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Sample records for combustion advanced concept

  1. HERCULES Advanced Combustion Concepts Test Facility: Spray/Combustion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, presents a review of work being done within the framework of HERCULES (High Efficiency R and D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) - the international R and D project concerning new technologies for ships' diesels. The work involves the use and augmentation of simulation models. These are to be validated using experimental data. The report deals with the development of an experimental set-up that will simulate combustion in large two-stroke diesel engines and allow the generation of reference data. The main element of the test apparatus is a spray / combustion chamber with extensive possibilities for optical observation under variable flow conditions. The results of first simulations confirm concepts and shall help in further work on the project. The potential offered by high-speed camera systems was tested using the institute's existing HTDZ combustion chamber. Further work to be done is reviewed.

  2. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  3. Systematic design of an intra-cycle fueling control system for advanced diesel combustion concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kefalidis, L.

    2017-01-01

    This technical report presents a systematic approach for the design and development of an intra-cycle fueling control system for diesel combustion concepts. A high level system was developed and implemented on an experimental engine setup. Implementation and experimental validation are performed for

  4. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  5. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  6. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  7. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  8. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  9. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey [NETL; Richards, George

    2012-09-30

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  10. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  11. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  12. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  13. Advanced Combustion Numerics and Modeling - FY18 First Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Killingsworth, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNenly, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petitpas, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    This project is focused on early stage research and development of numerical methods and models to improve advanced engine combustion concepts and systems. The current focus is on development of new mathematics and algorithms to reduce the time to solution for advanced combustion engine design using detailed fuel chemistry. The research is prioritized towards the most time-consuming workflow bottlenecks (computer and human) and accuracy gaps that slow ACS program members. Zero-RK, the fast and accurate chemical kinetics solver software developed in this project, is central to the research efforts and continues to be developed to address the current and emerging needs of the engine designers, engine modelers and fuel mechanism developers.

  14. Advanced fusion concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    While the prospects for the eventual development of a tokamak-based fusion reactor appear promising at the present time, the Department of Energy maintains a vigorous program in alternate magnetic fusion concepts. Several of the concepts presently supported include the toroidal reversed field pinch, Tormac, Elmo Bumpy Torus, and various linear options. Recent technical accomplishments and program evaluations indicate that the possibility now exists for undertaking the next development stage, a proof-of-principle experiment, for a few of the most promising alternate concepts

  15. Advanced Welding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  16. Novel combustion concepts for sustainable energy development

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Avinash K; Gupta, Ashwani K; Aggarwal, Suresh K; Kushari, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises research studies of novel work on combustion for sustainable energy development. It offers an insight into a few viable novel technologies for improved, efficient and sustainable utilization of combustion-based energy production using both fossil and bio fuels. Special emphasis is placed on micro-scale combustion systems that offer new challenges and opportunities. The book is divided into five sections, with chapters from 3-4 leading experts forming the core of each section. The book should prove useful to a variety of readers, including students, researchers, and professionals.

  17. Fuel Combustion Laboratory | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion Laboratory Fuel Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the combustion chamber platform for fuel ignition kinetics research, was acquired to expand the lab's

  18. Progress in advanced accelerator concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-08-01

    A review is given of recent progress in this field, drawing heavily upon material presented at the Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, The Abbey, June 12--18, 1994. Attention is addressed to (1) plasma based concepts, (2) photo-cathodes, (3) radio frequency sources and Two-Beam Accelerators, (4) near and far-field schemes (including collective accelerators), (5) beam handling and conditioning, and (6) exotic collider concepts (such as photon colliders and muon colliders)

  19. Advanced divertor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Sagara, A.; Suzuki, H.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Watanabe, T.; Noda, N.; Motojima, O.

    1996-01-01

    LHD divertor development program has generated various innovative divertor concepts and technologies which will help to improve the plasma performance in both helical and tokamak devices. They are two divertor operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement). Local island divertor geometry has also been proposed. This new divertor has been successfully tested in the CHS device and is planned to be installed in the LHD device. In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes (carbon sheet pump and membrane pump) are being pursued for enhancement of the divertor control capability. 17 refs., 8 figs

  20. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  1. National Jet Fuels Combustion Program – Area #3 : Advanced Combustion Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The goal of this study is to develop, conduct, and analyze advanced laser and optical measurements in the experimental combustors developed under ASCENT National Fuel Combustion Program to measure sensitivity to fuel properties. We conducted advanced...

  2. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  3. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  4. FY2016 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-07-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  5. FY2015 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Gravel, Roland M. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Howden, Kenneth C. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Breton, Leo [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  6. Advancing the Limits of Dual Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest; the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors the Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, engine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the DDF engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste; commonly referred to as biomethane, can provide a reduction in greenhouse gases unmatched by any other fuel. The DDF engine is from a combustion point of view a hybrid between the diesel and the otto engine and it shares characteristics with both. This work identifies the main challenges of DDF operation and suggests methods to overcome them. Injector tip temperature and pre-ignitions have been found to limit performance in addition to the restrictions known from literature such as knock and emissions of NO{sub x} and HC. HC emissions are especially challenging at light load where throttling is required to promote flame propagation. For this reason it is desired to increase the lean limit in the light load range in order to reduce pumping losses and increase efficiency. It is shown that the best results in this area are achieved by using early diesel injection to achieve HCCI/RCCI combustion where combustion phasing is controlled by the ratio between diesel and methane. However, even without committing to HCCI/RCCI combustion and the difficult control issues associated with it, substantial gains are accomplished by splitting the diesel injection into two and allocating most of the diesel fuel to the early injection. HCCI/RCCI and PPCI combustion can be used with great effect to reduce the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons at light load. At high load, the challenges that need to be overcome are mostly related to heat. Injector tip temperatures need to be observed since the cooling effect of

  7. Advanced PWR fuel design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersor, C.K.; Harris, R.P.; Crump, M.W.; Fuhrman, N.

    1987-01-01

    For nearly 15 years, Combustion Engineering has provided pressurized water reactor fuel with the features most suppliers are now introducing in their advanced fuel designs. Zircaloy grids, removable upper end fittings, large fission gas plenum, high burnup, integral burnable poisons and sophisticated analytical methods are all features of C-E standard fuel which have been well proven by reactor performance. C-E's next generation fuel for pressurized water reactors features 24-month operating cycles, optimal lattice burnable poisons, increased resistance to common industry fuel rod failure mechanisms, and hardware and methodology for operating margin improvements. Application of these various improvements offer continued improvement in fuel cycle economics, plant operation and maintenance. (author)

  8. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-01

    Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO(2)-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Lee, A.G.; Gillespie, G.E.; Smith, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In Canada the need for advanced neutron sources has long been recognized. During the past several years Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been developing the new MAPLE multipurpose reactor concept. To date, the MAPLE program has focused on the development of a modest-cost multipurpose medium-flux neutron source to meet contemporary requirements for applied and basic research using neutron beams, for small-scale materials testing and analysis and for radioisotope production. The basic MAPLE concept incorporates a compact light-water cooled and moderated core within a heavy water primary reflector to generate strong neutron flux levels in a variety of irradiation facilities. In view of renewed Canadian interest in a high-flux neutron source, the MAPLE group has begun to explore advanced concepts based on AECL's experience with heavy water reactors. The overall objective is to define a high-flux facility that will support materials testing for advanced power reactors, new developments in extracted neutron-beam applications, and/or production of radioisotopes. The design target is to attain performance levels of HFR-Grenoble, HFBR, HFIR in a new heavy water-cooled, -moderated,-reflected reactor based on rodded LEU fuel. Physics, shielding, and thermohydraulic studies have been performed for the MAPLE heavy water reactor. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Lee, A.G.; Gillespie, G.E.; Smith, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    High-flux neutron sources are continuing to be of interest both in Canada and internationally to support materials testing for advanced power reactors, new developments in extracted-neutron-beam applications, and commercial production of selected radioisotopes. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept has been developed to meet these needs. The advanced MAPLE reactor is a new tank-type D 2 O reactor that uses rodded low-enrichment uranium fuel in a compact annular core to generate peak thermal-neutron fluxes of 1 x 10 19 n·s -1 in a central irradiation rig with a thermal power output of 50 MW. Capital and incremental development costs are minimized by using MAPLE reactor technology to the greatest extent practicable

  11. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  12. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  13. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac

  14. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  15. FY 1994 annual report. Advanced combustion science utilizing microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Researches on combustion in microgravity were conducted to develop combustion devices for advanced combustion techniques, and thereby to cope with the requirements for diversification of energy sources and abatement of environmental pollution by exhaust gases. This project was implemented under the research cooperation agreement with US's NASA, and the Japanese experts visited NASA's test facilities. NASA's Lewis Research Center has drop test facilities, of which the 2.2-sec drop test facilities are useful for researches by Japan. The cooperative research themes for combustion in microgravity selected include interactions between fuel droplets, high-pressure combustion of binary fuel sprays, and ignition and subsequent flame propagation in microgravity. An ignition test equipment, density field measurement equipment and flame propagation test equipment were constructed in Japan to conduct the combustion tests in microgravity for, e.g., combustion and evaporation of fuel droplets, combustion characteristics of liquid fuels mixed with solid particles, combustion of coal/oil mixture droplets, and estimating flammability limits. (NEDO)

  16. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  17. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. ► CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. ► N 2 O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. ► Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. ► Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO 2 -eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  18. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  19. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  20. Ash chemistry and behavior in advanced co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Skrifvars, B J [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this LIEKKI 2 project is to report results achieved within the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project to the Finnish combustion research community through the LIEKKI program. The purpose of the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project is to find prediction methods for evaluating ash behavior, such as slagging, fouling and corrosion propensity, in full scale combustion systems through chemical or mineralogical analyses, intelligent laboratory tests and chemistry calculations. The project focuses on coals, coal mixtures and coal biomass mixtures fired in advanced combustion systems, such as fluidized bed boilers, pulverized fuel boilers with critical steam values etc. The project will make use of (1) advanced multi-component combustion equilibrium calculations, (2) ash sintering tendency laboratory tests and (3) chemical evaluations of slagging, fouling and corrosion measurements in full scale units. (orig.)

  1. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  2. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Penrod

    2002-01-01

    Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal in...

  3. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    ineffective in the T63, even at concentrations up to 40 times the recommended value. Additive companies were informed about the performance of their...M. (1996): NASA RP- 1385. • Toepke, S. (1999): Boeing Company , Personal Correspondence. • Ulrich, G.D. (1971): Comb. Sci. Tech., Vol. 4, pp. 47-58...temperature (K) THC = total hydrocarbons UNICORN = UNsteady Ignition and COmbustion with ReactioNs V = reactor volume (mL) WSR = well-stirred reactor

  4. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  5. 1998 annual report of advanced combustion science utilizing microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of stabilizing energy supply, diversifying energy supply sources and reducing the worsening of global environment caused by combustion exhaust gases, advanced combustion technology was studied and the FY 1998 results were summarized. Following the previous year, the following were conducted: international research jointly with NASA, experiments using microgravity test facilities of Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center (JSUP), evaluation studies made by universities/national research institutes/private companies, etc. In the FY 1998 joint study, a total of 52 drop experiments were carried out on 4 themes using test facilities of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC), and 100 experiments were conducted on one theme using test facilities of NASA. In the study using microgravity test facilities, the following were carried out: study of combustion and evaporation of fuel droplets, study of ignition/combustion of fuel droplets in the suspending state, study of combustion of spherical/cylinder state liquid fuels, study of high pressure combustion of binary fuel spray, study of interaction combustion of fuel droplets in the microgravity field, etc. (NEDO)

  6. Advanced coal combustion technologies and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic, Maja; Feretic, Danilo; Tomsic, Zeljko

    1997-01-01

    Estimations of world energy reserves show that coal will remain the leading primary energy source for electricity production in the foreseeable future. In order to comply with ever stricter environmental regulations and to achieve efficient use of limited energy resources, advanced combustion technologies are being developed. The most promising are the pressurised fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). By injecting sorbent in the furnace, PFBC removes more than 90 percent of SO 2 in flue gases without additional emission control device. In addition, due to lower combustion temperature, NO x emissions are around 90 percent lower than those from pulverised coal (PC) plant. IGCC plant performance is even more environmentally expectable and its high efficiency is a result of a combined cycle usage. Technical, economic and environmental characteristics of mentioned combustion technologies will be presented in this paper. Comparison of PFBC, IGCC and PC power plants economics and air impact will also be given. (Author)

  7. Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Clausen, Sønnik

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, “Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy- Fuel Combustion Processes”. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory...... technique was an invaluable tool in the discussion of data obtained by gas analysis, and it allowed for estimation of combustion times in O2/CO2 where the high CO2 concentration prevents the use of the carbon mass balance for that purpose. During the project the data have been presented at a conference......, formed the basis of a publication and it is part of two PhD dissertations. The name of the conference the journal and the dissertations are listed below. - Joint Meeting of the Scandinavian-Nordic and French Sections of the Combustion Institute, Combustion of Char Particles under Oxy-Fuel Conditions...

  8. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  9. ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH A NEW CONCEPT OF POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION FOR THE FUTURE CLEAN ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Dhale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the emissions of internal combustion engine can only be improved by catalytic treatments of the exhaust gases. Such treatments, however, result in high costs and relatively low conversion efficiency. This suggests that a new combustion technique should be developed to yield improved primary combustion processes inside the engine with drastically reduced exhaust gas emissions. To fulfill all requirements, Dr. Franz Drust has proposed a new combustion concept to perform homogenous combustion in internal combustion engines. This concept used the porous medium combustion technique and is called "PM-engine". It is shown that the PM combustion technique can be applied to internal combustion engines. Theoretical considerations are presented for internal combustion engines, indicating that an overall improvement in thermal efficiency can be achieved for the PM-engine. This is explained and general performance of the new PM-engines is demonstrated for a single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine. Verification of experiments at primary stage is described that were carried out as a part of the present study.

  10. Characterisation of fuels for advanced pressurised combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Forssen, M; Karlsson, M; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V; Uusikartano, T [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group; Nurk, M [Tallinskij Politekhnicheskij Inst., Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the research was to determine a set of fuel characteristics which quantify the behaviour of a fuel in a typical pressurised combustor or gasifier environment, especially in hybrid processes such as second generation PFBC. One specific aspect was to cover a wide range of fuels, including several coal types and several grades of peat and biomasses: 7 types of coal, 2 types of peat, 2 types of wood, 2 types of black liquor, Estonian oil shale and Venezuelan Orimulsion were studied. The laboratory facilities used are a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor (PTGR), a pressurised grid heater (PGH) and an atmospheric entrained flow quartz tube reactor, with gas analysis, which can be operated as a fixed bed reactor. A major part of the work was related to fuel devolatilisation in the PGH and sequential devolatilisation and char gasification (with carbon dioxide or steam) in the PTGR. The final part of that work is reported here, with the combustion of Estonian oil shale at AFBC or PFBC conditions as additional subject. Devolatilisation of the fuels at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen while monitoring gaseous exhausts, followed by ultimate analysis of the chars has been reported earlier. Here, results on the analysis of the reduction of NO (with and without CO) on chars at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor are reported. Finally, a comparison is given between experimental results and direct numerical simulation with several computer codes, i.e. PyroSim, developed at TU Graz, Austria, and the codes Partikkeli, Pisara and Cogas, which were provided by VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae

  11. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  12. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin

    2011-01-15

    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  13. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  14. Novel approaches in advanced combustion characterization of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J. [VTT Energy (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project is a part of the EU Joule 2 (extension) programme. The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is to produce experimental results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals and their char derivates. The results can be utilized in modelling of pressurized combustion and in planning pilot-scale reactors. The coals to be studied are Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelbom) hvb coal. The samples are combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions are controlled with a high precision. The particle size of the fuel can vary between 100 and 300 {mu}m. The studied things are combustion rates, temperatures and sizes of burning single coal and char particles. The latter measurements are performed with a method developed by Tampere University of Technology, Finland. In some of the experiments, mass loss and elemental composition of the char residue are studied in more details as the function of time to find out the combustion mechanism. Combustion rate of pulverized (140-180 {mu}m) Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite were measured and compared with the data obtained earlier with Polish hvb coal at various pressures, gas temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in the second working period. In addition, particle temperatures were measured with anthracite. The experimental results were treated with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method to find regression equation between the measured things and the experimental variables. (author)

  15. Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Penrod

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal investigation into the meaning of the concept. Through concept analysis, the concept was deconstructed to identify conceptual components and gaps in understanding. Using this skeletal framework of the concept identified through concept analysis, subsequent studies were carried out to add ‘flesh’ to the concept. First, a concept refinement using the literature as data was completed. Findings revealed that the current state of the concept of uncertainty failed to incorporate what was known of the lived experience. Therefore, using interview techniques as the primary data source, a phenomenological study of uncertainty among caregivers was conducted. Incorporating the findings of the phenomenology, the skeletal framework of the concept was further fleshed out using techniques of concept correction to produce a more mature conceptualization of uncertainty. In this section, I describe the flow of this qualitative project investigating the concept of uncertainty, with special emphasis on a particular threat to validity (called conceptual tunnel vision that was identified and addressed during the phases of concept correction. Though in this article I employ a study of uncertainty for illustration, limited substantive findings regarding uncertainty are presented to retain a clear focus on the methodological issues.

  16. Advanced reactor concepts and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    The need for some consistency in the terms used to describe the evolution of methods for ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors has been identified by the IAEA. This is timely since there appears to be a danger that the precision of many valuable words is being diluted and that a new jargon may appear that will confuse rather than aid the communication of important but possibly diverse philosophies and concepts. Among the difficulties faced by the nuclear industry is promoting and gaining a widespread understanding of the risks actually posed by nuclear reactors. In view of the importance of communication to both the public and to the technical community generally, the starting point for the definition of terms must be with dictionary meanings and common technical usage. The nuclear engineering community should use such words in conformance with the whole technical world. This paper addresses many of the issues suggested in the invitation to meet and also poses some additional issues for consideration. Some examples are the role of the operator in either enhancing or degrading safety and how the meaning or interpretation of the word 'safety' can be expected to change during the next few decades. It is advantageous to use criteria against which technologies and ongoing operating performance can be judged provided that the criteria are generic and not specific to particular reactor concepts. Some thoughts are offered on the need to frame the criteria carefully so that innovative solutions and concepts are fostered, not stifled

  17. Concept for lowest emissions of a hydrogen internal combustion engine; Niedrigstemissionskonzept fuer einen wasserstoffbetriebenen Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Marcel Christian Thomas

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a concept with lowest emissions for a hydrogen internal combustion engine for passenger cars. With optimisation of the combustion concept the level of nitrogen oxide is below 90%, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide below 99% of the SULEV target (CARB). This concept enables a potential in power density that is comparable to current supercharged combustion engines at lowest emission level without catalytic aftertreatment. Additionally with a catalytic aftertreatment system, the emission level of a current hydrogen combustion engine (mono-fuel) is lowered to a level, that this car can be labeled as air cleaning vehicle for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  18. Materials technologies for advanced nuclear energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.; Harms, B.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance, advanced nuclear power plant concepts have emerged with major emphasis on lower capital costs, inherent safety, and increased reliability. The materials problems posed by these concepts are discussed and how the scientists and technologists at ORNL plan to solve them is described

  19. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Lee, A.G.; Gillespie, G.E.; Smith, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the past several years, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been developing the new MAPLE multipurpose reactor concept, which is capable of generating peak thermal neutron fluxes of up to 3 x 10 18 n/m 2 s in its heavy water reflector at a nominal thermal power level of 15MW. An assessment of the MAPLE-D 2 O reactor has shown that it could also be used as a high-flux neutron source. it could be developed to be used for several applications if a 12-site annular core is used. Thermal fluxes several times greater than in existing facilities would be available (author)

  20. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  1. Advanced midwifery practice: An evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemaes, Régine; Beeckman, Dimitri; Goossens, Joline; Shawe, Jill; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann

    2016-11-01

    the concept of 'advanced midwifery practice' is explored to a limited extent in the international literature. However, a clear conception of advanced midwifery practice is vital to advance the discipline and to achieve both internal and external legitimacy. This concept analysis aims to clarify advanced midwifery practice and identify its components. a review of the literature was executed using Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis to analyze the attributes, references, related terms, antecedents and consequences of advanced midwifery practice. an international consensus definition of advanced midwifery practice is currently lacking. Four major attributes of advanced midwife practitioners (AMPs) are identified: autonomy in practice, leadership, expertise, and research skills. A consensus was found on the need of preparation at master's level for AMPs. Such midwives have a broad and internationally varied scope of practice, fulfilling different roles such as clinicians, clinical and professional leaders, educators, consultants, managers, change agents, researchers, and auditors. Evidence illustrating the important part AMPs play on a clinical and strategic level is mounting. the findings of this concept analysis support a wide variety in the emergence, titles, roles, and scope of practice of AMPs. Research on clinical and strategic outcomes of care provided by AMPs supports further implementation of these roles. As the indistinctness of AMPs' titles and roles is one of the barriers for implementation, a clear conceptualization of advanced midwifery practice seems essential for successful implementation. an international debate and consensus on the defining elements of advanced midwifery practice could enhance the further development of midwifery as a profession and is a prerequisite for its successful implementation. Due to rising numbers of AMPs, extension of practice and elevated quality requirements in healthcare, more outcomes research exclusively

  2. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  3. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Zheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the incremental (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR. • Proposed one-step equations for transient/steady-state gas concentration estimation. • Defined an in-cylinder excess-air ratio to account for the recycled oxygen with EGR. • Demonstrated the use of intake oxygen as a reliable measure of EGR effectiveness. • Demonstrated the impact of engine load and intake pressure on EGR effectiveness. - Abstract: Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet NOx targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR

  5. Advanced Fusion Concepts project summaries. FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate studients, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. The individual project summaries are prepared by the principle investigators in collaboration with the Advanced Fusion Concepts (AFC) Branch. In addition to the project summaries, statements of branch objectives, and budget summaries are also provided

  6. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated

  7. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries: 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications

  8. Advanced Fusion Concepts project summaries, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications

  9. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  10. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  11. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  12. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  13. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia; EAAC 2015

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  14. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  15. Advanced fusion concepts project summaries, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report summarizes all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Applied Plasma Physics Division of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. Each project summary was written by the respective principal investigator using the format: title, principal investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. This report is organized into three sections: Section one contains five summaries describing work in the reversed-field pinch program being performed by a diversified group of contractors, these include a national laboratory, a private company, and several universities. Section two contains eight summaries of work from the compact toroid area which encompasses field-reversed configurations, spheromaks, and heating and formation experiments. Section three contains summaries from two other programs, a density Z-pinch experiment and high-beta Q machine experiment. The intent of this collection of project summaries is to help the contractors of the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch understand their relationship with the rest of the branch's activities. It is also meant to provide background to those outside the program by showing the range of activities of interest of the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch

  16. Optimization of a Gas Switching Combustion process through advanced heat management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, Schalk; Zaabout, Abdelghafour; Romano, Matteo C.; Chiesa, Paolo; Lozza, Giovanni; Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, Martin van; Amini, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GSC is a promising new reactor concept for power production with cost effective CO 2 capture. • The standalone fluidized bed reactors employed will allow for easy process scale-up. • The GSC simple configuration achieves higher efficiencies than conventional solutions. • Further increases in efficiency can be achieved via advanced heat management. • The 41.9% maximum efficiency is in line with other CLC–IGCC configurations. - Abstract: Gas Switching Combustion (GSC) is a promising new process concept for energy efficient power production with integrated CO 2 capture. In comparison to conventional Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) carried out in interconnected fluidized beds, the GSC concept will be substantially easier to design and scale up, especially for pressurized conditions. One potential drawback of the GSC concept is the gradual temperature variation over the transient process cycle, which leads to a drop in electric efficiency of the plant. This article investigates heat management strategies to mitigate this issue both through simulations and experiments. Simulation studies of the GSC concept integrated into an IGCC power plant show that heat management using a nitrogen recycle stream can increase plant efficiency by 3 percentage points to 41.6% while maintaining CO 2 capture ratios close to 90%. Reactive multiphase flow simulations of the GSC reactor also showed that heat management can eliminate fuel slip problems. In addition, the GSC concept offers the potential to remove the need for a nitrogen recycle stream by implementing a concentrated air injection that extracts heat while only a small percentage of oxygen reacts. Experiments have shown that, similar to nitrogen recycle, this strategy reduces transient temperature variations across the cycle and therefore merits further investigation.

  17. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, J.A.; Smith, K.A.; Edwards, R.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Schultz, M.A.; Klevans, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  18. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  19. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  20. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  1. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  2. Safety criteria for advanced HTGR concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1989-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that advanced HTGR concepts must be licensable, which means that they must fulfil existing regulatory requirements. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve their public acceptance and they must even be suitable for urban sites. Therefore, they should be 'safer' than existing plants, which mainly means with respect to low-frequency or beyond-design severe accidents. Last but not least, the realization of advanced HTGR would be easier if commonly shared safety principles could be stated ensuring this further increased level of safety internationally. These qualitative statements need to be cast into quantitative guidelines which can be used as a rationale for safety evaluation. This paper tries to describe the status reached and to stimulate international activities. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Advances in tracking and trigger concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing beam intensities and input data rates require to rethink the traditional approaches in trigger concepts. At the same time the advanced many-core computer architectures providing new dimensions in programming require to rework the standard methods or to develop new methods of track reconstruction in order to efficiently use parallelism of the computer hardware. As a results a new tendency appears to replace the standard (usually implemented in FPGA) hardware triggers by clusters of computers running software reconstruction and selection algorithms. In addition that makes possible unification of the offline and on-line data processing and analysis in one software package running on a heterogeneous computer farm

  4. Unraveling advanced compression ignition combustion using optical diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Zegers, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the expected upsurge of hybrid and electric cars in the coming decades, internal combustion will remain the main power supply for (long-distance) transport. Buses, trucks, ships and airplanes will still rely on combustion engines. Nevertheless, emission legislation is becoming more stringent and the oil price continues to rise. Consequently, there still exists a serious interest in new developments that may improve combustion efficiency and fuel flexibility, and reduce emissions; both...

  5. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  6. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  7. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  8. Unraveling advanced compression ignition combustion using optical diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the expected upsurge of hybrid and electric cars in the coming decades, internal combustion will remain the main power supply for (long-distance) transport. Buses, trucks, ships and airplanes will still rely on combustion engines. Nevertheless, emission legislation is becoming more stringent

  9. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    field laser physics. Unfortunately, there is no standard definition for the plasma threshold in the literature. Consequently, a clear definition of the focal volume is missing. For this reason it was tried to find a theoretical formula for the volume. This formula is based on the assumption that the focal volume encloses the space where the threshold intensity is higher than Ith =I0/2 or, alternatively, Ith = I0/e2. Laser energy transmission is one of the most important loss factors during plasma development by laser-induced optical breakdown and provides important information about the energy contained in the plasma. Hence, a number of plasma experiments were carried out. In our experiments is was found that for decreasing focal volume the plasma threshold energy (MPE) and the energy transmission can be reduced respectively. In order to investigate the possibility if laser-induced ignition can be made more efficient with respect to the laser pulse energy, several ignition experiments were performed. For these experiments a combustion chamber was employed at a filling pressure of 11 bar and a temperature of 110 o C involving different focal sizes. The thermal ignition experiments were carried out to demonstrate in principle the feasibility of thermal ignition via resonant absorption of IR radiation. By evaluating these results with respect to laser ignition of engines, it is conceivable to employ laser thermal ignition as an innovative ignition mechanism. As in HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines and rocket engines, ignition occurs at specific elevated pressures and temperatures, it can be assumed that the ignition energies are in the range between 20 to 100 mJ. Furthermore, different laser ignition system concepts were developed and evaluated regarding to their qualification for rocket engine ignition. As a consequence of its highest rating in our study, resonant ignition should be considered an interesting alternative to laser spark ignition

  10. Turbulent Combustion Modeling Advances, New Trends and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Echekki, Tarek

    2011-01-01

    Turbulent combustion sits at the interface of two important nonlinear, multiscale phenomena: chemistry and turbulence. Its study is extremely timely in view of the need to develop new combustion technologies in order to address challenges associated with climate change, energy source uncertainty, and air pollution. Despite the fact that modeling of turbulent combustion is a subject that has been researched for a number of years, its complexity implies that key issues are still eluding, and a theoretical description that is accurate enough to make turbulent combustion models rigorous and quantitative for industrial use is still lacking. In this book, prominent experts review most of the available approaches in modeling turbulent combustion, with particular focus on the exploding increase in computational resources that has allowed the simulation of increasingly detailed phenomena. The relevant algorithms are presented, the theoretical methods are explained, and various application examples are given. The book ...

  11. FY1996 annual report on the advanced combustion science in microgravity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research was implemented continuously from the previous year on combustion equipment enabling advanced combustion technologies, by studying combustion in a microgravity field, for the purpose of preventing environmental pollution caused by diversification of energy sources and exhaust gasses. In joint studies with NASA, the themes of the previous year were continued, for which tests were conducted 37 times using Japanese drop test equipment and 131 times using NASA's. The evaluation and analysis of the experiments and test data by the microgravity test equipment were, in addition to the themes of the previous year, such that micro observation for ignition/combustion mechanism of fuel spray droplets was made, as well as studies on fuel droplets combustion by a laser diagnostic device, concerning combustion of fuel droplets and vaporization process, that flame spread on solid substances was researched in relation to combustion characteristics of high density fuels, and that mixed gas combustion on a solid surface was studied in connection with the research on flammability limits. Furthermore, a study on combustion technology for gas turbines was added for the purpose of studying an advanced combustor. (NEDO)

  12. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  13. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  14. ULTRA SCWR+: Practical advanced water reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Romney; Khartabil, Hussam; Kuran, Sermet; Zhou, Tracy; Pioro, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Modern thermal power plants now utilize supercritical steam cycles with thermal efficiencies of over 45%. Recent developments have lead to Ultra-SuperCritical (USC) systems, which adopt reheat turbines that can attain efficiencies of over 50%. Because these turbines are already developed, demonstrated and deployed worldwide, and use existing and traditional steam cycle technology, the simplest nuclear advance is to utilize these proven thermal cycle conditions by coupling this turbine type to a reactor. This development direction is fundamentally counter to the usual approach of adopting high-temperature gas-cooled (helium-cooled) reactor cycles, for which turbines have yet to be demonstrated on commercial scale unlike the supercritical steam turbines. The ULTRA (Ultra-supercritical Light water Thermal ReActor) SCWR+ concept adopts the fundamental design approach of matching a water and steam-cooled reactor to the ultra-supercritical steam cycle, adopting the existing and planned thermal power plant turbines. The HP and IP sections are fed with conditions of 25 MPa/625degC and 7 MPa/700degC, respectively, to achieve operating plant thermal efficiencies in excess of 50%, with a direct turbine cycle. By using such low-pressure reheated steam, this concept also adopts technology that was explored and used many years ago in existing water reactors, with the potential to produce large quantities of low cost heat, which can be used for other industrial and district processes. Pressure-Tube (PT) reactors are suitable for adoption of this design approach and, in addition, have other advantages that will significantly improve water-cooled reactor technology. These additional advantages include enhanced safety and improved resource utilization and proliferation resistance. This paper describes the PT-SCWR+ concept and its potential enhancements. (author)

  15. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  16. Advanced diagnostics in oxy-fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, J.; Clausen, Soennik; Degn Jensen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Boeg Toftegaard, M. (DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, ''Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes''. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The results obtained in the swirl burner have proved the FTIR method as a valuable technique for gas phase temperature measurements. When its efficacy is evaluated against traditional thermocouple measurements, two cases, with and without probe beam stop, must however be treated separately. When the FTIR probe is operated with the purpose of gas phase concentration measurements the probe needs to operate with a beam stop mounted in front of it. With this beam stop in place it was shown that the measured gas phase temperature was affected by cooling, induced by the cooled beam stop. Hence, for a more accurate determination of gas phase temperatures the probe needed to operate without the beam stop. When this was the case, the FTIR probe showed superior to traditional temperature measurements using a thermocouple as it could measure the fast temperature fluctuations. With the beam stop in place the efficacy of the FTIR probe for gas temperature determination was comparable to the use of a traditional thermocouple. The evaluation of the FTIR technique regarding estimation of gas phase concentrations of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO showed that the method is reliable though it cannot be stated as particularly accurate. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the similarity of the reference emission spectra of the gases with those obtained in the experiments, as the transmittance intensity is not a linear function of concentration. The length of the optical path also affects the steadiness of the measurements. The length of the optical path is difficult to adjust on the small scales that are the focus of this work. However

  17. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    (EGR. A comparison has been made between simulated EGR (using pure nitrogen with real EGR under Diesel LTC conditions. Finally, “pure”, single component fuels are often employed in optical Diesel engines due to laser diagnostic constraints. However, these fuels generally differ from standard Diesel fuel in terms of cetane number and fuel volatility which can significantly influence the combustion and emissions characteristics in optical engines. These aspects have also been investigated within the present study. An improved understanding of the differences between optical and all-metal engines has allowed us to develop appropriate strategies to compensate for these differences on the optical engine. It is shown here that combustion phasing (and engine-out emissions matching between optical and all-metal engines can be achieved even for advanced LTC Diesel combustion strategies. The ability to ensure fully representative combustion and emissions behaviour of optical engines ultimately increases the value of optical engine data, highlighting the importance of using such engines as research tools for the further development of innovative, low emission combustion concepts. Les moteurs monocylindres transparents sont employés comme outils de recherche et de développement des moteurs à combustion interne. Ils permettent l’utilisation de techniques de diagnostics non-intrusifs (qualitatifs et quantitatifs pour étudier des phénomènes comme l’aérodynamique interne, la préparation du mélange, la combustion et la formation de polluants. Ces données expérimentales sont importantes pour la validation des modèles numériques et permettent également d’obtenir une compréhension détaillée des phénomènes physiques se déroulant dans la chambre. Les données recueillies aident au développement des nouvelles stratégies de combustion telles que la combustion homogène (HCCI et la combustion Diesel à basse température (LTC. Dans ce contexte, il est important

  18. Recent Advances In Science Support For Isolated Droplet Combustion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, F. L.; Kazakov, A.; Urban, B. D.; Kroenlein, K.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint program involving Prof. F.A. Williams of the University of California, San Diego and Dr. V. Nayagam of the National Center for Microgravity Research, the combustion characteristics of isolated liquid fuel droplets of n-heptane, n-decane, methanol, methanol-water, ethanol and ethanol-water having initial diameters between about 1 mm and 6 mm continues to be investigated. The objectives of the work are to improve fundamental knowledge of droplet combustion dynamics for pure fuels and fuel-water mixtures through microgravity experiments and theoretical analyses. The Princeton contributions support the engineering design, data analysis, and data interpretation requirements for the study of initially single component, spherically symmetric, isolated droplet combustion studies through experiments and numerical modeling. UCSD contributions are described in a companion communication in this conference. The Princeton effort also addresses the analyses of Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiments conducted with the above fuels and collaborative work with others who are investigating droplet combustion in the presence of steady convection. A thorough interpretation of droplet burning behavior for n-heptane and n-decane over a relatively wide range of conditions also involves the influences of sooting on the combustion behavior, and this particular aspect on isolated burning of droplets is under consideration in a collaborative program underway with Drexel University. This collaboration is addressed in another communication at this conference. The one-dimensional, time-dependent, numerical modeling approach that we have continued to evolve for analyzing isolated, quiescent droplet combustion data has been further applied to investigate several facets of isolated droplet burning of simple alcohols, n-heptane, and n-decane. Some of the new results are described below.

  19. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.

    2015-07-16

    © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2015 by the American Chemical Society. Incremental but fundamental changes are currently being made to fuel composition and combustion strategies to diversify energy feedstocks, decrease pollution, and increase engine efficiency. The increase in parameter space (by having many variables in play simultaneously) makes it difficult at best to propose strategic changes to engine and fuel design by use of conventional build-and-test methodology. To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and other entities, so that researchers in different laboratories have access to fuels with consistent properties. In this work, six gasolines (FACE A, C, F, G, I, and J) are characterized by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method to determine the composition and enthalpy of combustion in various distillate volume fractions. Tracking the composition and enthalpy of distillate fractions provides valuable information for determining structure property relationships, and moreover, it provides the basis for the development of equations of state that can describe the thermodynamic properties of these complex mixtures and lead to development of surrogate fuels composed of major hydrocarbon classes found in target fuels.

  20. The ChlorOut concept. A method to reduce alkali-related problems during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wollner, Lothar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH und Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein (Germany); Berg, Magnus [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Combustion of biomass with a high content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. Ammonium sulphate is a part of the ChlorOut concept which is applied in a range of commercial boilers. This concept is based on dosing of sulphate-containing additives to the flue gases and a unique measurement device for on-line measurement of gaseous alkali chlorides called IACM (in-situ alkali chloride monitor). The focus of the present paper is on evaluation of long-term experiences from two full-scale boilers. The operational problems with deposit formation and superheater corrosion decreased in these boilers after installing the ChlorOut concept. (orig.)

  1. Efficiency of a new internal combustion engine concept with variable piston motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of working process in a new IC engine concept. The main feature of this new IC engine concept is the realization of variable movement of the piston. With this unconventional piston movement it is easy to provide variable compression ratio, variable displacement and combustion during constant volume. These advantages over standard piston mechanism are achieved through synthesis of the two pairs of non-circular gears. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of IC engines. For this paper Ricardo/WAVE software was used, which provides a fully integrated treatment of time-dependent fluid dynamics and thermodynamics by means of onedimensional formulation. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristic of this new heat engine concept. The results show that combustion during constant volume, variable compression ratio and variable displacement have significant impact on improvement of fuel consumption.

  2. The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: the Development and Integration Concept for Droplet Combustion Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user facility designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments. The MDCA will conduct experiments using the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The payload is planned for the International Space Station. The MDCA, in conjunction with the CIR, will allow for cost effective extended access to the microgravity environment, not possible on previous space flights. It is currently in the Engineering Model build phase with a planned flight launch with CIR in 2004. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and development status of the MDCA. The MDCA contains the hardware and software required to conduct unique droplet combustion experiments in space. It consists of a Chamber Insert Assembly, an Avionics Package, and a multiple array of diagnostics. Its modular approach permits on-orbit changes for accommodating different fuels, fuel flow rates, soot sampling mechanisms, and varying droplet support and translation mechanisms to accommodate multiple investigations. Unique diagnostic measurement capabilities for each investigation are also provided. Additional hardware provided by the CIR facility includes the structural support, a combustion chamber, utilities for the avionics and diagnostic packages, and the fuel mixing capability for PI specific combustion chamber environments. Common diagnostics provided by the CIR will also be utilized by the MDCA. Single combustible fuel droplets of varying sizes, freely deployed or supported by a tether are planned for study using the MDCA. Such research supports how liquid-fuel-droplets ignite, spread, and extinguish under quiescent microgravity conditions. This understanding will help us develop more efficient energy production and propulsion systems on Earth and in space, deal better with combustion generated pollution, and address fire hazards associated with

  3. Development of combustion management concept for natural-aspirated small diesel engine; Shizen kyuki kogata diesel engine no nensho seigyo concept no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, T; Kawano, T; Shoji, M; Kuniyosh, M; Yamashita, O; Nagao, A [Mazda Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshikawa, S [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a combustion management concept for natural-aspirated small IDI diesel engines and achieved higher power, lower exhaust emissions and more comfort. The concept is related to improvements of intake volumetric efficiency, EGR effect, mixture formation caused by combustion chamber and spray characteristics, engine management system and after treatment device. This paper describes the concept and experimental results. 3 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Advancing grate-firing for greater environmental impacts and efficiency for decentralized biomass/wastes combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Li, Shuangshuang

    2017-01-01

    to well suit decentralized biomass and municipal/industrial wastes combustion. This paper discusses with concrete examples how to advance grate-firing for greater efficiency and environmental impacts, e.g., use of advanced secondary air system, flue gas recycling and optimized grate assembly, which...

  5. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  6. FY1995 annual report on the advanced combustion science in microgravity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research was implemented continuously from the previous year on combustion equipment enabling advanced combustion technologies, by studying combustion in a microgravity field, for the purpose of preventing environmental pollution caused by diversification of energy sources and exhaust gasses. In joint studies with NASA, the 1995 themes were continued, for which tests were conducted 34 times using Japanese drop test equipment. Further, studies were added for flammability limits and flame dynamics of spherical flames in homogeneous and heterogeneous mixed fuels. The evaluation and analysis of the experiments and test data by the microgravity test equipment were such that laser ignitions of floating or fuel-oozing droplets, spherical/cylindrical combustion of liquid fuels, for example, were studied in regards to the combustion and vaporization process of fuel droplets, that high calorie fuel combustion in microgravitation field for example was investigated in relation to the combustion characteristics of high density fuels, that flame stability of lean premixed gasses for example was researched concerning flammability limit, and that NOx generation mechanism in liquid fuel combustion was looked into in connection with emission mechanisms of pollutant gaseous materials. (NEDO)

  7. Advances and Evolving Concepts in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Li, Evan; Landers, Cameron; Nguyen, An; Kheradmand, Farrah; Knight, J Morgan; Corry, David B

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis. Phthalates, another common class of chemical pollutant found in the built environment, are emerging as potentially important mediators or attenuators of asthma. Other biological products such as endotoxin have also been confirmed to be protective in both the indoor and outdoor contexts. Proasthmatic factors are believed to activate, and in some instances initiate, pathologic inflammatory cascades through complex interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on many cell types, but especially airway epithelial cells. PRRs initiate the release of proallergic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-33, IL-25, and others that coordinate activation of innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), T helper type 2 cells, and immunoglobulin E-secreting B cells that together promote additional inflammation and the major airway remodeling events (airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion) that promote airway obstruction. Proteinases, with airway fungi and viruses being potentially important sources, are emerging as critically important initiators of these inflammatory cascades in part through their effects on clotting

  8. Annual Report: DOE Advanced Combustion Systems & Fuels R&D; Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Despite compliance issues in previous years, automakers have demonstrated that the newest generation of diesel power trains are capable of meeting all federal and state regulations (EPA, 2016). Diesels continue to be a cost-effective, efficient, powerful propulsion source for many light- and medium-duty vehicle applications (Martec, 2016). Even modest reductions in the fuel consumption of light- and medium duty diesel vehicles in the U.S. will eliminate millions of tons of CO2 emissions per year. Continued improvement of diesel combustion systems will play an important role in reducing fleet fuel consumption, but these improvements will require an unprecedented scientific understanding of how changes in engine design and calibration affect the mixture preparation, combustion, and pollutant formation processes that take place inside the cylinder. The focus of this year’s research is to provide insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for improved thermal efficiency observed with a stepped-lip piston. Understanding how piston design can influence efficiency will help engineers develop and optimize new diesel combustion systems.

  9. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confer, Keith [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)

    2014-12-18

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  10. Sandia and General Motors: Advancing Clean Combustion Engines with

    Science.gov (United States)

    , storage, and disposal. Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Safety Components and Systems Improving battery performance, economics, and safety for transportation. Batteries Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences Geosciences Fusion Energy Sciences Advanced Scientific Computing

  11. Advanced Concept Architecture Design and Integrated Analysis (ACADIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-03

    1 Advanced Concept Architecture Design and Integrated Analysis (ACADIA) Submitted to the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA) on...Research Report 20161001 - 20161030 Advanced Concept Architecture Design and Integrated Analysis (ACADIA) W911NF-16-2-0229 8504Cedric Justin, Youngjun

  12. Advanced concepts in the United States fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the magnetic fusion program is to establish the scientific and technological base for fusion energy. Development of a variety of magnetic confinement systems is essential to achieving that goal. The role of the advanced concepts program is to conduct experimental investigations of confinement concepts other than the tokamaks and tandem mirror concepts. The present advanced concepts program consists of the reversed-field-pinch (RFP), the spheromak and the field-reversed configuration (FRC). Significant new experiments in the RFP and FRC concepts have been approved and are described

  13. Integration of CFD codes and advanced combustion models for quantitative burnout determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javier Pallares; Inmaculada Arauzo; Alan Williams [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption (CIRCE)

    2007-10-15

    CFD codes and advanced kinetics combustion models are extensively used to predict coal burnout in large utility boilers. Modelling approaches based on CFD codes can accurately solve the fluid dynamics equations involved in the problem but this is usually achieved by including simple combustion models. On the other hand, advanced kinetics combustion models can give a detailed description of the coal combustion behaviour by using a simplified description of the flow field, this usually being obtained from a zone-method approach. Both approximations describe correctly general trends on coal burnout, but fail to predict quantitative values. In this paper a new methodology which takes advantage of both approximations is described. In the first instance CFD solutions were obtained of the combustion conditions in the furnace in the Lamarmora power plant (ASM Brescia, Italy) for a number of different conditions and for three coals. Then, these furnace conditions were used as inputs for a more detailed chemical combustion model to predict coal burnout. In this, devolatilization was modelled using a commercial macromolecular network pyrolysis model (FG-DVC). For char oxidation an intrinsic reactivity approach including thermal annealing, ash inhibition and maceral effects, was used. Results from the simulations were compared against plant experimental values, showing a reasonable agreement in trends and quantitative values. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. FY1994 annual report on the advanced combustion science in microgravity field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Researches were implemented continuously from the previous year on combustion equipment which enables advanced combustion technologies by studying combustion in a microgravity field, for the purpose of preventing environmental pollution caused by diversification of energy sources and exhaust gasses. In joint studies with NASA, research was conducted at both ends concerning the interaction of fuel droplets in a microgravity field; namely, high pressure combustion of binary fuel sprays at NASA against interaction in high pressure spray combustion of binary fuel at Japan side, and ignition and flame spread in microgravity field at NASA against combustion characteristics of organic solid fuels at Japan side. In fiscal 1994, in addition to the test equipment built in the previous year, a fuel droplet combustion test device was manufactured, as were a gas sampling and analyzing device, particle speed measuring device, and laser induced fluorescence measuring device. The tests using these measuring devices and microgravity test equipment were carried out 112 times, thereby establishing the measuring method of flame structure which was an objective of the present year. (NEDO)

  15. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  16. Advancements in Development of Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of greenhouse CO2. Extensive research has been performed on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reaction kinetics, reactor design, system efficiencies, and prototype testing. Transition metal oxides, such as Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn oxides, were reported as reactive species in the oxygen carrier particles. Ni-based oxygen carriers exhibited the best reactivity and stability during multiredox cycles. The performance of the oxygen carriers can be improved by changing preparation method or by making mixedoxides. The CLC has been demonstrated successfully in continuously operated prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized-bed system in the size range of 0.3–50 kW. High fuel conversion rates and almost 100%  CO2 capture efficiencies were obtained. The CLC system with two interconnected fluidized-bed reactors was considered the most suitable reactor design. Development of oxygen carriers with excellent reactivity and stability is still one of the challenges for CLC in the near future. Experiences of building and operating the large-scale CLC systems are needed before this technology is used commercially. Chemical-looping reforming (CLR and chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH are novel chemical-looping techniques to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen deserving more attention and research.

  17. Nonproliferation characteristics of advanced fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiatives and safeguards methods and systems. Alternative cycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products

  18. Surrogate fuel formulation for light naphtha combustion in advanced combustion engines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-30

    Crude oil once recovered is further separated in to several distinct fractions to produce a range of energy and chemical products. One of the less processed fractions is light naphtha (LN), hence they are more economical to produce than their gasoline and diesel counterparts. Recent efforts have demonstrated usage of LN as transportation fuel for internal combustion engines with slight modifications. In this study, a multicomponent surrogate fuel has been developed for light naphtha fuel using a multi-variable nonlinear constrained optimization scheme. The surrogate, consisting of palette species n-pentane, 2-methylhexane, 2-methylbutane, n-heptane and toluene, was validated against the LN using ignition quality tester following ASTM D6890 methodology. Comparison of LN and the surrogate fuel demonstrated satisfactory agreement.

  19. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    advanced on-site oxidation tests. The remediation techniques included are electrochemical oxidation, photochemical/photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, and persulfate among others. A versatile construction of the mobile test unit makes it possible to combine different...

  20. Passive autocatalytic recombiners for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, U.; Sliter, G.

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the worldwide effort to develop advanced nuclear power plants is designing to address severe accident phenomena, including the generation of hydrogen during core melt progression (metal-water and core-concrete reactions). This design work not only resolves safety concerns with hydrogen, but also supports the development of a technical basis for simplification of off-site emergency planning. The dominant challenge to any emergency planning approach is a large, early containment failure due to pressure excursions. Among the potential contributors to large and rapid increases in containment pressure is hydrogen combustion. The more improbable a containment-threatening combustion becomes, the more appropriate the argument for significant emergency planning simplification. As discussed in this paper, catalytic recombiners provide a means to passively and reliably limit hydrogen combustion to a continuous oxidation process with virtually no potential for containment failure in passive advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  1. CONCEPTION OF USE VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS AND NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DIAGNOSING OF CHOSEN ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN CAR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  2. A Second Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Chang, Clarence T.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2014-01-01

    A low-NO (sub x) aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept was developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. Three second generation SV-LDI configurations were developed. All three were based on the baseline 9-point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. These second generation configurations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. Two of these second generation configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center flametube; these two configurations are called the at dome and 5-recess configurations. Results show that the 5-recess configuration generally had lower NO (sub x) emissions than the flat dome configuration. Correlation equations were developed for the flat dome configuration so that the landing-takeoff NO (sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome landing-takeoff NO (sub x) is estimated to be 87-88 percent below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction.

  3. The concept of advanced radiographic practice: An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Legg, Jeffrey; Smith, Tony; Ween, Borgny; Williams, Imelda; Motto, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Advanced radiographic practice has been the focus of much discussion and debate over the last decade, not only in the United Kingdom where advanced practitioner roles are now recognised within the national career framework, but also internationally. Yet, despite almost simultaneous professional movement towards advanced radiographic practice philosophy and ideals in many countries, international collaboration on this development has been minimal. This paper marks a growing international dialogue in this field. It discusses the theoretical concepts of advanced radiographic practice and the development of advanced practitioner roles, incorporating evidence and ideas from differing international perspectives and debates progress towards a potential unified global advanced practice identity

  4. Development of simultaneous hyperspectral coherent Raman imaging for advancing reduced emission combustion technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlin, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Overall aim and key objectives Advances in optical imaging techniques over the past decades have revolutionized our ability to study chemically reactive flows encountered in air-breathing combustion systems. Emerging technology for unravelling clean- and efficient

  5. 12th Advanced Accelerator Concept (AAC 2006) Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Summary of the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concept (AAC 2006) Workshop help by NIU and ANL on July 10th-15th 2006 in Lake Geneva WI. The proceedings of the workshop have been published as an AIP conference proceedings '12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop' volume 877. The Twelfth Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts was held at the Grand Geneva Resort in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, from July 10 to July 15, 2006. The Workshop was sponsored by the High Energy Physics program of the U.S. Department of Energy, and was hosted by the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Group (AWA) of Argonne National Laboratory and by Northern Illinois University. The workshop is a bi-annual meeting among physicist working on novel charged particle acceleration concept. The name 'advanced accelerator' physics covers long term research and development in beam physics and accelerator technologies. Some of the topics in advanced accelerator R and D are laser acceleration of electrons, wake field acceleration, novel high power rf source, new beam diagnostics, free-electron lasers, generating high brightness electron beams etc. The Advanced Accelerator Concept workshop is the only acknowledged and fully sponsored forum that provides a platform for inter- and cross-disciplinary discussion on various aspects of advanced accelerator and beam physics/technology concepts.

  6. Concept selection for advanced low-emission coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States); Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) with subcontract to Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C) has begun development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The initial phase of this multi-phase program required a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for control of combustion and flue gas emissions. Results of this assessment are presented in this paper.

  7. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandsburger, U.; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Roe, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1995 progress was made in all three funded subject areas of the project as well as in a new area. Work in the area of mixing and combustion management through flow actuation was transferred into an enclosed facility. Jet mixing in a ducted co-flow was examined. The same jets were also subjected to a strong acoustic field established in the duct. Excitation of the jet with static spatial modes was shown to be effective even in the presence of co-flow and the acoustic field. Only when a wall is placed at the jet exit plane did the acoustic field dominate the jet dispersion (as expected due to reflective boundary conditions and the jet shear layer receptivity). This case is, however, not the most relevant to gas turbine combustors since it precludes co-flow. In the area of combustor testing, the design, fabrication, and assembly of a modular combustor test rig for project has been completed at the University of Arkansas. In the area of high temperature piezoceramic actuator materials development, Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} powders have been synthesized, and bulk samples and thick films sintered. These materials have a curie temperature of about 1400{degrees}C compared with 300{degrees}C for the commercially available PZT. While at room temperature the new materials show a piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) which is a factor of 100 lower than PZT, at high temperatures they can exhibit significant action. A new area of non-linear, neural-net based, controllers for mixing and combustion control has been added during the second contract year. This work is not funded by the contract. Significant progress was made in this area. Neural nets with up to 15 neurons in the hidden layer were trained with experimental data and also with data generated using linear stability theory. System ID was performed successfully. The network was then used to predict the behavior of jets excited at other modes not used for the training.

  8. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  9. Review of Advanced Accelerator Concepts R & D in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Nakajima, Kaszuhisa; Tajima, Toshiki; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Nemoto, Koshichi; Nishida, Yasushi; Yugami, Noboru; Miyamoto, Shuji; Dobashi, Katsuhiro

    2004-12-01

    More than 15 Japanese laboratories are dedicated to the advanced and compact accelerator development. Some use ultra-intense lasers and others use microwave concepts. As for the laser electron accleration, the topics are the capillary acceleration and the mono-energetic acceleration. The laser ion acceleration is also active. As well, the compatization is proceeding of the current rf accelerator. The National Institute for Radiological Science is promoting an advanced accelerator concept project mainly for the medical application.

  10. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUGGAN, RUTH A.; WOOD, BRADLEY

    1999-01-01

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper

  11. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Weekly Launches” -Inspect & Rebuild. • SSTO -LOx/LH2: ms < 10% -Advanced Structure/Tank. -Aerospike. -Sensitive Design Space. Reusable... SSTO do not guarantee $ savings. 18 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 La un ch C os t ( $ M ill io n) Payload to 185km...Higher reaction temp. •Higher specific impulse. •Less fuel. •More payload or smaller vehicle. •Fewer stages  SSTO . E/mmH = 138MJ/kg H2/mH = 3

  12. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, F.M.; Bennett, G.L.; Frisbee, R.H.; Sercel, J.C.; Lapointe, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems. 45 refs

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  14. Advanced technique for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Reviews foreign technical reports on advanced techniques for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers and analyzes a technique developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA). Characteristics of 25 fuel types, including 19 grades of coal, are listed along with a diagram of an installation with a drop tube furnace. Characteristics include burn-out intensity curves obtained using thermogravimetric analysis for high-volatile bituminous, semi-bituminous and coking coal. The patented LFP-SKM mathematical model is used to model combustion of a particular fuel under given conditions. The model allows for fuel particle size, air surplus, load, flame height, and portion of air supplied as tertiary blast. Good agreement between computational and experimental data was observed. The method is employed in designing new boilers as well as converting operating boilers to alternative types of fuel. 3 refs.

  15. Advanced concepts in particle and field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hübsch, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Uniting the usually distinct areas of particle physics and quantum field theory, gravity and general relativity, this expansive and comprehensive textbook of fundamental and theoretical physics describes the quest to consolidate the basic building blocks of nature, by journeying through contemporary discoveries in the field, and analysing elementary particles and their interactions. Designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and abounding in worked examples and detailed derivations, as well as including historical anecdotes and philosophical and methodological perspectives, this textbook provides students with a unified understanding of all matter at the fundamental level. Topics range from gauge principles, particle decay and scattering cross-sections, the Higgs mechanism and mass generation, to spacetime geometries and supersymmetry. By combining historically separate areas of study and presenting them in a logically consistent manner, students will appreciate the underlying similarities and...

  16. International cooperative research project between NEDO and NASA on advanced combustion science utilizing microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes an international cooperative research project between NEDO and NASA on advanced combustion science utilizing microgravity. In June, 1994, NEDO and NASA reached a basic agreement with each other about this cooperative R and D on combustion under microgravity conditions. In fiscal 2000, Japan proposed an experiment using the drop tower facilities and parabolic aircraft at NASA Glen Research Center and at JAMIC (Japan Microgravity Center). In other words, the proposals from Japan included experiments on combustion of droplets composed of diversified fuels under different burning conditions (vaporization), flame propagation in smoldering porous materials and dispersed particles under microgravity conditions, and control of interactive combustion of two droplets by acoustical and electrical perturbations. Additionally proposed were experiments on effect of low external air flow on solid material combustion under microgravity, and sooting and radiation effects on the burning of large droplets under microgravity conditions. This report gives an outline of the results of these five cooperative R and D projects. The experiments were conducted under ordinary normal gravity and microgravity conditions, with the results compared and examined mutually. (NEDO)

  17. LDRD Final Report: Advanced Hohlraum Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Ogden S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments to date have mostly used cylindrical, laser-heated, gas-filled hohlraums to produce the radiation drive needed to symmetrically implode DT-filled fusion capsules. These hohlraums have generally been unable to produce a symmetric radiation drive through the end of the desired drive pulse, and are plagued with complications due to laser-plasma interactions (LPI) that have made it difficult to predict their performance. In this project we developed several alternate hohlraum concepts. These new hohlraums utilize different hohlraum geometries, radiation shields, and foam materials in an attempt to improve performance relative to cylindrical hohlraums. Each alternate design was optimized using radiation hydrodynamic (RH) design codes to implode a reference DT capsule with a high-density carbon (HDC) ablator. The laser power and energy required to produce the desired time-dependent radiation drive, and the resulting time-dependent radiation symmetry for each new concept were compared to the results for a reference cylindrical hohlraum. Since several of the new designs needed extra laser entrance holes (LEHs), techniques to keep small LEHs open longer, including high-Z foam liners and low-Z wires at the LEH axis, were investigated numerically. Supporting experiments and target fabrication efforts were also done as part of this project. On the Janus laser facility plastic tubes open at one end (halfraums) and filled with SiO2 or Ta2O5 foam were heated with a single 2w laser. Laser propagation and backscatter were measured. Generally the measured propagation was slower than calculated, and the measured laser backscatter was less than calculated. A comparable, scaled up experiment was designed for the NIF facility and four targets were built. Since low density gold foam was identified as a desirable material for lining the LEH and the hohlraum wall, a technique was developed to

  18. A new advanced safe nuclear reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1999-01-01

    The reactor design is based on fluidized bed concept and utilizes pressurized water reactor technology. The fuel is automatically removed from the reactor by gravity under any accident condition. The reactor demonstrates the characteristics of inherent safety and passive cooling. Here two options for modification to the original design are proposed in order to increase the stability and thermal efficiency of the reactor. A modified version of the reactor involves the choice of supercritical steam as the coolant to produce a plant thermal efficiency of about 40%. Another is to modify the shape of the reactor core to produce a non-fluctuating bed and consequently guarantee the dynamic stability of the reactor. The mixing of Tantalum in the fuel is also proposed as an additional inhibition to power excursion. The spent fuel pellets may not be considered nuclear waste since they are in the shape and size that can easily be used as a a radioactive source for food irradiation and industrial applications. The reactor can easily operate with any desired spectrum by varying the porosity in order to be a plutonium burner or utilize a thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  19. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young

    2016-01-01

    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor

  20. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young [Environment and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor.

  1. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  2. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  3. New concept of combustion technology in small DI diesel engines. 4th Report. Effects of fuel injection rates on MK combustion; Kogata chokufun diesel kikan no shinnensho concept. 4. Funsharitsu no MK nensho eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, S; Matsui, Y; Kamihara, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A previous paper showed that EGR cooling and a low compression ratio which prolongs the ignition delay can expand the area of the new combustion concept. Experimental investigations were conducted in this research to examine the effects of the fuel injection rates, the injection pressure and the injection duration, on the exhaust emissions of an engine incorporating the MK concept The results showed that a higher injection pressure was effective in reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) under MK combustion conditions. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  5. Preliminary design concepts of an advanced integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kap S.; Lee, Doo J.; Kim, Keung K.; Chang, Moon H.; Kim, Si H.

    1997-01-01

    An integral reactor on the basis of PWR technology is being conceptually developed at KAERI. Advanced technologies such as intrinsic and passive safety features are implemented in establishing the design concepts of the reactor to enhance the safety and performance. Research and development including laboratory-scale tests are concurrently underway for confirming the technical adoption of those concepts to the rector design. The power output of the reactor will be in the range of 100MWe to 600MWe which is relatively small compared to the existing loop type reactors. The detailed analysis to assure the design concepts is in progress. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Rose

    This textbook, intended for registered nurses (RN's) returning to school, is designed to provide practicing RN's with professional concepts to advance their careers. The book contains 22 chapters organized in five sections. Each chapter includes chapter objectives, key terms, key points, chapter exercises, references, and a bibliography. Section I…

  7. Identification of improvements of advanced light water reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Liesch, K.; Riegel, B.

    1993-01-01

    The scope of this report is to identify the improvement of reactor developments with respect to reactor safety. This includes the collection of non-proprietary information on the description of the advanced design characteristics, especially summary design descriptions and general publications. This documentation is not intended to include a safety evaluation of the advanced concepts; however, it is structured in such a way that it can serve as a basis for a future safety evaluation. This is taken into account in the structure of the information regarding the distinction of the various concepts with respect to their 'advancement' and the classification of design characteristics according to some basic safety aspects. The overall description concentrates on those features which are relevant to safety. Other aspects, such as economy, operational features, maintenance, the construction period, etc...are not considered explicitly in this report

  8. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Phillip L.; Petrin, Roger R.; Jolin, John L.; Foy, Bernard R.; Lowrance, J.L.; Renda, George

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  9. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  10. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias C.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  11. MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

  12. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  13. Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle Reliability, Availability & Maintainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2005-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established Operation and Maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that, in real time, interpret data to assess the 'total health' of combustion turbines. The 'Combustion Turbine Health Management System' (CTHMS) will consist of a series of 'Dynamic Link Library' (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. CTHMS interprets sensor and instrument outputs, correlates them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, the CTHMS enables real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  14. Advanced closed loop combustion control of a LTC diesel engine based on in-cylinder pressure signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, A.P.; Laforgia, D.; Motz, S.; Saracino, R.; Wenzel, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have proposed an in-cylinder pressure-based closed loop combustion control. • We have tested the control on an engine at the test bench. • We have tested the control on the engine equipping a Euro 6-compliant vehicle. • The control is effective in increasing torque stability and reduce engine noise. - Abstract: The adoption of diesel LTC combustion concepts is widely recognised as a practical way to reduce simultaneously nitric oxides and particulate emission levels from diesel internal combustion engines. However, several challenges have to be faced up when implementing diesel LTC concepts in real application vehicles. In particular, achieving acceptable performance concerning the drivability comfort, in terms of output torque stability and combustion noise during engine dynamic transients, is generally a critical point. One of the most promising solutions to improve the LTC combustion operation lays in the exploitation of closed loop combustion control, based on in-cylinder pressure signals. In this work, the application of an in-cylinder pressure-based closed loop combustion control to a Euro 6-compliant demonstrator vehicle has been developed. The main challenges deriving from the control of the LTC combustion, directly affecting the engine/vehicle performance, have been analysed in detail. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a new control function, integrated into the base closed loop system, has been designed. The performance of the new function have been experimentally tested at the engine test bench. Results showed a significant enhancement of the LTC operation, in terms of both combustion stability and noise reduction during engine transients. The new function was also implemented on a real vehicle, thus proving the potential of the new control concept in realistic operating conditions

  15. Intake condition requirements for biodiesel modulated kinetic combustion concept to achieve a simultaneous NOx and soot removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keunsoo; Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Yonggyu; Lee, Sunyoup; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MK LTC combustion was investigated under various intake conditions. • BD20 MK combustion achieved NO x and soot removal at achievable intake conditions. • The BD20 best point showed lower ISFC and COV IMEP than the diesel best point. • Higher intake pressure showed higher efficiency at all intake oxygen concentrations. • Simultaneous NO x and soot removal required 200 kPa intake pressure at a medium load. - Abstract: The fuel oxygen contained in oxygenated fuels can help reduce harmful engine-out emissions and improve the combustion process in compression-ignition engines. The use of soybean methylene ether biodiesel in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) regime has the potential to suppress soot formation and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions even further, which eventually alleviates the burden of the after-treatment system. In the present study, the effects of the intake pressure and injection timing on the combustion and emissions of the modulated kinetic (MK) combustion concept with ultra-low sulfur diesel and 20% biodiesel blended fuel (BD20) were investigated in a single-cylinder CI engine. The intake pressure was varied from 100 kPa to 250 kPa for the intake oxygen concentration range of 11–17%. The engine test results indicate that simultaneous reductions in both the NO x and soot emissions were realized under the MK LTC combustion regime. At the best operating point, BD20 achieved the simultaneous NO x and soot removal at a lower intake pressure and lower EGR level than diesel, which led to better fuel economy. In addition, BD20 achieved acceptable levels of combustion stability and noise level

  16. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

  17. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  18. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  19. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  20. Preliminary design concepts for the advanced neutron source reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the initial design work to develop the reactor systems hardware concepts for the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor. This project has not yet entered the conceptual design phase; thus, design efforts are quite preliminary. This paper presents the collective work of members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division, and other participating organizations. The primary purpose of this effort is to show that the ANS reactor concept is realistic from a hardware standpoint and to show that project objectives can be met. It also serves to generate physical models for use in neutronic and thermal-hydraulic core design efforts and defines the constraints and objectives for the design. Finally, this effort will develop the criteria for use in the conceptual design of the reactor

  1. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating and gt;10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ∼2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  2. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  3. Post Landsat-D advanced concept evaluation /PLACE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, L. D.; Alvarado, U. R.; Flatow, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the Post Landsat-D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE) program was to identify the key technology requirements of earth resources satellite systems for the 1985-2000 period. The program involved four efforts: (1) examination of future needs in the earth resources area, (2) creation of a space systems technology model capable of satisfying these needs, (3) identification of key technology requirements posed by this model, and (4) development of a methodology (PRISM) to assist in the priority structuring of the resulting technologies.

  4. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  6. Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of a near-zero emission power plant with chemical looping combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana

    2012-03-06

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from power plants can be used to mitigate CO(2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, CCS technologies are energy intensive, decreasing the operating efficiency of a plant and increasing its costs. Recently developed advanced exergy-based analyses can uncover the potential for improvement of complex energy conversion systems, as well as qualify and quantify plant component interactions. In this paper, an advanced exergoenvironmental analysis is used for the first time as means to evaluate an oxy-fuel power plant with CO(2) capture. The environmental impacts of each component are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. In an effort to minimize the environmental impact of the plant operation, we focus on the avoidable part of the impact (which is also split into endogenous and exogenous parts) and we seek ways to decrease it. The results of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis show that the majority of the environmental impact related to the exergy destruction of individual components is unavoidable and endogenous. Thus, the improvement potential is rather limited, and the interactions of the components are of lower importance. The environmental impact of construction of the components is found to be significantly lower than that associated with their operation; therefore, our suggestions for improvement focus on measures concerning the reduction of exergy destruction and pollutant formation.

  7. Experimentation and evaluation of advanced integrated system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.; Garrigus, K.; Gottschalck, J.; Rinearson, L.; Longee, E.

    1980-09-01

    This final report examines the implementation of a time-phased test bed for experimentation and evaluation of advanced system concepts relative to the future Defense Switched Network (DSN). After identifying issues pertinent to the DSN, a set of experiments which address these issues are developed. Experiments are ordered based on their immediacy and relative importance to DSN development. The set of experiments thus defined allows requirements for a time phased implementation of a test bed to be identified, and several generic test bed architectures which meet these requirements are examined. Specific architecture implementations are costed and cost/schedule profiles are generated as a function of experimental capability. The final recommended system consists of two separate test beds: a circuit switch test bed, configured around an off-the-shelf commercial switch, and directed toward the examination of nearer term and transitional issues raised by the evolving DSN; and a packet/hybrid test bed, featuring a discrete buildup of new hardware and software modules, and directed toward examination of the more advanced integrated voice and data telecommunications issues and concepts.

  8. Calculation methods for advanced concept light water reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the last few years s several advanced concepts for fuel rod lattices have been studied. Improved fuel utilization is one of the major aims in the development of new fuel rod designs and lattice modifications. By these changes s better performance in fuel economics s fuel burnup and material endurance can be achieved in the frame of the well-known basic Light Water Reactor technology. Among the new concepts involved in these studies that have attracted serious attention are lattices consisting of arrays of annular rods duplex pellet rods or tight multicells. These new designs of fuel rods and lattices present several computational problems. The treatment of resonance shielded cross sections is a crucial point in the analyses of these advanced concepts . The purpose of this study was to assess adequate approximation methods for calculating as accurately as possible, resonance shielding for these new lattices. Although detailed and exact computational methods for the evaluation of the resonance shielding in these lattices are possible, they are quite inefficient when used in lattice codes. The computer time and memory required for this kind of computations are too large to be used in an acceptable routine manner. In order to over- come these limitations and to make the analyses possible with reasonable use of computer resources s approximation methods are necessary. Usual approximation methods, for the resonance energy regions used in routine lattice computer codes, can not adequately handle the evaluation of these new fuel rod lattices. The main contribution of the present work to advanced lattice concepts is the development of an equivalence principle for the calculation of resonance shielding in the annular fuel pellet zone of duplex pellets; the duplex pellet in this treatment consists of two fuel zones with the same absorber isotope in both regions. In the transition from a single duplex rod to an infinite array of this kind of fuel rods, the similarity of the

  9. Novel Active Combustion Control Concept for High-Frequency Modulation of Atomized Fuel Flow, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal by Jansen's Aircraft Systems Controls, Inc presents an innovative solution for Active Combustion Control. Relative to the state of the art, this...

  10. SYMPOSIUM ON TURBULENCE AND COMBUSTION - SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM TO BRING TOGETHER TOP RESEARCHERS IN THE FIELDS OF FLUID TURBULENCE AND COMBUSTION TO PROMOTE ADVANCES IN TURBULENT, REACTING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caughey, David

    2010-10-08

    A Symposium on Turbulence and Combustion was held at Cornell University on August 3-4, 2009. The overall goal of the Symposium was to promote future advances in the study of turbulence and combustion, through an unique forum intended to foster interactions between leading members of these two research communities. The Symposium program consisted of twelve invited lectures given by world-class experts in these fields, two poster sessions consisting of nearly 50 presentations, an open forum, and other informal activities designed to foster discussion. Topics covered in the lectures included turbulent dispersion, wall-bounded flows, mixing, finite-rate chemistry, and others, using experiment, modeling, and computations, and included perspectives from an international community of leading researchers from academia, national laboratories, and industry.

  11. Linkages from DOE’s Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report uses bibliometric analysis, supported by interview and review of documents and databases, to trace linkages from knowledge outputs resulting from DOE's advances in vehicle engine combustion to downstream innovations in commercial diesel engines and other areas. This analysis covers the period from 1974 through 2008 (and in some cases to early 2009).

  12. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  13. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  14. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  15. New concept for low emission diesel combustion. 2nd Report. Combustion improvement by applying EGR and oxygenated fuel; Teikogai diesel engine no nensho concept. EGR, gansanso nenryo ni yoru nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, H.; Nakajima, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Described herein are performance of a new concept of premixed, multiple injection combustion, in which part of the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber at the early stage and the remainder is injected in the ordinary manner, and characteristics of the exhaust gases. Also described are the effects of EGR and oxygenated fuel on reduced HC emissions and fuel consumption. The ordinary premixed, multiple injection combustion system has problems related to fuel efficiency, and HC and particulate missions. When combined with an EGR system, this system reduces HC emissions to one-third. MTBE shows an effect of improving fuel efficiency, when mixed with diesel fuel. No particulate matter is exhausted and fuel efficiency is improved by 6%, when MTBE is present in the fuel at 30% by weight. The pre-mixture is less homogeneous in the absence of EGR and oxygenated fuel, producing a luminous flame observed in the fuel-rich region. No such a flame is observed, when MTBE is added to the fuel and suction air temperature is increased to the level corresponding to that associated with EGR, conceivably resulting from increased suction air temperature and lower boiling point of MTBE, which together make the pre-mixture leaner and more homogeneous. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  17. Advances in Turbulent Combustion Dynamics Simulations in Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames-Body Stabilized Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    during combustion for GRI -Mech 1.2 reaction mechanism using LEM and CHEMKIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.7 Comparison of temperature during...combustion for GRI -Mech 1.2 raction mechanism using LEM and CHEMKIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.8 The methane profile along the 5 mm long...combustion process was tested using GRI -Mech 1.2 [44]. GRI -Mech is an optimized detailed chemical reaction mechanism capable of the best representation of

  18. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  19. Theoretical Investigations of Plasma-Based Accelerators and Other Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuets, G.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of plasma-based accelerators and other advanced accelerator concepts. The focus of the work was on the development of plasma based and structure based accelerating concepts, including laser-plasma, plasma channel, and microwave driven plasma accelerators

  20. Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

    2008-01-15

    This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

  1. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  2. Conceptual design study advanced concepts test (ACT) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) Project is part of program for developing improved power plant dry cooling systems in which ammonia is used as a heat transfer fluid between the power plant and the heat rejection tower. The test facility will be designed to condense 60,000 lb/hr of exhaust steam from the No. 1 turbine in the Kern Power Plant at Bakersfield, CA, transport the heat of condensation from the condenser to the cooling tower by an ammonia phase-change heat transport system, and dissipate this heat to the environs by a dry/wet deluge tower. The design and construction of the test facility will be the responsibility of the Electric Power Research Institute. The DOE, UCC/Linde, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratories will be involved in other phases of the project. The planned test facilities, its structures, mechanical and electrical equipment, control systems, codes and standards, decommissioning requirements, safety and environmental aspects, and energy impact are described. Six appendices of related information are included. (LCL)

  3. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  4. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  5. Advanced Accelerator Development Strategy Report: DOE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Research Roadmap Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-03

    Over a full two day period, February 2–3, 2016, the Office of High Energy Physics convened a workshop in Gaithersburg, MD to seek community input on development of an Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) research roadmap. The workshop was in response to a recommendation by the HEPAP Accelerator R&D Subpanel [1] [2] to “convene the university and laboratory proponents of advanced acceleration concepts to develop R&D roadmaps with a series of milestones and common down selection criteria towards the goal for constructing a multi-TeV e+e– collider” (the charge to the workshop can be found in Appendix A). During the workshop, proponents of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (LWFA), particle-beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), and dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWFA), along with a limited number of invited university and laboratory experts, presented and critically discussed individual concept roadmaps. The roadmap workshop was preceded by several preparatory workshops. The first day of the workshop featured presentation of three initial individual roadmaps with ample time for discussion. The individual roadmaps covered a time period extending until roughly 2040, with the end date assumed to be roughly appropriate for initial operation of a multi-TeV e+e– collider. The second day of the workshop comprised talks on synergies between the roadmaps and with global efforts, potential early applications, diagnostics needs, simulation needs, and beam issues and challenges related to a collider. During the last half of the day the roadmaps were revisited but with emphasis on the next five to ten years (as specifically requested in the charge) and on common challenges. The workshop concluded with critical and unanimous endorsement of the individual roadmaps and an extended discussion on the characteristics of the common challenges. (For the agenda and list of participants see Appendix B.)

  6. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  7. Modelling of turbulent hydrocarbon combustion. Test of different reactor concepts for describing the interactions between turbulence and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C; Kremer, H [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik, Bochum (Germany); Kilpinen, P; Hupa, M [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1998-12-31

    The detailed modelling of turbulent reactive flows with CFD-codes is a major challenge in combustion science. One method of combining highly developed turbulence models and detailed chemistry in CFD-codes is the application of reactor based turbulence chemistry interaction models. In this work the influence of different reactor concepts on methane and NO{sub x} chemistry in turbulent reactive flows was investigated. Besides the classical reactor approaches, a plug flow reactor (PFR) and a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR), the Eddy-Dissipation Combustion Model (EDX) and the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) were included. Based on a detailed reaction scheme and a simplified 2-step mechanism studies were performed in a simplified computational grid consisting of 5 cells. The investigations cover a temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K and consider fuel-rich and fuel-lean gas mixtures as well as turbulent and highly turbulent flow conditions. All test cases investigated in this study showed a strong influence of the reactor residence time on the species conversion processes. Due to this characteristic strong deviations were found for the species trends resulting from the different reactor approaches. However, this influence was only concentrated on the `near burner region` and after 4-5 cells hardly any deviation and residence time dependence could be found. The importance of the residence time dependence increased when the species conversion was accelerated as it is the case for overstoichiometric combustion conditions and increased temperatures. The study focused furthermore on the fine structure in the EDC. Unlike the classical approach this part of the cell was modelled as a PFR instead of a PSR. For high temperature conditions there was hardly any difference between both reactor types. However, decreasing the temperature led to obvious deviations. Finally, the effect of the selective species transport between the cells on the conversion process was investigated

  8. Modelling of turbulent hydrocarbon combustion. Test of different reactor concepts for describing the interactions between turbulence and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Kremer, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik, Bochum (Germany); Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-12-31

    The detailed modelling of turbulent reactive flows with CFD-codes is a major challenge in combustion science. One method of combining highly developed turbulence models and detailed chemistry in CFD-codes is the application of reactor based turbulence chemistry interaction models. In this work the influence of different reactor concepts on methane and NO{sub x} chemistry in turbulent reactive flows was investigated. Besides the classical reactor approaches, a plug flow reactor (PFR) and a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR), the Eddy-Dissipation Combustion Model (EDX) and the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) were included. Based on a detailed reaction scheme and a simplified 2-step mechanism studies were performed in a simplified computational grid consisting of 5 cells. The investigations cover a temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K and consider fuel-rich and fuel-lean gas mixtures as well as turbulent and highly turbulent flow conditions. All test cases investigated in this study showed a strong influence of the reactor residence time on the species conversion processes. Due to this characteristic strong deviations were found for the species trends resulting from the different reactor approaches. However, this influence was only concentrated on the `near burner region` and after 4-5 cells hardly any deviation and residence time dependence could be found. The importance of the residence time dependence increased when the species conversion was accelerated as it is the case for overstoichiometric combustion conditions and increased temperatures. The study focused furthermore on the fine structure in the EDC. Unlike the classical approach this part of the cell was modelled as a PFR instead of a PSR. For high temperature conditions there was hardly any difference between both reactor types. However, decreasing the temperature led to obvious deviations. Finally, the effect of the selective species transport between the cells on the conversion process was investigated

  9. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  10. Advances in architectural concepts to support distributed systems design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Pires, Luis; Vissers, C.A.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses some architectural concepts for distributed systems design. These concepts are derived from an analysis of limitations of some currently available standard design languages. We conclude that language design should be based upon the careful consideration of

  11. Combustion synthesis of advanced materials. [using in-situ infiltration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. J.; Feng, H. J.; Perkins, N.; Readey, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites using an in-situ liquid infiltration technique is described. The effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e. solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g. thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized products is also described. Alternatively, conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment is also discussed, in which advantages can be gained from the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport. In each case, the effect of the presence or absence of gravity (density) driven fluid flow and vapor transport is discussed as is the potential for producing new and perhaps unique materials by conducting these SHS reactions under microgravity conditions.

  12. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Concepts and recent advances in generalized information measures and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of the information measure widely known as Shannon entropy, quantifiers based on information theory and concepts such as entropic forms and statistical complexities have proven to be useful in diverse scientific research fields. This book contains introductory tutorials suitable for the general reader, together with chapters dedicated to the basic concepts of the most frequently employed information measures or quantifiers and their recent applications to different areas, including physics, biology, medicine, economics, communication and social sciences. As these quantif

  14. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  15. An Assessment of Combustion Dynamics in a Low-Nox, Second-Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Chang, C. T.; Lee, P.; Mongia, H.; Podboy, D. P.; Dam, B.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic pressure measurements were taken during flame-tube emissions testing of three second-generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) combustor configurations. These measurements show that combustion dynamics were typically small. However, a small number of points showed high combustion dynamics, with peak-to-peak dynamic pressure fluctuations above 0.5 psi. High combustion dynamics occurred at low inlet temperatures in all three SV-LDI configurations, so combustion dynamics were explored further at low temperature conditions. A point with greater than 1.5 psi peak-to-peak dynamic pressure fluctuations was identified at an inlet temperature of 450!F, a pressure of 100 psia, an air pressure drop of 3%, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.35. This is an off design condition: the temperature and pressure are typical of 7% power conditions, but the equivalence ratio is high. At this condition, the combustion dynamics depended strongly on the fuel staging. Combustion dynamics could be reduced significantly without changing the overall equivalence ratio by shifting the fuel distribution between stages. Shifting the fuel distribution also decreased NOx emissions.

  16. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Farris, Ronald Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  17. Knowledge gaps in economic analyses of advanced reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.; Pencer, J.; Leung, L.K.H.; Sadhankar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of next generation nuclear systems is predicated on improvement in sustainability, safety, proliferation resistance and economics. The economic assessment of the reactor concept is required as early as in the concept development stage. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) has developed a methodology for economic assessment of the Generation IV (GEN-IV) nuclear energy systems. The GIF economics methodology was used for the assessment of one of the reactor concepts for the Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWR), namely the European pressure-vessel type concept referred to as the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). The economic analysis involved studying the sensitivity of two main economic indicators, namely, the Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) and the Total Capital Investment Cost (TCIC). The knowledge gaps in estimating the capital costs and fuel costs, as well as the uncertainties in other cost parameters affecting the economic assessment of the nuclear energy system in the concept development stage are presented. (author)

  18. Advanced concepts in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kai; Barnowski, Ross; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Haefner, Andy; Torii, Tatsuo; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the detector fabrication, signal readout, and data processing enable new concepts in radiation detection that are relevant for applications ranging from fundamental physics to medicine as well as nuclear security and safety. We present recent progress in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging in the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program. It is based on the ability to reconstruct scenes in three dimensions and fuse it with gamma-ray image information. We are using the High-Efficiency Multimode Imager HEMI in its Compton imaging mode and combining it with contextual sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect or visual cameras. This new concept of volumetric imaging or scene data fusion provides unprecedented capabilities in radiation detection and imaging relevant for the detection and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials. This concept brings us one step closer to the seeing the world with gamma-ray eyes. (author)

  19. Advanced Numerical-Algebraic Thinking: Constructing the Concept of Covariation as a Prelude to the Concept of Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Fernando; Morasse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this document we stress the importance of developing in children a structure for advanced numerical-algebraic thinking that can provide an element of control when solving mathematical situations. We analyze pupils' conceptions that induce errors in algebra due to a lack of control in connection with their numerical thinking. We…

  20. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  1. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  2. Advanced programming concepts in a course on grammars and parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important goals of the Computer Science curriculum at Utrecht University is to familiarize students with abstract programming concepts such as, for example, partial evaluation and deforestation. A course on grammars and parsing offers excellent possibilities for exemplifying and

  3. Report on the Lake Arrowhead workshop on advanced acceleration concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1989-03-01

    We review the present status of the field of New Acceleration Concepts, as presented at the Lake Arrowhead workshop, held at the beginning of 1989. Many new and promising results have been obtained recently, and the field is actively developing. We discuss briefly some of the main results presented at the workshop. 43 refs., 2 tabs

  4. CARA, new concept of advanced fuel element for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P.C.; Crimello, R.O.; Bergallo, J.E.; Marino, A.C.; Delmastro, D.F.; Brasnarof, D.O.; Gonzalez, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    All Argentinean NPPs (2 in operation, 1 under construction), use heavy water as coolant and moderator. With very different reactor concepts (pressure Vessel and CANDU type designs), the fuel elements are completely different in its concepts too. Argentina produces both types of fuel elements at a manufacturing fuel element company, called CONUAR. The very different fuel element's designs produce a very complex economical behavior in this company, due to the low production scale. The competitiveness of the Argentinean electric system (Argentina has a market driven electric system) put another push towards to increase the economical competitiveness of the nuclear fuel cycle. At present, Argentina has a very active Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) Program for the pressure vessel HWR type, but without strong changes in the fuel concept itself. Then, the Atomic Energy Commission in Argentina (CNEA) has developed a new concept of fuel element, named CARA, trying to achieve very ambitious goals, and substantially improved the competitiveness of the nuclear option. The ambitious targets for CARA fuel element are compatibility (a single fuel element for all Argentinean's HWR) using a single diameter fuel rod, improve the security margins, increase the burnup and do not exceed the CANDU fabrication costs. In this paper, the CARA concept will be presented, in order to explained how to achieve all together these goals. The design attracted the interest of the nuclear power operator utility (NASA), and the fuel manufacturing company (CONUAR). Then a new Project is right now under planning with the cooperation of three parts (CNEA - NASA - CONUAR) in order to complete the whole development program in the shortest time, finishing in the commercial production of CARA fuel bundle. At the end of the this paper, future CARA development program will be described. (author)

  5. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Near-Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    2005). 39 T. R. Knowles, Levitation of a small carbon by visible light, 12th Annual Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop (2001). 40 http...372, 1948. 45 Woodward, J. and Mahood, T., “Gravity, Inertia, and Quantum Vacuum Zero Point Energy Fields,” Foundations of Physics, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp

  6. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  7. Advanced High and Low Fidelity HPC Simulations of FCS Concept Designs for Dynamic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandhu, S. S; Kanapady, R; Tamma, K. K

    2004-01-01

    ...) resources of many Army initiatives. In this paper we present a new and advanced HPC based rigid and flexible modeling and simulation technology capable of adaptive high/low fidelity modeling that is useful in the initial design concept...

  8. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process development for fabricating a high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond composite (NARloy-Z-D) combustion chamber liner for application in advanced rocket engines. The fabrication process is challenging and this paper presents some details of these challenges and approaches used to address them. Prior research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State had shown that NARloy-Z-40%D composite material has significantly higher thermal conductivity than the state of the art NARloy-Z alloy. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40 %D is much lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes help to improve the performance of the advanced rocket engines. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power, increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. Early work on NARloy-Z-D composites used the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST, Ref. 1, 2) for fabricating discs. NARloy-Z-D composites containing 10, 20 and 40vol% of high thermal conductivity diamond powder were investigated. Thermal conductivity (TC) data. TC increased with increasing diamond content and showed 50% improvement over pure copper at 40vol% diamond. This composition was selected for fabricating the combustion chamber liner using the FAST technique.

  9. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Xihui "Paul" Zhang; John D. Crabtree

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We present a classic brain teaser that is used to communicate and demonstrate advanced software development concepts and techniques. Our results show th...

  10. Recent Advances in Airframe-Propulsion Concepts with Distributed Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Isikveren , A.T.; Seitz , A.; Bijewitz , J.; Hornung , M.; Mirzoyan , A.; Isyanov , A.; Godard , J.L.; Stückl , S.; Van Toor , J.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses design and integration associated with distributed propulsion as a means of providing motive power for future aircraft concepts. The technical work reflects activities performed within a European Commission funded Framework 7 project entitled Distributed Propulsion and Ultra-high By-Pass Rotor Study at Aircraft Level, or, DisPURSAL. In this instance, the approach of distributed propulsion includes one unique solution that integrates the fuselage wi...

  11. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  12. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  13. Innovative concepts for marginal fields (advanced monotower developments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.T.; Marks, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    The braced monotower provides a safe, functional and cost effective solution for topsides up to 500 tonnes, with up to 8 wells and standing in water depths of up to 70 meters. It is both simple in concept and structurally efficient. The superstructure is supported by a single column which is stayed by three symmetrically orientated legs. A broad mudline base is also provided to limit pile loads. The final concept offers complete protection to the risers and conductors from ship impact, as all appurtenances are housed within the central column. The basic design philosophy of the low intervention platform is to minimize the onboard equipment to that vitally needed to produce hydrocarbon. The concept eliminates the life support functions that on a normal North Sea platform can contribute up to 50% of the topside dry weight. A system of Zero Based Engineering is used that ensures each item of equipment contributes more to the NPV of the platform than the fully built-up through life cost. This effectively eliminates the operator preference factor and the ''culture'' cost

  14. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  15. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order

  16. A novel superconducting toroidal field magnetic concept using advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: Low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high-T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high-T c superconductors within a low-T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress rate, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated. 54 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  17. An iLab for Teaching Advanced Logic Concepts with Hardware Descriptive Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele, Kayode P.; Inyang, Isaac A.; Kehinde, Lawrence O.

    2015-01-01

    One of the more interesting approaches to teaching advanced logic concepts is the use of online laboratory frameworks to provide student access to remote field-programmable devices. There is as yet, however, no conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of such an approach. This paper presents the Advanced Digital Lab, a remote laboratory based on…

  18. The John Zink Hamworthy combustion handbook, v.1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Despite the length of time it has been around, its importance, and vast amounts of research, combustion is still far from being completely understood. Environmental, cost, and fuel consumption issues add further complexity, particularly in the process and power generation industries. Dedicated to advancing the art and science of industrial combustion, The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Volume One - Fundamentals gives you a strong understanding of the basic concepts and theory. Under the leadership of Charles E. Baukal, Jr., top combustion engineers and technologists f

  19. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H 2 S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO 2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO 2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O 2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H 2 S followed by direct oxidation of H 2 S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out

  20. Advanced IGCC-Hypogen concepts for a developing hydrogen market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, F.; Cormos, C.-C.; Tzimas, E.; Brown, A. [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy

    2007-07-01

    With FP6 the EU is funding a project called 'Dynamis' which aims to design plants to generate electricity, plus a limited amount of hydrogen from fossil fuels, in which the CO{sub 2} is captured and stored underground. Such plants have been characterised as being of the 'HYPOGEN' type since they generate both hydrogen and electric power. As the hydrogen market develops IGCC-Hypogen based systems will need to produce much greater amounts of hydrogen. It is also desirable that such plants should be able to vary the proportion of hydrogen-to-electricity. This will enable IGCC-Hypogen plants to load follow and two-shift as electricity demand from the grid changes. Such variations in power output are not always practical with existing designs of electricity-only IGCCs. This paper reviews the technical issues involved in providing a high-flexibility IGCC-Hypogen plant. Three such concepts are discussed (1) very limited flexibility in which the changes from a fixed hydrogen-electricity ratio concept are minor, (2) moderate level of flexibility in which the limit is imposed by the CCGT gas turbine turndown (3) complete flexibility, the plant being able produce the energy as all-electricity or all-hydrogen. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Advanced concept for a crewed mission to the martian moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Davide; Di Carlo, Marilena; Budzyń, Dorota; Burgoyne, Hayden; Fries, Dan; Grulich, Maria; Heizmann, Sören; Jethani, Henna; Lapôtre, Mathieu; Roos, Tobias; Castillo, Encarnación Serrano; Schermann, Marcel; Vieceli, Rhiannon; Wilson, Lee; Wynard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the IMaGInE (Innovative Mars Global International Exploration) Mission. The mission's objectives are to deliver a crew of four astronauts to the surface of Deimos and perform a robotic exploration mission to Phobos. Over the course of the 343 day mission during the years 2031 and 2032, the crew will perform surface excursions, technology demonstrations, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of the Martian moons, as well as site reconnaissance for future human exploration of Mars. This mission design makes use of an innovative hybrid propulsion concept (chemical and electric) to deliver a relatively low-mass reusable crewed spacecraft (approximately 100 mt) to cis-martian space. The crew makes use of torpor which minimizes launch payload mass. Green technologies are proposed as a stepping stone towards minimum environmental impact space access. The usage of beamed energy to power a grid of decentralized science stations is introduced, allowing for large scale characterization of the Martian environment. The low-thrust outbound and inbound trajectories are computed through the use of a direct method and a multiple shooting algorithm that considers various thrust and coast sequences to arrive at the final body with zero relative velocity. It is shown that the entire mission is rooted within the current NASA technology roadmap, ongoing scientific investments and feasible with an extrapolated NASA Budget. The presented mission won the 2016 Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts - Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) competition.

  2. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  3. Advanced light water reactor program at ABB-Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, H.

    1990-01-01

    To meet the needs of Electric Utilities ordering nuclear power plants in the 1990s, ABB-Combustion Engineering is developing two designs which will meet EPRI consensus requirements and new licensing issues. The System 80 Plus design is an evolutionary pressurized water reactor plant modelled after the successful System 80 design in operation in Palo Verde and under construction in Korea. System Plus is currently under review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with final design approval expected in 1991 and design certification in 1992. The Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) plant is a smaller facility with passive safety features and modular construction intended for design certification in the late 1990s. (author)

  4. Advances in sliding mode control concept, theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Janardhanan, S; Spurgeon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The sliding mode control paradigm has become a mature technique for the design of robust controllers for a wide class of systems including nonlinear, uncertain and time-delayed systems. This book is a collection of plenary and invited talks delivered at the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure System held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India in January 2012. After the workshop, these researchers were invited to develop book chapters for this edited collection in order to reflect the latest results and open research questions in the area. The contributed chapters have been organized by the editors to reflect the various themes of sliding mode control which are the current areas of theoretical research and applications focus; namely articulation of the fundamental underpinning theory of the sliding mode design paradigm, sliding modes for decentralized system representations, control of time-delay systems, the higher order sliding mode concept, results applicable to nonlinear an...

  5. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2003-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. Such systems would interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to the machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, forward projections of servicing intervals, estimate remaining component life, and identify faults. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical

  6. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  7. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  8. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  9. Advanced reactor design study. Assessing nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, R.M.; Goldsmith, S.; Newman, D.F.; Trapp, T.J.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of the Advanced Reactor Design Study (ARDS) is to identify and evaluate nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors (LWRs). The results of this study provide a basis for selecting and demonstrating specific nonbackfittable concepts that have good potential for implementation. Lead responsibility for managing the study was assigned to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in LWRs on the once-through fuel cycle were selected separately for PWRs and BWRs due to basic differences in the way specific concepts apply to those plants. Nonbackfittable concepts are those that are too costly to incorporate in existing plants, and thus, could only be economically incorporated in new reactor designs or plants in very early stages of construction. Essential results of the Advanced Reactor Design Study are summarized

  10. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B 4 C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, A A [Materials Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B{sub 4} C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Ford, W.; Tisinger, R.M.; Meyer, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  13. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-01-01

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over ∼2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters

  14. Priorities for Advancing the Concept of New Ruralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Newman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civic expansion and land use migrations to urban peripheries can accelerate the conversion of agricultural land uses. Widespread trepidation concerning urban sprawl has led to innovative frameworks for conserving or enhancing farmland. New Ruralism is one such framework, linking farmland preservation with developmental plans to reduce farmland conversion and low density development. Although the concept is still evolving, recent support for New Ruralism has grown. One of the most important factors in creating a New Ruralism-based development is coherent policy for permanent agricultural preserves. These preserves require the simultaneous, careful planning of land preservation balanced with the location of future development. This paper discusses the current condition of farmland loss and reviews issues and challenges associated with farmland preservation with existing New Ruralism developments. The goal is to synthesize this information into recommendations for increasing farmland preservation opportunities in New Ruralism-based developments. A more comprehensive definition for New Ruralism is presented, accompanied by several priorities for maximizing the economic, environmental, and cultural viability of New Ruralism-based farmland preserves.

  15. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  16. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  17. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  18. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  19. Concept and viability of androgen annihilation for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, James L

    2014-09-01

    There remains no standard of care for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen level after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy but who have no radiographic metastases, even though this is the second largest group of patients with prostate cancer (CaP) in the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may cure some men with advanced CaP based on single-institution series and a randomized clinical trial of immediate versus delayed ADT for men found to have pelvic lymph node metastasis at the time of radical prostatectomy. ADT may be more effective when initiated for minimal disease burden, which can be detected using PSA after radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, and if more complete disruption of the androgen axis using newer agents decreases the chance that androgen-sensitive cells survive to adapt to a low-androgen environment. Androgens may be "annihilated" simultaneously using a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist or agonist to inhibit testicular production of testosterone, a P45017A1 (CYP17A1) inhibitor to diminish metabolism of testosterone via the adrenal pathway and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the backdoor pathway, a 5α-reductase (SRD5A) inhibitor to diminish testosterone reduction to DHT and backdoor metabolism of progesterone substrates to DHT, and a newer antiandrogen to compete better with DHT for the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain. Early initiation of androgen annihilation for induction as part of planned intermittent ADT should be safe, may reduce tumor burden below a threshold that allows eradication by the immune system, and may cure many men who have failed definitive local therapy. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  20. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in the near-surface terrestrial environment. This most heterogeneous and complex region of the Earth ranges from the vegetation top to the aquifer bottom, with a highly variable thickness globally and a yet-to-be clearly defined lower boundary of active water cycle. Interfaces among different compartments in the CZ are critical, which provide fertile ground for interdisciplinary research. The reconciliation of coupled geological and biological cycles (vastly different in space and time scales) is essential to understanding the complexity and evolution of the CZ. Irreversible evolution, coupled cycling, interactive layers, and hierarchical heterogeneity are the characteristics of the CZ, suggesting that forcing, coupling, interfacing, and scaling are grand challenges for advancing CZ science. Hydropedology - the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ - is an important contributor to CZ study. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thereby creating a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology emphasizes in situ soils in the landscape setting, where distinct pedogenic features and soil-landscape relationships are essential to understanding interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes. Both CZ science and hydropedology embrace an evolutionary and holistic worldview, which offers stimulating opportunities through steps such as integrated systems approach, evolutionary mapping-monitoring-modeling framework, and fostering a global alliance. Our capability to predict the behaviour and evolution of the CZ in response to changing environment can be significantly

  1. Earth's Critical Zone and hydropedology: concepts, characteristics, and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Zone (CZ is a holistic framework for integrated studies of water with soil, rock, air, and biotic resources in the near-surface terrestrial environment. This most heterogeneous and complex region of the Earth ranges from the vegetation top to the aquifer bottom, with a highly variable thickness globally and a yet-to-be clearly defined lower boundary of active water cycle. Interfaces among different compartments in the CZ are critical, which provide fertile ground for interdisciplinary research. The reconciliation of coupled geological and biological cycles (vastly different in space and time scales is essential to understanding the complexity and evolution of the CZ. Irreversible evolution, coupled cycling, interactive layers, and hierarchical heterogeneity are the characteristics of the CZ, suggesting that forcing, coupling, interfacing, and scaling are grand challenges for advancing CZ science. Hydropedology – the science of the behaviour and distribution of soil-water interactions in contact with mineral and biological materials in the CZ – is an important contributor to CZ study. The pedosphere is the foundation of the CZ, which represents a geomembrance across which water and solutes, as well as energy, gases, solids, and organisms are actively exchanged with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thereby creating a life-sustaining environment. Hydropedology emphasizes in situ soils in the landscape setting, where distinct pedogenic features and soil-landscape relationships are essential to understanding interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes. Both CZ science and hydropedology embrace an evolutionary and holistic worldview, which offers stimulating opportunities through steps such as integrated systems approach, evolutionary mapping-monitoring-modeling framework, and fostering a global alliance. Our capability to predict the behaviour and evolution of the CZ in response to changing environment can

  2. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  3. Science review of internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Alex M.K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Internal combustion engines used in transportation produce about 23% of the UK's carbon dioxide emission, up from 14% in 1980. The current science described in this paper suggests that there could be 6-15% improvements in internal combustion fuel efficiency in the coming decade, although filters to meet emission legislation reduce these gains. Using these engines as hybrids with electric motors produces a reduction in energy requirements in the order of 21-28%. Developments beyond the next decade are likely to be dominated by four topics: emission legislation and emission control, new fuels, improved combustion and a range of advanced concepts for energy saving. Emission control is important because current methods for limiting nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions imply extra energy consumption. Of the new fuels, non-conventional fossil-derived fuels are associated with larger greenhouse gas emissions than conventional petroleum-based fuels, while a vehicle propelled by fuel cells consuming non-renewable hydrogen does not necessarily offer an improvement in emissions over the best hybrid internal combustion engines. Improved combustion may be developed for both gasoline and diesel fuels and promises better efficiency as well as lower noxious emissions without the need for filtering. Finally, four advanced concepts are considered: new thermodynamic cycles, a Rankine bottoming cycle, electric turbo-compounding and the use of thermoelectric devices. The latter three all have the common theme of trying to extract energy from waste heat, which represents about 30% of the energy input to an internal combustion engine

  4. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    , also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Robust Multivariable Feedback Control of Natural Gas-Diesel RCCI Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrajuana, A.; Bekdemir, C.; Luo, X.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced combustion concepts such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) demonstrate very high thermal efficiencies combined with ultra low NOx emissions. As RCCI is sensitive for operating conditions, closed-loop control is a crucial enabler for stable and robust combustion. The

  6. Advanced exergy analysis for a bottoming organic rankine cycle coupled to an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Ruiz, S.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergy analysis were carried out using experimental data of an ORC. • Exergy destruction analyzed as endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable. • Exergy destruction was estimated by considering technological restrictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation and analysis of a bottoming ORC cycle coupled to an IC engine by means of conventional and advanced exergy analysis. Using experimental data of an ORC coupled to a 2 l turbocharged engine, both conventional and advanced exergy analysis are carried out. Splitting the exergy in the advanced exergy analysis into unavoidable and avoidable provides a measure of the potential of improving the efficiency of this component. On the other hand, splitting the exergy into endogenous and exogenous provides information between interactions among system components. The result of this study shows that there is a high potential of improvement in this type of cycles. Although, from the conventional analysis, the exergy destruction rate of boiler is greater than the one of the expander, condenser and pump, the advanced exergy analysis suggests that the first priority of improvement should be given to the expander, followed by the pump, the condenser and the boiler. A total amount of 3.75 kW (36.5%) of exergy destruction rate could be lowered, taking account that only the avoidable part of the exergy destruction rate can be reduced.

  7. Concept for premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines; Konzept zur vorgemischten Verbrennung wasserstoffhaltiger Brennstoffe in Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-07-19

    One of the main challenges for future gas turbines and their combustion systems is to provide fuel flexibility. The fuel range is expected to reach from the lowly reactive natural gas to highly reactive hydrogen-containing syngases. The objective of the project in which this work was pursued is to develop such a combustion system. The burner has to ensure premixed operation with an aerodynamically stabilized flame. The focus of this work is on characterizing and optimizing the operational safety of the system, but also on ensuring sufficientmixing and lowemissions. A burner and fuel injection design is achieved that leads not only to emissions far below the permissible values, but also to flashback safety for hydrogen combustion that comes close to the theoretically achievable maximum at atmospheric pressure conditions. In this design flashback due to combustion-induced vortex breakdown and wall boundary layer flashback is avoided. Flashback only takes place when the flow velocity reaches the flame velocity.

  8. Advanced concept of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) for plutonium multiple recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, T.; Iwamura, T.; Takeda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Okada, H.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced water-cooled reactor concept named the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been proposed to attain a high conversion ratio more than 1.0 and to achieve the negative void reactivity coefficient. At present, several types of design concepts satisfying both the design targets have been proposed based on the evaluation for the fuel without fission products and minor actinides. In this paper, the feasibility of the RMWR core is investigated for the plutonium multiple recycling under advanced reprocessing schemes with low decontamination factors as proposed for the FBR fuel cycle. (author)

  9. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  10. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  11. Comparative study of two co-combustion concepts for sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces; Vergleich zweier Mitverbrennungskonzepte fuer Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spliethoff, H.; Gerhardt, T.; Ruediger, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1996-12-31

    Processes for thermal use of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces were investigated at the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Boiler Technology (IVD) of Stuttgart university. Direct co-combustion of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces is a simple concept, but it is useful provided that co-combustion has no negative effects in terms of performance, emissions and residue disposal. Externally dried sewage sludge has a residual water content in the same range as coal dust. The effects of co-combustion are discussed, and the experimentally determined effect in terms of emissions and residues is presented. Pyrolysis of the sewage sludge and use of the resulting gas as a reduction agent for denitrification may reduce negative effects of co-combustion on performance, emissions and residues.(orig) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart werden an Versuchsanlagen verschiedene Verfahren zur thermischen Nutzung von Klaerschlaemmen in Verbindung mit Kohlenstaufeuerungen untersucht. Die direkte Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen ist ein einfaches Konzept, das dann sinnvoll ist, wenn die Mitverbrennung keine negativen Auswirkungen auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Verwertung der Rueckstaende mit sich bringt. Bei einer externen Trockung weist der Klaerschlamm einen aehnlichen Wassergehalt wie der Auslegungsbrennstoff von Steinkohlenstaubfeuerungen auf. Die moeglichen Auswirkungen der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm werden diskutiert und der im Versuch ermittelte Einfluss auf Emissionen und Reststoffe vogestellt. Durch Vorschaltung einer Pyrolyse des Klaerschlamms und Nutzung des erzeugten Gases als Reduktionsmittel zur Entsticklung kann die Auswirkung der Mitverbrennung auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Reststoffe der Feuerungsanlage vermindert werden. (orig)

  12. Comparative study of two co-combustion concepts for sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces; Vergleich zweier Mitverbrennungskonzepte fuer Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spliethoff, H; Gerhardt, T; Ruediger, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1997-12-31

    Processes for thermal use of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces were investigated at the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Boiler Technology (IVD) of Stuttgart university. Direct co-combustion of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces is a simple concept, but it is useful provided that co-combustion has no negative effects in terms of performance, emissions and residue disposal. Externally dried sewage sludge has a residual water content in the same range as coal dust. The effects of co-combustion are discussed, and the experimentally determined effect in terms of emissions and residues is presented. Pyrolysis of the sewage sludge and use of the resulting gas as a reduction agent for denitrification may reduce negative effects of co-combustion on performance, emissions and residues.(orig) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart werden an Versuchsanlagen verschiedene Verfahren zur thermischen Nutzung von Klaerschlaemmen in Verbindung mit Kohlenstaufeuerungen untersucht. Die direkte Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen ist ein einfaches Konzept, das dann sinnvoll ist, wenn die Mitverbrennung keine negativen Auswirkungen auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Verwertung der Rueckstaende mit sich bringt. Bei einer externen Trockung weist der Klaerschlamm einen aehnlichen Wassergehalt wie der Auslegungsbrennstoff von Steinkohlenstaubfeuerungen auf. Die moeglichen Auswirkungen der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm werden diskutiert und der im Versuch ermittelte Einfluss auf Emissionen und Reststoffe vogestellt. Durch Vorschaltung einer Pyrolyse des Klaerschlamms und Nutzung des erzeugten Gases als Reduktionsmittel zur Entsticklung kann die Auswirkung der Mitverbrennung auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Reststoffe der Feuerungsanlage vermindert werden. (orig)

  13. Advanced CFD modelling of air and recycled flue gas staging in a waste wood-fired grate boiler for higher combustion efficiency and greater environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko; Hriberšek, Matjaž; Kokalj, Filip; Zadravec, Matej

    2018-07-15

    Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MW th waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined. It is found that the optimized air and recycled flue gas jets remarkably enhance mixing and heat transfer, result in a more uniform temperature and velocity distribution, extend the residence time of the combustibles in the hot zone and improve burnout in the boiler. Optimizing the air and recycled flue gas jet configuration can reduce carbon monoxide emission from the boiler by up to 86%, from the current 41.0 ppm to 5.7 ppm. The findings of this study can serve as useful guidelines for novel design and optimization of the combustion air supply and flue gas recycling for grate boilers of this type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Concept Plane using electric distributed propulsion Evaluation of advanced power architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ridel , M.; Paluch , B.; Doll , C.; Donjat , D.; Hermetz , J.; Guigon , A.; Schmollgruber , P.; Atinault , O.; Choy , P.; Le Tallec , P.; Dessornes , O.; Lefebvre , T.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Starting from electrical distributed propulsion system concept, the ONERA’s engineers demonstrated the viability of an all electrical aircraft for a small business aircraft. This paper describes the advanced power architecture considering energy conversion and power distribution. The design of this advanced power architecture requires the multi-physic integration of different domains as flight performances, safety and environmental requirements (thermal, electric, elec...

  15. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  16. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  17. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  18. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Learning of Musical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Johnson, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the effects of advance organizer instruction on preschool children's learning of the musical concepts of dynamics, pitch, tempo, and rhythm. Reports that three modes and three methods of presentation were evaluated. Concludes that, although results did vary with mode, the method of presentation had no significant…

  19. Advanced Planning Concepts in the Closed-Loop Container Network of ARN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; van Krieken, M.G.C.; Krikke, H.R.; Fleuren, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a real-life case study in the optimization of the logistics network for the collection of containers from end-of-life vehicle dismantlers in the Netherlands.Advanced planning concepts like dynamic assignment of dismantlers to logistic service providers are analyzed by a

  20. Summary Report of Working Group 7: Muon Colliders and Advanced Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Berg, J.Scott [Brookhaven

    2012-07-01

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  1. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, John; Zhang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We…

  2. Conceptual study of advanced PWR systems. A study of passive and inherent safety design concepts for advanced light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; No, Hee Cheon; Baek, Won Pil; Jae, Shim Young; Lee, Goung Jin; Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Han Gon; Kang, Ki Sig; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Yun Il; Park, Jae Wook; Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Lee, Seong Wook; Kim, Hong Che; Park, Hyun Sik; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Il; Jung, Hae Yong; Kim, Hyong Tae; Chae, Kyung Sun; Moon, Ki Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The five thermal-hydraulic concepts chosen for advanced PWR have been studied as follows: (1) Critical Heat Flux: Review of previous works, analysis of parametric trends, analysis of transient CHF characteristics, extension of the CHF date bank, survey and assessment of correlations, design of a intermediate-pressure CHF test loop have been performed. (2) Passive Cooling Concepts for Concrete Containment system: Review of condensation phenomena with noncondensable gases, selection of a promising concept (i.e., use of external condensers), design of test loop according to scaling laws have been accomplished. and computer programs based on the control-volume approach, and the conceptual design of test loop have been accomplished. (4) Fluidic Diode Concepts: Review of previous applications of the concept, analysis major parameters affecting the performance, development of a computational code, and conceptual investigation of the verification test loop have been performed. (5) Wet Thermal Insulator: Review of previous works, selection of promising methods ( i.e. ceramic fiber in a steel case and mirror-type insulator), and conceptual design of the experimental loop have been performed. (author). 9 refs.

  3. Modified-open fuel cycle performance with breed-and-burn advanced reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidet, Florent; Kim, Taek K.; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in fast reactor designs enable significant increase in the uranium utilization in an advanced fuel cycle. The category of fast reactors, collectively termed breed-and-burn reactor concepts, can use a large amount of depleted uranium as fuel without requiring enrichment with the exception of the initial core critical loading. Among those advanced concepts, some are foreseen to operate within a once-through fuel cycle such as the Traveling Wave Reactor, CANDLE reactor or Ultra-Long Life Fast Reactor, while others are intended to operate within a modified-open fuel cycle, such as the Breed-and-Burn reactor and the Energy Multiplier Module. This study assesses and compares the performance of the latter category of breed-and-burn reactors at equilibrium state. It is found that the two reactor concepts operating within a modified-open fuel cycle can significantly improve the sustainability and security of the nuclear fuel cycle by decreasing the uranium resources and enrichment requirements even further than the breed-and-burn core concepts operating within the once-through fuel cycle. Their waste characteristics per unit of energy are also found to be favorable, compared to that of currently operating PWRs. However, a number of feasibility issues need to be addressed in order to enable deployment of these breed-and-burn reactor concepts. (author)

  4. The lean-combustion gasoline engine. A concept with global application; Der magerbetriebene Ottomotor. Ein Konzept fuer den weltweiten Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmler, Roland; Enderle, Christian; Waltner, Anton; Vent, Guido [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    After Mercedes-Benz launched the first lean-combustion gasoline engines with spray-guided combustion in 2006, it rolled out this technology on a broad level based on the engine model series featuring the BlueDIRECT combustion system. Although these engines raise the bar among competitors in terms of fuel consumption, they are currently available only in countries that offer sulfur-free fuel. This leads to the question of what technical measures or altered constraints would be necessary to allow this environmentally-friendly technology to enjoy more widespread use. The following paper discusses how the accessibility of the lean-combustion technology can be improved by focusing primarily on the USA and China as potential markets. Challenges are involved, of course, in particular with respect to fuel quality and emissions as well as the market-specific implications for on-board diagnostics. By working to further reduce fuel sulfur content, however, lean-combustion gasoline engines could also be offered in the aforementioned regions in the mid-term. (orig.)

  5. Fiscal 1993-1998 integrated research report. R and D on advanced combustion technology under microgravity environment; 1993 - 1998 nendo sogo seika hokokusho. Bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita kodo nensho gijutsu soshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For developing advanced combustion technology by using JAMIC's facility, the advanced combustion technology research committee supported by researchers of universities, national institutes and industries was prepared in JSUP, and R and D using a microgravity experiment facility and the international joint research with NASA were carried out. By using the advanced experimental equipment and measuring instrument developed for microgravity experiments, studies were made on combustion and evaporation of fuel droplets, combustion characteristics of dense fuel, flammability limit and NO{sub x} generation mechanism, and such precious results were obtained as storage of abundant experimental data, explication of a combustion mechanism, preparation of a database and find of new phenomena. In the ground verification experiment using the newly fabricated advanced combustor test equipment, various data effective for developing high-efficiency low-pollution combustors were obtained. Through the joint research with NASA including 5 themes, various results and the real relationship between the researchers were also obtained. (NEDO)

  6. Advanced Heat Exchanger for Combustion/Gasification Task 3; Development of Ammonia Removal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Espenaes, Bengt-Goeran [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Studsvik (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The report contains two parts. The first part is a review on the different ammonia removal options that can be considered in gasification of solid fuels. Issues discussed are the formation of nitrogen compounds in the gasifier and measures that can be taken to reduce the formation of such compounds, gas cleaning options at high temperature, low temperature cleaning and low NO{sub x} combustion in turbine applications. The second part presents experimental work on the kinetics of decomposition of ammonia by two nickel catalysts in a simulated fuel gas. The conditions used for the most thoroughly investigated catalyst included concentrations of H{sub 2}S from 22 ppm to 800 ppm, temperature from 76 deg C to 950 deg C, and total pressure at 1, 4 and 20 bar. The influence from H{sub 2}S on the reaction rate of ammonia at atmospheric pressure was found to be qualitatively different at low and at high concentrations of sulphur. The activity decreased at increase of the H{sub 2}S concentration up to about 200 ppm. A minimum of activity was obtained at about 200-300 ppm H{sub 2}S, and the activity increased again at further increase of the H{sub 2}S content. A more detailed investigation was performed for the low concentration range up to about 200 ppm at 1 and at 4 bar. The deactivation by H{sub 2}S is only partly reversible, and the activity that is attained when H{sub 2}S is removed depends strongly on which maximum concentration the catalyst has been exposed to. The nickel catalyst was found to convert ammonia in a raw fuel gas containing about 70 ppm H{sub 2}S at nearly the same rate as would be expected from the experimental data for the synthetic gas mixtures. Thus, there is not any important retarding effect from competition with the reactions that convert tar components and hydrocarbons simultaneously. The reaction rate of NH{sub 3} was compared to the reaction rate of methane found in a previous work, using the same catalyst. It was concluded that the size of a

  7. Design concepts and advanced manipulator development for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division, Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. The application of advanced manipulation is viewed as an essential part of a series of design directions whose sum describes a somewhat unique blend of old and new technology. A design direction based upon the Teletec concept is explained and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems is feasible through advanced technology. 14 refs., 14 figs

  8. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a clear definition of “fuel and combustion stratifications” is obvious in literature. Hence, it is difficult to compare stratification levels of different PPC strategies or other combustion concepts. T...

  9. Proposal for a advanced PWR core with adequate characteristics for passive safety concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a discussion upon the suitable from an advanced PWR core, classified by the EPRI as 'Passive PWR' (advanced reactor with passive safety concept to power plants with less than 600 MW electrical power). The discussion upon the type of core is based on nuclear fuel engineering concepts. Discussion is made on type of fuel materials, structural materials, geometric shapes and manufacturing process that are suitable to produce fuel assemblies which give good performance for this type of reactors. The analysis is guided by the EPRI requirements for Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR). By means of comparison, the analysis were done to Angra 1 (old type of 600 MWe PWR class), and the design of the Westinghouse Advanced PWR-AP600. It was verified as a conclusion of this work that the modern PWR fuels are suitable for advanced PWR's Nevertheless, this work presents a technical alternative to this kind of fuel, still using UO 2 as fuel, but changing its cylindrical form of pellets and pin type fuel element to plane shape pallets and plate type fuel element. This is not a novelty fuel, since it was used in the 50's at Shippingport Reactor and as an advanced version by CEA of France in the 70's. In this work it is proposed a new mechanical assembly design for this fuel, which can give adequate safety and operational performance to the core of a 'Passive PWR'. (author)

  10. Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation--a review on advanced and novel concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ming E-mail: mzheng@uwindsor.ca; Reader, Graham T.; Hawley, J. Gary

    2004-04-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NO{sub x} reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed.

  11. Potentials of spray-guided combustion systems in combination with downsizing concepts; Potenziale strahlgefuehrter Brennverfahren in Verbindung mit Downsizing-Konzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueckert, Peter; Breitbach, Hermann; Waltner, Anton; Merdes, Norbert; Weller, Ralph [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2006, Mercedes-Benz was the world's first manufacturer to introduce a spray-guided lean-burn combustion system to the gasoline engine, combining high specific engine output with exceptional fuel consumption values. After presenting the technology in the M272 DE six-cylinder engine in 2006, the spray-guided combustion system was introduced in 2010, starting with the new 4.6l biturbo V8 engine as a homogeneous application, followed by the new M276 DE six-cylinder engine with an enhanced lean-burn combustion process as part of the new BlueDIRECT engine generation [3,4]. In the future, the technology will be rolled out with all new 4-cylinder engines. The advantages of the spray-guided lean-burn combustion system are clearly apparent during part load operation of the gasoline engine, both from reduction of throttling losses as well as the improved efficiency of the thermodynamic process. Early on, Mercedes- Benz investigated, whether in conjunction with downsizing the advantages of this combustion system could be retained, if downsizing led to reduction of throttling losses through an increase of the specific output of the engine in the NEDC. Clarification was also required regarding the extent to which turbocharging the engine would create new challenges for the combustion process. This question is discussed on the basis of combustion and emissions investigations. The paper also focuses in particular on the requirements pertaining to the components in the injection system and to the turbocharger in order to achieve the optimum efficiency of the overall system. Likewise, attention is devoted to the challenges regarding the stability and accuracy of the components. As the investigations show, downsizing by means of turbocharging is ideally suitable for combination with the spray-guided lean-burn combustion system. The use of evolved concepts has made it possible to extend the operating range of the stratified combustion system to higher loads, such that even

  12. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  13. Conceptual design study and evaluation of an advanced treatment process applying a submerged combustion technique for spent solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fijine, Sachio; Chida, Mitsuhisa; Kirishima, Kenji.

    1993-10-01

    An advanced treatment process based on a submerged combustion technique was proposed for spent solvents and the distillation residues containing transuranium (TRU) nuclides. A conceptual design study and the preliminary cost estimation of the treatment facility applying the process were conducted. Based on the results of the study, the process evaluation on the technical features, such as safety, volume reduction of TRU waste and economics was carried out. The key requirements for practical use were also summarized. It was shown that the process had the features as follows: the simplified treatment and solidification steps will not generate secondary aqueous wastes, the volume of TRU solid waste will be reduced less than one tenth of that of a reference technique (pyrolysis process), and the facility construction cost is less than 1 % of the total construction cost of a future large scale reprocessing plant. As for the low level wastes of calcium phosphate, it was shown that the further removal of β · γ nuclides with TRU nuclides from the wastes would be required for the safety in interim storage and transportation and for the load of shielding. (author)

  14. An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  16. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  17. Low cetane number renewable oxy-fuels for premixed combustion concept application : experimental investigation on a light duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Blasio, G.; Beatrice, C.; Dijkstra, R.; Boot, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the results of an experimental study on the impact of a low cetane number (CN) oxygenated fuel on the combustion process and emissions of a light-duty (LD) single-cylinder research engine. In an earlier study, it was concluded that cyclic oxygenates consistently outperformed

  18. Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline emissions in advanced engine technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's combustion research and combustion and engine research activities include: Developing experimental and simulation research platforms

  19. [Research advances in secondary development of Chinese patent medicines based on quality by design concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xing-Chu; Chen, Teng; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-03-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is an advanced pharmaceutical quality control concept. The application of QbD concept in the research and development of pharmaceutical processes of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) mainly contains five parts, including the definition of critical processes and their evaluation criteria, the determination of critical process parameters and critical material attributes, the establishment of quantitative models, the development of design space, as well as the application and continuous improvement of control strategy. In this work, recent research advances in QbD concept implementation methods in the secondary development of Chinese patent medicines were reviewed, and five promising fields of the implementation of QbD concept were pointed out, including the research and development of TCM new drugs and Chinese medicine granules for formulation, modeling of pharmaceutical processes, development of control strategy based on industrial big data, strengthening the research of process amplification rules, and the development of new pharmaceutical equipment.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Fiscal 1998 research report. R and D on advanced combustion technology under microgravity environment; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita kodo nensho gijutsu soshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research was made on explication of a combustion phenomenon by using a microgravity facility, and a combustor possible to realize advanced combustion technology. In the basic research composed of 5 themes by the international joint research with NASA, 52 drop experiments using JAMIC's facility and 100 drop experiments using NASA's 2.2s drop tower were carried out. The themes are composed of an interaction in droplet arrays combustion, combustion of binary fuel sprays, combustion characteristics of solid fuel, flame dynamics around a lean flammability limit, and mass transfer around a combustion field. In the experiment using the microgravity experiment facility and analysis evaluation of the experimental data, studies were made on combustion and evaporation of fuel droplets, combustion characteristics of dense fuel, flammability limit, formation mechanism of NO{sub x} and an advanced combustor. For applying a pre-evaporating/pre- mixing combustion system to a combustor for aircraft engines, studies were made on some issues such as improvement of a combustion stability, NO{sub x} discharge characteristics, and optimum fuel atomizing. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report. R and D on advanced combustion technology under microgravity environment; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita kodo nensho gijutsu soshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research was made on explication of a combustion phenomenon by using a microgravity facility, and a combustor possible to realize advanced combustion technology. In the basic research composed of 5 themes by the international joint research with NASA, 52 drop experiments using JAMIC's facility and 100 drop experiments using NASA's 2.2s drop tower were carried out. The themes are composed of an interaction in droplet arrays combustion, combustion of binary fuel sprays, combustion characteristics of solid fuel, flame dynamics around a lean flammability limit, and mass transfer around a combustion field. In the experiment using the microgravity experiment facility and analysis evaluation of the experimental data, studies were made on combustion and evaporation of fuel droplets, combustion characteristics of dense fuel, flammability limit, formation mechanism of NO{sub x} and an advanced combustor. For applying a pre-evaporating/pre- mixing combustion system to a combustor for aircraft engines, studies were made on some issues such as improvement of a combustion stability, NO{sub x} discharge characteristics, and optimum fuel atomizing. (NEDO)

  2. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  3. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  4. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihui "Paul" Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We present a classic brain teaser that is used to communicate and demonstrate advanced software development concepts and techniques. Our results show that students with varied academic experiences and goals, assuming at least one procedural/structured programming pre-requisite, can benefit from and also be challenged by such an exercise. Although this problem has been used by others in the classroom, we believe that our use of this problem in imparting such a broad range of topics to a diverse student population is unique.

  5. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  6. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  7. Concepts for a slow-positron target at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; White, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator beam could be used to produce slow positrons during the hours between the storage ring injection cycles. Initial concepts for the design of a target that is optimized for slow-positron production are discussed, and simulation results are presented. Some possible ways to increase the nominal linac beam power for improved slow-positron production are also discussed

  8. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  9. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  10. Prestressed-concrete pressure vessels and their applicability to advanced-energy-system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are, in essence, spaced steel structures since their strength is derived from a multitude of steel elements made up of deformed reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons which are present in sufficient quantities to carry tension loads imposed on the vessel. Other major components of a PCPV include the concrete, liner and cooling system, and insulation. PCPVs exhibit a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for application to advanced energy concepts: fabricability in virtually any size and shape using available technology, improved safety, reduced capital costs, and a history of proven performance. PCPVs have many applications to both nuclear- and non-nuclear-based energy systems concepts. Several of these concepts will be discussed as well as the research and development activities conducted at ORNL in support of PCPV development

  11. CATHENA Analysis Of Candu Advanced Passive Moderator Concept In Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfa, Sudjatmi K

    2001-01-01

    In the CANDU - advanced passive moderator (APM) concept, the positive void reactivity is eliminated by reducing the density of the moderator. The simple model for the CANDU APM concept consists of the calandria, heat exchanger, pump, and a stabilizing tank, along with connecting piping. The calandria is divided into two parts, one part simulates the down area, while the other simulates up flow area. To demonstrate the thermalhydraulic behavior of the APM concept, Canadian algorithm for thermalhydraulic network analysis (CATHENA) code is used. The simulation for a pressure boundary condition of 300, 330 and 360 kPa and for water coolant mass flow rate boundary conditions of 2000 and 3000 kg/s respectively have been studied. Preliminary results show that there is boiling in the core, with vapor condensing in the heat exchanger. It is important to note, that the solution had not reached steady state when the boiling occurred

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of gas phase freeboard combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Meyer, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition have been obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. The reactor was constructed to simulate the conditions in the freeboard of a grate-fired boiler...... but under well-defined conditions. The experimental results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling predictions, using the eddy dissipation model (EDM) its well as the eddy dissipation concept (EDC). The use of EDC allows for implementation of more advanced combustion schemes; we have...... tested the four-step global mechanism by Jones and Lindstedt (Combust. Flame 1988, 73, 233-249), and the 16 species and 41 reaction skeletal mechanism by Yang and Pope (Combust. Flame 1998, 112 16-32). The CFD model captured the main features of the combustion process and flow patterns. The application...

  13. Design Concept of Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Related R&D in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea imports about 97% of its energy resources due to a lack of available energy resources. In this status, the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is expected to become more important in future years. In particular, a fast reactor system is one of the most promising reactor types for electricity generation, because it can utilize efficiently uranium resources and reduce radioactive waste. Acknowledging the importance of a fast reactor in a future energy policy, the long-term advanced SFR development plan was authorized by KAEC in 2008 and updated in 2011 which will be carried out toward the construction of an advanced SFR prototype plant by 2028. Based upon the experiences gained during the development of the conceptual designs for KALIMER, KAERI recently developed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR design concepts of TRU burner that can better meet the generation IV technology goals. The current status of nuclear power and SFR design technology development program in Korea will be discussed. The developments of design concepts including core, fuel, fluid system, mechanical structure, and safety evaluation have been performed. In addition, the advanced SFR technologies necessary for its commercialization and the basic key technologies have been developed including a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility, super-critical Brayton cycle system, under-sodium viewing techniques, metal fuel development, and developments of codes, and validations are described as R&D activities.

  14. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  15. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicided niobium alloy (C103) combustion chambers have been used extensively in both NASA and DoD liquid rocket propulsion systems. Niobium alloys offer a good...

  16. Advanced concepts under development in the United States Breeder-Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced concepts and techniques for the fuel reprocessing step are being developed. These concepts have been incorporated into the conceptual design of a Hot Experimental Facility (HEF), which is intended to demonstrate reprocessing of the first US breeder demonstration reactor. To achieve system reliability and reduce occupational doses, a concept of totally remote operation and maintenance (termed Remotex) has been conceived and is being developed. In this concept, maintenance and mechanical operations are accomplished with remotely operated bilateral force-reflecting electronic master/slave manipulators. Suitable transport systems, coupled with remote closed-circuit television viewing, are provided to extend man's capabilities into the hostile cell environment. New equipment concepts are being developed for the fuel dismantling and shearing step, a high-temperature dry process termed voloxidation to remove tritium, a continuous rotary dissolver, and for an improved centrifugal solvent contractor. Techniques have been developed, using engineering-scale equipment with active tracers for retention of 85 Kr, radioiodine, 14 C, and 3 H

  17. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  18. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2013-01-01

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application

  19. The Los Alamos Laser Acceleration of Particles Workshop and beginning of the advanced accelerator concepts field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, C.

    2012-12-01

    The first Advanced Acceleration of Particles-AAC-Workshop (actually named Laser Acceleration of Particles Workshop) was held at Los Alamos in January 1982. The workshop lasted a week and divided all the acceleration techniques into four categories: near field, far field, media, and vacuum. Basic theorems of particle acceleration were postulated (later proven) and specific experiments based on the four categories were formulated. This landmark workshop led to the formation of the advanced accelerator R&D program in the HEP office of the DOE that supports advanced accelerator research to this day. Two major new user facilities at Argonne and Brookhaven and several more directed experimental efforts were built to explore the advanced particle acceleration schemes. It is not an exaggeration to say that the intellectual breadth and excitement provided by the many groups who entered this new field provided the needed vitality to then recently formed APS Division of Beams and the new online journal Physical Review Special Topics-Accelerators and Beams. On this 30th anniversary of the AAC Workshops, it is worthwhile to look back at the legacy of the first Workshop at Los Alamos and the fine groundwork it laid for the field of advanced accelerator concepts that continues to flourish to this day.

  20. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application.

  1. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  2. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  3. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  4. BALANCED SCORECARD AS AN ADVANCED MANAGEMENT CONCEPT WITHIN THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Zivojinovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of >Integratedquality management< (IQM model, originating form St.Gallen-model, is reflected in the need for synergic application of new and advanced concepts of management theory and practise. Balanced score card (BSC within IQM model becomes a catalyst of business success for a modern organization by focusing on organizational variables-business strategy, organization structure and corporate culture. BSC is the leading system of performance tracking and strategy implementation, consistent with other management concepts and methods for managing process improvement. Through BSC, IQM processes' activities correlate with organization business results. BSC management processes enable integration of all decision-making levels, from institutional via strategic to operative, in the process starting from planing, i.e. formulating and implementation of strategy, to feed back by performance measurement and control.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  6. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ijichi; Toshio Yamashita; Masahiro Tsutagawa; Hiroya Mori; Nobuaki Ooshima; Jun Miura; Minoru Kanechika; Nobuaki Miura

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  7. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  8. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  9. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  10. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  11. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Forester, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gertman, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Persensky, Julius [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whaley, April [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  12. Advanced concepts for waste management and nuclear energy production in the EURATOM 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Martin Bermejon, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM 5. Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long-lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing high-temperature reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commissions proposal fora New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (authors)

  13. Advanced concepts for waste management and nuclear energy production in the EURATOM fifth framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Martin Bermejo, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of long lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commission(tm)s proposal for a New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (author)

  14. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  15. Inherent safe design of advanced high temperature reactors - concepts for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodzic, A.; Kugeler, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicable solutions for a commercial size High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with inherent safety features. It describes the possible realization using an advanced concept which combines newly proposed design characteristics with some well known and proven HTR inherent safety features. The use of the HTR technology offers the conceivably best solution to meet the legal criteria, recently stated in Germany, for the future reactor generation. Both systems, block and pebble bed ,reactor, could be under certain design conditions self regulating in terms of core nuclear heat, mechanical stability and the environmental transfer. 23 refs., 7 figs

  16. Concept design and cluster control of advanced space connectable intelligent microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Shuang; She, Yuchen

    2017-12-01

    In this note, a new type of advanced space connectable intelligent microsatellite is presented to extend the range of potential application of microsatellite and improve the efficiency of cooperation. First, the overall concept of the micro satellite cluster is described, which is characterized by autonomously connecting with each other and being able to realize relative rotation through the external interfaces. Second, the multi-satellite autonomous assembly algorithm and control algorithm of the cluster motion are developed to make the cluster system combine into a variety of configurations in order to achieve different types of functionality. Finally, the design of the satellite cluster system is proposed, and the possible applications are discussed.

  17. The conception of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...... in research as well as clinical experiences from advanced welfare services might support a new model for understanding mental vulnerability....

  18. Advanced automation concepts applied to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Bywater, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The major objective of this work is to demonstrate through simulations that advanced liquid-metal reactor plants can be operated from low power by computer control. Development of an automatic control system with this objective will help resolve specific issues and provide proof through demonstration that automatic control for plant startup is feasible. This paper presents an advanced control system design for startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) located at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The design incorporates recent methods in nonlinear control with advanced diagnostics techniques such as neural networks to form an integrated architecture. The preliminary evaluations are obtained in a simulated environment by a low-order, valid nonlinear model. Within the framework of phase 1 research, the design includes an inverse dynamics controller, a fuzzy controller, and an artificial neural network controller. These three nonlinear control modules are designed to follow the EBR-2 startup trajectories in a multi-input/output regime. They are coordinated by a supervisory routine to yield a fault-tolerant, parallel operation. The control system operates in three modes: manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic control. The simulation results of the EBR-2 startup transients proved the effectiveness of the advanced concepts. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary feasibility analysis and does not constitute a final design of an automated startup control system for EBR-2. 14 refs., 43 figs

  19. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  20. Core Thermal-Hydraulic Conceptual Design for the Advanced SFR Design Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Chang, Jin Wook; Yoo, Jae Woon; Song, Hoon; Choi, Sun Rock; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Sang Ji

    2010-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the advanced SFR design concepts from 2007 to 2009 under the National longterm Nuclear R and D Program. Two types of core designs, 1,200 MWe breakeven and 600 MWe TRU burner core have been proposed and evaluated whether they meet the design requirements for the Gen IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, proliferation resistance, and physical protection. In generally, the core thermal hydraulic design is performed during the conceptual design phase to efficiently extract the core thermal power by distributing the appropriate sodium coolant flow according to the power of each assembly because the conventional SFR core is composed of hundreds of ducted assemblies with hundreds of fuel rods. In carrying out the thermal and hydraulic design, special attention has to be paid to several performance parameters in order to assure proper performance and safety of fuel and core; the coolant boiling, fuel melting, structural integrity of the components, fuel-cladding eutectic melting, etc. The overall conceptual design procedure for core thermal and hydraulic conceptual design, i.e., flow grouping and peak pin temperature calculations, pressure drop calculations, steady-state and detailed sub-channel analysis is shown Figure 1. In the conceptual design phase, results of core thermal-hydraulic design for advanced design concepts, the core flow grouping, peak pin cladding mid-wall temperature, and pressure drop calculations, are summarized in this study

  1. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  2. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  3. Advances in the self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste seeks to utilize the radioactive decay heat emitted by the wastes to melt rock and allow descent by gravity into crystalline rock for isolation. Logan developed the governing equations for the self-disposal process in a paper published in 1973 and 1974 showing that moderate waste concentrations in capsules 1 to 2 m in diameter could descend through granite or basalt to considerable depths, in some cases grater than 10 km. Safety considerations related to filling, handling, and initial cooling of such large capsules prior to release, plus the severe container material environment, has prevented use of the concept. Byalko in Russia recently proposed using a sulfur-filled borehole as a conduit for conveying small capsules down to an accumulation zone at a safe depth of several kilometers. This advance in the self-burial concept overcomes previous problems with self-burial. First, capsules of 0.3 m or less in diameter are relatively simple to fill and handle. Second, investigations indicate that once emplaced at an initial accumulation depth, rock-melting can proceed without an enveloping waste container

  4. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles - 12477

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 0736, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Blink, James [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Howard, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Used Fuel Disposition campaign. Reference concepts are identified for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. These were analyzed for waste inventory cases representing a range of waste types that could be produced by advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress. All of these disposal concepts are enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. Enclosed modes have less capacity to dissipate heat than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Thermal analysis has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature limits for different disposal concepts. For the crystalline rock and clay/shale repository concepts, a waste package surface temperature limit of 100 deg. C was assumed to prevent changes in clay-based buffer material or clay-rich host rock. Surface decay storage of 50 to 100 years is needed for disposal of high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR packages, or disposal of HLW glass from reprocessing LWR uranium oxide (UOX) fuel. High-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of metal fuel used in a fast reactor could be disposed after decay storage of 50 years or less. For disposal in salt the rock thermal conductivity is significantly greater, and higher temperatures (200 deg. C) can be tolerated at the waste package surface. Decay storage of 10 years or less is needed for high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR

  5. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  6. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  7. Integral design concepts of advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Under the sub-programme on non-electrical applications of advanced reactors, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing a worldwide forum for exchange of information on integral reactor concepts. Two Technical Committee meetings were held in 1994 and 1995 on the subject where state-of-the-art developments were presented. Efforts are continuing for the development of advanced nuclear reactors of both evolutionary and innovative design, for electricity, co-generation and heat applications. While single purpose reactors for electricity generation may require small and medium sizes under certain conditions, reactors for heat applications and co-generation would be necessary in the small and medium range and need to be located closer to the load centres. The integral design approach to the development of advanced light water reactors has received special attention over the past few years. Several designs are in the detailed design stage, some are under construction, one prototype is in operation. A need has been felt for guidance on a number of issues, ranging from design objectives to the assessment methodology needed to show how integral designs can meet these objectives, and also to identify their advantages and problem areas. The technical document addresses the current status of the design, safety and operational issues of integral reactors and recommends areas for future development

  8. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  9. Advanced Catalysis Technologies: Lanthanum Cerium Manganese Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Flat Plate Reactor for Compact Steam Reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    packed-bed steam reformer reactor using an open-flame or radiant burner as the heat source, the rate of heat transfer is limited by wall film and bed...resistances. Heat transfer can be effectively improved by replacing the burner /packed-bed system with parallel channels containing metal foam...combustion reactor was tested using the hexaaluminate catalyst in pellets and supported on FeCrAlloy metal foam. Both tests burned propane and JP-8

  10. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  11. Fuels from biomass. Potentials, concepts, competitive situation with regard to combustion; Kraftstoffe aus Biomassen. Potentiale, Konzepte, Konkurrenzsituationen zur Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, F.; Neubauer, Y. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2006-07-01

    Liquid fuels are today something of an elixir of life for the industrialised societies and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Mobility is dependent on the availability of petrol, diesel and kerosine. Whereas the introduction of alternative vehicle drives is expected to proceed only stepwise over a period of decades, the origin of liquid fuels will change fundamentally. This will involve a shift away from crude oil towards the synthesis of fuels from natural gas, coal and biomass. It will also lead to a revival of long-known technical concepts such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or the direct liquefaction of source materials, albeit using significantly refined techniques.

  12. Camera Concepts for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuk Otte, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. The incorporation of trigger electronics and signal digitization into the camera are under study. Given the size of AGIS, the camera must be reliable, robust, and cost effective. We are investigating several directions that include innovative technologies such as Geiger-mode avalanche-photodiodes as a possible detector and switched capacitor arrays for the digitization.

  13. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  14. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  15. Mobility disorders and pain, interrelations that need new research concepts and advanced clinical commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Sajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This Perspective will discuss topics recently suggested by Prof. Helmut Kern, Vienna, Austria, to advance the research activities of his team, that is: Topic A, 10 years post RISE; Topic B, New research for new solutions on old research questions; Topic C, Working groups on nerve regeneration, training-parameters of seniors in different ages, muscle adaptation; and studies of connective tissue and cartilage. This Perspective summarizes some of the basic concepts and of the evidence-based tools for developing further translational research activities. Clinically relevant results will ask for continuous interests of Basic and Applied Myologists and for the support during the next five to ten years of public and private granting agencies. All together, they will end in protocols, devices and multidisciplinary managements for persons suffering with muscle denervation, neuromuscular-related or non-related pain and for the increasing population of old, older and oldest senior citizens in Europe and beyond.

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  17. Surgical treatment of severe osteoporosis including new concept of advanced severe osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe osteoporosis is classified as those with a bone mineral density (BMD T-score of −2.5 or lower, and demonstrate one or more of osteoporotic, low-trauma, fragility fractures. According to the general principle of surgical approach, patients with severe osteoporosis require not only more thorough pre- and postoperative treatment plans, but improvements in surgical fixtures and techniques such as the concept of a locking plate to prevent bone deformity and maximizing the blood flow to the fracture site by using a minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis. Arthroplasty is often performed in cases of displaced femoral neck fracture. Otherwise internal fixation for the goal of bone union is the generally accepted option for intertrochanteric, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures. Most of osteoporotic spine fracture is stable compression fracture, but vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty may be performed some selective patients. If neurological paralysis, severe spinal instability, or kyphotic deformity occurs, open decompression or fusion surgery may be considered. In order to overcome shortcomings of the World Health Organization definition of osteoporosis, we proposed a concept of ‘advanced severe osteoporosis,’ which is defined by the presence of proximal femur fragility fracture or two or more fragility fractures in addition to BMD T-score of −2.5 or less. In conclusion, we need more meticulous approach for surgical treatment of severe osteoporosis who had fragility fracture. In cases of advanced severe osteoporosis, we recommend more aggressive managements using parathyroid hormone and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand monoclonal antibody.

  18. EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FUELS IN A HCCI ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sendilvelan; S.Mohanamurugan

    2011-01-01

    Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amounts were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics using variable valve actuation (VVA) in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The HCCI engine is a promising concept for future automobile engines and stationary power plants. The two-stage ignition process in a HCCI engine creates advanced ignition and stratified combustion, which makes the ignition timing and combus...

  19. A program to develop advanced EBT [ELMO Bumpy Torus] concepts and international collaboration on the Bumpy Torus concept: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This project was undertaken to develop innovative concepts for improving the performance of ELMO Bumpy Torus devices in those aspects of plasma confinement that are particularly relevant to an eventual EBT reactor concept. These include effective magnetic utilization using Andreoletti coils, enhanced confinement using positive ambipolar potentials, and attractive divertor concepts that are compatible with formation and maintenance of ELMO rings. Each of the three major objectives was achieved and, except for the divertor studies, documented for publication and presentation at major scientific meetings. This report provides a brief recapitulation of the major results achieved in the form of a collection of those publications, together with this Introduction

  20. Civic consciousness: A viable concept for advancing students’ ability to orient themselves to possible futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sandahl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In history didactics the concept of historical consciousness has become an important theoretical framework in developing a meaningful history education. One significant aspect of historical consciousness is to give students a “usable past” to orient to possible futures. Previous research has shown that history is important when students think about the future but that their use of history in meaning-making is simplistic and based on present-day-thinking. Much research has focused on advancing students’ ability to use history in orientation to possible futures, but less attention has been focused on contemporary studies and its role in the process of orientation. By introducing a tentative concept, civic consciousness, the issue of students’ orientation is explored by studying students’ perspectives on democracy in past-present-future. The data consists of 142 narratives and reveals a pattern of normative stances, process orientation and action orientation. These aspects are considered to be important components of civic consciousness and these have implications for how social studies educators should address the challenges of preparing students for the future.

  1. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  2. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  3. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hogan, Mark [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  4. Fostering clinical reasoning in physiotherapy: comparing the effects of concept map study and concept map completion after example study in novice and advanced learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Windsor, Monica; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Health profession learners can foster clinical reasoning by studying worked examples presenting fully worked out solutions to a clinical problem. It is possible to improve the learning effect of these worked examples by combining them with other learning activities based on concept maps. This study investigated which combinaison of activities, worked examples study with concept map completion or worked examples study with concept map study, fosters more meaningful learning of intervention knowledge in physiotherapy students. Moreover, this study compared the learning effects of these learning activity combinations between novice and advanced learners. Sixty-one second-year physiotherapy students participated in the study which included a pre-test phase, a 130-min guided-learning phase and a four-week self-study phase. During the guided and self-study learning sessions, participants had to study three written worked examples presenting the clinical reasoning for selecting electrotherapeutic currents to treat patients with motor deficits. After each example, participants engaged in either concept map completion or concept map study depending on which learning condition they were randomly allocated to. Students participated in an immediate post-test at the end of the guided-learning phase and a delayed post-test at the end of the self-study phase. Post-tests assessed the understanding of principles governing the domain of knowledge to be learned (conceptual knowledge) and the ability to solve new problems that have similar (i.e., near transfer) or different (i.e., far transfer) solution rationales as problems previously studied in the examples. Learners engaged in concept map completion outperformed those engaged in concept map study on near transfer (p = .010) and far transfer (p concept map completion led to greater transfer performance than worked examples study combined with concept map study for both novice and advanced learners. Concept map completion

  5. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  6. Integrated concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix

    2016-04-13

    With the increasing energy demand of mankind and the transformation of our society towards sustainability, nuclear fusion by magnetic confinement is a promising option for the sustainable electricity supply in the future. In view of these prospects this thesis focuses on the concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarator (HELIAS) burning-plasma devices. The HELIAS-line is the continued development of the prototype optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X which started operation in 2015. For the integrated concept development of such devices, the approach taken in this work encompasses detailed physics and engineering considerations while also including economic aspects. Starting with physics considerations, the properties of plasma transport and confinement of 3D stellarator configurations are discussed due to their critical importance for the device design. It becomes clear that current empirical confinement time scalings are not sufficient to predict the confinement in future stellarator devices. Therefore, detailed 1D transport simulations are carried out to reduce the uncertainties regarding confinement. Beyond the well-validated neoclassical approach, first attempts are made to include results from state-of-the-art turbulence simulations into the 1D transport simulations to further enhance the predictive capabilities. Next, for the systematic development of consistent design points, stellarator-specific models are developed and implemented in the well-established European systems code PROCESS. This allows a consistent description of an entire HELIAS fusion power plant including physics, engineering, and economic considerations. With the confidence obtained from a verification study, systems studies are for the first time applied for a HELIAS power-plant which shows that the available design window is constrained by the beta-limit. Furthermore, an economic comparison of an exemplary design point to an ''equivalent'' tokamak

  7. Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

    Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of

  8. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a

  9. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  10. Advancing the expectancy concept via the interplay between theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boca, Frances K; Darkes, Jack; Goldman, Mark S; Smith, Gregory T

    2002-06-01

    Four papers from a 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism symposium on expectancy theory and research are summarized. The symposium contributors describe recent advances in expectancy theory and discuss their implications for assessment and for understanding the processes of development and change in the behavioral domain of alcohol use. First, findings are integrated across the diverse domains in which the expectancy concept has been applied. Second, the implications of expectancy theory for the measurement of expectancy structure and process are examined. Third, research and theory regarding alcohol expectancy development and change are presented, with an emphasis on the role of expectancies as mediators of known antecedents of drinking. Finally, an experimental procedure for investigating the causal role of expectancies is described, together with its implications for theory testing and prevention or intervention programming. Collectively, the symposium contributions demonstrate the utility of an integrated expectancy theory for the generation of innovative research operations and new insights regarding behavior development and change. Consistent with the notion of consilience, expectancy theory has demonstrated a convergence of findings across different levels of analysis, as well as across different operations, methods, and research designs.

  11. A Metal Fuel Core Concept for 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Kim, T.K.; Grandy, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of a metal fuel core concept for a 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor. A ternary metal fuel form of U-TRU-Zr was assumed with weapons grade plutonium feed for the startup core and TRU recovered from LWR spent fuel for the recycled equilibrium core. A compact burner core was developed by trade-off between the burnup reactivity loss and TRU conversion ratio, with a fixed cycle length of one-year. In the startup core, the average TRU enrichment is 15.5%, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.81, and the burnup reactivity loss over a cycle is 3.6% Δk. The heavy metal and TRU inventories are 13.1 and 2.0 metric tons, respectively. The average discharge burnup is 93 MWd/kg, and the TRU consumption rate is 55.5 kg/year. For the recycled equilibrium core, the average TRU enrichment is 22.1 %, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.73, and the burnup reactivity loss is 2.2% Δk. The TRU inventory and consumption rate are 2.9 metric tons and 81.6 kg/year, respectively. The evaluated reactivity coefficients provide sufficient negative feedbacks. The control systems provide shutdown margins that are more than adequate. The integral reactivity parameters for quasi-static reactivity balance analysis indicate favorable passive safety features, although detailed safety analyses are required to verify passive safety behavior. (authors)

  12. EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FUELS IN A HCCI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendilvelan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amounts were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics using variable valve actuation (VVA in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine. The HCCI engine is a promising concept for future automobile engines and stationary power plants. The two-stage ignition process in a HCCI engine creates advanced ignition and stratified combustion, which makes the ignition timing and combustion rate controllable. Meanwhile, the periphery of the fuel-rich zone leads to fierce burning, which results in slightly high NOx emissions. The experiments were conducted in a modified single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine. In this experiment we use diesel, bio-diesel (Jatropha and gasoline as the fuel at different mixing ratios. HCCI has advantages in high thermal efficiency and low emissions and could possibly become a promising combustion method in internal combustion engines.

  13. Improvement study for the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dry-low-NOx (DLN micromix combustion principle is developed for the low emission combustion of hydrogen in an industrial gas turbine APU GTCP 36-300. The further decrease of NOx emissions along a wider operation range with pure hydrogen supports the introduction of the micromix technology to industrial applications. Experimental and numerical studies show the successful advance of the DLN micromix combustion to extended DLN operation range. The impact of the hydrogen fuel properties on the combustion principle and aerodynamic flame stabilization design laws, flow field, flame structure and emission characteristics is investigated by numerical analysis using an eddy dissipation concept combustion model and validated against experimental results.

  14. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  15. Multi-zone modelling of PCCI combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egüz, U.; Somers, L.M.T.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion is a promising concept for the diesel combustion. Although EDI PCCI assures very low soot and NO xemission levels, the injection is uncoupled from combustion, which narrows down the operating conditions. The main

  16. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  17. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology, including advanced validation concepts, to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Williams, B.; Hemez, F.; Atamturktur, S.H.; McClure, P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The best estimate plus uncertainty methodology (BEPU) is one option in the licensing of nuclear reactors. → The challenges for extending the BEPU method for fuel qualification for an advanced reactor fuel are primarily driven by schedule, the need for data, and the sufficiency of the data. → In this paper we develop an extended BEPU methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors. → The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. → The methodology includes a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. - Abstract: Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multiscale, multiphysics modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. Historically, the role of experiments has been as a primary tool for the design and understanding of nuclear system behavior, while M and S played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multiscale, multiphysics computational-based technology development, this role has been reversed. The experiments will still be needed, but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate the models leading to predictive simulations for design and licensing. Minimizing the required number of validation experiments produces cost and time savings. The use of multiscale, multiphysics models introduces challenges in validating these predictive tools - traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these challenges. This paper gives the basic aspects of a methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in

  18. Laminar Burning Velocities of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Gasoline and Gasoline Surrogates with and without Ethanol Blending Associated with Octane Rating

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2016-05-04

    Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  19. Laminar Burning Velocities of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Gasoline and Gasoline Surrogates with and without Ethanol Blending Associated with Octane Rating

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama; Mansour, Morkous S.; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  20. Advanced air staging techniques to improve fuel flexibility, reliability and emissions in fluidized bed co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamand, Lars-Erik; Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Technical Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); Luecke, Karsten; Werther, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A joint research project between the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and Chalmers Technical University. For operation under co-combustion the following results should be considered: The high ash content of the sewage sludge results in significantly increased ash flows. Although high alkali metal concentrations are found in the sewage sludge ash, no critical concentrations were reached and tendencies to fouling were not observed. The trace metal input rises with increased sludge fraction. However, emissions of metal compounds were well below legal limits. The trace metals tend to accumulate on the fly ash. In general, very low fuel nitrogen conversions to NO and N{sub 2}O of 2 - 4 % are achievable. With coal as a base fuel alternative air staging with secondary air supply after solids separation attains even lower NO emissions than normal staging without strongly affecting CO and SO{sub 2} emissions. Alternative staging also reduces N{sub 2}O emissions. An optimum for the excess air ratio in the riser of 1.05 was found for a total excess air ratio of 1.2. The higher the volatile content of the fuel is, the less effective the NO reduction due to air staging becomes. The measurements suggest that the optimum gas residence time regarding the emissions in CFB combustors is around 6 to 7 s. These times are achieved in commercial scale plants due to their large cyclones that perhaps partly can replace a large afterburner chamber. The circulating fluidized bed boiler can be operated in a very flexible way with various fuel mixtures up to an energy fraction of sludge of 25% without exceeding legal emission limits.

  1. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  2. The Effects of Advance Organizers and Within-Text Questions on the Learning of a Taxonomy of Concepts. Technical Report No. 357.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Michael E.

    This study, presented in three parts, investigated the effects of a group of single-concept instructional variables on the learning at an advanced level of attainment of taxonomy of behavior management concepts. The effects of presenting advance organizers and inserting within-text questions was also examined. The influence of the single-concept…

  3. Impact of uranium-233/thorium cycle on advanced accountability concepts and fabrication facilities. Addendum 2 to application of advanced accountability concepts in mixed oxide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, J.J.; Jump, M.J.; Lange, R.A.; Crandall, C.C.

    1977-11-01

    The Phase I study of the application of advanced accountability methods (DYMAC) in a uranium/plutonium mixed oxide facility was extended to cover the possible fabrication of uranium-233/thorium fuels. Revisions to Phase II of the DYMAC plan which would be necessitated by such a process are specified. These revisions include shielding requirements, measurement systems, licensing conditions, and safeguards considerations. The impact of the uranium/thorium cycle on a large-scale fuel fabrication facility was also reviewed; it was concluded that the essentially higher radioactivity of uranium/thorium feeds would lead to increased difficulties which tend to preclude early commercial application of the process. An amended schedule for Phase II is included

  4. Impact of receipt of coprocessed uranium/plutonium on advanced accountability concepts and fabrication facilities. Addendum 1 to application of advanced accountability concepts in mixed oxide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, J.J.; Jump, M.J.; Lange, R.A.; Randall, C.C.

    1977-11-01

    The Phase I study of the application of advanced accountability methods (DYMAC) in a uranium/plutonium mixed oxide facility was extended to assess the effect of coprocessed UO 2 --PuO 2 feed on the observations made in the original Phase I effort and on the proposed Phase II program. The retention of plutonium mixed with uranium throughout the process was also considered. This addendum reports that coprocessed feed would have minimal effect on the DYMAC program, except in the areas of material specifications, starting material delivery schedule, and labor requirements. Each of these areas is addressed, as are the impact of coprocessed feed at a large fuel fabrication facility and the changes needed in the dirty scrap recovery process to maintain the lower plutonium levels which may be required by future nonproliferation philosophy. An amended schedule for Phase II is included

  5. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  6. Concept Analysis and the Advance of Nursing Knowledge: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Beth L; Jacelon, Cynthia S; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2018-04-24

    Despite an overwhelming increase in the number of concept analyses published since the early 1970s, there are significant limitations to the impact of this work in promoting progress in nursing science. We conducted an extensive review of concept analyses published between 1972 and 2017 to identify patterns in analysis and followed this with exploration of an exemplar related to the concept of normalization to demonstrate the capabilities of analysis for promoting concept development and progress. Scoping review of peer-reviewed literature published in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in which the terms "concept analysis," "concept clarification," and "concept derivation" appeared in any part of the reference. The original search returned 3,489 articles. This initial pool was refined to a final sample of 958 articles published in 223 journals and addressing 604 concepts. A review of citations of the original analysis of the concept of normalization resulted in 75 articles selected for closer examination of the process of concept development. Review showed a clear pattern of repetition of analysis of the same concept, growth in number of published analyses, preponderance of first authors with master's degrees, and 43 distinct descriptions of methods. Review of the 75 citations to the normalization analysis identified multiple ways concept analysis can inform subsequent research and theory development. Conceptual work needs to move beyond the level of "concept analysis" involving clear linkage to the resolution of problems in the discipline. Conceptual work is an important component of progress in the knowledge base of a discipline, and more effective use of concept development activities are needed to maximize the potential of this important work. It is important to the discipline that we facilitate progress in nursing science on a theoretical and conceptual level as a part of cohesive and systematic development of the discipline

  7. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  8. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Cetin; Williams, Brian; McClure, Patrick; Nelson, Ralph A.

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for

  9. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  10. Advanced Concepts: Enabling Future AF Missions Through the Discovery and Demonstration of Emerging Revolutionary Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    µmeteoroids, weather, vibrations... Asteroid Mining Breakthrough Physics No known feasible concepts. --- Concept NTF NMS NCA Primary Challenges for Launch...helicon discharge as an excellent space thruster design, given its high throughput, absence of internal electrodes and cathodes , potentially long life...Propellant Plasma Core Ablation Energy Transport Cathode 35 ablative surface; and the resistor-inductor-capacitor circuit model. Thus, the model allows

  11. Advanced Interface for Tactical Security (AITS) Problem Analysis and Concept Definition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, S

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Interface for Tactical Security (AITS) project was initiated to improve the task performance of security forces through technology and design improvements to information display systems...

  12. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to achieve the DOE’s goal to develop advanced CO2 capture and separation technologies that can realize at least 90% CO2 removal from flue gas steams produced at a pulverized coal (PC) power plant at a cost of less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. The principal objective is to test a CO2 capture process that will reduce the parasitic plant load by using a CO2 capture sorbent that will require a reduced amount of steam. The process is based on advanced carbon sorbents having a low heat of adsorption, high CO2 adsorption capacity, and excellent selectivity. While the intent of this project was to produce design and performance data by testing the sorbent using a slipstream of coal-derived flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) under realistic conditions and continuous long-term operation, the project was terminated following completion of the detailing pilot plant design/engineering work on June 30, 2016.

  13. Recent advances and design options of the aseismic bearing pad concept for reduction of seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, N.R.; Musacchio, J.M.; Rizzo, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to: briefly review the developed concepts from a mechanics standpoint; summarize the results of recent testing and applications; discuss the complexities and subtleties of differences between concepts, and highlight the effectiveness of each within selected frequency ranges. On this basis, the paper will provide a forum for application of each concept within the nuclear design community. The potential licensing implications of incorporating the ABP concept into nuclear plant design are be discussed in light of actual experience extrapolated to several dominant regulatory processes; namely the French, German, Japanese, Canadian and American. The intent is to identify potential licensing issues, spur additional research and development in these areas, and continue to bring the concept to the attention of the nuclear community to facilitate acceptance and application. (orig./HP)

  14. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts: Workshop Report, June 29-30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE, EERE

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010 in Broomfield, Colorado, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  15. Advanced plutonium assembly (apa): evolution of the concept, neutron and thermal-mechanic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Gastaldi, B.; Krakowiak-Aillaud, C.; Buffe, L.

    2002-01-01

    The APA concept was developed with the aim of increasing the PWR capacity to burn plutonium emerging from the recycling of irradiated fuels in the French park of nuclear power plants. At first, a concept using annular pins was optimised to allow a good consumption of plutonium while preserving an acceptable neutron control. To cope with the technological problems and those posed by the manufacture of these annular pins, an alternative concept is presented here. It poses as initial conditions the conservation of both the plutonium balance and the respect of the reactivity control. (authors)

  16. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Miyamoto, T; Tsujimura, K [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S; Shimizu, K [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  18. Compilation of Energy Efficient Concepts in Advanced Aircraft Design and Operations. Volume 1. Technical report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clyman, Milton

    1980-01-01

    .... The search addressed the technologies necessary to support next generation (IOC 1990+) air vehicle design and operation concepts that will reduce the requirement for natural petroleum-derived energy...

  19. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course corr...

  20. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  1. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  2. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e + 3 - linear colliders

  3. Key factors of combustion from kinetics to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nikolai M

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the main advances in the mechanisms of combustion processes. It focuses on the analysis of kinetic mechanisms of gas combustion processes and experimental investigation into the interrelation of kinetics and gas dynamics in gas combustion. The book is complimentary to the one previously published, The Modes of Gaseous Combustion.

  4. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  5. Advanced concepts, analysis approaches and criteria for nuclear piping system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Tang, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research in piping system design and analysis has resulted in advancements on damping values, independent support motion (ISM), static coefficient method, simplified inelastic method and ASME code criteria changes. In the support area, passive type of supports such as energy-absorbing device and gap stopper have been developed. These advancements provide bases for improved and cost-effective design of future nuclear piping systems. (author)

  6. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  7. African Cultural Concept of Death and the Idea of Advance Care Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekore, Rabi Ilemona; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito

    2016-01-01

    An advance care directive is a person's oral or written instructions about his or her future medical care, if he or she becomes unable to communicate. It may be in written or oral form. Africans ordinarily do not encourage the contemplation of death or any discussion about their own or their loved ones' death. According to the African belief system, life does not end with death, but continues in another realm. Becoming an ancestor after death is a desirable goal of every individual, a feat which cannot be achieved if an individual asks for an unnatural death by attempting to utilize advance care directives. Advance care directives are considered to be too individualistic for communitarian societies such as Africa. Coupled with the communitarian nature of African societies are issues such as lack of awareness of advance directives, fear of death and grief, and the African cultural belief system, which are potential barriers to the utilization of advance care directives in the African setting. Hence, the need for culture sensitivity which makes it imperative that patient's family and loved ones are carried along as far as possible, without compromising the autonomy of the patient in question when utilizing advance care directives.

  8. Modern tools and concepts to optimise flames and combustions, e.g. in power plants and industrial furnaces, by using optical flame information (radiation).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D. [ORFEUS Combustion Engineering (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The ORFEUS system uses a combination of emission spectroscopy, state-of-art video technology and knowledge based systems to optimise combustion and reduce emissions. The paper describes the system, (in particular for coal fired systems) and its application at HEW Power Station Tiefstack, Hamburg (Germany). 1 fig., 8 slides

  9. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  10. Integrated Evaluation Concept to Assess the Efficacy of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes for the Elimination of Micropollutants and Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Thomas A; Prasse, Carsten; Eversloh, Christian Lütke; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Schwartz, Thomas; Alexander, Johannes; Seitz, Wolfram; Coors, Anja; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-03

    A multidisciplinary concept has been developed to compare advanced wastewater treatment processes for their efficacy of eliminating micropollutants and pathogens. The concept is based on (i) the removal/formation of selected indicator substances and their transformation products (TPs), (ii) the assessment of ecotoxicity via in vitro tests, and (iii) the removal of pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria. It includes substances passing biological wastewater treatment plants regulated or proposed to be regulated in the European Water Framework Directive, TPs formed in biological processes or during ozonation, agonistic/antagonistic endocrine activities, mutagenic/genotoxic activities, cytotoxic activities, further activities like neurotoxicity as well as antibiotics resistance genes, and taxonomic gene markers for pathogens. At a pilot plant, ozonation of conventionally treated wastewater resulted in the removal of micropollutants and pathogens and the reduction of estrogenic effects, whereas the in vitro mutagenicity increased. Subsequent post-treatment of the ozonated water by granular activated carbon (GAC) significantly reduced the mutagenic effects as well as the concentrations of remaining micropollutants, whereas this was not the case for biofiltration. The results demonstrate the suitability of the evaluation concept to assess processes of advanced wastewater treatment including ozonation and GAC by considering chemical, ecotoxicological, and microbiological parameters.

  11. Some advanced concepts of mobile robotics for plant inspection and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halme, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces two concepts in robotics the feasibility of which are presently being studied for plant inspection/maintenance purposes. One of them is a walking machine platform which utilizes walking on discrete set of points making it possible to feed energy trough legs and/or grip on fixing points when needing strong support or climbing on walls. The other is a robot society concept in which the work is distributed among the member robots of the society. The society has an inner communication system trough which information is spread between the members. The control system of the society takes care of the task coordination and communication between the society and the user. As a special feature energy distribution within the society is considered. The concept is suggested for inspection and cleaning type of work in process equipment area and also inside processes in some cases. (author)

  12. Engine combustion network (Ecn) : characterization and comparison of boundary conditions for different combustion vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johnson, J.; Naber, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Malbec, L.M.; Bruneaux, G.; Pickett, L.M.; Bardi, M.; Payri, R.; Bazyn, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a worldwide group of institutions using combustion vessels and/or performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, whose aim is to advance the state of spray and combustion knowledge at engine-relevant conditions. A key activity is the use of spray

  13. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  14. Advanced nickel/hydrogen dependent pressure vessel (DPV) cell and battery concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, D.B. [Technologies Div., Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States); Fox, C.L. [Technologies Div., Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States); Miller, L.E. [Technologies Div., Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel/hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher industries, Inc. (EPI) as an advanced battery for military and commercial aerospace and terrestrial applications. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy and energy density as well as reduced cost, while retaining the established individual pressure vessel (IPV) technology, flight heritage and database. This advanced DPV design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduced parts count. The DPV battery design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency, and delivers cost and weight savings with minimal design risks. (orig.)

  15. Concept of Advanced Back-up Control Panel Design of Digital Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Guo Jin; Sun, Yong Bin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Li Ming; Shi, Ji; Zhang, Xue Gang; Huang, Wei Jun; Mao, Ting; Liu Yanzi

    2011-01-01

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the backup means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of Backup Panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. HFE issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, mean to fulfill safety target of NPP, best ergonomic effect has been described. At last conclusion on advanced BCP design is provided

  16. Concept of Advanced Back-up Control Panel Design of Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Guo Jin; Sun, Yong Bin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Li Ming; Shi, Ji; Zhang, Xue Gang; Huang, Wei Jun; Mao, Ting; Liu Yanzi [China Nuclear Power Engineering Company, Shenzen (China)

    2011-08-15

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the backup means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of Backup Panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. HFE issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, mean to fulfill safety target of NPP, best ergonomic effect has been described. At last conclusion on advanced BCP design is provided.

  17. Teaching Pediatric Nursing Concepts to Non-Pediatric Nurses Using an Advance Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Non-pediatric nurses in rural areas often care for children in adult units, emergency departments, and procedural areas. A half-day program about pediatric nursing using constructivist teaching strategies including an advance organizer, case studies, and simulation was offered at a community hospital in Western North Carolina. Nurses reported a…

  18. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  19. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  20. Combustion gas from biomass - innovative plant concepts on the basis of circulating fluidized bed gasification; Brenngas aus Biomasse - innovative Anlagenkonzepte auf Basis der Zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The contribution describes the applications of the Lurgi-ZWS gas generator. There are three main fields of application: Direct feeding of combustion gas, e.g. into a rotary kiln, as a substitute for coal or oil, without either dust filtering or gas purification. - Feeding of the combustion gas into the steam generator of a coal power plant after dust filtering and, if necessar, filtering of NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}S. - Combustion in a gas turbine or gas engine after gas purification according to specifications. The applications are described for several exemplary projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im folgenden wird ueber die Anwendung des Lurgi-ZWS-Gaserzeugers berichtet. Nach heutiger Sicht stehen drei Anwendungsgebiete im Vordergrund: - direkte Einspeisung des Brenngases in z.B. einen Zementdrehrohrofen zur Substitution von Kohle oder Oel, ohne Entstaubung und Gasreinigung. - Einspeisung des Brenngases nach Entstaubung und gegebenenfalls Entfernung weiterer Komponenten wie NH{sub 3} oder H{sub 2}S in den Dampferzeuger eines Kohlekraftwerkes - Einsatz des Brenngases in einer Gasturbine oder Gasmotor nach spezifikationsgerechter Gasreinigung. Die aufgefuehrten Einsatzmoeglichkeiten werden am Beispiel von Projekten beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  1. Cancer survivorship: Advancing the concept in the context of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Amanda; Payne, Sheila; Brady, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    Previous conceptualizations of cancer survivorship have focused on heterogeneous cancer survivors, with little consideration of the validity of conclusions for homogeneous tumour groups. This paper aims to examine the concept of cancer survivorship in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC). Rodgers' (1989) Evolutionary Method of Concept Analysis guided this study. A systematic search of PUBMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library was conducted in November 2016 to identify studies of CRC survivorship. The Braun and Clarke (2006) framework guided the analysis and interpretation of data extracted from eighty-five publications. Similar to general populations of cancer survivors, CRC survivors experience survivorship as an individual, life-changing process, punctuated by uncertainty and a duality of positive and negative outcomes affecting quality of life. However, CRC survivors experience specific concerns arising from the management of their disease. The concept of cancer survivorship has evolved over the past decade as the importance of navigating the healthcare system and its resources, and the constellation of met and unmet needs of cancer survivors are realised. The results highlight core similarities between survivorship in the context of CRC and other tumour groups, but underlines issues specific to CRC survivorship. Communication and support are key issues in survivorship care which may detrimentally affect CRC survivors' well-being if they are inadequately addressed. Healthcare professionals (HCP's) therefore have a duty to ensure cancer survivors' health, information and supportive care needs are met in the aftermath of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-stage combustion, a new concept in reducing alkali related operational problem; Tvaastegsfoerbraenning, ett nytt koncept att minska alkalirelaterad driftproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Hermansson, Sven; Seemann, Martin; Alamia, Alberto; Larsson, Anton; Davidsson, Kent; Niklasson, Fredrik; Atongka Tchoffor, Placid; Jones, Frida

    2012-07-01

    A possible way to reduce alkali related problems during thermal conversion of fuels into heat and power is to thermally split the fuel into a relatively alkali-lean gas stream and a relatively alkali-rich char stream. The alkali-lean gas stream could then be combusted and used for high-temperature purpose, e.g. superheating of steam. The char residue could be combusted for heating of e.g. steam tubes at inferior temperatures. The purpose of this project has been to study and demonstrate such two-stage combustion, with separation of the early devolatilization from alkali-rich fuels for steam superheating. Within the project, it has been investigated if this type of thermal conversion is thermo-economically feasible. Furthermore, it has been investigated in laboratory and pilot scale trials, which kinds of fuels, temperature levels and fuel residence times that are required to achieve a flue gas with significantly lower concentrations of alkaloids, compared to single-stage conversion. The results from the thermo-economical simulations show that it is possible to arrange the heat exchanger surfaces in a power plant for thermal two-stage conversion. Compared to traditional one-stage combustion, the electricity efficiency could be increased from 35 % to more than 38 %. However, the results from combustion, gasification and pyrolysis in lab, together with gasification trials in the Chalmers pilot plant, show that the investigated woody fuels (bark and wood pellets) do not seem to be feasible for two-stage conversion. These fuels emit alkaloids exclusively in conjunction with the devolatilization in opposite to the desired effect. On the other hand, straw is a potential fuel candidate for two-stage conversion, since straw emits alkaloids during both devolatilization and char conversion. Furthermore, the results show that increased temperature generally causes increased alkali release. From the results it is suggested that the propensity of a fuel to release alkali during

  3. Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

    2006-04-07

    The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

  4. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  5. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  6. A study of some recent advances in the concept and design of MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1976-02-01

    Direct conversion of energy and high temperature working fluid making Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power plants potentially much more efficient than steam power stations. The study indicates an overall efficiency of 50% to 60%. This compares with most modern fossil-fuel plants at 40% efficiency. Advances in design and construction of experimental and commercial MHD plants developed in various countries are presented. Environmental effects and advantages of the MHD power plants over the more conventional fossil and nuclear plants are discussed

  7. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  8. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  9. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  10. Space Station propulsion - Advanced development testing of the water electrolysis concept at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W.; Bagdigian, Deborah R.

    1989-01-01

    The successful demonstration at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that the water electrolysis concept is sufficiently mature to warrant adopting it as the baseline propulsion design for Space Station Freedom is described. In particular, the test results demonstrated that oxygen/hydrogen thruster, using gaseous propellants, can deliver more than two million lbf-seconds of total impulse at mixture ratios of 3:1 to 8:1 without significant degradation. The results alao demonstrated succcessful end-to-end operation of an integrated water electrolysis propulsion system.

  11. Basic concept and its aims of E-journal of advanced maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Kenzo

    2009-01-01

    This article describes basic concept and aims of EJAM with history of effort to realize the launching of it. It took about three years until launching of the journal through approach to EPRI and negotiation with international publishing companies. It consists of three major articles. They are 1) general articles, 2) academic papers and 3) maintenance technique to be applied to repairing of components of nuclear power plants. All together of these articles may contribute to understanding of clear image of what maintenance is in this journal. Finally future image of this journal is described in light of maintenance evolution. (author)

  12. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had five tasks defined for the first year. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Upper Stage Use, and CER's for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume 1.

  13. Advances in nonlinear analysis via the concept of measure of noncompactness

    CERN Document Server

    Jleli, Mohamed; Mursaleen, Mohammad; Samet, Bessem; Vetro, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive treatment of the theory of measures of noncompactness. It discusses various applications of the theory of measures of noncompactness, in particular, by addressing the results and methods of fixed-point theory. The concept of a measure of noncompactness is very useful for the mathematical community working in nonlinear analysis. Both these theories are especially useful in investigations connected with differential equations, integral equations, functional integral equations and optimization theory. Thus, one of the book’s central goals is to collect and present sufficient conditions for the solvability of such equations. The results are established in miscellaneous function spaces, and particular attention is paid to fractional calculus.

  14. The dynomak: An advanced spheromak reactor concept with imposed-dynamo current drive and next-generation nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.A., E-mail: das1990@uw.edu; Jarboe, T.R.; Morgan, K.D.; Pfaff, M.; Lavine, E.S.; Kamikawa, Y.; Hughes, M.; Andrist, P.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B.A.

    2014-04-15

    A high-β spheromak reactor concept has been formulated with an estimated overnight capital cost that is competitive with conventional power sources. This reactor concept utilizes recently discovered imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) and a molten salt (FLiBe) blanket system for first wall cooling, neutron moderation and tritium breeding. Currently available materials and ITER-developed cryogenic pumping systems were implemented in this concept from the basis of technological feasibility. A tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of greater than 1.1 has been calculated using a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) neutron transport simulation. High temperature superconducting tapes (YBCO) were used for the equilibrium coil set, substantially reducing the recirculating power fraction when compared to previous spheromak reactor studies. Using zirconium hydride for neutron shielding, a limiting equilibrium coil lifetime of at least thirty full-power years has been achieved. The primary FLiBe loop was coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle due to attractive economics and high thermal efficiencies. With these advancements, an electrical output of 1000 MW from a thermal output of 2486 MW was achieved, yielding an overall plant efficiency of approximately 40%.

  15. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  16. Safety physics inter-comparison of advanced concepts of critical reactors and ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced safety based on the principle of the natural ''self-defence'' is one of the most desirable features of innovative nuclear systems (critical or sub-critical) regarding both TRU transmutation and ''clean'' energy producer concepts. For the evaluation of the ''self-defence'' domain, the method of the asymptotic reactivity balance has been generalised. The promising option of Hybrids systems (that use a symbiosis of fission and spallation in sub-critical cores) which could benefit the advantages of both Accelerated Driven Systems of the traditional type and regular critical systems, has been advocated. General features of Hybrid dynamics have been presented and analysed. It was demonstrated that an external neutron source of Hybrids can expand the inherent safety potential significantly. This analysis has been applied to assess the safety physics potential of innovative concepts for prospective nuclear power both for energy producers and for transmutation. It has been found, that safety enhancement goal defines a choice of sub-criticality of Hybrids. As for energy producers with Th-fuel cycle, a significant sub-criticality level is required due to a necessity of an improvement of neutronics together with safety enhancement task. (author)

  17. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsaadany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze. The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  18. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  19. Safety physics inter-comparison of advanced concepts of critical reactors and ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced safety based on the principle of the natural ''self-defence'' is one of the most desirable features of innovative nuclear systems (critical or sub-critical) regarding both TRU transmutation and ''clean'' energy producer concepts. For the evaluation of the ''self-defence'' domain, the method of the asymptotic reactivity balance has been generalised. The promising option of Hybrids systems (that use a symbiosis of fission and spallation in sub-critical cores) which could benefit the advantages of both Accelerated Driven Systems of the traditional type and regular critical systems, has been advocated. General features of Hybrid dynamics have been presented and analysed. It was demonstrated that an external neutron source of Hybrids can expand the inherent safety potential significantly. This analysis has been applied to assess the safety physics potential of innovative concepts for prospective nuclear power both for energy producers and for transmutation. It has been found, that safety enhancement goal defines a choice of sub-criticality of Hybrids. As for energy producers with Th-fuel cycle, a significant sub-criticality level is required due to a necessity of an improvement of neutronics together with safety enhancement task. (author)

  20. A Review of Significant Advances in Neutron Imaging from Conception to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenizer, J. S.

    This review summarizes the history of neutron imaging with a focus on the significant events and technical advancements in neutron imaging methods, from the first radiograph to more recent imaging methods. A timeline is presented to illustrate the key accomplishments that advanced the neutron imaging technique. Only three years after the discovery of the neutron by English physicist James Chadwick in 1932, neutron imaging began with the work of Hartmut Kallmann and Ernst Kuhn in Berlin, Germany, from 1935-1944. Kallmann and Kuhn were awarded a joint US Patent issued in January 1940. Little progress was made until the mid-1950's when Thewlis utilized a neutron beam from the BEPO reactor at Harwell, marking the beginning of the application of neutron imaging to practical applications. As the film method was improved, imaging moved from a qualitative to a quantitative technique, with applications in industry and in nuclear fuels. Standards were developed to aid in the quantification of the neutron images and the facility's capabilities. The introduction of dynamic neutron imaging (initially called real-time neutron radiography and neutron television) in the late 1970's opened the door to new opportunities and new challenges. As the electronic imaging matured, the introduction of the CCD imaging devices and solid-state light intensifiers helped address some of these challenges. Development of improved imaging devices for the medical community has had a major impact on neutron imaging. Additionally, amorphous silicon sensors provided improvements in temporal resolution, while providing a reasonably large imaging area. The development of new neutron imaging sensors and the development of new neutron imaging techniques in the past decade has advanced the technique's ability to provide insight and understanding of problems that other non-destructive techniques could not provide. This rapid increase in capability and application would not have been possible without the

  1. Operational freight carrier planning basic concepts, optimization models and advanced memetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberger, Jörn

    2005-01-01

    The modern freight carrier business requires a sophisticated automatic decision support in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability and therefore the survival of transport service providers. This book addresses these challenges and provides generic decision models for the short-term operations planning as well as advanced metaheuristics to obtain efficient operation plans. After a thorough analysis of the operations planning in the freight carrier business, decision models are derived. Their suitability is proven within a large number of numerical experiments, in which a new class of hybrid genetic search approaches demonstrate their appropriateness.

  2. Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P.

    1980-01-01

    An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

  3. Advanced Concepts and Controversies in Emergency Department Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motov, Sergey M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2016-06-01

    Pain is the most common complaint for which patients come to the emergency department (ED). Emergency physicians are responsible for pain relief in a timely, efficient, and safe manner in the ED. The improvement in our understanding of the neurobiology of pain has balanced the utilization of nonopioid and opioid analgesia, and simultaneously has led to more rational and safer opioid prescribing practices. This article reviews advances in pain management in the ED for patients with acute and chronic pain as well as describes several newer strategies and controversies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of advanced digital signal processing concepts on VLSIC/VHSIC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, C.

    Implementations of sophisticated mathematical techniques in advanced digital signal processors can significantly improve performance. Future VLSI and VHSI circuit designs must include the practical realization of these algorithms. A structured design approach is described and illustrated with examples from a RNS FIR filter processor development project. The CAE hardware and software required to support tasks of this complexity are also discussed. An EWS is recommended for controlling essential functions such as logic optimization, simulation and verification. The total IC design system is illustrated with the implementation of a new high performance algorithm for computing complex magnitude.

  5. African Cultural Concept of Death and the Idea of Advance Care Directives

    OpenAIRE

    Ekore, Rabi Ilemona; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito

    2016-01-01

    An advance care directive is a person's oral or written instructions about his or her future medical care, if he or she becomes unable to communicate. It may be in written or oral form. Africans ordinarily do not encourage the contemplation of death or any discussion about their own or their loved ones? death. According to the African belief system, life does not end with death, but continues in another realm. Becoming an ancestor after death is a desirable goal of every individual, a feat wh...

  6. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  7. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy......-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  8. Advances in the delivery of RNA therapeutics: from concept to clinical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, James C; Kowalski, Piotr S; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-06-27

    The rapid expansion of the available genomic data continues to greatly impact biomedical science and medicine. Fulfilling the clinical potential of genetic discoveries requires the development of therapeutics that can specifically modulate the expression of disease-relevant genes. RNA-based drugs, including short interfering RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, are particularly promising examples of this newer class of biologics. For over two decades, researchers have been trying to overcome major challenges for utilizing such RNAs in a therapeutic context, including intracellular delivery, stability, and immune response activation. This research is finally beginning to bear fruit as the first RNA drugs gain FDA approval and more advance to the final phases of clinical trials. Furthermore, the recent advent of CRISPR, an RNA-guided gene-editing technology, as well as new strides in the delivery of messenger RNA transcribed in vitro, have triggered a major expansion of the RNA-therapeutics field. In this review, we discuss the challenges for clinical translation of RNA-based therapeutics, with an emphasis on recent advances in delivery technologies, and present an overview of the applications of RNA-based drugs for modulation of gene/protein expression and genome editing that are currently being investigated both in the laboratory as well as in the clinic.

  9. Integrated Circuit Conception: A Wire Optimization Technic Reducing Interconnection Delay in Advanced Technology Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Darmi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As we increasingly use advanced technology nodes to design integrated circuits (ICs, physical designers and electronic design automation (EDA providers are facing multiple challenges, firstly, to honor all physical constraints coming with cutting-edge technologies and, secondly, to achieve expected quality of results (QoR. An advanced technology should be able to bring better performances with minimum cost whatever the complexity. A high effort to develop out-of-the-box optimization techniques is more than needed. In this paper, we will introduce a new routing technique, with the objective to optimize timing, by only acting on routing topology, and without impacting the IC Area. In fact, the self-aligned double patterning (SADP technology offers an important difference on layer resistance between SADP and No-SADP layers; this property will be taken as an advantage to drive the global router to use No-SADP less resistive layers for critical nets. To prove the benefit on real test cases, we will use Mentor Graphics’ physical design EDA tool Nitro-SoC™ and several 7 nm technology node designs. The experiments show that worst negative slack (WNS and total negative slack (TNS improved up to 13% and 56%, respectively, compared to the baseline flow.

  10. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  11. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B-747

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing load alleviation to the Boeing 747 is investigated. Winglet aerodynamic design methods and high speed wind tunnel test results of winglets and of symmetrically deflected ailerons are presented. Structural resizing analyses to determine weight and aeroelastic twist increments for all the concepts and flutter model test results for the wing with winglets are included. Control law development, system mechanization/reliability studies, and aileron balance tab trade studies for active wing load alleviation systems are discussed. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on L/D, structural weight, block fuel savings, stability and control, airplane price, and airline operating economics.

  12. Advanced Concepts for Ultrahigh Brightness and Low Temperature Beams. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Fajans, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This grant supported research on techniques to manipulate and combine positrons and antiprotons to synthesize, and to probe, antihydrogen. The majority of the research was conducted as part of the ALPHA Collaboration at CERN. Using ideas and techniques from accelerator physics, we proposed a new method for measuring the the gravitational attraction of antihydrogen to the Earth's field. ALPHA reported the first precision charge measurement on antihydrogen and a crude bound on its gravitational dynamics in the Earth's field. We proposed using a stochastic acceleration method to measure any putative charge of antihydrogen and built numerical models of the mixing of antiprotons and positrons. Further research included proposing the radiator-first concept for operating an X-ray free electron laser driven by a high repetition rate bunch source and studying scattering in passive foil-based ion focusing systems.

  13. Advanced Concepts for Ultrahigh Brightness and Low Temperature Beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fajans, Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This grant supported research on techniques to manipulate and combine positrons and antiprotons to synthesize, and to probe, antihydrogen. The majority of the research was conducted as part of the ALPHA Collaboration at CERN. Using ideas and techniques from accelerator physics, we proposed a new method for measuring the the gravitational attraction of antihydrogen to the Earth's field. ALPHA reported the first precision charge measurement on antihydrogen and a crude bound on its gravitational dynamics in the Earth's field. We proposed using a stochastic acceleration method to measure any putative charge of antihydrogen and built numerical models of the mixing of antiprotons and positrons. Further research included proposing the radiator-first concept for operating an X-ray free electron laser driven by a high repetition rate bunch source and studying scattering in passive foil-based ion focusing systems.

  14. Advanced limiter test (ALT-I) in the TEXTOR tokamak - concept and experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm 2 . The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 2x10 4 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer. (author)

  15. Palliative radiotherapy. Ranking within an interdisciplinary treatment concept in case of advanced tumor disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Many tumor-induced symptoms can be alleviated by suitable irradiation in a direct, effective and sparing manner. The clinical response amounts to 80% and is independent of tumor histology. Careful diagnosis and accurate localisation of the causes of symptoms as well as exact therapy planning and execution are required. Based on individual dose planning harmonising single dosis and total dosis, pin-pointed definition of target areas, and application of modern planning and irradiation techniques, palliative radiotherapy is able to achieve long-term improvement with neglectible side-effects, sometimes within only a few days or weeks. It is a valuable part of a consistant therapy concept that is tailored to the individual needs of a patient, by cooperative action of experts from a variety of medical disciplines, intended to optimize the quality of life of patients, and sometimes may exclude conventional radiotherapy. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Advances in intelligent process-aware information systems concepts, methods, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhauser, Roy; Reichert, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a state-of-the-art perspective on intelligent process-aware information systems and presents chapters on specific facets and approaches applicable to such systems. Further, it highlights novel advances and developments in various aspects of intelligent process-aware information systems and business process management systems. Intelligence capabilities are increasingly being integrated into or created in many of today’s software products and services. Process-aware information systems provide critical computing infrastructure to support the various processes involved in the creation and delivery of business products and services. Yet the integration of intelligence capabilities into process-aware information systems is a non-trivial yet necessary evolution of these complex systems. The book’s individual chapters address adaptive process management, case management processes, autonomically-capable processes, process-oriented information logistics, process recommendations, reasoning over ...

  17. Development of selected advanced aerodynamics and active control concepts for commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Work done under the Energy Efficient Transport project in the field of advanced aerodynamics and active controls is summarized. The project task selections focused on the following: the investigation of long-duct nacelle shape variation on interference drag; the investigation of the adequacy of a simple control law for the elastic modes of a wing; the development of the aerodynamic technology at cruise and low speed of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings of high performance; and the development of winglets for a second-generation jet transport. All the tasks involved analysis and substantial wind tunnel testing. The winglet program also included flight evaluation. It is considered that the technology base has been built for the application of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings and for the use of winglets on second-generation transports.

  18. Computer-assisted generation of individual training concepts for advanced education in manufacturing metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Teresa; Weckenmann, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing requirements on the accuracy and reproducibility of measurement results together with a rapid development of novel technologies for the execution of measurements, there is a high demand for adequately qualified metrologists. Accordingly, a variety of training offers are provided by machine manufacturers, universities and other institutions. Yet, for an interested learner it is very difficult to define an optimal training schedule for his/her individual demands. Therefore, a computer-based assistance tool is developed to support a demand-responsive scheduling of training. Based on the difference between the actual and intended competence profile and under consideration of amending requirements, an optimally customized qualification concept is derived. For this, available training offers are categorized according to different dimensions: regarding contents of the course, but also intended target groups, focus of the imparted competences, implemented methods of learning and teaching, expected constraints for learning and necessary preknowledge. After completing a course, the achieved competences and the transferability of gathered knowledge are evaluated. Based on the results, recommendations for amending measures of learning are provided. Thus, a customized qualification for manufacturing metrology is facilitated, adapted to the specific needs and constraints of each individual learner

  19. Practical applications of safety culture concepts in human performance advances on Russian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.; Volkov, E.V.; Gordienko, O.V.; Melnitskaya, T.B.; Volkova, I.V.; Alexeev, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes, many from negative external factors can be compensated by human psychological readiness of worker. However there would be main worse to come: some cases of personnel activity and organisational factors, some person's peculiarities (attitudes, responsibility, etc.) add considerable number of the events at NPPs. A lot of aspects of Human Factor Reliability are united in Safety Culture concept. This paper presents some results of our recently research in that area. In 'proactive approach': Unique methods for measuring maturity and satisfaction of personnel motivation: comparative analysis of the labour and safety culture motivation from attitude; organization of the socio-psychological climate and safety attitude examining monitoring at all of Russia's NPPs; working-out recommendations for managers on improving human performance are presented. Besides, ergonomic research concerning work conditions at the NPP is displayed. In 'reactive approach': Analysis of the incorrect activity cases, which led to the breaches of work of the Russian NPPs, is shown. The special method to work-up is used. It was issue, that events caused by a human error, depends not only on the worker's professional competence, but on the attitude and motivation, some professionally important psychological and psycho-physiological quality data, the functional state, the group's socio-psychological climate, etc. (author)

  20. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  1. Advanced core concepts with enhanced proliferation resistance by transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    ''Protected Plutonium Production (P 3 )'' has been proposed to establish high burn-up cores and to produce protected with high proliferation resistance due to high decay heat and large number of spontaneous fission neutron of 238 Pu by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MAs) which is presently treated as high-level waste. The burn-up calculations have shown that the advanced fuel with UO 2 (11-13% enrichment of 235 U) by doping 237 Np to produce 238 Pu in the commercialized large LWRs burn up to 100 GWd/t with 238 Pu to Pu ratio of about 20% which means the fuel is highly protected from proliferation. It was also predicted that medium or small size LWR cores with 15-17% enrichment, liquid metal cooled cores, and gas cooled cores added by 1-2% Np could achieve 100 GWd/t burning with bearing high proliferation resistance. The 237 Np mass balance calculations have revealed that more than 20 nuclear P 3 plants of 300 MWe could be supplied with enough 237 Np from the Japanese commercial plants in equilibrium fuel cycles. From the present studies, it is confirmed that MAs are treated as burnable and fertile materials not only to extend the core life but also to improve plutonium proliferation resistance of the future nuclear energy systems instead of their geological disposal or just their burning through fission. (author)

  2. Benefits associated with advanced technologies applied to a high-speed civil transport concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Shields, E. W.; Fenbert, J. W.; Mcelroy, M. O.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a first-order assessment of the mission performance benefits associated with the technology improvements and goals of the Phase II High-Speed Research (HSR) Program are presented. A breakdown of the four major disciplines resulted in the following estimated TOGW savings from the 1990 vehicle: propulsion at 14.3 percent, structures at 11.7 percent, flight-deck systems at 4.0 percent, and aerodynamics at 15.0 percent. Based on 100 percent success of the HSR Phase II proposed technology advancements, the overall combined impact is estimated to result in a 45 percent reduction in TOGW from a 1990 entry-into-service (EIS) date, which could result in a viable 2005 EIS vehicle with an acceptable TOGW that meets Stage III community noise restrictions. Through supersonic laminar flow control and the possible reduction in reserve fuel requirements resulting from synthetic vision capability, the potential exists for an additional 9.6 percent reduction in TOGW.

  3. A nuclear powered pulsed inductive plasma accelerator as a viable propulsion concept for advanced OTV space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapper, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electric propulsion concept suitable for delivering heavy payloads from low earth orbit (LEO) to high energy earth orbit is proposed. The system consists of a number of pulsed inductive plasma thrusters powered by a 100 kWe space nuclear power system. The pulsed plasma thruster is a relatively simple electrodeless device. It also exhibits adequate conversion to thrust power in the desired I sub sp regime of 1500 to 3000 seconds for optimal payload transfer from low earth to high earth orbit. Because of these features and the fact that the nuclear power unit will be capable of delivering sustained high power levels throughout the duration of any given mission, the system presented appears to be a very promising propulsion candidate for advanced orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) applications. An OTV, which makes use of this propulsion system and which has been designed to lift a 9000-lb payload into geosynchronous earth orbit, (GEO) is also examined

  4. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  5. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Andrew; Lenhof, Renae; Deason, Wesley; Harter, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  6. Microbial ecology in the age of genomics and metagenomics: concepts, tools, and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2006-06-01

    Microbial ecology examines the diversity and activity of micro-organisms in Earth's biosphere. In the last 20 years, the application of genomics tools have revolutionized microbial ecological studies and drastically expanded our view on the previously underappreciated microbial world. This review first introduces the basic concepts in microbial ecology and the main genomics methods that have been used to examine natural microbial populations and communities. In the ensuing three specific sections, the applications of the genomics in microbial ecological research are highlighted. The first describes the widespread application of multilocus sequence typing and representational difference analysis in studying genetic variation within microbial species. Such investigations have identified that migration, horizontal gene transfer and recombination are common in natural microbial populations and that microbial strains can be highly variable in genome size and gene content. The second section highlights and summarizes the use of four specific genomics methods (phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA, DNA-DNA re-association kinetics, metagenomics, and micro-arrays) in analysing the diversity and potential activity of microbial populations and communities from a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Such analyses have identified many unexpected phylogenetic lineages in viruses, bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes. Functional analyses of environmental DNA also revealed highly prevalent, but previously unknown, metabolic processes in natural microbial communities. In the third section, the ecological implications of sequenced microbial genomes are briefly discussed. Comparative analyses of prokaryotic genomic sequences suggest the importance of ecology in determining microbial genome size and gene content. The significant variability in genome size and gene content among strains and species of prokaryotes indicate the highly fluid nature of prokaryotic

  7. [The Research Advancement and Conception of the Deep-underground Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, He-Ping; Liu, Ji-Feng; Gao, Ming-Zhong; Wan, Xue-Hong; Liu, Shi-Xi; Zou, Jian; Wu, Jiang; Ma, Teng-Fei; Liu, Yi-Lin; Bu, Hong; Li, Wei-Min

    2018-03-01

    The 21th century is the century of exploring and utilizing the underground space. In the future, more and more people will spend more and more time living or/and working in the underground space. However,we know little about the effect on the health of human caused by the underground environment. Herein,we systematically put forward the strategic conception of the deep-underground medicine,in order to reveal relative effects and mechanism of the potential factors in the deep underground space on human's physiological and psychological healthy,and to work out the corresponding countermeasures. The original deep-underground medicine includes the following items. ①To model different depth of underground environment according to various parameters (such as temperature,radiation,air pressure, rock,microorganism), and to explore their quantitative character and effects on human health and mechanism. ② To study the psychological change, maintenance of homeostasis and biothythm of organism in the deep underground space. ③ To learn the association between psychological healthy of human and the depth, structure, physical environment and working time of underground space. ④ To investigate the effect of different terrane and lithology on healthy of human and to deliberate their contribution on organism growth. ⑤ To research the character and their mechanism of growth,metabolism,exchange of energy,response of growth, aging and adaptation of cells living in deep underground space. ⑥ To explore the physiological feature,growth of microbiome and it's interaction with host in the deep underground space. ⑦ To develop deep-underground simulation space, the biologically medical technology and equipments. As a research basis,a deep-underground medical lab under a rock thickness of about 1 470 m has been built,which aims to operate the research of the effect on living organism caused by different depth of underground environment. Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal

  8. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Andrew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics; Matthews, Topher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lenhof, Renae [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Deason, Wesley [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harter, Jackson [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  9. Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals; Advanced Quantum Mechanics; Mathematical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, A

    2004-01-01

    second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains 'Advanced' elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl's own 'Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. Many useful student problems are included. The presentation is said to be rigorous, but again this is a book for the physicist rather than the mathematician. The third book under consideration, that by Gustafson and Sigal is very different from the others. In academic level, at least the initial sections may actually be slightly lower; the book covers a one-term course taken by senior undergraduates or junior graduate students in mathematics or physics, and the initial chapters are on basic topics, such as the physical background, basic dynamics, observables and the uncertainty principle. However the level of mathematical sophistication is far higher than in the other books. While the mathematical prerequisites are modest, a third of the book is made up of what are called mathematical supplements. On the basis of these supplements, the level of mathematical sophistication and difficulty is increased substantially in the middle section of the book, where the topics considered are many-particle systems, density matrices, positive temperatures, the Feynman path integral, and quasi-classical analysis, and there is a final substantial step for the concluding chapters on resonances, an introduction to quantum field theory, and quantum electrodynamics of non-relativistic particles. A supplementary chapter contains an interesting approach to the renormalization group due to Bach, Froehlich and Sigal himself. This book is well-written, and the topics discussed have been well thought-out. It would provide a useful approach to quantum theory for the mathematician, and would also provide access for the physicist to some mathematically advanced methods and topics, but the physicist would definitely have to be prepared to work hard at the mathematics

  10. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Doster, J.M.; Kim, K.D.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Khedro, T.; Sues, R.H.; Yacout, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  11. Low NOx combustion technologies for high-temperature natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because of the high process temperature which is required for some processes like glass melting and the high temperature to which the combustion air is preheated, NOx emission are extremely high. Even at these high temperatures, NOx emissions could be reduced drastically by using advanced combustion techniques such as staged combustion or flame-less oxidation, as experimental work has shown. In the case of oxy-fuel combustion, the NOx emission are also very high if conventional burners are used. The new combustion techniques achieve similar NOx reductions. (author)

  12. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Windpower, Nautica [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States); Marrone, Joseph [OCC COWI, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, Thomas [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States)

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  13. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  14. Advanced core physics and thermal hydraulics analysis of boiling water reactors using innovative fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The economical operation of a boiling water reactor (BWR) is mainly achieved by the axially uniform utilization of the nuclear fuel in the assemblies which is challenging because the neutron spectrum in the active reactor core varies with the axial position. More precisely, the neutron spectrum becomes harder the higher the position is resulting in a decrease of the fuel utilization because the microscopic fission cross section is smaller by several orders of magnitude. In this work, the use of two fuel concepts based on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and an innovative thorium-plutonium (ThPu) fuel is investigated by a developed simulation model encompassing thermal hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel burnup. The main feature of these fuel concepts is the axially varying enrichment in plutonium which is, in this work, recycled from spent nuclear fuel and shows a high fission fraction of the absorption cross section for fast incident neutron energies. The potential of balancing the overall fuel utilization by an increase of the fission rate in the upper part of the active height with a combination of the harder spectrum and the higher fission fraction of the absorption cross section in the BWR core is studied. The three particular calculational models for thermal hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel burnup provide results at fuel assembly and/or at core level. In the former case, the main focus lies on the thermal hydraulics analysis, fuel burnup, and activity evolution after unloading from the core and, in the latter case, special attention is paid to reactivity safety coefficients (feedback effects) and the optimization of the operational behavior. At both levels (assembly and core), the isotopic buildup and depletion rates as a function of the active height are analyzed. In addition, a comparison between the use of conventional fuel types with homogeneous enrichments and the use of the innovative fuel types is made. In the framework of the simulations, the ThPu and the MOX

  15. Comparative Omics and Trait Analyses of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Phages Advance the Phage OTU Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B. Duhaime

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses influence the ecology and evolutionary trajectory of microbial communities. Yet our understanding of their roles in ecosystems is limited by the paucity of model systems available for hypothesis generation and testing. Further, virology is limited by the lack of a broadly accepted conceptual framework to classify viral diversity into evolutionary and ecologically cohesive units. Here, we introduce genomes, structural proteomes, and quantitative host range data for eight Pseudoalteromonas phages isolated from Helgoland (North Sea, Germany and use these data to advance a genome-based viral operational taxonomic unit (OTU definition. These viruses represent five new genera and inform 498 unaffiliated or unannotated protein clusters (PCs from global virus metagenomes. In a comparison of previously sequenced Pseudoalteromonas phage isolates (n = 7 and predicted prophages (n = 31, the eight phages are unique. They share a genus with only one other isolate, Pseudoalteromonas podophage RIO-1 (East Sea, South Korea and two Pseudoalteromonas prophages. Mass-spectrometry of purified viral particles identified 12–20 structural proteins per phage. When combined with 3-D structural predictions, these data led to the functional characterization of five previously unidentified major capsid proteins. Protein functional predictions revealed mechanisms for hijacking host metabolism and resources. Further, they uncovered a hybrid sipho-myovirus that encodes genes for Mu-like infection rarely described in ocean systems. Finally, we used these data to evaluate a recently introduced definition for virus populations that requires members of the same population to have >95% average nucleotide identity across at least 80% of their genes. Using physiological traits and genomics, we proposed a conceptual model for a viral OTU definition that captures evolutionarily cohesive and ecologically distinct units. In this trait-based framework, sensitive hosts are

  16. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  17. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc.), Collectible Concepts Group, Inc., Communitronics of... is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion...

  18. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Duc Cung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline compression ignition (GCI has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI, which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually postinjection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline usually has longer ignition delay than diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON. Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to autoignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, aromatic, alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multicylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of exhaust gas recirculating (EGR, start of injection, and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing (location of 50% of fuel mass burned was kept constant during the experiments. This provides similar thermodynamic conditions to study the effect of fuels on emissions. Emission characteristics at different levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (<90 dB and stable combustion (coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure <3% were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this article contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection and also more intense

  19. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities

  20. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  1. Advanced cementation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this programme of work was to investigate whether improvements could be made to existing formulations for cement suitable for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste. Two additives were selected, microsilica and limestone flour. Improvements to the cement were only slight. (author)

  2. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Robert

    1998-04-01

    Current particle accelerators rely on conventional or superconducting radio frequency cavities to accelerate beams of protons or electrons for nuclear and particle research and for medical and materials science studies. New methods for achieving larger accelerating gradients have been proposed and are being studied. These include the use of high power lasers, laser driven plasmas, wake fields generated by intense low energy beams, and millimeter wavelength EM structures. The studies to date, and the prospects for practical applications of these new ideas will be discussed.

  3. Advanced ADS concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    Current Nuclear Power has already proved its ability to be used as one of the principal means of the large scale energy production throughout the world. There is the widely spread opinion that many of the problems can be resolved if LWR's would be able to close its fuel cycle (MOX-strategy). Really, closure of fuel cycle (if it could be realised technically in full degree) leads to the reduction of the TRU-accumulation rate and of the most worrying long-lived fuel waste by factor of 10 -30 and, hence, to facilitation the waste repository problems. Analysis shows that one of the most important problems with MOX-type fuelled LWR exploitation is its potential safety degradation due to corresponding degradation of some principal physical parameters. Non-favourable feed back effects, delayed neutron fraction reduction, etc. lead, probably, to some important constraints in fuel multirecycling fraction. However, if the LWR's fuel cycle closure would be even realised, other, not less important, key-issues will rest unresolved or even more aggravated such as the economical competitiveness, weapons material proliferation, fuel resources, natural safety level, etc. Possible replacement of LWR's park by Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) is able to change some accents in NP acceptance, however, can not change this situation drastically. Really, the potential of the waste long-term toxicity reduction is slightly favourable for SFR's than for LWRs (by the factor of 1.5 [1,2]) and this benefit is indebted mostly due to the higher fuel burnup potential of SFR's. Hence, the waste toxicity reduction factor, when SFR fuel cycle will be closed, is expecting to be in the interval 20-50 and, hence, it is slightly better than for LWRs. Nevertheless, it is important to mention that the closure of fast reactors fuel cycles does not lead to important degradation of safety physics. TRU equilibrium inventory is one of penalising factors of fast reactors: the total TRU inventory in NP, based on SFR, will be higher (roughly, by factor of 2) than for LWR based Np

  4. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multi-Phase Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Kenneth Kuan-yun

    2012-01-01

    Detailed coverage of advanced combustion topics from the author of Principles of Combustion, Second Edition Turbulence, turbulent combustion, and multiphase reacting flows have become major research topics in recent decades due to their application across diverse fields, including energy, environment, propulsion, transportation, industrial safety, and nanotechnology. Most of the knowledge accumulated from this research has never been published in book form-until now. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion presents up-to-date, integrated coverage of the fundamentals of turbulence

  5. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  6. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  7. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  8. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  9. Effect of air-excess on blends of RON70 partially premixed combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Bakker, P.C.; Somers, L.M.T.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept that aims to provide combustion with low smoke and NOx emissions and a high thermal efficiency. Extending the ignition delay to enhance premixing, avoiding spray-driven combustion, and controlling temperature at an optimum level through use

  10. Sistema de simulación de escenarios de ciclos avanzados de combustible nuclear en transición = Simulation system for advanced fuel cycle transition scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Rodríguez, Iván

    2015-01-01

    El estudio de los ciclos del combustible nuclear requieren de herramientas computacionales o "códigos" versátiles para dar respuestas al problema multicriterio de evaluar los actuales ciclos o las capacidades de las diferentes estrategias y escenarios con potencial de desarrollo en a nivel nacional, regional o mundial. Por otra parte, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías para reactores y procesos industriales hace que los códigos existentes requieran nuevas capacidades para evaluar la transi...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  12. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  13. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases. Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission. Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an advanced design methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of design of experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development effort. In order to fit a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  14. Combustion stratification study of partially premixed combustion using Fourier transform analysis of OH* chemiluminescence images

    KAUST Repository

    Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt; Dam, Nico

    2017-01-01

    A relatively high level of stratification (qualitatively: lack of homogeneity) is one of the main advantages of partially premixed combustion over the homogeneous charge compression ignition concept. Stratification can smooth the heat release rate

  15. Needs of Advanced Safeguards Technologies for Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle (FNFC) Facilities and a Trial Application of SBD Concept to Facility Design of a Hypothetical FNFC Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seya, M.; Hajima, R.; Nishimori, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Kikuzawa, N.; Shizuma, T.; Fujiwara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some of future nuclear fuel cycle (FNFC) facilities are supposed to have the characteristic features of very large throughput of plutonium, low decontamination reprocessing (no purification process; existence of certain amount of fission products (FP) in all process material), full minor actinides (MA) recycle, and treatment of MOX with FP and MA in fuel fabrication. In addition, the following international safeguards requirements have to be taken into account for safeguards approaches of the FNFC facilities. -Application of integrated safeguards (IS) approach; -Remote (unattended) verification; - 'Safeguards by Design' (SBD) concept. These features and requirements compel us to develop advanced technologies, which are not emerged yet. In order to realize the SBD, facility designers have to know important parts of design information on advanced safeguards systems before starting the facility design. The SBD concept requires not only early start of R and D of advanced safeguards technologies (before starting preliminary design of the facility) but also interaction steps between researchers working on safeguards systems and nuclear facility designers. The interaction steps are follows. Step-1; researchers show images of advanced safeguards systems to facility designers based on their research. Step-2; facility designers take important design information on safeguards systems into process systems of demonstration (or test) facility. Step-3; demonstration and improvement of both systems based on the conceptual design. Step-4; Construction of a FNFC facility with the advanced safeguards systems We present a trial application of the SBD concept to a hypothetical FNFC facility with an advanced hybrid K-edge densitometer and a Pu NDA system for spent nuclear fuel assembly using laser Compton scattering (LCS) X-rays and γ-rays and other advanced safeguards systems. (author)

  16. Advanced platelet-rich fibrin: a new concept for cell-based tissue engineering by means of inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Booms, Patrick; Orlowska, Anna; Kubesch, Alica; Lorenz, Jonas; Rutkowski, Jim; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Cj; Choukroun, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is obtained from blood without adding anticoagulants. In this study, protocols for standard platelet-rich fibrin (S-PRF) (2700 rpm, 12 minutes) and advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) (1500 rpm, 14 minutes) were compared to establish by histological cell detection and histomorphometrical measurement of cell distribution the effects of the centrifugal force (speed and time) on the distribution of cells relevant for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Immunohistochemistry for monocytes, T and B -lymphocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes, CD34-positive stem cells, and platelets was performed on clots produced from four different human donors. Platelets were detected throughout the clot in both groups, although in the A-PRF group, more platelets were found in the distal part, away from the buffy coat (BC). T- and B-lymphocytes, stem cells, and monocytes were detected in the surroundings of the BC in both groups. Decreasing the rpm while increasing the centrifugation time in the A-PRF group gave an enhanced presence of neutrophilic granulocytes in the distal part of the clot. In the S-PRF group, neutrophils were found mostly at the red blood cell (RBC)-BC interface. Neutrophilic granulocytes contribute to monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Accordingly, a higher presence of these cells might be able to influence the differentiation of host macrophages and macrophages within the clot after implantation. Thus, A-PRF might influence bone and soft tissue regeneration, especially through the presence of monocytes/macrophages and their growth factors. The relevance and feasibility of this tissue-engineering concept have to be proven through in vivo studies.

  17. “You can get there from here”: Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Adam M.; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Schaffner, Jake; Sweeting, Martin

    2005-07-01

    microsatellite from a typical 700 km sun-synchronous orbit to a lower or higher orbit using a low cost 40 N thrust concentrated hydrogen peroxide/kerosene bipropellant engine. A spin stabilized 'tug' concept capable of providing between 130 and 300 m/s of deltaV to the payload is described. Transfer of an enhanced microsatellite from LEO to lunar orbit using a novel, storable propellant solar thermal propulsion system under development at the Surrey Space Centre. The solar thermal propulsion unit is designed for low cost small satellite support and will be compared with a more traditional approach using and industry standard storable bipropellant chemical engine. Nanosatellite manoeuvring for formation flying using advanced low power electric propulsion. A colloid thruster system concept is planned for development jointly between SSTL, Queen Mary University London and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. The colloid thruster system is designed to complement an existing butane resistojet to give full 3-axis manoeuvrability to an upgraded SNAP nanosatellite platform which could be reflown in 2007 alongside ESA's Proba 2 technology demonstrator microsatellite. A comparison between low power resistojets, a colloid thruster system, and pulsed plasma thrusters for orbit manoeuvring of microsatellites will be made. This paper's final section will briefly describe some of the interplanetary missions which have been considered at the Surrey Space Centre, and will highlight the few as yet practical solutions for sending small spacecraft on high deltaV missions without the use of a costly upper stage.

  18. Sewage sludge disposal at the city of Duesseldorf - Conception of co-combustion in a coal power plant; Klaerschlammentsorgung der Stadt Duesseldorf - Konzeption der Mitverbrennung im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindert, M. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Hansmann, G. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Mittmann, H. [Kanal- und Wasserbauamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Goertz, W. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneously to the enlargement of the biological wastewater treatment plants in Germany the amount of sludges increased. For the reuse or disposal of these sludges different methods - from agricultural use to incineration - are applied. For the city of Duesseldorf it became necessary to outline a new conception for the sludge disposal. A number of methods has been considered, showing that co-incineration in a coal-power-plant appears to be practicable under the circumstances found in Duesseldorf. Hence the effects of such a co-incineration on the emissions and the composition of solid waste materials of the power plant have been investigated in the course of an experimental operation. These experiments show that coincineration of the sludge also has advantages from the ecological point of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Ausbau der biologischen Klaeranlagen in Deutschland stieg in den letzten Jahren auch die Menge des anfallenden Klaerschlamms. Zur Verwertung bzw. Entsorgung dieses Schlammes werden unterschiedliche Verfahren - von der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung bis zur Verbrennung - herangezogen. Fuer die Stadt Duesseldorf ergab sich die Notwendigkeit, die Klaerschlammentsorgung neu zu konzipieren. Verschiedene Varianten wurden geprueft, wobei die Mitverbrennung in der Schmelzkammerfeuerung eines Steinkohlekraftwerkes unter den in Duesseldorf herrschenden Randbedingungen praktikabel erschien. Daher wurden die Auswirkungen einer solchen Mitverbrennung auf das Emissionsverhalten und die Zusammensetzung der festen Reststoffe des Kraftwerks waehrend eines Probebetriebes untersucht. Die Versuche zeigen, dass die Mitverbrennung auch aus oekologischer Sicht Vorteile aufweist. (orig.)

  19. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  20. Fostering clinical reasoning in physiotherapy : Comparing the effects of concept map study and concept map completion after example study in novice and advanced learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montpetit-tourangeau, Katherine; Dyer, Joseph-omer; Hudon, Anne; Windsor, Monica; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; Van Gog, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health profession learners can foster clinical reasoning by studying worked examples presenting fully worked out solutions to a clinical problem. It is possible to improve the learning effect of these worked examples by combining them with other learning activities based on concept maps.

  1. Effect of fuel injection parameters on combustion stability and emissions of a mineral diesel fueled partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ayush; Singh, Akhilendra Pratap; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NOx and PM emissions were lowest at 700 bar fuel injection pressure (FIP). • PCCI showed lower knocking than compression ignition combustion mode. • Increasing FIP reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides and smoke opacity in PCCI mode. • Increasing FIP reduced nucleation mode particle concentration. • Increasing FIP with advanced main injection timings improved PCCI combustion. - Abstract: This experimental study focuses on developing new combustion concept for compression ignition (CI) engines by achieving partially homogeneous charge, leading to low temperature combustion (LTC). Partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is a single-stage phenomenon, with combustion shifting towards increasingly premixed combustion phase, resulting in lower in-cylinder temperatures. PCCI leads to relatively lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously. To investigate combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the PCCI engine, experiments were performed in a mineral diesel fueled single cylinder research engine, which was equipped with flexible fuel injection equipment (FIE). Effects of fuel injection pressure (FIP) were investigated by changing the FIP from 400 bar to 1000 bar. Experiments were carried out by varying start of main injection (SoMI) timings (from 12° to 24° before top dead center (bTDC)), when using single pilot injection. This experimental study included detailed investigations of particulate characteristics such as particulate number-size distribution using engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), particulate bound trace metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), and soot morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCCI combustion improved with increasing FIP (up to 700 bar) due to superior fuel atomization however further increasing FIP deteriorated PCCI combustion and engine performance due to intense

  2. A Comparison of Prominent LES Combustion Models for Nonpremixed Supersonic Combustion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capability of accurately simulating supersonic combustion is a vital topic for designing and advancing hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. As a consequence, there...

  3. The role of advanced calculation and simulation tools in the evolution of fuel; El papel de las herramientas avanzadas de calculo y simulacion en la evolucion del combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Reja, C.; Cerracin, A.; Corpa, R.

    2015-07-01

    This article is focused on the role of the advanced calculation/simulation tools on the development of the fuel designs as well as in the assessment of the effect of the changes in the operation. With this purpose, the article describes and shows some examples of the use by ENUSA of some of these tools in the fuel engineering. To conclude, the future on the evolution of the advanced tools is also presented. (Author)

  4. Mechanisms and characteristics of silicon combustion in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasian, A.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaia, I.P.; Blinov, M.IU.

    1986-10-01

    An experimental study is made of the principal characteristics of combustion in the system silicon-nitrogen associated with phase transitions of the first kind (silicon melting and silicon nitride dissociation). Concepts of the combustion mechanism are developed on the basis of elementary models of combustion of the second kind and filtering combustion theory. In particular, it is shown that, in the pressure range studied (10-20 MPa), filtering does not limit the combustion process. Details of the experimental procedure and results are presented. 22 references.

  5. Modernization of the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of the La Reina Nuclear Center in Chile: Incorporating advanced concepts of safety and good manufacturing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos Espinoza, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    A radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals production laboratory was established in Chile in the 1960s for research activities. From 1967 until January 2012, it was dedicated to the manufacturing of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnosis and treatment purposes. In 2012, modernization of the facility’s design and technology began as part of the IAEA technical cooperation project, Modernizing the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of La Reina Nuclear Centre by Incorporating Advanced Concepts of Safety and Good Manufacturing Practices, (CHI4022)

  6. Increase of efficiency of a hard coal dust fired 450 MW{sub e}l block by means of a most modern low NO{sub x} combustion concept; Effizienzsteigerung eines steinkohlenstaubgefeuerten 450 MW{sub el} Blockes durch modernste Low-NO{sub x}-Feuerungskonzeption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierbach, H.U. [Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Haas, B.; Sabel, T.; Kaess, M. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Braecker, R. [Balcke-Duerr GmbH, Ratingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the year 2007, EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) announced the modernization of the combustion of a hard coal-fired 450 MW{sub e}l block with district heating de-coupling in order to exhaust the existing potential of optimization in the plant operation. Considering the existing boundary conditions and an economical solution, a system dependent concept was compiled. During the order processing, apart from the operational experiences and conventional methods of interpretation extensive CFD simulations at the burner and for the entire combustion space were used for the optimization of the concept. Based on existing simulation results and an extensive trial programme during the start-up, the operation of the plant was optimized for most different qualities of coal. After more than one year, the operational experiences show that the agreed characteristics of profile are kept surely at all qualities of coal.

  7. MODELING SEGREGATED INSITU COMBUSTION PROCESSES THROUGH A VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT MODEL APPLIED TO A COLOMBIAN FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Aristizábal, José-Julián; Grosso Vargas, Jorge-Luis

    2005-01-01

    Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as Segregated In-Situ Combustion processes which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Splitproduction Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate ...

  8. An investigation of partially premixed compression ignition combustion using gasoline and spark assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Benajes Calvo, Jesus Vicente; García Martínez, Antonio; Doménech Llopis, Vicente; Durret, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the automotive scientific community and companies are focusing part of their efforts on the investigation of new combustion modes in Compression Ignition (Cl) engines, mainly based on the use of locally lean air fuel mixtures. This characteristic, combined with exhaust gas recirculation, provides low combustion temperatures that reduce pollutant formation. However these combustion concepts have some shortcomings, related to combustion phasing control and combustion stability under th...

  9. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  10. The John Zink Hamworthy combustion handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the length of time it has been around, its importance, and vast amounts of research, combustion is still far from being completely understood. Issues regarding the environment, cost, and fuel consumption add further complexity, particularly in the process and power generation industries. Dedicated to advancing the art and science of industrial combustion, The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 3 - Applications offers comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of equipment used in the process and power generation industries. Under the leadership of Charles E. Baukal

  11. Characterizations of self-combustion reactions (SCR) for the production of nanomaterials used as advanced cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haik, Ortal; Martha, Surendra K.; Sclar, Hadar; Samuk-Fromovich, Zvi; Zinigrad, Ella; Markovsky, Boris [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kovacheva, Daniela; Saliyski, Nikolay [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Aurbach, Doron, E-mail: aurbach@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2009-09-10

    In this work, self-combustion reactions (SCR) for the preparation of important cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries were investigated by thermal analytical tools (DSC, ARC, TGA), electron microscopy, XRD, various spectroscopies (MS, Raman, FTIR) and elemental analysis by ICP. The systems studied include solutions containing metal nitrates at the right stoichiometry and sucrose as a fuel, for the preparation of LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} (layered), LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (spinel), LiMn{sub 0.33}Ni{sub 0.33}Co{sub 0.33}O{sub 2} (layered), and LiMn{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} (layered). Similar products, which do not depend on the atmosphere of the processes (air or inert) were obtained by spontaneous SCR and the gradual heating of the same solutions by DSC, ARC, and TGA. The reactions involve the partial caramelization of sucrose, complicated by red-ox reactions with the nitrates that form solid products, whose organic part is finally decomposed around 400 {sup o}C. The presence of cobalt ions has a stabilizing effect, which is expressed by the low dissolution rates of Li ions from the solid products thus formed, into aqueous solutions. The reaction mechanisms are discussed herein.

  12. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booras, George [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Powers, J. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Riley, C. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hendrix, H. [Hendrix Engineering Solutions, Inc., Calera, AL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  13. Combustion stratification study of partially premixed combustion using Fourier transform analysis of OH* chemiluminescence images

    KAUST Repository

    Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad

    2017-11-06

    A relatively high level of stratification (qualitatively: lack of homogeneity) is one of the main advantages of partially premixed combustion over the homogeneous charge compression ignition concept. Stratification can smooth the heat release rate and improve the controllability of combustion. In order to compare stratification levels of different partially premixed combustion strategies or other combustion concepts, an objective and meaningful definition of “stratification level” is required. Such a definition is currently lacking; qualitative/quantitative definitions in the literature cannot properly distinguish various levels of stratification. The main purpose of this study is to objectively define combustion stratification (not to be confused with fuel stratification) based on high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging, which is assumed to provide spatial information regarding heat release. Stratification essentially being equivalent to spatial structure, we base our definition on two-dimensional Fourier transforms of photographs of OH* chemiluminescence. A light-duty optical diesel engine has been used to perform the OH* bandpass imaging on. Four experimental points are evaluated, with injection timings in the homogeneous regime as well as in the stratified partially premixed combustion regime. Two-dimensional Fourier transforms translate these chemiluminescence images into a range of spatial frequencies. The frequency information is used to define combustion stratification, using a novel normalization procedure. The results indicate that this new definition, based on Fourier analysis of OH* bandpass images, overcomes the drawbacks of previous definitions used in the literature and is a promising method to compare the level of combustion stratification between different experiments.

  14. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  15. Co-Optima Project E2.2.2: Accelerate Development of ACI/LTC Fuel Effects on RCCI Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musculus, Mark P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Many advanced combustion approaches have demonstrated potential for achieving diesel-like thermal efficiency but with much lower pollutant emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). RCCI is one advanced combustion concept, which makes use of in-cylinder blending of two fuels with differing reactivity for improved control of the combustion phasing and rate (Reitz et al., 2015). Previous research and development at ORNL has demonstrated successful implementation of RCCI on a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over a wide range of operating conditions (Curran et al., 2015). Several challenges were encountered when extending the research to practical applications, including limits to the operating range, both for high and low loads. Co-optimizing the engine and fuel aspects of the RCCI approach might allow these operating limits to be overcome. The in-cylinder mechanisms by which fuel properties interact with engine operating condition variables is not well understood, however, in part because RCCI is a new combustion concept that is still being developed, and limited data have been acquired to date, especially using in-cylinder optical/imaging diagnostics. The objective of this work is to use in-cylinder diagnostics in a heavy-duty single-cylinder optical engine at SNL to understand the interplay between fuel properties and engine hardware and operating conditions for RCCI in general, and in particular for the light-duty multi-cylinder all-metal RCCI engine experiments at ORNL.

  16. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 8. Operational Logic Flow Diagrams for a Generic Advanced Air Traffic Management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of the services a generic Advanced Air Traffic Management System (AATMS) should provide to the useres of the system to facilitate the safe, efficient flow of traffic. It provides a definition of the functions which t...

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  18. Development of a catalysts technology to disclosure ultra low emission concepts for vehicles with combustion engines. Final report; Entwicklung einer Katalysatortechnologie zur Darstellung von Niedrigstemissionskonzepten an Kraftfahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotor. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizig, M.; Hirth, P.; Bergmann, A.; Hodgson, J.; Althoefer, K.; Konieczny, R.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the research was the development of concepts that support ultra low emission concepts for vehicles with combustion engines. This has been done in the 4 subprojects 'Increase of mass transfer', 'Catalyst isolation', 'Reduction of thermal mass' and 'Homogenization of flow distribution'. In the fifth subproject 'catalyst design' the gained experiences should be used to realize the achieved results for practical applications. Phases of the project: Literature investigation - theoretical consideration and interpretation - investigations on favoured variants - durability tests - study of parameters of manufacturing process - emission tests. The gained experiences were slipped in several products that can be realized in serial production. To be mentioned: (a) The TS-Designs and the LS-Design (see subproject A), (b) the HD-Design (see subproject B, C, E), (c) and the mixing device (see subproject D). Additional know-how was gained in subproject D that was used to work out the PM-Design in a separate developement project. These substrates can be used to reduce soot emissions in vehicles with diesel engines. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Forschungsprojektes war es, in den 4 Teilprojekten 'Verbesserung des Massentransportes', 'Katalysatorisolation', 'Reduzierung der thermischen Masse' und 'Interner Stroemungsausgleich' Konzepte zu entwickeln, die Niedrigstemissionen an Kraftfahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotoren unterstuetzen. Im 5. Teilprojekt 'Katalysatordesign' sollten die gewonnenen Erfahrungen ganz oder teilweise genutzt weden, um die erzielten Ergebnisse praktisch umzusetzen. Projektphasen: Literaturrecherche - Theoretische Betrachtung/Auslegung - Untersuchungen an favorisierten Varianten - Dauerhaltbarkeitsuntersuchungen - Studie Fertigungsparameter - Emissionsmessungen. Die im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes gewonnenen Erkenntnisse konnten in verschiedene Produkte

  19. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  20. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides