated vegetable oil, and low CN number fuels. Implementation examples were also discussed, such as fuel spray studies in optical spray bombs; combustion research in optical engines and combustion chambers; studies on reaction kinetics of combustion and emission formation; studies on fuel properties and ignition behaviour; combustion studies on research engines; combustion optimization; implementing the optimum combustion in research engines; and emission measurements. Overall milestone examples and the overall schedule of participating countries were also presented. figs.

  17. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    the of ether and ethyl alcohol and removing objective of these lectures to give a this solvent. Instead of having a fibrous comprehensive understanding...do cetto esrne do Les propergols composites, A matrice confifrences une description tout A fait A polymarique charg~o pst, un oxydant at un jour des...rusa., De nouveaux souvant suppos6 qua la vitesa des gaz de oxydes de for ultrafirts mont aujourd’hui combustion est n~gligeable at qua d~velopps pour

  18. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking......-column’’ approach and includes the energy equations for both the fuel and the gas accounting for heat transfer between the two phases. The model gives important insight into the combustion process and provides inlet conditions for a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the freeboard. The model predictions...... indicate the existence of two distinct combustion modes. Combustion air temperature and mass flow-rate are the two parameters determining the mode. There is a significant difference in reaction rates (ignition velocity) and temperature levels between the two modes. Model predictions were compared...

  19. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy......-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  20. Numerical investigation of biogas flameless combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Bagheri, Ghobad; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption decreases from 3.24 g/s in biogas conventional combustion to 1.07 g/s in flameless mode. • The differences between reactants and products temperature intensifies irreversibility in traditional combustion. • The temperature inside the chamber is uniform in biogas flameless mode and exergy loss decreases in this technique. • Low O 2 concentration in the flameless mode confirms a complete and quick combustion process in flameless regime. - Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to analyze combustion characteristics of biogas flameless mode based on clean technology development strategies. A three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study has been performed to illustrate various priorities of biogas flameless combustion compared to the conventional mode. The effects of preheated temperature and wall temperature, reaction zone and pollutant formation are observed and the impacts of combustion and turbulence models on numerical results are discussed. Although preheated conventional combustion could be effective in terms of fuel consumption reduction, NO x formation increases. It has been found that biogas is not eligible to be applied in furnace heat up due to its low calorific value (LCV) and it is necessary to utilize a high calorific value fuel to preheat the furnace. The required enthalpy for biogas auto-ignition temperature is supplied by enthalpy of preheated oxidizer. In biogas flameless combustion, the mean temperature of the furnace is lower than traditional combustion throughout the chamber. Compared to the biogas flameless combustion with uniform temperature, very high and fluctuated temperatures are recorded in conventional combustion. Since high entropy generation intensifies irreversibility, exergy loss is higher in biogas conventional combustion compared to the biogas flameless regime. Entropy generation minimization in flameless mode is attributed to the uniform temperature inside the chamber

  1. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  2. Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirignano, William A; Liu, Feng; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid...

  3. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  4. Preparation, quality control and physico-chemical properties of 99mTc-BAT-AV-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiankang Zhang; Xingqin Zhou; Xiaofeng Qin

    2012-01-01

    One novel styrylpyridine derivatives(AV-45) coupled with 99m Tc complex was synthesized. 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 was prepared by a ligand exchange reaction employing sodium glucoheptonate, and effects of the amount of ligand, stannous chloride, sodium glucoheptonate and pH value of reaction mixture on the radiolabeling yield were studied in details. Quality control was performed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Besides the stability, partition coefficient and electrophoresis of 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 were also investigated. The results showed that the average radiolabeling yield was (95 ± 1%) and 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 with suitable lipophilicity was stable and uncharged at physiological pH. (author)

  5. Konstruktionen av stress : En kvalitativ studie om hur stress upplevs i banksektorn

    OpenAIRE

    Blohm, Martin; Konradsson, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Bakgrund: Arbetslivet förändras ständigt till följd av digitaliseringen och tillgången till information ökar kraftigt. Banksektorn är en av de sektorer som påverkats mest av dessa förändringar och studier har visat att arbetsrelaterad stress ökar till följd av detta. Det är lätt att utifrån studier och fackliga undersökningar förknippa stress i banksektorn med arbetsmiljöproblem eftersom fokus ligger på ohälsa och sjukskrivning. Samtidigt vill många människor arbeta i banksektorn och i andra ...

  6. Föräldrars upplevelse av insatsen föräldrakoordinator.

    OpenAIRE

    Aspén-Franzén, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Föräldrakoordination är en barnfokuserad alternativ konfliktlösningsmetod som praktiserats i Sverige sedan 2009. Denna intervjustudie har undersökt separerade föräldrars upplevelse av att få stöd i sitt föräldrasamarbete av en föräldrakoordinator. Intervjuer har genomförts med sju föräldrar som haft insatsen föräldrakoordinator under minst sex månader. Samtliga deltagande föräldrar har flera års erfarenhet av svårlösta konflikter med den andra föräldern och har tidigare provat andra former av...

  7. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the plant food allergen Pru av 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Antonia, Yuliya; Pavkov, Tea; Fuchs, Heidemarie; Breiteneder, Heimo; Keller, Walter, E-mail: walter.keller@uni-graz.at

    2005-02-01

    Crystals of Pru av 2, the first allergenic thaumatin-like protein, have been obtained and diffracted to 1.6 Å at a synchrotron. Using an annealing protocol, the resolution limit was improved to 1.3 Å:.

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  9. Adaptationer av Esaias Tegnérs Frithiofs saga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenfors, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Tegnérs versepos över urnordiska myter hade länge ett starkt om den nordiska läsande allmänheten - därtill starkt understött av Bernhard Crusells omtyckta tonsättningar av dikterna. Men också i Tyskland har Frithiofs saga haft en påfallande genomslagskraft. I uppsatsen granskas särskilt tonsättar...

  10. Et sosiologisk blikk på mobbing. En teoretisk studie av paradigmet og fenomenet mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Stemland, Linn

    2007-01-01

    Mobbing er et tema som har fått stadig mer oppmerksomhet i samfunnsdebatten. Det er gjort lite sosiologisk forskning omkring fenomenet mobbing. Forskningsfeltet mobbing er i dag konstruert og dominert av psykologiens begreper og forståelse. I denne oppgaven prøver jeg å nærme meg en sosiologisk forståelse av begrepet og fenomenet mobbing.

  11. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  12. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Lewis, Susannah S; Coats, Benjamen D; Skyba, David A; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Berkelhammer, Debra L; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M; Judd, Charles M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R; Johnson, Kirk W

    2009-02-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused three-to-five-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, while improving analgesia.

  13. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  14. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  15. Modeling nitrogen chemistry in combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Miller, James A.; Ruscic, Branko

    2018-01-01

    the accuracy of engineering calculations and thereby the potential of primary measures for NOx control. In this review our current understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for combustion-generated nitrogen-containing air pollutants is discussed. The thermochemistry of the relevant nitrogen...... via NNH or N2O are discussed, along with the chemistry of NO removal processes such as reburning and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NO. Each subset of the mechanism is evaluated against experimental data and the accuracy of modeling predictions is discussed....

  16. Experimental validation for combustion analysis of GOTHIC code in 2-dimensional combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Yang, S. Y.; Park, K. C.; Jung, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the prediction capability of GOTHIC code for hydrogen combustion phenomena was validated with the results of two-dimensional premixed hydrogen combustion experiment executed by Seoul National University. The experimental chamber has about 24 liter free volume (1x0.024x1 m 3 ) and 2-dimensional rectangular shape. The test were preformed with 10% hydrogen/air gas mixture and conducted with combination of two igniter positions (top center, top corner) and two boundary conditions (bottom full open, bottom right half open). Using the lumped parameter and mechanistic combustion model in GOTHIC code, the SNU experiments were simulated under the same conditions. The GOTHIC code prediction of the hydrogen combustion phenomena did not compare well with the experimental results. In case of lumped parameter simulation, the combustion time was predicted appropriately. But any other local information related combustion phenomena could not be obtained. In case of mechanistic combustion analysis, the physical combustion phenomena of gas mixture were not matched experimental ones. In boundary open cases, the GOTHIC predicted very long combustion time and the flame front propagation could not simulate appropriately. Though GOTHIC showed flame propagation phenomenon in adiabatic calculation, the induction time of combustion was still very long compare with experimental results. Also, it was found that the combustion model of GOTHIC code had some weak points in low concentration of hydrogen combustion simulation

  17. Engine combustion network (Ecn) : characterization and comparison of boundary conditions for different combustion vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johnson, J.; Naber, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Malbec, L.M.; Bruneaux, G.; Pickett, L.M.; Bardi, M.; Payri, R.; Bazyn, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a worldwide group of institutions using combustion vessels and/or performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, whose aim is to advance the state of spray and combustion knowledge at engine-relevant conditions. A key activity is the use of spray

  18. First application of the meteorological Mini-UAV 'M{sup 2}AV'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiess, T.; Bange, J.; Buschmann, M.; Voersmann, P. [Braunschweig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik

    2007-04-15

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to a new unmanned system, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M{sup 2}AV), recently developed by the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200'. Thereby the limitations in size and mass had to be respected. The M{sup 2}AV is capable of performing turbulence and wind vector measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer and permits very short measurement cycles as an economic supplement during meteorological campaigns. The article gives details on the technical items. Results from meteorological data sets measured by the M{sup 2}AV are used for data quality assessment. In October 2005 the M{sup 2}AV participated in the meteorological field experiment 'LAUNCH 2005' in Lindenberg near Berlin. The M{sup 2}AV data were compared with lidar and sodar/RASS measurements. Furthermore, an in situ comparison of temperature, humidity and wind vector data with the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod was analysed and gave information about the M{sup 2}AV data quality. (orig.)

  19. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppala Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defect (CHD is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS, with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated. Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS.

  20. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS.

  1. What are the keys to successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in patients with primary aldosteronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William F; Stanson, Anthony W

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the criterion standard to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral adrenal disease in patients with primary aldosteronism. The keys to successful AVS include appropriate patient selection, careful patient preparation, focused technical expertise, defined protocol, and accurate data interpretation. The use of AVS should be based on patient preferences, patient age, clinical comorbidities, and the clinical probability of finding an aldosterone-producing adenoma. AVS is optimally performed in the fasting state in the morning. AVS is an intricate procedure because the right adrenal vein is small and may be difficult to locate - the success rate depends on the proficiency of the angiographer. The key factors that determine the successful catheterization of both adrenal veins are experience, dedication and repetition. With experience, and focusing the expertise to 1 or 2 radiologists at a referral centre, the AVS success rate can be as high as 96%. A centre-specific, written protocol is mandatory. The protocol should be developed by an interested group of endocrinologists, radiologists and laboratory personnel. Safeguards should be in place to prevent mislabelling of the blood tubes in the radiology suite and to prevent sample mix-up in the laboratory.

  2. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  3. Reduktion av slöseri inom den spanska ölindustrin : – en studie av åtgärder och metoder i spåren av krisen

    OpenAIRE

    Carlström, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Den rådande eurokrisen har påverkat det spanska samhället och den spanska ölindustrin negativt. Industrin står inför utmaningar vad gäller minskad försäljning och förändrade kundpreferenser. I tider då intäkterna och försäljningen minskar finns det många sätt att öka sina marginaler. Ett av detta sätt är att börja arbeta med resurseffektivitet och att se till att slöseriet av de resurser man har minskar. De frågor studien besvarar är hur bryggeriindustrin i Spanien har arbetat för att minska ...

  4. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  5. Low NOx combustion technologies for high-temperature natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because of the high process temperature which is required for some processes like glass melting and the high temperature to which the combustion air is preheated, NOx emission are extremely high. Even at these high temperatures, NOx emissions could be reduced drastically by using advanced combustion techniques such as staged combustion or flame-less oxidation, as experimental work has shown. In the case of oxy-fuel combustion, the NOx emission are also very high if conventional burners are used. The new combustion techniques achieve similar NOx reductions. (author)

  6. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatolij P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods at coals grinding on their chemical activeness at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activeness that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism.

  7. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  8. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  9. Combustion and extinction of magnesium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1988-01-01

    The studies made in France on magnesium combustion and extinguishing means are associated at the nuclear fuel of the graphite-gas reactor. Safety studies are made for ameliorate our knowledge on: - magnesium combustion - magnesium fire propagation - magnesium fire extinguishing [fr

  10. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  11. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  12. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags containing...

  13. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  14. Ultra-low pollutant emission combustion method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khinkis, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for ultra-low pollutant emission combustion of fossil fuel. It comprises: introducing into a primary combustion chamber a first fuel portion of about 1 percent to about 20 percent of a total fuel to be combusted; introducing primary combustion air into the primary combustion chamber; introducing a first portion of water into the primary combustion chamber, having a first water heat capacity equivalent to a primary combustion air heat capacity of one of a primary combustion air amount of about 10 percent to about 60 percent of the first stoichiometirc requirement for complete combustion of the first fuel portion and an excess primary combustion air amount of about 20 percent to about 150 percent of the first stoichiometric requirement for complete combustion of the first fuel portion; burning the first fuel portion with the primary combustion air in the primary combustion chamber at a temperature abut 2000 degrees F to about 2700 degrees F producing initial combustion products; passing the initial combustion products into a secondary combustion chamber; introducing into the secondary combustion chamber a second fuel portion of about 80 percent to about 99 percent of the total fuel to be combusted; introducing secondary combustion air into the secondary combustion chamber in an amount of about 105 percent to about 130 percent of a second stoichiometric requirement for complete combustion of the second fuel portion; introducing a second portion of water into the secondary combustion chamber; burning the second fuel portion and any remaining fuel in the initial combustion products; passing the final combustion products into a dilution chamber; introducing dilution air into the dilution chamber; discharging the ultra-low pollutant emission vitiated air form the dilution chamber

  15. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of metals has been widely studied in the past, primarily because of their high oxidation enthalpies. A general understanding of metal combustion has been developed based on the recognition of the existence of both vapor-phase and surface reactions and involvement of the reaction products in the ensuing heterogeneous combustion. However, distinct features often observed in metal particle combustion, such as brightness oscillations and jumps (spearpoints), disruptive burning, and non-symmetric flames are not currently understood. Recent metal combustion experiments using uniform high-temperature metal droplets produced by a novel micro-arc technique have indicated that oxygen dissolves in the interior of burning particles of certain metals and that the subsequent transformations of the metal-oxygen solutions into stoichiometric oxides are accompanied with sufficient heat release to cause observed brightness and temperature jumps. Similar oxygen dissolution has been observed in recent experiments on bulk iron combustion but has not been associated with such dramatic effects. This research addresses heterogeneous metal droplet combustion, specifically focusing on oxygen penetration into the burning metal droplets, and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. A unique feature of the experimental approach is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc Generator of Monodispersed Metal Droplets (GEMMED), ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with controllable initial temperature and velocity. The droplet initial temperatures can be adjusted within a wide range from just above the metal melting point, which provides means to ignite droplets instantly upon entering an oxygen containing environment. Initial droplet velocity will be set equal to zero allowing one to organize metal combustion microgravity experiments in a fashion similar to usual microgravity

  16. A predictive model of natural gas mixture combustion in internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Espinoza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of a predictive natural gas mixture combustion model for conventional com-bustion (ignition engines. The model was based on resolving two areas; one having unburned combustion mixture and another having combustion products. Energy and matter conservation equations were solved for each crankshaft turn angle for each area. Nonlinear differential equations for each phase’s energy (considering compression, combustion and expansion were solved by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The model also enabled studying different natural gas components’ composition and evaluating combustion in the presence of dry and humid air. Validation results are shown with experimental data, demonstrating the software’s precision and accuracy in the results so produced. The results showed cylinder pressure, unburned and burned mixture temperature, burned mass fraction and combustion reaction heat for the engine being modelled using a natural gas mixture.

  17. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sören

    2017-11-22

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical attributes that drive the kinetic behavior of a plant and the exothermic reaction of the combustion. Coupled with realistic physics for rods, the particles enable dynamic branch motions. We model material properties, such as moisture and charring behavior, and associate them with individual particles. The combustion is efficiently processed in the surface domain of the tree model on a polygonal mesh. A user can dynamically interact with the model by initiating fires and by inducing stress on branches. The flames realistically propagate through the tree model by consuming the available resources. Our method runs at interactive rates and supports multiple tree instances in parallel. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerous examples and evaluate its plausibility against the combustion of real wood samples.

  18. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  19. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities

  20. AV3V lesions reduce the pressor response to L-glutamate into the RVLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Débora Simões de Almeida; Menani, José V

    2006-05-01

    Neurons from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) directly activate sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. Hypertensive responses and sympathetic activation produced by different stimuli are strongly affected by lesions of the preoptic periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V region). Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of acute (1 day) and chronic (15 days) electrolytic lesions of the AV3V region on the pressor responses produced by injections of the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate into the RVLM of unanesthetized rats. Male Holtzman rats with sham or electrolytic AV3V lesions and a stainless steel cannula implanted into the RVLM were used. The pressor responses produced by injections of L-glutamate (1, 5 and 10 nmol/100 nl) into the RVLM were reduced 1 day (9 +/- 4, 39 +/- 6 and 37 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively) and 15 days after AV3V lesions (13 +/- 6, 39 +/- 4 and 43 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively, vs. sham lesions: 29 +/- 3, 50 +/- 2 and 58 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively). Injections of L-glutamate into the RVLM in sham or AV3V-lesioned rats produced no significant change in the heart rate (HR). Baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia produced by iv phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside, respectively, and the pressor and bradycardic responses to chemoreflex activation with iv potassium cyanide were not modified by AV3V lesions. The results suggest that signals from the AV3V region are important for sympathetic activation induced by L-glutamate into the RVLM.

  1. Modeling and simulating combustion and generation of NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of combustion processes and generation of NO x in a combustion chamber and boiler, with supplementary combustion in a gas turbine installation. The fuel burned in the combustion chamber was rich gas with a chemical composition more complex than natural gas. Pitcoal was used in the regenerative boiler. From the resulting combustion products, 17 compounds were retained, including nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Using the developed model, the simulation resulted in excess air for a temperature imposed at the combustion chamber exhaust. These simulations made it possible to determine the concentrations of combustion compounds with a variation in excess combustion. (author)

  2. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  3. Cesium-137 in ash from combustion of biofuels. Application of regulations from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Cesium-137 i aska fraan foerbraenning av biobraenslen. Tillaempning av Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens regler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (SE))

    2009-03-19

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, has issued an ordinance on ash contaminated with Cesium-137. It implies amongst other things that ash containing 0,5 - 10 kBq/kg Cesium-137 (so-called contaminated ash) can be used for geotechnical purposes provided that the content in a near-by well does not exceed 1 Bq/litre and that the increase in a near-by fish producing recipient does not exceed 0,1 Bq/litre. The initial plan with the presently reported work was to provide a compilation of how the ordinance for Cesium-137 can be applied in practical work. It became evident, however, in the course of the work that issues related to the co-variation between potassium and Cesium needed further investigation. As a result, the present report comprises also a compilation of this extended information search. Cesium-137 is present in ash as a result of the accident in a nuclear power reactor in Chernobyl in 1986 during which material having a very small grain size was spread to a high altitude. A few days later, Cesium-137 was deposited during rains over large parts of Sweden. This activity penetrated to a depth of one or a few decimetres during the course of the subsequent few days and weeks, after which it was partially taken up by plants and spread in the ecosystem. Section 2 has the character of a handbook. It provides basic information on radiation, and also about the ordinance and other material from the SSI. Section 3 comprises compilations of relevant international status of knowledge. This regards how potassium and Cesium behave in soil and ash, and also how spreading of Cesium can be modelled. Cesium behaves similarly to Potassium but with the difference that Cesium is bonded much more strongly to mineral soil and ash. Potassium and Cesium appears in soil in four different forms: dissolved in the pore water, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and as bonded to minerals. The amount dissolved in the pore water is the smallest and that bonded to minerals is the largest. The differences are large. The transitions between Cesium/Potassium in the pore water and in the exchangeable positions are rapid. Other transitions are slow. Over the course of a few years, Cesium becomes bonded as non-exchangeable and after a few decades, the content of non-exchangeable and mineral Cesium may be comparable in magnitude. The migration rate depends on the availability. Before Cesium-137 in fallout becomes absorbed, it is transported with the water, and this is the reason for the initial rapid penetration into soil on the order of a decimeter. When most of the Cesium-137 has become non-exchangeable and mineral, the migration rate may be as low as on the order of a millimetre per year. There is an interesting finding to report about clay. For short term migration, i e shortly after a fallout, clay provides a retention that is far superior to that of sand. This is probably related to the fact that clay contains many more positions for ion exchange as compared to sand. After some time when most of the Cesium appears in non-exchangeable and mineral positions, clay and sand are comparable. It might be tempting to assume that organic soils would provide a good retention since they can absorb nutrients from artificial fertilizers and keep them available to plants. Measurements have shown, however, that Cesium-137 may migrate rapidly in soils that lack a mineral component, e g soils consisting of peat. This can be assumed to relate to the fact that the bonding to the many exchangeable positions is much weaker as compared to those in non-exchangeable and in mineral positions. The data on ash are scarce. The data found indicate that the availability of Cesium-137 is high in fresh ash, but that the bonding is remarkably strong already after a few years. It cannot be taken for granted without further information that fresh water conditions apply also when the salt content in the pore water is high. Investigations have shown, however, that the solid mineral phase prefers Cesium before potassium also in such cases. Although the difference between potassium and Cesium is smaller, it is nevertheless sufficient for separation of Cesium from chloride in a migration situation. After such a separation has taken place, the distribution coefficients for fresh water conditions may be applied. In section 4, techniques that have been developed previously in the Swedish Ash Programme are applied to Cesium-137 in soil containing some mineral matter. The result is that the content of Cesium-137 in near-by wells and lakes become insignificant and far below the limits issued by the SSM. Exceptions to this are pure organic soils, soils made up entirely of lime, and water that drains on the surface. The results of this analysis are utilized in Section 5 as a basis for suggestions for a simple control programme as well as practical advice.

  4. Nanoparticle emissions from combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

     This book focuses on particulate matter emissions produced by vehicles with combustion engines. It describes the physicochemical properties of the particulate matter, the mechanisms of its formation and its environmental impacts (including those on human beings). It discusses methods for measuring particulate mass and number, including the state-of-the-art in Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) equipment for measuring the exhaust emissions of both light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses under actual operating conditions. The book presents the authors’ latest investigations into the relations between particulate emission (mass and number) and engine operating parameters, as well as their new findings obtained through road tests performed on various types of vehicles, including those using diesel particulate filter regeneration. The book, which addresses the needs of academics and professionals alike, also discusses relevant European regulations on particulate emissions and highlights selected metho...

  5. Radiation treatment of combustion gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.; Tokunaga, O.; Nishimura, K.; Hasimoto, S.; Kawakami, W.; Washino, M.; Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Adachi, K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot plant for the radiation treatment of combustion gas in a flow-system was planned and completed in 1974 at the Abara Mfg. Co. Ltd., Central Laboratory in Fujisawa. The plant has been successfully operated for more than one year. The capacity of the pilot plant is 1000 Nm 3 per hour of the gas with the use of an electron accelerator of 60 mA and 0.75 MeV. The objective of this paper is to review a series of the researches including recent unpublished results, and to discuss the characteristics of the process. The outline and typical results of the pilot plant are first reported here. (author)

  6. Ignition circuit for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H W

    1977-05-26

    The invention refers to the ignition circuit for combustion engines, which are battery fed. The circuit contains a transistor and an oscillator to produce an output voltage on the secondary winding of an output transformer to supply an ignition current. The plant is controlled by an interrupter. The purpose of the invention is to form such a circuit that improved sparks for ignition are produced, on the one hand, and that on the other hand, the plant can continue to function after loss of the oscillator. The problem is solved by the battery and the secondary winding of the output transformers of the oscillator are connected via a rectifier circuit to produce a resultant total voltage with the ignition coil from the battery voltage and the rectified pulsating oscillator output.

  7. Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørg S. Christophersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein. Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937 og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172.Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%. Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine. The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937 and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%. Women were represented in about

  8. Trace emissions from gaseous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) was amended in 1990 to include the development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for certain stationary sources by November 2000. MACT emissions standards would affect process heaters and industrial boilers since combustion processes are a potential source for many air toxins. The author noted that one of the problems with MACT is the lack of a clear solid scientific footing which is needed to develop environmentally responsible regulations. In order to amend some of these deficiencies, a 4-year, $7 million research project on the origin and fate of trace emissions in the external combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons was undertaken in a collaborative effort between government, universities and industry. This collaborative project entitled the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) Project 92-19 produced basic information and phenomenological understanding in two important areas, one basic and one applied. The specific objectives of the project were to measure emissions while operating different full-scale burners under various operating conditions and then to analyze the emission data to identify which operating conditions lead to low air toxic emissions. Another objective was to develop new chemical kinetic mechanisms and predictive models for the formation of air toxic species which would explain the origin and fate of these species in process heaters and industrial boilers. It was determined that a flame is a very effective reactor and that trace emissions from a typical gas-fired industry burner are very small. An unexpected finding was that trace emissions are not affected by hydrocarbon gaseous fuel composition, nor by the use of ultra low nitrous oxide burners. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian global atmospheric model SL-AV20: dynamical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstykh, Mikhail; Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Goyman, Gordey

    2017-05-01

    SL-AV (semi-Lagrangian, based on the absolute vorticity equation) is a global hydrostatic atmospheric model. Its latest version, SL-AV20, provides global operational medium-range weather forecast with 20 km resolution over Russia. The lower-resolution configurations of SL-AV20 are being tested for seasonal prediction and climate modeling. The article presents the model dynamical core. Its main features are a vorticity-divergence formulation at the unstaggered grid, high-order finite-difference approximations, semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit discretization and the reduced latitude-longitude grid with variable resolution in latitude. The accuracy of SL-AV20 numerical solutions using a reduced lat-lon grid and the variable resolution in latitude is tested with two idealized test cases. Accuracy and stability of SL-AV20 in the presence of the orography forcing are tested using the mountain-induced Rossby wave test case. The results of all three tests are in good agreement with other published model solutions. It is shown that the use of the reduced grid does not significantly affect the accuracy up to the 25 % reduction in the number of grid points with respect to the regular grid. Variable resolution in latitude allows us to improve the accuracy of a solution in the region of interest.

  10. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  11. Influence of commercial (Fluka) naphthenic acids on acid volatile sulfide (AVS) production and divalent metal precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Andrew D; Kinley, Ciera M; Rodgers, John H; Friesen, Vanessa; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Haakensen, Monique C

    2016-12-01

    Energy-derived waters containing naphthenic acids (NAs) are complex mixtures often comprising a suite of potentially problematic constituents (e.g. organics, metals, and metalloids) that need treatment prior to beneficial use, including release to receiving aquatic systems. It has previously been suggested that NAs can have biostatic or biocidal properties that could inhibit microbially driven processes (e.g. dissimilatory sulfate reduction) used to transfer or transform metals in passive treatment systems (i.e. constructed wetlands). The overall objective of this study was to measure the effects of a commercially available (Fluka) NA on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), production of sulfides (as acid-volatile sulfides [AVS]), and precipitation of divalent metals (i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn). These endpoints were assessed following 21-d aqueous exposures of NAs using bench-scale reactors. After 21-days, AVS molar concentrations were not statistically different (pAVS production was sufficient in all NA treatments to achieve ∑SEM:AVS AVS) could be used to treat metals occurring in NAs affected waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamisk Ledarutveckling : En ny metod för personlig utveckling av ledare skapad genom integration av två etablerade metoder för personlig utveckling

    OpenAIRE

    Rudbäck, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att teoretiskt pröva att integrera en etablerad metod för personlig utveckling, The Skilled Helper, med metoden Dynamisk Pedagogik och skapa en ny metod för en specifik tillämpning, personlig utveckling av ledare. Integrationen görs med hjälp av en etablerad metametod för metodutveckling. De bägge ingående metoderna värderas enligt fastställda kriterier. Samma kriterier används sedan för att värdera den nya metod som designas. Med detta har studien uppnått en jämför...

  13. Etikk i anvendt idrettspsykologi: en kvalitativ studie av idrettspsykologiske rådgiveres etiske utfordringer i anvendt idrettspsykologi, og håndtering av disse

    OpenAIRE

    Ulltang, Espen

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 Idrettspsykologi er et fag som arbeider for å utvikle mentale ferdigheter hos utøvere og trenere. De som arbeider med anvendt idrettspsykologi møter en rekke etiske utfordringer i sin praksis, men kunnskap om dette synes mangelfullt i Norge. Internasjonalt er det publisert en rekke essays, artikler, og bøker om etiske utfordringer i anvendelsen av faget, men ingen studier viser hvordan norske idrettspsykologiske rådgivere opplever sl...

  14. Effect of Variant End of Injection Period on Combustion Process of Biodiesel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel as a replacement to the standard diesel fuel in combustion diesel engine. The biodiesel fuel has a significantly influences throughout the combustion process and exhaust emission. The purpose of this research is to investigate the combustion process behavior during the End of Injection (EOI period and operates under variant conditions using Rapid Compression Machine (RCM. Experimental of RCM is used to simulate a combustion process and combustion characteristics of diesel engine combustion. Three types of biodiesel blend which are B5, B10 and B15 were tested at several injection pressures of 80 MPa, 90 MPa and 130 MPa under different ambient temperatures, 750 K to 1100 K. The results of this study showed that the ignition delay slightly reduced with increasing the content of biodiesel blends from B5, B10 and B15 and became more shorten as the injection pressure been enhanced. As the injection pressure increased, the behavior of combustion pressure at end of injection is reduced, radically increased the NOX emission. It is noted that the process of combustion at the end of injection increased as the ambient temperature is rising. In fact, higher initial ambient temperature improved the fuel atomization and mixing process. Under the biodiesel combustion with higher ambient temperature condition, the exhaust emission of CO, O2, and HC became less but increased in NOX emission. Besides, increased in blends of biodiesel ratio are found to enhance the combustion process, resulted a decreased in HC emissions.

  15. Patients' and procedural characteristics of AV-block during slow pathway modulation for AVNRT-single center 10year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Kristina; Dechering, Dirk G; Köbe, Julia; Leitz, Patrick; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Lange, Phillip S; Kochhäuser, Simon; Reinke, Florian; Pott, Christian; Mönnig, Gerold; Breithardt, Günter; Eckardt, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Permanent AV-block is a recognized and feared complication of slow pathway modulation for AVNRT. We aimed to assess incidence of transient and permanent AV-block as well as consequences of transient AV-block in a large contemporary AVNRT ablation cohort. We searched our single center prospective ablation database for occurrence of transient and permanent AV-block during slow pathway modulation between January 2004 and October 2015. We analyzed patients' and procedural characteristics as well as outcome of patients in whom transient or permanent AV-block occurred. Of 9170 patients who underwent a catheter ablation at our institution between January 2004 and October 2015, 2101 patients (64% women, mean age 50±18years) underwent slow pathway modulation. In three patients, permanent AV-block occurred during RF application. Additional two patients had transient AV-block that recovered (after a few minutes and 25min), but recurred within two days of the procedure. All five patients underwent dual chamber pacemaker implantation (0.2%). Transient AV-block related to RF delivery occurred in 44 patients (2%). Transient mechanical AV-block occurred in additional 17 patients (0.8%). In 12 patients, ablation was continued despite transient AV-block. One of these patients developed permanent AV-block. Permanent AV-block following slow pathway modulation is a rare event, occurring in 0.2% of patients in a large contemporary single center cohort. Transient AV-block is more frequent (2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  17. Bifurcation, pattern formation and chaos in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, A.; Matkowsky, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper problems in gaseous combustion and in gasless condensed phase combustion are studied both analytically and numerically. In gaseous combustion we consider the problem of a flame stabilized on a line source of fuel. The authors find both stationary and pulsating axisymmetric solutions as well as stationary and pulsating cellular solutions. The pulsating cellular solutions take the form of either traveling waves or standing waves. Transitions between these patterns occur as parameters related to the curvature of the flame front and the Lewis number are varied. In gasless condensed phase combustion both planar and nonplanar problems are studied. For planar condensed phase combustion we consider two models: accounts for melting and does not. Both models are shown to exhibit a transition from uniformly to pulsating propagating combustion when a parameter related to the activation energy is increased. Upon further increasing this parameter both models undergo a transition to chaos: by intermittency and by a period doubling sequence. In nonplanar condensed phase combustion the nonlinear development of a branch of standing wave solutions is studied and is shown to lead to relaxation oscillations and subsequently to a transition to quasi-periodicity

  18. Thermogravimetric analysis of biowastes during combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.; Sanchez, M.E.; Gomez, X.; Moran, A.

    2010-01-01

    The combustion of sewage sludge (SS), animal manure (AM) and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was assessed and compared with that of a semianthracite coal (SC) and of a PET waste by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Differences were found in the TG curves obtained for the combustion of these materials accordingly to their respective proximate analysis. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to assess the kinetics of the combustion of these biowastes. The present paper reports on the application of the Vyazovkin model-free isoconversional method for the evaluation of the activation energy necessary for the combustion of these biowastes. The activation energy related to SS combustion (129.1 kJ/mol) was similar to that corresponding to AM (132.5 kJ/mol) while the OFMSW showed a higher value (159.3 kJ/mol). These values are quite higher than the one determined in the same way for the combustion of SC (49.2 kJ/mol) but lower than that for the combustion of a PET waste (165.6 kJ/mol).

  19. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  20. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  1. Handelsbankens användande av CRM -Är det lönsamt?

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Kanbar, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Frågeställning: På vilket sätt används CRM av Handelsbanken och hur påverkar det bankens lönsamhet? Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att kunna öka kunskapen om hur Handelsbanken tillämpar CRM och för att undersöka om användandet av CRM i bankens verksamhet är lönsamt eller inte. Metod: För att svara på studiens syfte blev en intervju utförd med Handelsbanken. Ännu en anledning till varför en intervju gjordes var på grund av att det var nödvändigt för att få det primärdata som behövdes och fö...

  2. Modellering och analys av grundvattenflödet i en byggnads grundläggning

    OpenAIRE

    Hargelius, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    På en fastighet i Luthagen i Uppsala uppfördes en byggnad grundlagd på träpålar år 1936. Under 60-talet uppstod läckage på en spillvattenledning vilket ledde till en kontaminering av sprickvattenakviferen där träpålar är särskilt utsatta för påverkan av bakterie, svamp- och virusangrepp till följd av torrläggning. För att spola bort kontaminerat sprickvatten och för att hålla en jämn sprickvattennivå i akviferen installerades påfyllningsbrunnar på två platser i källaren under huset. Brunnarna...

  3. Stereotyper: en omedveten kategorisering. : En jämlikhetsanalys av Intryck- Värmlands landstings personaltidning

    OpenAIRE

    Åhlander, Karolina; Jost, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Jämlikhet är något som ligger i tiden. Hur jämlikhetsmedvetna är egentligen dagens medier? Vi har på uppdrag av Värmlandslandsting gjort en jämlikhetanalys av deras personaltidning, Intryck. En tidning som når samtliga anställda inom organisationen. Vi har gjort en text- och bildanalys med utgångspunkt från ett analysverktyg vi kallar för jämlikhetstrappan. Vårt syfte har varit att urskilja stereotyper och om tidningen använder sig av sitt befintliga underlag för att göra tidningen så jämlik ...

  4. Forholdet mellom stat og kommune i styring av norsk utdanningspolitikk 1970 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Engeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen er skrevet ut fra en antakelse om at norsk utdanningsforvaltning etter 1990 illustrerer forsøk på å styrke den statlige forvaltning innen et desentralisert system. Ikke minst er dette tydelig ved at nasjonal styring av utdanning særlig etter århundreskiftet har økt på bekostning av det lokale selvstyret. I forhold til maktfordelingen mellom staten og kommunene er vi nå nærmest tilbake til situasjonen før den politiske desentraliseringsbølgen startet mot slutten av 1970-tallet. Det nasjonale nivået er i ferd med å etablere et styringsgrep på skolesiden som er så omfattende at det mangler sidestykke i moderne tid. Det nye er at dette skjer innen et system hvor inntektssystemet (1986 gir kommunene ansvar for undervisningen, og hvor statens mulighet til å bruke økonomiske styringsmidler er redusert.

  5. If You Live in a Nuclear Submarine : En diskursanalys av Xbox One i Time & Forbes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Magnus; Stabell Jebsen, Carl Axel

    2014-01-01

    Xbox One är en spelkonsol från företaget Microsoft och en uppföljare till Xbox 360. Konsolen presenterades officiellt vid en presskonferens den 21 maj 2013 och före presentationen så fanns det ett av många rykten om ett krav på att vara ständigt uppkopplad mot internet som rapporterades i media. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att i utifrån efterförloppet av Microsofts premiärlansering av spelkonsolen Xbox One undersöka den diskursiva bild som nyhetsmedierna Forbes och Time använder för att sk...

  6. Boye och "jag" : En grammatisk analys av en litterär persona

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Elina

    2015-01-01

    I denna uppsats använder jag den interpersonella metafunktionen inom systemisk-funktionell grammatik för att undersöka sex av Karin Boyes dikter, detta med syfte att se huruvida en sådan här analys kan säga något av intresse om diktjaget. Analysen genomfördes enligt Holmberg och Karlssons modell i Grammatik med betydelse, där subjekt och finit tagits ut varpå språkhandlingar markerats och modalitet kommenterats. Dikterna är hämtade ur Boyes Samlade dikter. Av min analys framgår att jaget beha...

  7. Novel combustion concepts for sustainable energy development

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Avinash K; Gupta, Ashwani K; Aggarwal, Suresh K; Kushari, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises research studies of novel work on combustion for sustainable energy development. It offers an insight into a few viable novel technologies for improved, efficient and sustainable utilization of combustion-based energy production using both fossil and bio fuels. Special emphasis is placed on micro-scale combustion systems that offer new challenges and opportunities. The book is divided into five sections, with chapters from 3-4 leading experts forming the core of each section. The book should prove useful to a variety of readers, including students, researchers, and professionals.

  8. The John Zink Hamworthy combustion handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the length of time it has been around, its importance, and vast amounts of research, combustion is still far from being completely understood. Issues regarding the environment, cost, and fuel consumption add further complexity, particularly in the process and power generation industries. Dedicated to advancing the art and science of industrial combustion, The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 3 - Applications offers comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of equipment used in the process and power generation industries. Under the leadership of Charles E. Baukal

  9. Characteristic of combustion of Colombian gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil B, Edison; Maya, Ruben; Andres, Amel A.

    1996-01-01

    The variety of gas locations in the country, makes that the gas that will be distributed by the net of present gas pipeline a very different composition, what bears to that these they behave in a different way during its use. In this work the main characteristics of the combustion are calculated for the Colombian gases, basically the properties of the combustion and the characteristics of the smoke, as basic information for the design and operation of the gas teams and their certification. These properties were calculated with the special help software for combustion developed by the authors

  10. Combustion of fuels with low sintering temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D

    1950-08-16

    A furnace for the combustion of low sintering temperature fuel consists of a vertical fuel shaft arranged to be charged from above and supplied with combustion air from below and containing a system of tube coils extending through the fuel bed and serving the circulation of a heat-absorbing fluid, such as water or steam. The tube-coil system has portions of different heat-absorbing capacity which are so related to the intensity of combustion in the zones of the fuel shaft in which they are located as to keep all parts of the fuel charge below sintering temperature.

  11. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  12. 3rd International Conference on Numerical Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Larrouturou, Bernard; Numerical Combustion

    1989-01-01

    Interest in numerical combustion is growing among applied mathematicians, physicists, chemists, engine manufacturers and many industrialists. This proceedings volume contains nine invited lectures and twenty seven contributions carefully selected by the editors. The major themes are numerical simulation of transsonic and supersonic combustion phenomena, the study of supersonic reacting mixing layers, and turbulent combustion. Emphasis is laid on hyperbolic models and on numerical simulations of hydrocarbon planes with a complete set of chemical reactions carried out in two-dimensional geometries as well as on complex reactive flow simulations.

  13. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey [NETL; Richards, George

    2012-09-30

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  14. Plasma assisted combustion of parafin mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Martysh, E.V.; Lisitchenko, T.E.; Vergun, O.Yu.; Orlovska, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the results of solid paraffin combustion with the aid of the plasma of transverse and rotational gliding arc studies are represented. The question of the additional activation of paraffin based solid fuels is examined. The mixture of n-paraffin and stearin in the solid state as the model of the solid paraffin based fuel is used. The plasma assisted combustion of this model is experimentally investigated. The voltage-current characteristics of discharge at the different regimes are measured. The population temperatures of excited rotational levels are determined. The flame temperature during the combustion of solid paraffin containing mixture is calculated

  15. Chaotic combustion in spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendeker, Miroslaw; Czarnigowski, Jacek; Litak, Grzegorz; Szabelski, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process

  16. The parsec-scale relationship between ICO and AV in local molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Indebetouw, Remy; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    We measure the parsec-scale relationship between integrated CO intensity (ICO) and visual extinction (AV) in 24 local molecular clouds using maps of CO emission and dust optical depth from Planck. This relationship informs our understanding of CO emission across environments, but clean Milky Way measurements remain scarce. We find uniform ICO for a given AV, with the results bracketed by previous studies of the Pipe and Perseus clouds. Our measured ICO-AV relation broadly agrees with the standard Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor, the relation found for the Magellanic clouds at coarser resolution, and numerical simulations by Glover & Clark (2016). This supports the idea that CO emission primarily depends on shielding, which protects molecules from dissociating radiation. Evidence for CO saturation at high AV and a threshold for CO emission at low AV varies remains uncertain due to insufficient resolution and ambiguities in background subtraction. Resolution of order 0.1 pc may be required to measure these features. We use this ICO-AV relation to predict how the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (XCO) would change if the Solar Neighbourhood clouds had different dust-to-gas ratio (metallicity). The calculations highlight the need for improved observations of the CO emission threshold and H I shielding layer depth. They are also sensitive to the shape of the column density distribution. Because local clouds collectively show a self-similar distribution, we predict a shallow metallicity dependence for XCO down to a few tenths of solar metallicity. However, our calculations also imply dramatic variations in cloud-to-cloud XCO at subsolar metallicity.

  17. Gradual combustion - method for nitrogen oxide suppression during brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.P.; Verzakov, V.N.; Lobov, T.V.

    1990-10-01

    Discusses combustion of brown coal in BKZ-500-140-1 boilers and factors that influence emission of nitrogen oxides. Temperature distribution in the furnace was evaluated. Effects of burner position, burner number and burner type as well as air excess ratio on chemical reactions during brown coal combustion, formation of nitrogen oxides and their emission were comparatively evaluated. Analyses showed that by optimum arrangement of burners and selecting the optimum air excess ratio a part of nitrogen oxides formed during the initial phase of combustion was reduced to molecular nitrogen in the second phase. On the basis of evaluations the following recommendations for furnace design are made: use of straight-flow burners characterized by a reduced mixing ratio with secondary air, parallel arrangement of burners which guarantees mixing of the combustion products from the burners with stable and unstable combustion (products of incomplete coal combustion), reducing the air excess ratio to below 1.0. 5 refs.

  18. Fromleik i Black Supper, Piss Christ og Crucifixion, tre fotografi av Andres Serrano

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Lilly

    2006-01-01

    Oppgåva skal omhandla tre utvalgte foto av fotografen Andres Serrano, ein amerikanar født i 1950. Enkeltbileta det er snakk om er Black Supper (1990), Piss Christ og Crucifixion (begge 1987). Dei er laga ved at kitschfigurar er nedsenka i gjennomsiktige behaldarar fyllte av kroppsvæsker og vatn; vatn i Black Supper, urin i Piss Christ og blod i Crucifixion. Henholdsvis framstiller dei Nattverden, Jesus på krossen og Krossfestinga (tre figurar). Serrano befinn seg med desse innanfor religiøs k...

  19. Vegetasjonskartlegging av Muddvær, Vegaøyan verdensarv, Vega kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Bär, Annette; Carlsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Muddværet ble vegetasjonskartlagt for å få oversikt over de botaniske verdiene. Vegetasjonstyper etter Fremstad (1997) er framstilt på kart og rapporten inneholder i tillegg en artsliste over registrerte planter. Kartleggingen skal brukes som grunnlag for en senere utarbeiding av en skjøtselsplan for området og ses i sammenheng med tidligere kartlegginger og utarbeiding av skjøtselsplaner for Vegaøyan verdensarvområde (bl.a. Hatten m.fl. 2007; Hatten & Carlsen 2007a,b).

  20. "Konsesjon til radikalere" : Norges anerkjennelse av Nord-Vietnam i 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Cristian H.

    2012-01-01

    Emnet for oppgaven er Norges anerkjennelse av Nord-Vietnam som en selvstendig stat. Dette skjedde i 1971 mens Nord-Vietnam var i krig med Sør-Vietnam og USA. Norge var det første NATO-landet som fattet prinsippvedtak om dette, og Danmark fulgte etter. Det hele provoserte USA i så stor grad at Nixon-administrasjonen var nær ved å kalle ambassadørene sine i Oslo og København hjem. Det var regjeringen Bratteli som stod for utførelsen av anerkjennelsen etter at Arbeiderpartiet kom tilbake til reg...

  1. Dolphin Sky, del A : utvikling av integrert design- og helhetskonsept for sveveløsning

    OpenAIRE

    Rummelhoff, Kristoffer Ødegaard

    2016-01-01

    Det er store utfordringer knyttet til veiutvikling, kø og situasjoner hvor biler ikke strekker til, spesielt i et land som Norge hvor fjell og fjord skaper naturlige hindringer. Dette er en av flere motivasjoner for å utvikle en miljøvennlig flyvende bil. Masteroppgaven er en fremtidsrettet konseptutvikling- og designoppgave for et nytt konsept hvor det integreres en sveveløsning på en lettvekts trehjulsbil. Tidligere arbeid har blitt benyttet i gjennomførelsen av konseptutvikling; inter...

  2. Millennials och baby boomers attityder till fake news : Generationernas upplevelser av nyhetsmediers sanningshalt

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfsson, Claes; Strömberg, Markus; Stenberg, John

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda på generationerna millennials och baby boomers inställning till mediernas sanningshalt och politiska neutralitet. Detta gjordes med hjälp av följande frågeställningar: Vilka attityder och vilken inställning har millennials och baby boomers till nyhetsmediernas sanningshalt? Finns skillnader och likheter kvar när vi väger in variablerna kön och politiskt ställningstagande?   För att definiera generationerna använde vi oss av Cliff Zukins generationsteor...

  3. Periodic Sorption of Tungstate Ions on Anionite AV-17-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’yachenko Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple sorption of sodium tungstate resulting from the autoclave-soda digestion of a tungsten-bearing concentrate was studied using anion-exchange resin AV-17-8. The choice of ion exchange resin was carried out under static conditions using highly basic anionites. The sorption and desorption plots for tungstate and carbonate ions were demonstrated under dynamic conditions. The total dynamic capacity of the resin was estimated for each species of the ions in three sorption cycles. The applicability of the AV-17-8 resin as a sorbent in the autoclave-soda process flowsheet was determined.

  4. Analyse av en konfliktfylt planprosess. Medvirkning og makt – i spenningsforholdet mellom ulike stedsidentiteter

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Hilde Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    Oppgaven beskriver reguleringsplanprosessen i 2015, og leter etter spor av Sætres stedsidentitet i historiske planer og debatt. Jeg ser etter identitetsuttrykk forstått som stedsfølelse (sence of place), den sosiale konteksten der stedet skapes og gjenskapes gjennom sosiale praksiser (locale) og den fysiske beskrivelsen av stedet (location). I oppgaven ser jeg på hvordan innbyggerne påvirket prosessen gjennom dialog på to Facebook-sider, avisinnlegg og høringsinnspill. Jeg analyserer akti...

  5. Sjuksköterskors upplevelse vid vård av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Johansson; Frida, Zetterman

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund Tidigare forskning visar att sjuksköterskor har förutfattade meningar om patienter med en stigmatiserande diagnos. Sjuksköterskor stigmatiserar och har negativa attityder som påverkar deras vård av dessa patienter. Individer med substansbrukssyndrom är en grupp som är särskilt utsatt för stigmatisering i samhället. Dessa individer påträffas inom samtliga specialiteter inom vården. Denna studie fokuserar därför på sjuksköterskors upplevelse av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom. Syfte...

  6. Risikovurdering av miljøgifter i sediment utenfor tidligere Hurum fabrikker

    OpenAIRE

    Håvardstun, J.; Berge, J.

    2011-01-01

    I forbindelse med et pålegg fra Klima og forurensningsdirektoratet er det gjennomført en vurdering av hvilken miljørisiko som sedimentene utenfor tidligere Hurum fabrikker representerer. Vurderingen er gjennomført på basis undersøkelser av sedimentene gjennomført i 2007. Risikovurderingen er gjennomført etter direktoratets veileder (TA-2230/2007). Hovedkonklusjonen er at sedimentforurensningen i grunnområdene nær land (< 10 m dyp) utenfor fabrikkområdet utgjør en risiko for skade på økosystem...

  7. Betydningen av drektige reinsimlers ernæring for kalvers vekst, klimatiske toleranse og overlevelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Rognmo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forsøkene (viste at tilleggsforing av underernærte simler i siste del av drektighetsperioden kun synes å ha effekt på fødselsvekten for kalvene forutsatt at simlene får høyverdig ernæring etter kalving. Den forskjellige ernæringsbakgrunn før kalving synes således ikke å innvirke på melkeproduksjon/kvalitet, da vektutviklingen for alle grupper av kalver i dette forsøket gikk parallelt i de tre første ukene etter kalving. Det ble heller ikke på noe punkt funnet signifikante forskjeller gruppene imellom når det gjelder kalvenes klimatiske toleranse. Det er dog bemerkelsesverdig at det var stor dødelighet blant de små kalvene etter unge små simler i GRUPPE L. Dette funn er interessant sett i sammenheng med resultatene fra Røros (se bidrag fra Dag Lenvik, side som viser at avkastningen fra en flokk kan økes markant om man konsentrerte slakteuttaket på små kalver og forhindrer bedekning av små, unge simler gjennom fjerning av eldre, store bukker. Med det forbehold at våre forsøk er utført på dyr i innhegning med et lavt aktivitetsnivå, kan man fra våreforsøk foreløpig konkludere med at tillegsfor ing av simler i siste halvdel av drektighetsperioden har effekt på kalvenes fødselsvekt, men at vektutviklingen for kalven er uavhengig av simlenes ernæringshistorie, om sistnevnte tilbys høyverdig ernæring etter kalving. Da små kalver etter underernærte simler viste høy dødelighet like etter fødselen, vil imidlertid tilleggsforing kunne øke avkastningen om det er mange unge simler i flokken. Resultatene fra Røros tyder imidlertid på at dette resultat normalt kan oppnås uten ekstra omkostninger gjennom et selektivt slakteuttak.

  8. Konstruktion av vertikaltransportör för materialhantering

    OpenAIRE

    Furu, Micke

    2012-01-01

    Rotab Rostfria Transportörer AB tillverkar och utvecklar material- och godshanteringsutrustning. Företaget levererar även kompletta materialhanteringslösningar i form av godshanteringsanläggningar som ofta består av transportband och paketeringsutrustning. Examensarbetets mål är att utveckla en vertikaltransportör som ska transportera gods mellan två transportband belägna på olika höjder, transporten ska kunna varieras mellan 1000 - 3000 mm. Transportören ska undvika de två stora nackdelarna ...

  9. Nyutdannede allmennlærere og deres opplevelse av faglig kompetanse i leseopplæring generelt og av elever med lesevansker spesielt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Grimsæth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Teoretisk og praktisk kunnskap fungerer etter ulik logikk, ingen teori kan helt omsettes til praksis. Det er derfor av interesse å undersøke nærmere hvordan nyutdannede lærere opplever både sin fagkunnskap og nyervervede kompetanse i yrket. Undersøkelsen som her blir presentert har følgende problemstilling: Hvordan opplever nyutdannede lærere sin kompetanse i leseopplæring generelt og leseopplæring av elever med lesevansker spesielt? Denne pilotundersøkelsen tar utgangspunkt i Q- metoden; nyutdannede lærere plasserer subjektive utsagn trykt på individuelle kort i en matrise. Pilotundersøkelsen baserer seg på 10 respondenter, vi valgte derfor en kvalitativ analyse av resultatene av Q-sorteringen. Resultatene viser at nyutdannede lærere opplever at de mangler kunnskap og kompetanse både i praktisk leseopplæring generelt og om lesevansker spesielt. Kartleggingsmateriell blir i liten grad brukt som grunnlag for informantenes tilrettelegging av arbeidsmåter i leseopplæring. Inkludering og sammenholdte klasser står sterkt hos informantene, men de savner informasjon om elever med lesevansker og om tilgjengelig hjelpemateriell. Resultatene understreker betydningen av veiledning av nyutdannede lærere og ikke minst deres behov for fora for faglig utvikling, faglig utveksling og refleksive diskusjoner.Nøkkelord: Nyutdannede allmennlærere; opplevd fagkunnskap og kompetanse; leseopplæring, lesevansker, Q-metodologi, læring i praksis.AbstractTheory and practice are based on different logics; this means that no theory can be fully implemented in practice. For this reason, it is interesting to investigate newly qualified teachers’ perceptions of their expertise and competence. In order to study this phenomena, the following research question was formulated: How do newly qualified teachers perceive their competence in the field of reading education in general and reading difficulties in particular? This pilot study is based on Q

  10. Vannmagasinet er ikke fullt før det renner over : en analyse av effekten av redusert etterspørsel i et vannkraftsystem, eksemplifisert med energieffektivisering i bygninger

    OpenAIRE

    Siljan, Marte

    2010-01-01

    Energieffektivisering i bygninger regnes som et av de mest kostnadseffektive tiltakene for å redusere forbruk av energi, samt bidra til reduksjon i klimagassutslipp. I følge rapporter fra blant annet Lavenergiutvalget (2009) og Klimakur 2020 (2010), vil det være mulig å frigjøre rundt 10 TWh elektrisitet fra norske bygninger i løpet av de neste ti årene. Denne masteroppgaven tar for seg følgene av en tilsvarende etterspørselsreduksjon i det norske kraftsystemet. Norge har et kraftsystem med n...

  11. Key factors of combustion from kinetics to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nikolai M

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the main advances in the mechanisms of combustion processes. It focuses on the analysis of kinetic mechanisms of gas combustion processes and experimental investigation into the interrelation of kinetics and gas dynamics in gas combustion. The book is complimentary to the one previously published, The Modes of Gaseous Combustion.

  12. Comparison of different chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion in an internal combustion engine configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Ennetta Ridha; Hamdi Mohamed; Said Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion were tested and compared using the internal combustion engine model of Chemkin 4.02 [1]: one-step global reaction mechanism, four-step mechanism, and the standard detailed scheme GRIMECH 3.0. This study shows good concordances, especially between the four-step and the detailed mechanisms in the prediction of temperature and main species profiles. But reduced schemes were incapables to predict pollutant emissions in an internal combustion...

  13. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  14. Skladování energie – téma v hledáčku AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena; Hrubý, Jan; Chomát, Miroslav; Zima, Patrik

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 7-9 ISSN 1210-9525. [Technology Perspectives for Energy Storage. Praha, 30.11.2015] Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/3 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : energy storage * renewable energy sources * strategy AV21 initiative Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. HPCMP CREATE (trademark)-AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    30/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 HPCMP CREATE™- AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software...2) “Does this tool adequately perform any and all advertised capabilities?” This paper will describe how the HPCMP CREATE Air Vehicles ( AV ...discussed and their strengths and weaknesses within the CREATE- AV framework addressed. Work toward the HPCMP CREATE, Quality Assurance, Aviation

  16. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  17. Distillation of combustibles at temperatures below fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D

    1946-09-26

    A process is described for combustion and distillation for dry fuels, such as bituminous shales, below the temperature of fusion of the ash, for the production of heat, in which the temperature in the charge of fuel forming a vertical column is maintained beneath the temperature of fusion of the ash by a withdrawal of the heat from the combustible charge by means of a fluid absorbing this heat. This fluid being constituted, for example, by water in a suitable form, so that it can be circulated through a convenient cooling system, extending through the different parts of the charge. The fluid circulating also through the desired parts of the charge and absorbing the heat, the quantity of fluid or the surface of absorption increasing with the intensity of the combustion in the part of the combustible charge traversed by the fluid.

  18. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  19. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  20. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop; Nettyam, Naveena; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability