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Sample records for combustible des rep

  1. Repérer des sites similaires à une recherche par Google

    OpenAIRE

    Ginouvès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    Repérer des sites similaires à une recherche par Google Afficher graphiquement les liens d’un site avec d’autres sites similaires TouchGraph GoogleBrowser crée des agrégations de sites à partir de l’interrogation de Google. Vous visualisez ainsi des nébuleuses de sites à l’intérieur desquelles vous pouvez naviguer facilement, en sautant d'un groupe à l'autre afin de voir les nuages autour de sujets ou de communautés de sujets. Cet outil a été développé par Alex Shapiro, à partir de la version...

  2. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    the of ether and ethyl alcohol and removing objective of these lectures to give a this solvent. Instead of having a fibrous comprehensive understanding...do cetto esrne do Les propergols composites, A matrice confifrences une description tout A fait A polymarique charg~o pst, un oxydant at un jour des...rusa., De nouveaux souvant suppos6 qua la vitesa des gaz de oxydes de for ultrafirts mont aujourd’hui combustion est n~gligeable at qua d~velopps pour

  3. Repérage d’Images Ordinaires : Analyse des Requêtes des Chercheurs d’Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ménard

    2009-06-01

    also emphasizes the pressing necessity to optimize the methods used for image processing, in order to facilitate image retrieval and dissemination in multilingual environments. Résumé Depuis quelques années, le web est devenu un média incontournable pour la diffusion de ressources multilingues. Cependant, les différences linguistiques constituent souvent un obstacle majeur aux échanges de documents scientifiques, culturels, pédagogiques et commerciaux. En plus de cette diversité linguistique, on constate le développement croissant de bases de données et de collections composées de différents types de documents textuels ou multimédias, ce qui complexifie également le processus de repérage documentaire. Par exemple, les collections d’images numériques sont aussi nombreuses que diversifiées. Le besoin de repérer une image spécifique dans diverses collections est devenu une préoccupation partagée par plusieurs communautés. La croissance du web a mis en relief le besoin pressant de se doter d’outils propres à la description des images dans le but de faciliter leur repérage, puisque l’on retrouve celles-ci dans la plupart des ressources disponibles. Cette recherche compare le repérage d’images dans deux contextes linguistiques différents : un contexte monolingue, c’est-à-dire que la langue de la requête (français est la même que la langue d’indexation (français; et un contexte multilingue où la langue de la requête (français est différente de la langue d’indexation (anglais. Cet article présente les résultats de l’analyse des requêtes formulées par les participants pour repérer un ensemble d’images ordinaires représentant des objets de la vie quotidienne, en contexte de repérage multilingue. L’examen des termes contenus dans les requêtes des chercheurs d’images révèle les tendances observées sur le plan terminologique, perceptuel et structurel. Les participants emploient généralement des requêtes simples

  4. Burn up physics; Physique des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiakoff, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    requires samples of the order of several kilograms only. The relationships between these measurements and the investigations of lattices are discussed, and an outline is given of the way of carrying out the systematic study of fuels of various compositions. The method has been successfully applied to the systematic study of irradiated fuels (analysed independently by the methods mentioned above) thus giving the possibility of measuring in situ the absorption of fission products. (author) [French] Cette communication expose un ensemble d'etudes theoriques et d'experiences, effectuees au CEA et destinees a faire progresser la connaissance de l'evolution de la reactivite (au cours de l'irradiation du combustible) dans les reacteurs a uranium naturel ou faiblement enrichi.,. On rappelle les difficultes de l'experimentation directe sur des masses importantes de combustible irradie - en particulier dans les reacteurs de puissance en fonctionnement - et on souligne la necessite d'experiences a caractere fondamental distinguant: d'une part l'evolution de la composition des combustibles (chaines de noyaux lourds, produits de fission), d'autre part l'effet des modifications de composition sur le bilan de neutrons. Avant de presenter trois categories d'experiences que l'on est conduit a entreprendre, on rappelle l'importance des problemes lies aux spectres de neutrons et on decrit rapidement les methodes pratiques de calcul utilisees. L'irradiation systematique de quelques types de combustibles, suivie de leur analyse chimique et isotopique est en cours depuis plusieurs annees. On donne un apercu de l'ensemble du programme experimental et on decrit les moyens et les methodes mis en oeuvre: chaine {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} pour la preparation des echantillons, dosage du Plutonium par coulommetrie et double dilution isotopique, separation du Bore utilise dans certains cas pour la mesure des densites de neutrons integrees. On discute sur quelques exemples l'interpretation des mesures

  5. Magnox Fuel Cycles; Cycles des combustibles gaines de magnox; Toplivnye tsikly magnoks; Ciclos de combustible magnox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington, Lancs (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    The interaction between reactivity flux and temperature distributions and irradiation patterns caused by different refuelling policies is considered and present calculation methods outlined. Various refuelling schemes for both batch and continuous discharge systems are compared. The problem of the efficient irradiation of the first charge is considered together with delayed onset refuelling and shuffling schemes. The economic advantages and problems of using non-natural uranium in flattened reactors are discussed. The practical consideration of on-load refuelling schemes on new reactors are considered and reference is made to the experience gained on Bradwell and Berkeley. The effect of the variation of fuel cost and endurance on fuel-cycle economics is outlined. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie en premier lieu l'interaction entre les distributions de la temperature du flux et de la reactivite, d'une part, et le regime de l'irradiation, d'autre part, dans le cas de differents programmes de rechargement du combustible et il decrit brievement les methodes de calcul actuelles. Il compare ensuite differents programmes de rechargement du combustible pour le dechargement par lots et le dechargement continu. Il etudie le probleme de l'irradiation effica ce de la premiere charge dans le cadre de programmes de remplacement et de deplacement des cartouches a action retardee. Il analyse les avantages economiques de l'utilisatio n d'uranium non naturel dans les reacteurs a flux aplati et les problemes qu'elle pose. Il examine les aspects pratiques des programmes de rechargement en marche pour les nouveaux reacteurs, en se referant a l'experience acquise au moyen des reacteurs de Bradwell et de Berkeley. Enfin, il decrit brievement les effets des variations du cout et de la resistance du combustible sur l'economie des cycles de combustible. (author) [Spanish] La memoria estudia la interaccion entre el flujo de reactividad y la distribucion de temperaturas, asi como los

  6. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Lasteyrie, B de; Doumerc, J [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    comme definitivement perdue, alors que le reste pourrait etre recupere et recycle. Le cout eleve des pertes, recyclees ou non, d'autant plus eleve que l'uranium est plus enrichi, exige qu'il en soit tenu compte dans l'optimisation generale des cycles de combustible. Il importe donc de determiner leur niveau le plus souhaitable economiquement, aux diverses etapes d'elaboration du combustible nucleaire. Mais en France et dans d'autres pays, la production de matieres fissiles est geree par l'Etat, tandis que la fabrication de l'element combustible est effectuee par l'industrie privee. Les criteres d'optimisation et l'interet economique accorde aux pertes sont donc differents pour les deux parties de la chaine de fabrication. Pour tenter neanmoins d'atteindre un optimum conforme a l'interet collectif sans intervenir dans la politique de prix de l'entreprise, on peut utiliser la propriete des couts marginaux d'etre egaux entre eux a l'optimum, pour un volume de production donne. On peut donc ajuster le niveau des pertes pour realiser cette egalite des couts marginaux dont le calcul est plus facile a obtenir de la firme que la justification des prix eux-memes. On s'apercoit d'ailleurs que, bien qu'axee essentiellement sur les pertes, cette analyse globale peut conduire a une meilleure utilisation d'autres facteurs de production. On donne un expose theorique et des exemples pratiques de cette methode d'optimisation economique dans le cadre de la fabrication d'elements combustibles destines a des reacteurs du type: uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. (auteurs)

  7. Automatic welding of fuel elements; Soudure automatique des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briola, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [French] Suivant le type d'element combustible, le materiau de gaine et l'importance de la serie a fabriquer, le soudeur dispose des differents procedes examines dans cette communication: - soudure classique a l'arc sous gaz inerte (utilisee pour G2 et le premier jeu EL3), - soudure en atmosphere complete d'argon (utilisee pour la soudure d'uranium et de zirconium), - soudure electronique (utilisee pourdeuxieme jeu EL3 et la cuve de Proserpine). (auteur)

  8. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Lasteyrie, B. de; Doumerc, J. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    'uranium doit etre consideree comme definitivement perdue, alors que le reste pourrait etre recupere et recycle. Le cout eleve des pertes, recyclees ou non, d'autant plus eleve que l'uranium est plus enrichi, exige qu'il en soit tenu compte dans l'optimisation generale des cycles de combustible. Il importe donc de determiner leur niveau le plus souhaitable economiquement, aux diverses etapes d'elaboration du combustible nucleaire. Mais en France et dans d'autres pays, la production de matieres fissiles est geree par l'Etat, tandis que la fabrication de l'element combustible est effectuee par l'industrie privee. Les criteres d'optimisation et l'interet economique accorde aux pertes sont donc differents pour les deux parties de la chaine de fabrication. Pour tenter neanmoins d'atteindre un optimum conforme a l'interet collectif sans intervenir dans la politique de prix de l'entreprise, on peut utiliser la propriete des couts marginaux d'etre egaux entre eux a l'optimum, pour un volume de production donne. On peut donc ajuster le niveau des pertes pour realiser cette egalite des couts marginaux dont le calcul est plus facile a obtenir de la firme que la justification des prix eux-memes. On s'apercoit d'ailleurs que, bien qu'axee essentiellement sur les pertes, cette analyse globale peut conduire a une meilleure utilisation d'autres facteurs de production. On donne un expose theorique et des exemples pratiques de cette methode d'optimisation economique dans le cadre de la fabrication d'elements combustibles destines a des reacteurs du type: uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. (auteurs)

  9. The industrial production of fuel elements; La fabrication en france des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Nadal, J [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (SICN), 75 - Paris (France); Pellen, A [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    -pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors) [French] Les auteurs traitent successivement de la fabrication industrielle des elements combustibles pour reacteurs de puissance de la filiere U naturel graphite-gaz et plus particulierement pour les centrales energetiques d'E.D.F. et de celle des elements combustibles a base d'U enrichi destines aux reacteurs experimentaux du type 'piscine'. 1ere Partie - LES ELEMENTS COMBUSTIBLES AVANCES POUR LES REACTEURS E.D.F.: Apres un bref rappel des caracteristiques des elements combustibles actuellement fabriques industriellement pour les reacteurs de MARCOULE et de CHINON, les auteurs indiquent les differentes etapes suivies pour aboutir au stade de la fabrication industrielle d'un element combustible nouveau, tant en ce qui concerne la gaine et eventuellement la chemise de graphite que le combustible lui-meme. Pour ce qui est de l'elaboration du combustible, ils decrivent les differentes operations en insistant sur les points originaux de la fabrication et de l'appareillage tels que: - coulees en moules chauds, - traitement thermique des alliages U.Mo 1 p. 100, - soudure des pastilles de fermeture des tubes, - gainage - controle aux differents stades. En ce qui concerne la fabrication des gaines, ils

  10. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  11. L'évolution des combustibles pour moteurs thermiques Evolution of Fuels for Thermal Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la crise pétrolière, l'accroissement des prix et les craintes de pénurie ont conduit à adapter les moteurs aux combustibles disponibles. Si la situation apparaît comme moins tendue, l'industrie des machines thermiques, qui pendant longtemps a eu comme partenaire une industrie du pétrole très sûre, se trouve cependant confrontée à un marché des combustibles incertain dans son ravitaillement et surtout dans ses prix. Les progrès des moteurs diesel et des turbines à gaz, dûs à une meilleure adaptation à leur usage et aussi à l'évolution de la technologie, supposent que les combustibles n'apporteront aucune contrainte majeure en quantité ou en qualité. La modification des usages dévolus désormais au pétrole entraînera une réduction de la coupe lourde et un raffinage plus profond des bruts avec en particulier un développement du craquage catalytique et de la viscoréduction. Or, ces différentes opérations de conversion peuvent conduire à une détérioration de la qualité des combustibles moins grave pour le gazole que pour le fuel lourd. Dans les différents domaines impliqués, les parades technologiques sont en cours de développement. L'industrie des machines thermiques, qui poursuit l'amélioration des engins, et l'industrie du pétrole, qui recherche une réduction des prix des combustibles, sont donc conduites à un compromis optimal auquel elles ne peuvent accéder efficacement qu'en définissant les règles du jeu c'est-à-dire des spécifications internationales rigoureuses des combustibles. Since the oil crisis, the increase in prices and fears of a shortage have led to the adapting of engines to what fuels are available. Whereas the situation now seems somewhat less tense, the thermal machinery industry, which for a long time had a very reliable petroleum industry as its partner, nonetheless finds itself confronted with an uncertain fuel market with regard to supplies and especially to prices. Progress

  12. Large eddy simulation and combustion instabilities; Simulation des grandes echelles et instabilites de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, G.

    2004-11-15

    The new european laws on pollutants emission impose more and more constraints to motorists. This is particularly true for gas turbines manufacturers, that must design motors operating with very fuel-lean mixtures. Doing so, pollutants formation is significantly reduced but the problem of combustion stability arises. Actually, combustion regimes that have a large excess of air are naturally more sensitive to combustion instabilities. Numerical predictions of these instabilities is thus a key issue for many industrial involved in energy production. This thesis work tries to show that recent numerical tools are now able to predict these combustion instabilities. Particularly, the Large Eddy Simulation method, when implemented in a compressible CFD code, is able to take into account the main processes involved in combustion instabilities, such as acoustics and flame/vortex interaction. This work describes a new formulation of a Large Eddy Simulation numerical code that enables to take into account very precisely thermodynamics and chemistry, that are essential in combustion phenomena. A validation of this work will be presented in a complex geometry (the PRECCINSTA burner). Our numerical results will be successfully compared with experimental data gathered at DLR Stuttgart (Germany). Moreover, a detailed analysis of the acoustics in this configuration will be presented, as well as its interaction with the combustion. For this acoustics analysis, another CERFACS code has been extensively used, the Helmholtz solver AVSP. (author)

  13. Apparatus for examination of irradiated fuel elements of industrial reactors at Marcoule; Appareillage d'examen des elements combustibles des piles industrielles de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesenti, P; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors describe a viewing and measurement cell for the slugs of Marcoule industrial reactors. This cell allows visual inspection, and photography of slugs. Length measurements are also made possible by horizontal motion of the slug both in translation and rotation. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une cellule d'observation et de mesure des elements combustibles des piles industrielles de Marcoule. La cellule permet l'examen a vue, la photographie, la radioscopie et la radiographie des elements combustibles. Elle permet en outre la mesure de longueurs sur ces elements, ces derniers pouvant etre deplaces horizontalement en translation, et en rotation. (auteur)

  14. Optimal sizes and siting of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Tailles et localisations optimales des usines de retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Deledicq, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Siege (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The expansion of a nuclear economy entails the development of fuel process and reprocessing plant programmes. The model proposed makes it possible to select the size, the site and the start-up schedule of the plants in such a way as to minimize the total freight and reprocessing costs. As an illustration, we have approached the problem of burnt natural uranium processing plants related to natural uranium-graphite as nuclear power stations. The sites and annual output of the reactors, the possible plant sites and cost functions (freight and reprocessing) are supposed to be known. The method consists in first approaching the process plant problem as a Dynamic Programming problem, increasing programme slices (total reactor output) being explored sequentially. When the quantities of burnt natural uranium to be reprocessed are fixed, the minimization of the transport cost is then also carried out as a dynamic programming problem. The neighbourhood of the optimum process cost is explored in order to find the minimum summation of a suboptimal processing cost and corresponding optimal transport cost. As the reprocessing problem can be represented on a sequential graph, in order to compute the sub-optima, we developed and used a 'reflexion algorithm'. The method can be interpreted as a general mechanism for determining the optimum when to a sequential dynamic problem (for example an equipment programme) is added a complementary problem (transport, for instance). It also makes it possible to estimate the economic losses which result from the choice of a non optimal policy for other than economic reasons. (author) [French] L'expansion de l'economie nucleaire se traduit par un developpement des programmes d'usines d'elaboration et de retraitement des combustibles. Le modele propose permet de choisir la taille, la localisation et la cadence de mise en service des usines de maniere a minimiser le total des frais de transport et de retraitement. A titre d'exemple nous avons

  15. Les piles à combustible. Bilan des travaux de recherches. Perspectives Fuel Cells. Review of Research. Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breelle Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point, sous forme résumée, des travaux de recherches et de développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP depuis vingt ans dans le domaine des piles à combustible : sélection des filières directes conduisant au choix de la pile hydrogène-air basse température à électrolyte basique, mise au point des générateurs à hydrogène alimentés en méthanol. On présente les résultats obtenus et les conclusions des enquêtes effectués dans le domaine des groupes électrogènes et des applications spéciales, dans celui de la traction automobile et dans celui de la production massive d'électricité. This article reviews and sums up the research and development done by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP in the last 20 years in the field of fuel cells, including the selection of direct methods leading to the choice of low-temperature basic-electrolyte hydrogen/air cells and the development of methanol-powered hydrogen generators. The results obtained are desceibed along with the conclusions of surveys made in the field of electric generators and special applications in the fields of automotive traction and massive electricity production.

  16. Images en mouvement stockage, repérage, indexation

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    L'avènement puis la fusion des nouveaux modes de communication que sont l'informatique, les télécommunications et l'audiovisuel ont mis à la portée de tous une grande quantité d'images fixes et en mouvement dont la conservation et le repérage risquent de prendre des proportions démesurées. Le présent ouvrage veut offrir aux responsables de collection des repères pour aborder la problématique de l'indexation des images et faciliter l'accès des usagers à ces images.

  17. Recent developments in the field of refractory fuels; Developpements recents dans le domaine des combustibles refractaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A; Delmas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    or arc fusion). This latter method is based on fusion by electronic bombardment associated with the continuous casting. (authors) [French] L'effort des recentes annees au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique dans le domaine des combustibles ceramiques a surtout porte sur le bi-oxyde d'uranium et les alliages uranium-carbone. Le bi-oxyde d'uranium est etudie dans l'optique de son utilisation comme combustible de la premiere charge d'EL 4, dans laquelle on impose au point le plus charge une conductibilite thermique integree de 29 W/cm pour une temperature de surface de 750 C environ. On s'est specialement preoccupe de mettre en place un procede de preparation d'une poudre de bi-oxyde de bonnes caracteristiques et le frittage industriel de cette poudre, et d'evaluer les principales proprietes des corps obtenus en relation avec les conditions des corps obtenus en relation avec les conditions prevues de leur utilisation: - aspect de micro-structure et distribution des pores, - comportement mecanique et thermique en geometrie cylindrique, - controle de l'oxygene excedentaire dans les produits industriels, - compatibilite aux hautes temperatures avec les oxydes utilisables comme isolants thermiques, - comportement des produits de fission gazeux a haute temperature apres irradiation ou au cours de l'irradiation. Dans le cas des carbures d'uranium, notre but a ete de determiner les conditions de fabrication industrielle d'un combustible satisfaisant de composition voisine de UC. Ceci nous a conduits a entreprendre un certain nombre d'etudes fondamentales Sur le domaine d'existence de UC non stoechiometrique, - l'influence, sur les proprietes de UC, des elements O et N dissous dans ce materiau, - la compatibilite des alliages uranium-carbone avec differents materiaux de gaine metalliques ou ceramiques, - la corrosion des alliages uranium-carbone par H{sub 2}O et CO{sub 2}, - les methodes de preparation d'echantillons de haute purete, - les dispositifs d'irradiation en pile

  18. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  19. Calculation of the working capital invested in fuel cycles and its interest charges (1963); Calcul des immobilisations financieres des cycles de combustible (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    All the processes undergone by the nuclear material, including the various steps of fuel element manufacturing and of irradiated fuel reprocessing lead to working capital investments varying with the type of reactor, that must be taken into account in the kWh cost calculation. The author deals with a calculation method called: 'present worth method' and gives some examples concerning reactors the main fuel of which being either natural uranium or enriched uranium or plutonium. He especially points out the importance these investments may take in the case of fast breeder reactors. (author) [French] L'ensemble des etapes parcourues par la matiere fissile comprenant les divers stades d'elaboration des elements combustibles et de leur traitement apres irradiation, implique des immobilisations financieres tres differentes d'un type de reacteur a l'autre, dont il convient de tenir compte dans le calcul du cout du kWh. L'auteur expose une methode de calcul dite 'd'actualisation des couts' et donne quelques exemples relatifs aux reacteurs utilisant l'uranium naturel, l'uranium enrichi et le plutonium comme combustible principal. Il montre en particulier l'importance que peuvent avoir ces immobilisations dans le cas des reacteurs surregenerateurs. (auteur)

  20. Use of tri-laurylamine during the retreatment of irradiated fuels; Utilisation de la trilaurylamine au retraitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, A; Koehly, G; Perez, J J; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The purification of aqueous solutions of plutonium can be made by extraction of the Pu (IV) nitrate complex using trilaurylamine in dodecane. The principal physical properties of this solution are considered along with its extractive properties and the influence of foreign ions on the extraction. The application of this method of extraction in a processing cycle for irradiated material is proposed: either for a final purification process or for auxiliary cycles for recovering plutonium from metal production wastes, oxalate precipitation supernatants, or any general aqueous plutonium waste solution. Also proposed are clean-up procedures for regeneration of an extractive solution which has undergone chemical or radiolytic degradation. (authors) [French] La purification du plutonium contenu dans des solutions aqueuses peut etre effectuee par extraction du nitrate de l'ion tetravalent par la trilaurylamine diluee dans du dodecane. Les principales proprietes physiques de ce solvant sont passees en revue ainsi que ses proprietes extractives et l'influence des ions etrangers sur celles-ci. L'application de cette methode d'extraction dans le cycle de traitement des combustibles irradies est envisagee: soit dans le traitement de purification finale, soit dans les cycles annexes ayant trait a la recuperation de plutonium a partir des scories d'elaboration du metal, des eaux-meres oxaliques et d'une facon generale des solutions aqueuses contenant du plutonium. Des traitements de regeneration du solvant ayant subi des degradations chimique ou radiolytique, sont proposes. (auteurs)

  1. Use of tri-laurylamine during the retreatment of irradiated fuels; Utilisation de la trilaurylamine au retraitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, A.; Koehly, G.; Perez, J.J.; Chesne, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The purification of aqueous solutions of plutonium can be made by extraction of the Pu (IV) nitrate complex using trilaurylamine in dodecane. The principal physical properties of this solution are considered along with its extractive properties and the influence of foreign ions on the extraction. The application of this method of extraction in a processing cycle for irradiated material is proposed: either for a final purification process or for auxiliary cycles for recovering plutonium from metal production wastes, oxalate precipitation supernatants, or any general aqueous plutonium waste solution. Also proposed are clean-up procedures for regeneration of an extractive solution which has undergone chemical or radiolytic degradation. (authors) [French] La purification du plutonium contenu dans des solutions aqueuses peut etre effectuee par extraction du nitrate de l'ion tetravalent par la trilaurylamine diluee dans du dodecane. Les principales proprietes physiques de ce solvant sont passees en revue ainsi que ses proprietes extractives et l'influence des ions etrangers sur celles-ci. L'application de cette methode d'extraction dans le cycle de traitement des combustibles irradies est envisagee: soit dans le traitement de purification finale, soit dans les cycles annexes ayant trait a la recuperation de plutonium a partir des scories d'elaboration du metal, des eaux-meres oxaliques et d'une facon generale des solutions aqueuses contenant du plutonium. Des traitements de regeneration du solvant ayant subi des degradations chimique ou radiolytique, sont proposes. (auteurs)

  2. Burnup determination of power reactor fuel elements by gamma spectrometry; Determination par spectrometrie {gamma} du taux d'irradiation des elements combustibles des reacteurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M; Jastrzeb, M; Boisliveau, S; Boyer, R; Vidal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This report describes a method for determining by {gamma} spectrometry the burn up and the specific power of fuel elements irradiated in power reactors. The energy spectrum of {gamma} rays emitted by fission products is measured by means of a simple equipment using a sodium iodide detector and a multichannel analyzer. In order to extract from the spectrum a quantity proportional to the burn up, it is necessary to: - isolate an activity specific of one emitter,- give the same importance to fissions in uranium and plutonium - take into account the radioactive decay during and after irradiation. One hundred fuel elements were studied and burn up values obtained by {gamma} spectrometry are compared to results given by chemical analyses. Preliminary measurements show that the accuracy of the results is greatly increased by the use of a germanium detector, due to its good resolution. (authors) [French] Ce rapport expose une methode de determination par spectrometrie {gamma} du taux d'irradiation et de la puissance specifique des elements combustibles irradies dans les reacteurs de puissance. Une installation simple utilisant un detecteur d'iodure de sodium et un selecteur multicanaux mesure le spectre en energie du rayonnement {gamma} emis par les produits de fission. Afin d'extraire du spectre une quantite proportionnelle au taux de combustion, il faut: - isoler une activite specifique a un emetteur, - donner la meme importance aux fissions survenues dans l'uranium et le plutonium, - prendre en compte la decroissance radioactive pendant et apres l'irradiation. Les mesures ont porte sur une centaine d'elements combustibles et les taux de combustion obtenus par spectrometrie {gamma} sont compares aux resultats des analyses chimiques. Des mesures preliminaires montrent que l'utilisation d'un detecteur de germanium augmente considerablement la precision des resultats, en raison de son excellente resolution. (auteurs)

  3. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  4. Modeling of the dynamical combustion of explosives: influence of mechanical properties; Modelisation de la combustion dynamique des explodifs: influence des proprietes mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, D.; Pertuis, C. [CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Experimental observations performed during the combustion of solid explosives under pressure have shown an unexpected desensitization of the samples when damaged. A simplified method of combustion simulation inside a pressure cell is proposed in this study. The model used is based on the description of the mechanical behaviour of the solid phase. It allows to retrieve the overall experimental results, and in particular the occurrence of anomalous combustion modes. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  5. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  6. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  7. Cost of transporting irradiated fuels and maintenance costs of a chemical treatment plant for irradiated fuels; Cout de transport des combustibles irradies et cout d'entretien d'une usine de traitement chimique des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousselier, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    other plants, an attempt has been made to express the maintenance costs as a percentage of the investments corresponding to each of the sections considered. The unequal aspect of maintenance in a plant of this type is demonstrated, this being due particularly to the inaccessibility of most of the equipment during operation. Finally some conclusions are drawn on what the maintenance costs could be and the means of reducing them in future plants. (author) [French] Le cout du cycle des combustibles a fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes mais beaucoup d'entre elles sont basees sur des etudes a priori et sont donc plus ou moins sujettes a caution. C'est ainsi que dans la partie ayant trait au traitement des combustibles irradies, des elements importants du cout n'ont que rarement ete precises a la suite d'experiences pratiques: le cout du transport des combustibles eux-memes et le cout d'entretien de l'usine. Les etudes relatives au cout du transport sont generalement basees sur des calculs faits a partir de donnees un peu arbitraires. Les etudes qui ont ete faites en France pour le transport d'uranium irradie entre les reacteurs EdF de Chinon et l'usine de retraitement de La Hague et l'uranium irradie des reacteurs de recherches jusqu'aux usines de retraitement etrangeres sont exposees et montrent qu'il a ete possible d'arriver a des types de chateaux de transport et des modalites d'expedition qui permettent de diminuer les couts dans des proportions tres importantes. Ceci a pu etre obtenu soit en combinant les transports par rail et par route soit par l'augmentation des capacites unitaires des chateaux de transport: on cite le cas d'un chateau de transport pour element des piles piscines qui est capable de transporter un coeur complet d'une pile a la fois entrainant une reduction substantielle du cout. Les etudes concernant les couts d'entretien d'usines de retraitement sont encore plus rares, or, dans les usines a entretien direct, ces couts sont une fraction non negligeable

  8. Ignition et oxydation des particules de combustible solide pulvérisé Ignition and Oxidation of Pulverized Solid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article, en utilisant la méthode du ruban chauffé, une étude de la compétition entre (1 la dévolatilisation et l'oxydation consécutive des produits de pyrolyse et (2 l'ignition de la matrice solide et sa combustion rapide. La comparaison entre le moment de l'ignition et le début de la pyrolyse permet de déterminer en fonction de la température, de la taille des particules et de la concentration en oxygène, le domaine dans lequel l'ignition d'un combustible solide pyrolysable est du type whole coal ignition (c'est-à-dire lorsque l'ignition intervient avant que la pyrolyse devienne mesurable. Les résultats suggèrent que ce type d'ignition doit s'effectuer en règle générale dans les conditions de mise en oeuvre des combustibles solides pulvérisés dans les flammes industrielles. Dans le cas de l'ignition whole coal , la vitesse de combustion de la matrice solide est inhibée dans la période qui suit l'ignition. Cette inhibition est due d'une part à la difficulté pour l'oxygène de diffuser dans les pores pendant la sortie des produits de pyrolyse, et d'autre part à la consommation préférentielle de l'oxygène dans l'oxydation des produits de pyrolyse, principalement dans le cas où cette oxydation se développe sous forme de flamme. Ce n'est que lorsque la pyrolyse s'achève que la vitesse de combustion hétérogène peut atteindre sa valeur stationnaire normale, qui est alors pratiquement identique à celle du coke. Aux températures situées entre la température d'ignition du combustible solide et la température d'extinction du coke résiduel, la combustion est incomplète, une extinction intervenant à un degré de dévolatilisation d'autant plus grande que la température est élevée. Ce phénomène s'explique qualitativement par la théorie classique d'ignition thermique lorsqu'on l'applique au cas particulier des combustibles solides pyrolysables. Les températures d'ignition ainsi que les d

  9. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    (EGR. A comparison has been made between simulated EGR (using pure nitrogen with real EGR under Diesel LTC conditions. Finally, “pure”, single component fuels are often employed in optical Diesel engines due to laser diagnostic constraints. However, these fuels generally differ from standard Diesel fuel in terms of cetane number and fuel volatility which can significantly influence the combustion and emissions characteristics in optical engines. These aspects have also been investigated within the present study. An improved understanding of the differences between optical and all-metal engines has allowed us to develop appropriate strategies to compensate for these differences on the optical engine. It is shown here that combustion phasing (and engine-out emissions matching between optical and all-metal engines can be achieved even for advanced LTC Diesel combustion strategies. The ability to ensure fully representative combustion and emissions behaviour of optical engines ultimately increases the value of optical engine data, highlighting the importance of using such engines as research tools for the further development of innovative, low emission combustion concepts. Les moteurs monocylindres transparents sont employés comme outils de recherche et de développement des moteurs à combustion interne. Ils permettent l’utilisation de techniques de diagnostics non-intrusifs (qualitatifs et quantitatifs pour étudier des phénomènes comme l’aérodynamique interne, la préparation du mélange, la combustion et la formation de polluants. Ces données expérimentales sont importantes pour la validation des modèles numériques et permettent également d’obtenir une compréhension détaillée des phénomènes physiques se déroulant dans la chambre. Les données recueillies aident au développement des nouvelles stratégies de combustion telles que la combustion homogène (HCCI et la combustion Diesel à basse température (LTC. Dans ce contexte, il est important

  10. Environmental Impact of Munition and Propellant Disposal (Impact Environnemental de l’Elimination des Munitions et des Combustibles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    the Future of Demil 3-29 3.4.2 Poster Session 3-32 3.4.2.1 The Situation in Lithuania: The Studies on the Explosive Contamination, 3-32 Their Toxic...Presentations and Documents Supporting Capability Assessments A-1 Annex B – Presentations, Paper/ Posters and Videos from the Sofia Meeting B-1 Annex C...sur l’environnement. La réunion a inclus des participants provenant de l’OTAN et des partenaires dont la Russie et la Géorgie. Les sessions étaient

  11. Cfd Based Shape Optimization of Ic Engine Optimisation de l'admission et des chambres de combustion des moteurs avec la modélisation 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griaznov V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intense competition and global regulations in the automotive industry has placed unprecedented demands on the performance, efficiency, and emissions of today's IC engines. The success or failure of a new engine design to meet these often-conflicting requirements is primarily dictated by its capability to provide minimal restriction for the inducted and exhausted flow and by its capability to generate strong large-scale in-cylinder motion. The first criterion is directly linked to power performance of the engine, while the latter has been shown to control the burn rate in IC engines. Enhanced burn rates are favorable to engine efficiency and partial load performance. CFD based numerical simulations have recently made it possible to study the development of such engine flows in great details. However, they offer little guidance for modifying the ports and chamber geometry controlling the flow to meet the desired performance. This paper presents a methodology which combines 3D, steady state CFD techniques with robust numerical optimization tools to design, rather than just evaluate the performance, of IC engine ports and chambers. La forte concurrence et les réglementations dans l'industrie automobile entraînent aujourd'hui une exigence sans précédent de performance, de rendement et d'émissions pour les moteurs à combustion interne. Le succès ou l'échec de la conception d'un nouveau moteur satisfaisant à ces propriétés, souvent contradictoires, est dicté, dans un premier temps, par l'obtention d'une restriction minimale des débits d'admission et d'échappement, ensuite, par la nécessité de générer des écoulements forts de grande amplitude. Le premier critère est directement lié à la performance du moteur, tandis que le second est reconnu comme contrôlant la combustion. Des dégagements de chaleur accélérés améliorent le rendement et les performances à faible charge. La simulation 3D rend possible depuis peu d

  12. Ameliorer les performances environnementales des centrales a charbon pulverise via la co-combustion de combustible derive de dechets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekemans, Odile Geraldine

    Coal supplies around 28% of the world's energy needs and produces some 40% of the world's electricity. In the United States, close to 650 coal power plants currently produce electricity from coal, the majority of witch are equipped with pulverized coal boilers build in the 80's. Due to coal's intrinsic content in nitrogen and sulfur, its combustion is associated with high levels of NOx and SO2 emissions, that are responsible, among other thing, for acid rains. In order to help reduce SO2 emissions of coal power plant, this thesis focuses on the behaviour of a novel feedstock called ReEF(TM) or ReEngineered Feedstock(TM), developed by the company Accordant Energy LLCRTM, that combines non recyclable waste and alkaline sorbent. Since waste have a high calorific value and do not contain sulfur, and since alkaline sorbents (such as limestone) are able to react with SO2 and capture it in solid state, co-combustion of ReEF(TM) and coal could reduce SO2 emissions inside the furnace chamber itself. This technology easy to implement, as it requires a limited initial investment and limited additional space, could help avoid the construction of costly flue gas treatment unit downstream from the furnace. However, careless combustion of this engineered fuel could have disastrous consequences for the coal power plant owners. This thesis, then, deliver one among the first experimental study of co-combustion of coal and ReEF(TM) in conditions characteristic of pulverized coal boilers. As a first step, in order to get familiarize with the feedstock under study, the thermal degradation of a ReEF(TM) without sorbent and of its components is analyzed by thermogravimetry. With the analysis of more than 70 samples at heating rates ranging from 5°C/min to 400°C/min we are able to conclude that ReEF(TM) thermal degradation can be seen as the independent thermal degradation of its components, as long as heat transfer limitations are taken into account. Thus, no substantial chemical

  13. Dosage of fission products in irradiated fuel treatment effluents (radio-chemical method); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents du traitement des combustibles irradies (methode radiochimique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The dosage methods presented here are applicable to relatively long-lived fission products present in the effluents resulting from irradiated fuel treatment processes (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). The methods are based on the same principle: - addition of a carrying-over agent - chemical separation over several purification stages, - determination of the chemical yield by calorimetry - counting of an aliquot liquid portion. (author) [French] Les methodes de dosage presentees concernent les produits de fission a vie relativement longue presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). Elles sont toutes basees sur le meme principe: - addition d'entraineur, - separation chimique en plusieurs stades de purification, - determination du rendement chimique par calorimetrie, - comptage d'une aliquote liquide. (auteur)

  14. Metallurgical and mechanical behaviours of PWR fuel cladding tube oxidised at high temperature; Comportements metallurqigue et mecanique des materiaux de gainage du combustible REP oxydes a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, A

    2007-12-15

    Zirconium alloys are used as cladding materials in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). As they are submitted to very extreme conditions, it is necessary to check their behaviour and especially to make sure they meet the safety criteria. They are therefore studied under typical in service-loadings but also under accidental loadings. In one of these accidental scenarios, called Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the cladding temperature may increase above 800 C, in a steam environment, and decrease before a final quench of the cladding. During this temperature transient, the cladding is heavily oxidised, and the metallurgical changes lead to a decrease of the post quench mechanical properties. It is then necessary to correlate this drop in residual ductility to the metallurgical evolutions. This is the problem we want to address in this study: the oxidation of PWR cladding materials at high temperature in a steam environment and its consequences on post quench mechanical properties. As oxygen goes massively into the metallic part - a zirconia layer grows at the same time - during the high temperature oxidation, the claddings tubes microstructure shows three different phases that are the outer oxide layer (zirconia) and the inner metallic phases ({alpha}(O) and 'ex {beta}') - with various mechanical properties. In order to reproduce the behaviour of this multilayered material, the first part of this study consisted in creating samples with different - but homogeneous in thickness - oxygen contents, similar to those observed in the different phases of the real cladding. The study was especially focused on the {beta}-->{alpha} phase transformation upon cooling and on the resulting microstructures. A mechanism was proposed to describe this phase transformation. For instance, we conclude that for our oxygen enriched samples, the phase transformation kinetics upon cooling are ruled by the oxygen partitioning between the two allotropic phases. Then, these materials were mechanically tested at various temperatures and for various mean oxygen contents. This allowed us, first, to establish ductile to brittle transition temperatures (for a given oxygen content), and second, to establish behaviour laws for those materials (function of oxygen content and temperature). It was thus possible to start some preliminary finite element calculations to describe the cladding behaviour under the standard technological ring compression test. (author)

  15. Assessment of End-Plug Welding of Fuel Elements; Evaluation des Soudures Terminales des Elements Combustibles; Otsenka kachestva privarki kontsevoj probki toplivnykh ehlementov; Inspeccion de la Soldadura del Tapon Terminal de los Elementos Combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y.; Aoki, T. [Tokai Refinery, Atomic Fuel Corporation (Japan)

    1965-10-15

    faites pour des elements combustibles du reacteur JRR-3. Il s'agit d'un reacteur de recherche de 10 MW, ralenti et refroidi 3 l'eau lourde, avec des elements combustibles en uranium metallique sous gaine d'aluminium. Comme ces elements n'ont qu'une liaison mecanique entre la gaine et l'ame, il peut exister une contrainte de traction aux bouchons de la gaine sous l'effet du gonflement de l'uranium par suite de l'irradiation. Le traitement thermique provoquera une contrainte analogue dans les soudures. Une corrosion preferentielle provoquee par l'eau chaude peut se produire dans le voisinage des soudures, a cause de la difference de microstructure. Il est essentiel d'assurer l'etancheite pendant et apres l'utilisation dans le reacteur. Des specimens specialement concus ont ete utilises pour les essais d'elasticite, les essais de fluage a haute temperature, les essais thermiques et le controle de la corrosion. Plusieurs sortes de soudures ont fait l'objet d'essais non destructifs avant les controles proprement dits et ont ete verifiees quant a l'etancheite a diverses periodes entre les controles. L'etude critique des resultats obtenus peut permettre de fixer des normes d'inspection, telles que la radiographie par rayons X et l'inspection visuelle des soudures des bouchons. Le memoire donne egalement d'autres resultats pour les elements combustibles avec gaine en Magnox ou en Zircaloy. (author) [Spanish] Es muy importante establecer una correlacion entre los resultados de los ensayos y el rendimiento en los reactores en servicio, asf como perfeccionar los correspondientes metodos de ensayo no destructivo. Ahora bien, resulta algo diffcil lograr la correlacion indicada a causa de los elevados gastos que ello supone y de la intensa radiactividad. Se han efectuado varios estudios fuera del reactor simulando las condiciones que reinan en el interior de este. En el presente documento se exponen algunos datos sobre los ensayos con elementos combustibles del reactor japones de

  16. Fission product determination in irradiated fuel processing waste (electrophoresis); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (electrophorese)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M; Tret, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule. Services d' Extraction du Plutonium

    1966-07-01

    This dosage method concerns fission products present in the waste produced from the processing of cooled irradiated fuels. - Sr, Cs, Ce, Y, Ru by quantitative analysis; - Zr, Nb by qualitative analysis. It includes electrophoresis on paper strips one meter long which is then analysed between two window-less Geiger counters. For an activity of 10{sup -2} {mu}Ci of any cation in a 10 {mu}l spot, the standard error {sigma} if 3 to 4 per cent. complete analysis lasts about 5 hours. (authors) [French] Cette methode de dosage concerne les produits de fission presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies refroidis: - Sr, Cs, Ce, Y, Ru en analyse quantitative; - Zr, Nb en analyse qualitative. Elle comporte une electrophorese sur bande de papier de un metre de longueur suivie d'un depouillement entre deux compteurs Geiger sans fenetre. Pour une activite de 10{sup -2} {mu}Ci d'un cation quelconque dans une tache de 10 {mu}l l'erreur standard {sigma} est de 3 a 4 pour cent. L'analyse complete demande environ 5 heures. (auteurs)

  17. Evolution des modèles mathématiques directs appliqués aux moteurs à combustion interne Evolution of Direct Mathematical Models Applied to Internal-Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiano N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte de l'évolution présente et future des modèles mathématiques directs de simulation dans les moteurs. Ceux-ci sont basés sur la résolution des équations de Navier-Stokes, et deviennent peu à peu une nécessité surtout en ce qui concerne la combustion hétérogène. Après un aperçu sur l'état actuel des algorithmes de calcul et des sous-modèles physiques utilisés, on présente une revue des principaux codes de calcul appliqués au moteur, avec quelques-uns de leurs résultats. Après avoir évoqué les obstacles rencontrés lors de leur mise en oeuvre, on aborde l'évolution prévisible lors des prochaines années, tant pour les techniques de calcul que pour les codes eux-mêmes. This article describes the present and future evolution of direct mathematical models used for engine simulation. These models are based on the solving of Navier-Stokes equations and are gradually becoming an absolute necessity, especially with regard to heterogeneous combustion. Alter briefly describing the present state of the computing algorithms and physical submodels used, the leading computing codes applied to engines are reviewed, with some of their results. Then the stumbling blocks encountered during the implementation of these codes are described, followed by the foresable evolution in the next few years, for both computing techniques and the codes themselves.

  18. Study of the aqueous chemical treatment of uranium zirconium fuels; Etude du traitement chimique des combustibles uraniumzirconium par voie seche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M; Nollet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A dry process has been studied for separating the uranium from the zirconium-either for recovering the enriched uranium from fuel element production waste, or with a view to treating this waste after irradiation. In this process the alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid at 400 deg. C in a fluidized corundum bed which causes the zirconium to volatilize as tetrachloride and the uranium to form the trichloride. This latter is then converted to the hexafluoride by attack with fluorure. After the laboratory tests, a first pilot plant with a capacity of 1 kg of alloy was tried out at the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre; this made it possible to fix the operational conditions for the process. An industrial scale plant was then built with the collaboration of the from Kuhlmann, and operated until a satisfactory process had been developed for treating the waste. This installation treats 3 kg/h of alloy with a yield for the hydrochloric acid of about 50 per cent and with a uranium loss in the zirconium tetrachloride of about 0.1 per cent. An active pilot plant capable of treating of treating a few kilos of irradiated alloy is now being studied. (authors) [French] On a etudie un procede de voie seche pour effectuer la separation de l'uranium et du zirconium - soit en vue de la recuperation de l'uranium enrichi contenu dans les dechets de fabrication des elements combustibles - soit en vue du traitement de ceux-ci apres irradiation. Ce procede consiste a attaquer l'alliage par l'acide chlorhydrique a 400 deg. C dans un lit fluidise de corindon, ce qui a pour effet de volatiliser le zirconium sous forme de tetrachlorure et de transformer l'uranium en trichlorure. Ce dernier est ensuite converti en hexafluorure par action du fluor. Apres des essais de laboratoire, un premier pilote a l'echelle de 1 kg d'alliage a ete experimente au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses et a permis de determiner les conditions operatoires du procede. En collaboration avec

  19. Fuel elements for pressurised-gas reactors; Elements combustibles des piles a gaz sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J A; Englander, M; Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The design and fabrication of fuel elements for the first CO{sub 2} pressurized reactors have induced to investigate: various cladding materials, natural uranium base fuels, canning processes. The main analogical tests used in connection with the fuel element study are described. These various tests have enabled, among others, the fabrication of the fuel element for the EL2 reactor. Lastly, future solutions for electrical power producing reactors are foreseen. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude et la realisation d'elements combustibles pour les premieres piles a CO{sub 2} sous pression ont conduit a examiner: les divers materiaux de gaine, les combustibles a base d'uranium naturel, les modes de gainage. Les principaux essais analogiques ayant servi au cours de l'etude de la cartouche sont decrits. Ces divers essais ont notamment permis la realisation de la cartouche de la pile EL2. Enfin sont envisagees les solutions futures pour les piles productrices d'energie electrique. (auteur)

  20. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  1. RepA and RepB exert plasmid incompatibility repressing the transcription of the repABC operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Oseguera, Angeles; Cevallos, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 has a multipartite genome composed of one chromosome and six large plasmids with low copy numbers, all belonging to the repABC plasmid family. All elements essential for replication and segregation of these plasmids are encoded within the repABC operon. RepA and RepB direct plasmid segregation and are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the operon, and RepC is the initiator protein of the plasmid. Here we show that in addition to RepA (repressor) and RepB (corepressor), full transcriptional repression of the operon located in the symbiotic plasmid (pRetCFN42d) of this strain requires parS, the centromere-like sequence, and the operator sequence. However, the co-expression of RepA and RepB is sufficient to induce the displacement of the parental plasmid. RepA is a Walker-type ATPase that self associates in vivo and in vitro and binds specifically to the operator region in its RepA-ADP form. In contrast, RepA-ATP is capable of binding to non-specific DNA. RepA and RepB form high molecular weight DNA-protein complexes in the presence of ATP and ADP. RepA carrying ATP-pocket motif mutations induce full repression of the repABC operon without the participation of RepB and parS. These mutants specifically bind the operator sequence in their ATP or ADP bound forms. In addition, their expression in trans exerts plasmid incompatibility against the parental plasmid. RepA and RepB expressed in trans induce plasmid incompatibility because of their ability to repress the repABC operon and not only by their capacity to distort the plasmid segregation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiological emergency preparedness (REP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    This talk focuses on the accomplishments of Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program. Major topics include the following: strengthening the partnership between FEMA, the States, and the Industry; the Standard Exercise Report Format (SERF); Multi-year performance partnership agreement (MYPPA); new REP Program guidance; comprehensive exercise program; federal radiological emergency response plan (FRERP); international interest; REP user fee; implementation EPA PAGs and Dose Limits; Contamination monitoring standard for portal monitors; guidance documents and training

  3. Real-time modelling of the diesel engine combustion process; Echtzeitfaehige Modellierung des dieselmotorischen Verbrennungsprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    2008-07-01

    The publication investigates single-zone models of diesel engine combustion which are capable, in addition to pre-injection and main injection, to represent post-injection processes on a physical basis. These must function in real time as they are used in ''hardware-in-the-loop'' test stands. Methods to adapt the models to other engine types are explained. Validation is made across the whole characteristic field on the basis of measured data provided by two serial engines. For assessing pollutant production, models are integrated that are capable of calculating NOx and soot formation. These, too, are calculated in real time using appropriate hardware systems. A runtime analysis compares the computing times of the models. (orig.)

  4. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels by halides and their compounds; Le traitement des combustibles irradies par les halogenes et leurs composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M; Faugeras, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A brief description is given of the experiments leading to the choice of the process volatilization of fluorides by gas phase attack. The chemical process is described for certain current types of clad Fuels: the aluminium or the zirconium cladding is first volatilized as chloride by attack with gaseous hydrogen chloride. The uranium is then transformed into volatile hexafluoride by attack with fluorine. These reactions are carried out consecutively in the same reactor in the presence of a fluidized bed of alumina which facilitates heat exchange. The experiments have been carried out in quantities from 100 gms to several kilograms of fuel, first without activity, and then with tracers. A description is given of the laboratory research which was carried out simultaneously on the separation of uranium and plutonium fluorides. Finally, an apparatus is described which is intended to test the process on irradiated fuel at an activity level of several thousands of curies of fission products. (authors) [French] On rappelle brievement les experimentations qui nous ont permis de decider du procede adopte volatilisation des fluorures par attaque en phase gazeuse. On decrit le processus chimique pour certains types courants de combustibles Gaines: dans un premier stade, l'aluminium ou le zirconium est volatilise sous forme de chlorure par action de l'acide chlorhydrique. Ensuite, l'uranium est transforme en hexafluorure volatil par action du fluor. Ces operations se font successivement dans un meme reacteur, en presence d'un lit fluidise d'alumine qui a pour but de faciliter les echanges thermiques. L'experimentation a ete conduite sur des quantites allant de 100 g a plusieurs kg de combustibles, en inactif, puis avec des traceurs. On decrit les etudes de laboratoire menees parallelement sur la separation des fluorures d'uranium et de plutonium. Enfin, on decrit une installation en construction destinee a experimenter le procede sur combustible irradie, a l'echelle de

  5. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.

    2005-12-15

    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  6. Contribution to the study of can deformations in the fuel elements of gas-graphite reactors during thermal cycling; Contribution a l'etude des deformations des gaines des elements combustibles de reacteur graphite-gaz au cours du cyclage thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M; Boudouresques, B; Delpeyroux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cans of fuel cartridges used in reactors of the gas-graphite type have either longitudinal fins of variable thickness, short herring-bone fins, or else a mixture of the two. An important test of the strength of these cartridges is their behaviour during thermal cycling carried out in cells reproducing in-pile conditions. It has been observed during with rapid cooling that there occurs a shortening at the base of the fins which can be accompanied in particular by a compression effect at the fin type, which has a tendency to curl, and by a tractive force acting on the body of the can at the ends of the longitudinal fins; this last phenomenon can result in a fracturing of the welds at the extremities or of the ends of the cartridge. This report presents first of all the way in which the stress diagram can be drawn for a can touching the fuel, and then the effect of the ratchet along a fin fixed to a bar with or without grooves. Finally the importance is shown of the test cycling variables (temperature, heating and cooling rates). (authors) [French] Les gaines des cartouches combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz comportent soit des ailettes longitudinales plus ou moins epaisses, soit de courtes ailettes a chevrons, soit un ensemble des deux. Un test important de la tenue des cartouches, est la tenue au cyclage thermique en cellule pour reproduire le comportement en pile. On a observe au cours des cyclages a refroidissement rapide, un raccourcissement a la base des ailettes qui peut s'accompagner notamment d'une mise en compression du sommet de l'ailette qui a tendance a friser, et d'une traction exercee sur le corps des gaines au bout des ailettes longitudinales; ce dernier phenomene peut se traduire par des ruptures de soudures d'extremites ou des parties terminales de la cartouche. Ce rapport presente d'abord la maniere dont peut etre trace le diagramme des contraintes dans une gaine liee au combustible, puis l'effet du rochet le long d

  7. Study of the lattice parameter evolution of PWR irradiated MOX fuel by X-Ray diffraction; Etude de l'evolution du parametre cristallin des combustibles MOX irradies en rep par la methode de diffraction des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavier, B

    1995-07-01

    Fuel irradiation leads to a swelling resulting from the formation of gaseous (Kr, Xe) or solid fission products which are found either in solution or as solid inclusions in the matrix. This phenomena has to be evaluated to be taken into account in fuel cladding Interaction. Fuel swelling was studied as a function of burn up by measuring the corresponding cell constant evolution by X-Ray diffraction. This study was realized on Mixed Oxide Fuels (MOX) irradiated in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) at different burn-up for 3 initial Pu contents. Lattice parameter evolutions were followed as a function of burn-up for the irradiated fuel with and without an annealing thermal treatment. These experimental evolutions are compared to the theoretical evolutions calculated from the hard sphere model, using the fission product concentrations determined by the APPOLO computer code. Contribution of varying parameters influencing the unit cell value is discussed. Thermal treatment effects were checked by metallography, X-Ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. After thermal treatment, no structural change was observed but a decrease of the lattice parameter was measured. This modification results essentially from self-irradiation defect annealing and not from stoichiometry variations. Microprobe analysis showed that about 15% of the formed Molybdenum is in solid solution In the oxide matrix. Micrographs showed the existence of Pu packs in the oxide matrix which induces a broadening of diffraction lines. The RIETVELD method used to analyze the X-Ray patterns did not allow to characterize independently the Pu packs and the oxide matrix lattice parameters. Nevertheless, with this method, the presence of micro-strains in the irradiated nuclear fuel could be confirmed. (author)

  8. Contribution to the study of the fission-gas release in metallic nuclear fuels; Contribution a l'etude du degagement des gaz de fission dans les combustibles nucleaires metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryger, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-10-01

    In order to study the effect of an external pressure on the limitation of swelling due to fission-gas precipitation, some irradiations have been carried out at burn-ups of about 35.000 MWd/ton, and at average sample temperatures of 575 Celsius degrees, of non-alloyed uranium and uranium 8 per cent molybdenum gained in a thick stainless steel can. A cylindrical central hole allows a fuel swelling from 20 to 33 per cent according to the experiment. After irradiation, the uranium samples showed two types of can rupture: one is due to the fuel swelling, and the other, to the pressure of the fission gases, released through a network of microcracks. The cans of the uranium-molybdenum samples are all undamaged and it is shown that the gas release occurs by interconnection of the bubbles for swelling values higher than those obtained in the case of uranium. For each type of fuel, a swelling-fission gas release relationship is established. The results suggest that good performances with a metallic fuel intended for use in fast reactor conditions can be obtained. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'effet d'une pression exterieure sur la limitation du gonflement due a la precipitation des gaz de fission, on a irradie a des taux de combustion d'environ 35.000 MWj/t et a des temperatures moyennes de 575 degres des echantillons d'uranium non allie et d'uranium-molybdene 8 pour cent contenus dans une gaine en acier inoxydable epaisse. Un trou cylindrique central permet au combustible de gonfler librement de 20 a 33 pour cent suivant les cas. Apres irradiation les echantillons d'uranium presentent deux types de ruptures de gaine: l'une due au gonflement du combustible, l'autre a la pression des gaz degages, ce degagement des gaz etant provoque par un reseau de micro-fissures. Les gaines des echantillons d'alliage uranium-molybdene sont toutes intactes et l'on montre que le relachement des gaz opere par interconnexion des bulles pour des valeurs de gonflement plus elevees que dans

  9. Materials Control in the Fabrication of Enriched Uranium Fuels; Controle des Matieres au Cours de la Fabrication des Combustibles a Base d'Uranium Enrichi; Uchet materialov pri izgotovlenii topliva na obogashchennom urane; Control de Materiales en la Elaboracion de Combustibles de Uranio Enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, Jr., R. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    measurement were successfully used where alloy fuel content was critical. Scrap handling had an important effect on the materials balance, by which fuel content was confirmed and good accountability was assured. Records and handling procedures, including batching and physical marking methods, were formulated in a manner that assisted the fabricator in criticality control. (author) [French] Grace aux efforts intenses qui ont ete accomplis au cours des 15 dernieres annees dans le domaine de la technologie des elements de combustible par le Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge, il a ete possible d'etablir des methodes rationnelles de fabrication et de controle des combustibles eraichis, qui trouvent une iaige application dans la fabrication industrielle des elements de combustible a l'heure actuelle. Des techniques eprouvees de manipulation du combustible enrichi en alliages, en dispersion et sous forme d'oxyde en vrac ont ete mises au point et appliquees a l'etude et a la' fabrication des prototypes d'elements combustibles utilises pour le demarrage du reacteur d'essai de materiaux, du reacteur a protection constituee par la masse du ra- lentisseur ou reacteur piscine, du reacteur de puissance transportable construit pat V, du reacteur protection en tour, du reacteur expose a la Conference de Geneve, du reacteur a haut flux pour la production de radioisotopes et du reacteur experimental refroidi par un gaz. L'experience acquise est la base du present memoire qui traite essentiellement des problemes de controle des matieres qui se posent au cours de la fabrication de differents types d'elements de combustible a base d'uranium enrichi et montre comment ils ont ete resolus. Les objectifs principaux d'un systeme rationnel de controle des matieres sont les suivants: 1. reduire le plus possible le nombre des postes matiere a controler; 2. etablir des releves distincts pour chacune des phases principales des operations et les coordonner de maniere a pouvoir relever les ecarts avec un

  10. Results of the project 'combustion modelling' (BKM II); Ergebnisse des Projekts 'Brennkammermodellierung' (BKM II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, B.; Rachner, M.; Frank, P.; Schmitz, G.; Geigle, K.P.; Meier, W.; Schuetz, H.; Aigner, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungstechnik; Kessler, R. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Stroemungstechnik; Lehmann, B. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik; Forkert, T. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Simulation und Softwaretechnik

    2002-07-01

    In the year 1996 the spheres of competence of several DLR-Institutes working in the areas of fluid dynamics, reaction kinetics, combustion, numerical methods and laser measuring techniques have been brought together while contributing to the internal DLR project 'combustion chamber modelling (BKM)', in order to proceed with the computational simulation of combustion processes in combustion chambers of gas turbines. The main issue was the development of a research code for numerical simulation of fluid flow in real combustion chambers. Here the development of computational models of physical and chemical processes was emphasized, among other processes the formation of soot was treated. Moreover, a worldwide outstanding database of measured data for the purpose of code validation has been created within the framework of the BKM project using the laboratory facilities of the DLR, which are in Germany unique for the experimental investigation of the various processes in combustion chambers of gas turbines. The project BKM is part of the specific DLR-programme 'energy'. With the successful completion of the first phase of the project in 1998, a second project phase of three years (BKM II) has been launched at the beginning of 1999. Here the work of the first phase continued and new topics were tackled. The second phase of the project was partly founded by the DLR-programme 'aeronautics'. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 1996 wurden die Faehigkeiten mehrerer DLR-Institute auf den Gebieten Stroemungsmechanik, Reaktionskinetik, Verbrennung sowie Numerische Verfahren und Laser-Messverfahren in dem DLR-internen Projekt 'Brennkammermodellierung' (BKM) zusammengefuehrt, um die rechnerische Simulation der Verbrennungsvorgaenge in Gasturbinen-Brennkammern voranzutreiben. Dabei war die Entwicklung eines Forschungscodes zur numerischen Simulation von realen Brennkammerstroemungen das vorrangige Ziel der Arbeiten. Ein besonderes Schwergewicht lag

  11. Influence de la nature des fuels lourds sur la qualité de leur combustion Influence of Heavy Fuel Oil Composition on Particulate Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir d'études de combustion de fuels lourds numéro 2 effectuées dans une chaudière de 1 MW et dans un foyer de 0,1 MW, on conclut que le résidu de Carbone Conradson (CCR des fuels est un bon indicateur de leur combustibilité, mais qu'il n'est pas suffisant dans tous les cas, c'est-à-dire que pour un même CCR, on peut mesurer des valeurs différentes en indice pondéral. Plusieurs interpréta. tions possibles ont été proposées et vérifiées : a Le résidu de Carbone Conradson, résultat d'une pyrolyse lente, est une procédure qui n'est pas suffisamment représentative des conditions réelles. Or, en soumettant un certain nombre de fuels à une pyrolyse flash (technique de la grille chauffée, on observe une bonne corrélation entre la quantité de résidu résultant et le CCR. Donc, ce dernier reste un bon indicateur de combustibilité. b Pour les fuels ex résidu atmosphérique, ex résidu sous-vide et ex désasphaltage, on détermine de satisfaisantes corrélations entre le CCR et certaines caractéristiques physico-chimiques de la fraction lourde des fuels (point de coupe choisi 450°C : polyaromaticité (mesurée par RMN du Carbone 13, C/H, masse moléculaire. Cependant, les fuels de visco-réduction satisfont à d'autres corrélations, de même que les résidus de vapocraquage. Donc, pour ces classes de fuels, on peut prévoir des anomalies entre indice pondéral et CCR, ce qui est observé dans certains équipements. c On observe que pour une même valeur de CCR, la proportion relative entre fractions légères et fractions lourdes des fuels peut parfois varier très sensiblement avec pour conséquence des modifications dans les cartes de richesse et de température des flammes résultantes, et donc des variations dans les émissions particulaires. L'importance de telles variations dépendra des types de brûleurs et de chambres de combustion dans lesquelles la flamme se développera. On the basis of combustion runs of

  12. Combustion and environment. The answers from the energy and equipment suppliers; Combustion et environnement. Les reponses des fournisseurs d`energie et d`equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a reprint of an article published in `Energie Plus` magazine which questions the capability of commercial fuels and combustion equipments (central heating plants, burners, turbines and engines) available today of respecting the limit values of pollutant emissions (SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO, dusts) of forthcoming regulations. An analysis of the situation is given separately for the fuels (natural gas, coal, heavy fuels) with a stress on the competition aspects, and for the combustion systems (turbines, diesel and gas engines, central heating plants). (J.S.)

  13. Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels; Proprietes des alliages uranium-molybdene de faibles teneurs utilisables comme materiaux combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J; Decours, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    sont presentees les caracteristiques metallurgiques des alliages uranium-molybdene de teneurs comprises entre 0,5 et 3 pour cent en poids de molybdene. Certains de ces alliages etant utilises dans les piles de puissance EdF, nous indiquons brievement les conditions de fonctionnement demandees aux materiaux combustibles: temperature maximum, gradient de temperature et pression externe. Dans une premiere partie sont etudiees les proprietes structurales des alliages en correlation avec les cinetiques des transformations de phases, nous decrivons les incidences de differents facteurs physico-metallurgiques sur la morphologie et sur la structure cristalline des materiaux: - conditions de solidification et heredite de la structure {gamma}, - vitesse de refroidissement au passage des points de transformation - suppression ou non de la transformation intermediaire {gamma} {yields} {beta} Dans une seconde partie, nous indiquons comment la connaissance des processus des transformations de phase a permis de definir les conditions d'elaboration optimales de ces materiaux sous forme de tubes de combustibles destines aux reacteurs EdF: conditions de coulee traitement de refroidissement controle, soudabilite. Dans une troisieme partie, nous etudions la stabilite thermique au cours de paliers de longue duree a haute temperature et de cycles, dans les deux domaines du diagramme d'equilibre {alpha} + {gamma}, {beta} + {gamma}; les influences de la morphologie (en particulier des deux types de pseudo-grains {alpha} observes) et de la vitesse de refroidissement lors du passage des points de transformation sont discutees. Dans une quatrieme partie, les proprietes mecaniques sont discutees resistance a la traction, resistance au fluage, resilience. Ces proprietes peuvent etre egalement influencees par l'heredite de la structure {gamma} et par la vitesse de refroidissement subie par l'alliage. En conclusion, nous developpons les raisons qui ont motive le choix de certains de ces alliages

  14. Modélisation de la combustion de fuels lourds prenant en compte la dispersion des asphaltènes Modeling Heavy Fuel-Oil Combustion (While Considering Or Including Asphaltene Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Divers modèles, ayant pour but de prédire le taux d'imbrûlés solides lors de la combustion du fuel lourd, ont été mis au point dans le passé. Les paramètres entrant en ligne de compte sont le plus souvent les teneurs en résidus lourds hydrocarbonés (asphaltènes précipités au pentane ou à l'heptane et carbone Conradson et en métaux : c'est le cas des modèles Exxon et Shell développés respectivement en 1979 et 1981. D'autres modèles tiennent compte, en plus de la composition du fuel, de son mode d'atomisation, de son mode de diffusion dans le foyer et de la cinétique de combustion : on peut citer les travaux du Laboratoire Energie du MIT publiés en 1986. Néanmoins, ces facteurs ne sont pas les seuls à intervenir : l'expérience a montré que l'état de dispersion des asphaltènes peut jouer également un grand rôle, notamment dans le cas d'installations de combustion à injection mécanique, pour lesquelles la dispersion des gouttelettes n'est pas aussi fine que pour des installations munies d'une injection assistée par la vapeur. Cette influence de la dispersion des asphaltènes sur la combustion a été mise en évidence dans le passé par l'utilisation d'additifs dispersants et également par la combustion de fuels lourds constitués par dilution d'asphaltes précipités au pentane avec un gas-oil de cracking catalytique de raffinerie (LCO. Ce sont ces fuels que l'on a considérés dans la présente étude. L'effet de ce facteur dispersion n'a pas été quantifié jusqu'alors, la difficulté étant de définir une grandeur mesurable représentant la répartition des agglomérats d'asphaltènes. Dans cette étude, on a essayé en un premier temps de faire une approche fractale de la répartition des asphaltènes à partir de clichés (préparés par la société Total, cette méthode ayant déjà été utilisée avec succès pour décrire des structures d'aspects comparables. Malheureusement, on s'est heurté à des

  15. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process; Le traitement des combustibles irradies amelioration et extension du procede utilisant les solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Improvements made in the conventional tri-butylphosphate process are described, in particular. the concentration and the purification of plutonium by one extraction cycle using tri-butyl-phosphate with reflux; and the use of an apparatus working continuously for precipitating plutonium oxalate, for calcining the oxalate, and for fluorinating the oxide. The modifications proposed for the treatment of irradiated uranium - molybdenum alloys are described, in particular, the dissolution of the fuel, and the concentration of the fission product solutions. The solvent extraction treatment is used also for the plutonium fuels utilized for the fast breeder reactor (Rapsodie) An outline of the process is presented and discussed, as well as the first experimental results and the plans for a pilot plant having a capacity of 1 kg/day. The possible use of tn-lauryl-amine in the plutonium purification cycle is now under consideration for the processing plant at La Hague. The flowsheet for this process and its performance are presented. The possibility of vitrification is considered for the final treatment of the concentrated radioactive wastes from the Marcoule (irradiated uranium) and La Hague (irradiated uranium-molybdenum) Centers. Three possible processes are described and discussed, as well as the results obtained from the operation of the corresponding experimental units using tracers. (authors) [French] On decrit les ameliorations apportees au procede classique utilisant le phosphate tributylique, et notamment la concentration et la purification du plutonium par un cycle d'extraction au tributylphosphate avec reflux, l'utilisation d'un appareillage continu de precipitation d'oxalate de plutonium, de calcination de l'oxalate, et de fluoration de l'oxyde. On presente les modifications envisagees pour le traitement des alliages uranium-molybdene irradies, principalement en ce qui concerne la dissolution du combustible et la concentration des solutions de produits de fission

  16. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  17. Decontamination of irradiated-fuel processing waste using manganese dioxide hydrate; Decontamination des effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies par le bioxyde de manganese hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M; Gaudier, J F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    The 'manganese dioxide' process is designed to replace the 'calcium carbonate' treatment for low and medium activity wastes. The objective to attain during the research for a new process was the diminution of the volume of the sludge without decreasing the decontamination factor of the wastes. The new process involves addition in series of twice over 100 ppm of Mn{sup 2+} in the waste which has previously been made basic and oxidizing; the precipitate formed in situ is separated after each addition. The process has the advantage of increasing the decontamination of strontium. The treatment can be used in a plant including two decantation units and has given effective results when applied in such a plant. (author) [French] Le procede au ''bioxyde de manganese'' est destine a remplacer le traitement ''carbonate de calcium'' dans les effluents de moyenne activite. L'objectif poursuivi lors de la recherche d'un procede nouveau etait de diminuer le volume des boues sans diminuer le facteur de decontamination des effluents. Le nouveau traitement consiste a effectuer en cascade sur les effluents rendus basiques et oxydants une double precipitation de 100 ppm de Mn{sup 2+} avec separation intermediaire du precipite. Il presente en outre l'avantage d'ameliorer la decontamination en strontium. Le traitement est utilisable dans la chaine des deux decanteurs et a donne satisfaction lors de son exploitation industrielle. Le volume des boues seches a ete reduit d'un facteur 3 a 4 par rapport au traitement carbonate. (auteur)

  18. Natural gas combustion and indoor air quality in domestic premises; Combustion du gaz naturel et qualite de l'air a l'interieur des habitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhio, L.; Riva, A. [Snam, (Italy); Canci, F.; Scevarolli, V. [Italgas, Torino (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Indoor air quality depends on many factors; combustion appliances are one of the sources of emissions inside dwellings. Their installation is regulated by UNI-CIG standards which also establish the ventilation and aeration requirements needed to guarantee the safety and healthiness of the environment. In order to critically evaluate the effect on indoor air quality of using gas appliances under different operational regimes and in different types of building, Snam and Italgas have developed a research project in co-operation with Enitecnologie and Turin Polytechnic, even to provide theoretical and experimental support for standardisation activities. The results of the presented research include experimental measurements made in real buildings, mathematical modelling and analysis of Italian and international literature. The results show that use of combustion appliances has little influence on indoor air quality and does not affect people's health. (authors)

  19. Dispersions of Oxides in Oxide Matrices as High-Temperature Reactor Fuels; Dispersions d'oxyde dans des matrices d'oxyde, utilisees comme combustibles dans des reacteurs a haute temperature; Dispersiya okisej v okislovykh matritsakh v kachestve topliva dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora; Empleo de dispersiones de oxidos en matrices de oxidos, como combustibles para reactores de elevada temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The potential usefulness of dispersions of PuO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} in matrices of BeO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and SiO{sub 2} is reviewed in terms of fuel integrity and fabrication. Dimensional stability and fission-product retentivity are the two features most important to fuel integrity. Compatibility of the constituents of the fuels with one another and with the coolant will influence dimensional stability, but oxide fuels are well favoured in these respects. Dimensional changes under irradiation will contain contributions from neutron and fission fragment damage to the matrix, from radiation damage to the fissile-fertile phase and from agglomerated fission-product gases. Thermal stresses are also capable of effecting changes in shape. However, information on mechanisms for stress relaxation is too limited to enable any reasonable theoretical assessment of behaviour to be made. Both light irradiation and high burn-up studies of fission-product release from the fissile-fertile oxides have concerned themselves mainly with the gaseous products, chiefly xenon. Data on the release of other fission products is very limited as is also information on the movement of fission products in general through the potential matrix materials. Studies of the permeability of sintered pure oxides indicate that densities of at least 95% theoretical density (maybe even 98%) will be needed to eliminate open porosity in such matrices. A variety of techniques are available for the preparation of fissile-fertile particles, for their coating and for their incorporation into high-density matrices. Work on laboratory-scale fabrication processes is well advanced. (author) [French] L'auteur examine la possibilite d'utiliser des combustibles disperses - PuO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} et ThO{sub 2} et matrices de BeO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO et SiO{sub 2} - dans des reacteurs a haute temperature, au point de vue de l'integrite du combustible et de sa transformation. La stabilite dimensionnelle

  20. Experimental and numerical study of the active control of jets inside combustion chambers; Etude experimentale et numerique du controle actif de jets dans des chambres de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faivre, V

    2003-12-15

    Combustion instabilities occur when the flame heat release couples with the acoustic waves propagating in the combustion chamber. This phenomenon can lead to strong vibrations and noise but also, sometimes, to the complete combustion device failure. That is the reason why so many studies focus on the control of those instabilities. The method chosen in this study consists in an active control device (or set of actuators) having a strong effect on the mixing of the burner exhaust flow with the ambient fluid. The model configuration studied consists in a non reactive jet of air controlled by four small tangential secondary jets. Experiments have been carried out to optimize the control device geometry. The configuration identified as the most efficient, in terms of mixing enhancement, has been simulated through Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The objective of the numerical part of the present work is double. First, the numerical simulations provide a better understanding of the phenomena occurring when the control is on. Then, it is shown that LES can be considered as a tool to predict the effects of a control device on a flow. (author)

  1. A Contribution to Turbulent Combustion: Premixed Flames and Material Surfaces Une contribution à la combustion turbulente : flammes prémélangées et surfaces des matériaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolleau F.

    2006-11-01

    from each other. The turbulent diffusion process is very active to create new burning zones. This diffusion process is closely related to both the intensity and the length scale of the turbulent field. That explains the dominant role of turbulence and the adaptation of the burning rate to the rotation speed in combustion engines. Additional information useful for the reader is reported in Appendices I and II. Le comportement des flammes de prémélange a été examiné par de nombreux auteurs. En fait, le problème de la combustion en milieu turbulent repose pour beaucoup sur des comparaisons d'échelles. Dans le présent article, une première étude porte sur l'évolution d'une surface matérielle (qui peut être assimilée sous certaines conditions à une surface de flamme. On utilise successivement une démarche analytique et une démarche numérique. On constate alors la rapidité d'extension de la surface et le rôle prépondérant des petites échelles ce que confirme l'étude analytique. Les risques d'extinction sont prédits en général par comparaison d'échelles. D'une simulation directe conduite sur un cas spécifique, Poinsot confirme l'idée que ce ne sont pas les structures ayant les échelles caractéristiques de la flamme qui sont les plus redoutables, mais des structures de taille quelque peu plus grande. Dans un précédent article, le rôle cumulé des gradients locaux avait été signalé. Nous donnons à ce concept une forme quantitative en utilisant le ß modèle lequel définit un taux d'occupation de l'espace en fonction du rang (et donc de la dimension de structures. Un calcul de gradient cumulé redonne la prédiction de Poinsot. Enfin, le même ß modèle est utilisé pour définir une nouvelle zone dans la région de combustion distribuée. Des balles fluides brûlent isolément tandis qu'un processus de diffusion lié très étroitement au champ turbulent et à son intensité crée d'autres points d'allumage. Le mécanisme explique l

  2. Democracia y República

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Víctor Fabio

    2013-01-01

    p. 33-34 En la actualidad se ha reavivado el debate en torno a los conceptos de Democracia y República. Desde el triunfo sobre el nazismo a mediados del siglo XX la democracia se ha constituido en un imperativo occidental y, a partir del derrumbe soviético, en uno cuasi universal. Sin embargo, en algunos casos —y no pocos por cierto— en el reclamo por la democratización se encontraron razones ideales para consagrar la concentración de los poderes del Estado, por paradójico que parezca. Es ...

  3. Utshitsja drug u druga / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps uuendustest koolide õppekavades, õpetajate täienduskoolituse tähtsusest, kutsehariduse arengust, tasuta toitlustamisest põhi- ja kutsekoolides, õpetajate palkadest

  4. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  5. Some physics aspects of cermet and ceramic fast systems; Quelques aspects de la physique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides utilisant des cermets et des ceramiques comme combustibles; Nekotorye fizicheskie aspekty kermetnykh i keramicheskikh sistem na bystrykh nejtronakh; Algunos aspectos fisicos de los sistemas rapidos a base de combustibles cermet y ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, J; James, M F; Mann, J E [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Group (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    The characteristics of a system using an iron-based oxide cermet as fuel material are discussed. A transport theory investigation to develop methods of predicting the effect of core heterogeneity on reactivity and flux distribution is described. Some preliminary calculations are also given of resonance self-shielding and Doppler temperature effects in a cermet system. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient les caracteristique s d'un reacteur utilisant comme combustible un cermet d'oxydes a armature de fer. Ils exposent une application de la theorie du transport a la mise au point des methodes permettant de prevoir l'effet de l'heterogeneite du coeur sur la reactivite et sur la distribution du flux. Ils donnent egalement quelques calculs preliminaires d'effets d'autoprotection due a la resonance et d'effet Doppler du a la chaleur dans un reacteur utilisant un cermet. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute las caracteristicas de un sistema que emplea como combustible un oxido tipo cermet a base de hierro. Describe una investigacion de la teoria de transporte con miras a desarrollar metodos para evaluar el efecto de la heterogeneidad del cuerpo sobre la reactividad y la distribucion de flujo. Tambien da algunos calculos preliminares de los efectos del autoblindaje por resonancia y de la temperatura de Doppler en un sistema de tipo cermet. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdayutsya kharakteristiki sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej v kachestve toplivnogo materiala oksidnye kermety, razrabotannye na osnove zheleza. Opisyvaetsya issledovanie teorii perenosa, chtoby razvit' metody predskazaniya vliyaniya geterogennosti aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost' i raspredelenie potoka. Dayutsya takzhe nekotorye predvaritel'nye raschety ehffektov rezonansnoj samozashchity i temperaturnogo ehffekta Dopplera v kermetnoj sisteme. (author)

  6. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  7. Une installation expérimentale pour l'étude du traitement par combustion des fumées industrielles An Experimental Plant for Processing Industrial Fumes by Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morillon R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le rejet à l'atmosphère d'effluents gazeux d'origine industrielle entraîne un accroissement sensible de la pollution atmosphérique ; en outre, il s'accompagne souvent d'une perte d'énergie lorsque l'élément polluant est un hydrocarbure. Dans ce cas, l'utilisation du gaz naturel pour le traitement par combustion des fumées industrielles apporte une solution élégante et souvent peu coûteuse grâce à la récupération d'énergie qu'il est possible de faire. La première partie de l'article rappelle les aspects théoriques de ce traitement ; en particulier, l'influence des divers éléments sur son efficacité y est discutée (composition de l'atmosphère polluée, température, temps de séjour, etc.. II apparaît ainsi que diverses conditions doivent être remplies simultanément pour obtenir une efficacité satisfaisante. Afin de disposer d'éléments d'ingénierie permettant de construire les unités de traitement les plus efficaces et les plus sûres possible, au coût le plus bas possible, la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles du Gaz de France a réalisé une installation expérimentale qui est présentée dans la deuxième partie de l'article. Enfin, quelques examples d'utilisation de cette installation expérimentale, qui constitue un nouvel outil de travail mis à la disposition des utisitateurs et des constructeurs, sont décrits dans la troisième partie de l'article. The discharge into the atmosphere of industrial waste gases causes substantially increased air pollution. Moreover, it is often accompanied by loss of energy when the polluting element is a hydrocarbon. In such cases, the use of natural gas for processing industrial fumes by combustion provides an elegant solution, which moy often prove economical too becouse of the recovery of energy it makes possible. The first part of this article reviews the theoretical aspects of such processing. The way in which its effectiveness is affected by various parameters

  8. Pollution active control: a strategy for a clean and efficient combustion; Le controle actif des polluants: une strategie pour une combustion propre et efficace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacas, F. [CNRS Ecole Centrale de Paris, 75 (France). Laboratoire E.M2.C

    1996-12-31

    The active control NOx reduction concept has been applied on two burners (20 kW and 840 kW), using a rotary valve enabling an excitation in the 100 to 1000 Hz band, that can be mounted on existing appliances such as domestic or industrial boilers. NOx level reduction may reach 15 pc for the 20 kW burner, 25 pc for the 840 kW burner with domestic fuel oil and 35 pc for the 840 kW burner using pyridine doped domestic fuel oil. Mechanisms are detailed through flow visualization, and consist mainly in an annular vortex inducing a fuel/air pre-mixing favourable to a large decrease in NOx generation level and establishing a staged process such as in re-burning processes. The pulsed combustion process may be also combined to other pollution control systems

  9. Construction and validation of detailed kinetic models for the combustion of gasoline surrogates; Construction et validation de modeles cinetiques detailles pour la combustion de melanges modeles des essences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchard, S.

    2005-10-15

    The irreversible reduction of oil resources, the CO{sub 2} emission control and the application of increasingly strict standards of pollutants emission lead the worldwide researchers to work to reduce the pollutants formation and to improve the engine yields, especially by using homogenous charge combustion of lean mixtures. The numerical simulation of fuel blends oxidation is an essential tool to study the influence of fuel formulation and motor conditions on auto-ignition and on pollutants emissions. The automatic generation helps to obtain detailed kinetic models, especially at low temperature, where the number of reactions quickly exceeds thousand. The main purpose of this study is the generation and the validation of detailed kinetic models for the oxidation of gasoline blends using the EXGAS software. This work has implied an improvement of computation rules for thermodynamic and kinetic data, those were validated by numerical simulation using CHEMKIN II softwares. A large part of this work has concerned the understanding of the low temperature oxidation chemistry of the C5 and larger alkenes. Low and high temperature mechanisms were proposed and validated for 1 pentene, 1-hexene, the binary mixtures containing 1 hexene/iso octane, 1 hexene/toluene, iso octane/toluene and the ternary mixture of 1 hexene/toluene/iso octane. Simulations were also done for propene, 1-butene and iso-octane with former models including the modifications proposed in this PhD work. If the generated models allowed us to simulate with a good agreement the auto-ignition delays of the studied molecules and blends, some uncertainties still remains for some reaction paths leading to the formation of cyclic products in the case of alkenes oxidation at low temperature. It would be also interesting to carry on this work for combustion models of gasoline blends at low temperature. (author)

  10. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.

    2011-02-01

    activity of the OCs and both OCs performed well. The results were promising for the application of CLC directly to solid fuels. L’application de la combustion en boucle chimique (CLC aux combustibles solides est actuellement étudiée à l’Université du Kentucky, au Centre de Recherche de l’Energie Appliquée (CAER dans le but de développer un procédé de gazéification/combustion en boucle chimique pressurisé (PCLC/G afin de générer de l’électricité à partir de charbon. Un des principaux aspects de la combustion en boucle chimique de combustibles solides est la compréhension de l’effet des cendres sur la réactivité des porteurs d’oxygène (OCs. L’effet des cendres sur la capacité de transfert d’oxygène et sur l’aptitude à oxyder le charbon est étudié avec deux porteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxydes de fer. Les cendres utilisées sont des cendres volantes provenant d’une centrale thermique au charbon. Les expériences sont réalisées dans un système composé d’une thermo-balance couplée à un spectrographe de masse (TGMS dans lequel on utilise d’abord 500 mg d’un mélange de cendres/porteurs d’oxygène à différentes concentrations de cendres allant jusqu’à 75 %. Le gaz réducteur est composé de 10 % de H2, 15 % de CO, 20 % de CO2 et de 55 % de Ar; et le gaz oxydant est composé de 20 % de O2 dans Ar. Les réactions d’oxydation/réduction sont quasi totales. D’après ces expériences, les cendres ont une activité propre de porteur d’oxygène, liée à la présence de fer dans les cendres, confirmée par les analyses DRX. Cela génère une augmentation du gain ou de la perte de masse du mélange pendant l’oxydation/réduction. Les vitesses d’oxydation/réduction augmentent avec la concentration des cendres à cause de l’augmentation de la porosité du mélange de porteurs d’oxygène avec les cendres, ce qui permet un meilleur accès des gaz réactifs sur les sites actifs des porteurs d’oxygène. Dans un

  11. Radiative transfer modelling in combusting systems using discrete ordinates method on three-dimensional unstructured grids; Modelisation des transferts radiatifs en combustion par methode aux ordonnees discretes sur des maillages non structures tridimensionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.

    2004-04-01

    The prediction of pollutant species such as soots and NO{sub x} emissions and lifetime of the walls in a combustion chamber is strongly dependant on heat transfer by radiation at high temperatures. This work deals with the development of a code based on the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) aiming at providing radiative source terms and wall fluxes with a good compromise between cpu time and accuracy. Radiative heat transfers are calculated using the unstructured grids defined by the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The spectral properties of the combustion gases are taken into account by a statistical narrow bands correlated-k model (SNB-ck). Various types of angular quadrature are tested and three different spatial differencing schemes were integrated and compared. The validation tests show the limit at strong optical thicknesses of the finite volume approximation used the Discrete Ordinates Method. The first calculations performed on LES solutions are presented, it provides instantaneous radiative source terms and wall heat fluxes. Those results represent a first step towards radiation/combustion coupling. (author)

  12. La república conservadora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Muraca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar e analisar como aparece a discussão sobre República ao longo dos anos de redemocratização na Argentina, articulando com outra categoria da teoria política: o populismo. Os conteúdos e sentidos da demanda republicana que se conjuga com populismo são analisados nas edições de um dos mais importantes jornais argentinos durante o segundo governo de Carlos Saúl Menem (1995-1999 e o governo de Aliança (1999-2001. Especificamente, é revisado nas Colunas de Opinião do Diário “La Nación” a primeira etapa das críticas republicanas centradas em um dos seus componentes principais: a questão da corrupção associada a problemática da moral.

  13. 3-D modeling of parietal liquid films in internal combustion engines; Modelisation tridimensionnelle des films liquides parietaux dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucart, H

    1998-12-11

    To simulate the air-fuel mixing in the intake ports and cylinder of an internal combustion engines, a wall fuel liquid film model has been developed for integration in 3D CFD codes. Phenomena taken into account include wall film formation by an impinging spray without splashing effect, film transport such as governed by mass and momentum equations with hot wall effects, and evaporation considering energy equation with an analytical mass transfer formulation developed here. A continuous-fluid method is used to describe the wall film over a three dimensional complex surface. The basic approximation is that of a laminar incompressible boundary layer; the liquid film equations are written in an integral form and solved by a first-order ALE finite volume scheme; the equation system is closed without coefficient fitting requirements. The model has been implemented in a Multi-Block version of KIVA-II (KMB) and tested against problems having theoretical solutions. Then in a first step, it has been compared to the measurements obtained in a cylindrical pipe reproducing the main characteristics of SI engine intake pipe flow and in a second step, it has been compared to the Xiong experiment concerning the film evaporation on a hot wall. The film behaviour is satisfactory reproduced by the computations for a set of operating conditions. Finally, engine calculations were conducted showing the importance of including a liquid film model for the simulations. (author) 54 refs.

  14. Decontamination of irradiated fuel processing waste using lead paraperiodate; Decontamination des effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies par le paraperiodate de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    The process is designed to eliminate ruthenium. It consists in an oxidation using para-periodic acid whose excess, acting then as a carrying-over agent, is precipitated in the form of a lead salt at a pH of 5 or 6. This process makes it possible to precipitate 80 to 98 per cent of the ruthenium which is not removed by the conventional precipitation techniques which follow it. If the waste is a reducing agent, it is pre-oxidized using ozone or potassium permanganate. The process was developed at Marcoule in 1963 and has since 1965 been applied industrially; its cost price is of the same order of magnitude as conventional processes and its results are satisfactory. (author) [French] Le procede est destine a l'elimination du ruthenium. Il consiste en une oxydation par l'acide par paraperiodique dont l'exces, jouant alors le role d'entraineur, est precipite sous forme de sel de plomb a pH 5 ou 6. Ce traitement permet de precipiter 80 a 98 pour cent du ruthenium rebelle aux traitements de precipitation classique, qui doivent le suivre. Si l'effluent est reducteur il est preoxyde a l'ozone ou au permanganate de potassium. Mis au point a Marcoule en 1963, il est depuis 1965 exploite industriellement, son prix de revient est du meme ordre de grandeur que celui des traitements habituels et les resultats ont donne satisfaction. (auteur)

  15. Adeno-associated virus rep protein synthesis during productive infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redemann, B.E.; Mendelson, E.; Carter, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep proteins mediate viral DNA replication and can regulate expression from AAV genes. The authors studied the kinetics of synthesis of the four Rep proteins, Rep78, Rep68, Rep52, and Rep40, during infection of human 293 or KB cells with AAV and helper adenovirus by in vivo labeling with [ 35 S]methionine, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Rep78 and Rep52 were readily detected concomitantly with detection of viral monomer duplex DNA replicating about 10 to 12 h after infection, and Rep68 and Rep40 were detected 2 h later. Rep78 and Rep52 were more abundant than Rep68 and Rep40 owing to a higher synthesis rate throughout the infectious cycle. In some experiments, very low levels of Rep78 could be detected as early as 4 h after infection. The synthesis rates of Rep proteins were maximal between 14 and 24 h and then decreased later after infection. Isotopic pulse-chase experiments showed that each of the Rep proteins was synthesized independently and was stable for at least 15 h. A slower-migrating, modified form of Rep78 was identified late after infection. AAV capsid protein synthesis was detected at 10 to 12 h after infection and also exhibited synthesis kinetics similar to those of the Rep proteins. AAV DNA replication showed at least two clearly defined stages. Bulk duplex replicating DNA accumulation began around 10 to 12 h and reached a maximum level at about 20 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis was maximal. Progeny single-stranded DNA accumulation began about 12 to 13 h, but most of this DNA accumulated after 24 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis had decreased

  16. The health physics of installations for decladding irradiated fuels or for handling radio-elements at Marcoule; La radioprotection des installations de degainage des combustibles irradies et des radio-elements a Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J; Guillermin, P; Mallet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, 30 - Chusclan (France)

    1966-07-01

    Radiation protection practices for handling reactor fuel elements are described. Elements of considerable specific radioactivity are handled under water. A study was made of water filtration and of ventilation in the building. The installations are divided up into zones depending on the radioactive risks, and the radiation level atmospheric contamination are the object of a systematic control at various points. A description is given of all aspects of health physics which have been encountered during six years: storage, transfer of radioactive material; decladding, rolling, waste disposal, specialized operations, installations in operation and at rest, and transport. In spite of the gradual increase in the activity of these installations, the total doses received by the personnel have hardly altered and the number of cases of physical contamination has diminished. (authors) [French] Dans ces installations, se manipulent sous l'eau des elements a radioactivite specifique considerable. La filtration de l'eau, la ventilation ont ete particulierement etudiees. L'ensemble a ete divise en lieux classes en fonction des risques radioactifs et des appareils controlent en permanence l'irradiation et la contamination atmospherique en certains points. Tous les aspects de la radioprotection resultant de six annees d'experience relatifs: au stockage, au deconteneurage, au degainage, au laminage, a l'evacuation des residus, aux travaux particuliers, installations en marche et a l'arret, et aux transports sont successivement decrits. Malgre l'accroissement progressif de l'activite de cet ensemble, les doses integrees par le personnel n'ont pratiquement pas augmente et le nombre des cas de contamination corporelle a diminue. (auteurs)

  17. Repères bibliographiques ...

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    L’histoire de la République fédérale d’Allemagne, ses institutions, son système social et économique, sa politique intérieure et extérieure ont déjà été beaucoup étudiés et font l’objet de publications nombreuses dont la liste s’allonge constamment. Pour compléter les indications fournies ci‑dessus par les auteurs des diverses contributions, nous nous contenterons ici de signaler quelques titres et de donner quelques conseils permettant au lecteur de trou­ver rapidement la documentation et l’...

  18. Valorization of used tyres as fuel substitute in cement industry; Valorisation des pneus usages comme combustible de substitution en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    According to the French syndicate of cement industry, more than 350000 t of worn tyres are produced each year in France, among which only 143000 t are reused in retreading, exported as used tyres or valorized in cement industry. The rest is generally tipped or burnt in the open-air. In cement kilns, the organic matters of tyres are completely burnt while the metal belts supply the necessary amount of iron to the cement composition. The combustion of tyres produces no black smoke, no smell and no ash and has no significant influence on the effluents of cement factories: gases are directly filtered in the kiln by the important mass of raw materials which acts as quicklime. In 1997, 31500 t of used tyres were burnt in the seven French cement factories over 34 that use this kind of fuel and represents 1.5% of the total energy needs. This substitution ratio could easily reach 10 to 15% without leading to any additional environmental or technical problem. A project of collection and valorization of used tyres has been developed by the French ministry of environment and aims at completely eliminating tyres tipping since July 1, 2002. In order to illustrate the French policy of tyres valorization, two examples of actions are presented in this paper: the first one is carried out by the Michelin manufacturer in order to facilitate the recycling of civil engineering tyres, and the second is carried out by Ciments d`Origny company at the Rochefort factory where tyres are used as fuel substitutes. (J.S.)

  19. Ni República parlamentaria ni presidencialista

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Tardío, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Revista de Estudios Políticos (Nueva Época), Núm. 123. Enero-Marzo 2004 Este trabajo está dedicado al estudio de un aspecto básico del sistema político de la II República española (1931-1936): el modelo de presidencia de la República y de relaciones de la misma con el parlamento y el gobierno. Aquí se sostiene que la Segunda República, de acuerdo con su Constitución, no fue un régimen parlamentario ni presidencial. Combinó de forma extraña y ambigua elementos de ambos modelos. Probablement...

  20. Analysis of the subcellular localization of the proteins Rep, Rep' and Cap of porcine circovirus type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterbusch, T.; Steinfeldt, T.; Caliskan, R.; Mankertz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) encodes two major ORFs. The cap gene comprises the major structural protein of PCV, the rep gene specifies Rep and Rep', which are both essential for initiating the replication of the viral DNA. Rep corresponds to the full-length protein, whereas Rep' is a truncated splice product that is frame-shifted in its C-terminal sequence. In this study, the cellular localization of PCV1-encoded proteins was investigated by immune fluorescence techniques using antibodies against Rep, Rep' and Cap and by expression of viral proteins fused to green and red fluorescence proteins. Rep and Rep' protein co-localized in the nucleus of infected cells as well as in cells transfected with plasmids expressing Rep and Rep' fused to fluorescence proteins, but no signal was seen in the nucleoli. Rep and Rep' carry three potential nuclear localization signals in their identical N-termini, and the contribution of these motifs to nuclear import was experimentally dissected. In contrast to the rep gene products, the localization of the Cap protein varied. While the Cap protein was restricted to the nucleoli in plasmid-transfected cells and was also localized in the nucleoli at an early stage of PCV1 infection, it was seen in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm later in infection, suggesting that a shuttling between distinct cellular compartments occurs

  1. Ultrasonic Water-Gap Measurements in MTR Fuel Elements; Mesure par Ultrasons des Espaces Intercalaires dans les Elements Combustibles des Reacteurs d'Essai de Materiaux; Izmereniya vodyanogo zazora v teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementakh dlya materialovedcheskogo reaktora s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Medicion Ultrasonica de la Capa de Agua en Elementos Combustibles para Reactores de Ensayo de Materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deknock, R. [Metallurgy Department, S.C.K./C.E.N., Mol (Belgium)

    1965-10-15

    generalement eleves, il est indispensable de prevoir un transfert de chaleur uniforme et un refroidissement regulier empechant toute formation massive de vapeur. En outre, pour determiner le gonflement et le comportement general du combustible dans le reacteur, il faudra mesurer les espaces intercalaires dans les elements combustibles au cours de controles apres irradiation. A cette fin, on a mis au point une sonde fondee sur le principe des ultrasons, qui permet de mesurer les espaces intercalaires de 3 mm sur 1 m de long dans les elements combustibles du reacteur BR-2. Lorsqu'on procede a des experiences apres irradiation, la sonde doit pouvoir fonctionner dans un element combustible immerge dans un reservoir d'eau a une profondeur de 6 m au minimum. La sonde peut resister a une immersion prolongee dans l'eau et n'est pas endommagee par une irradiation gamma a des doses normales. Bien que le systeme soit fonde sur la methode classique de la reflexion des impulsions, il permet de separer les impulsions emises des impulsions reflechies au moyen d'un cristal ferroelectrique de 10 MHz a pouvoir eleve de dispersion de l'energie. Les resultats des mesures peuvent etre lus directement sur un oscilloscope: le temps est indique sur l'axe horizontal et la vitesse d'exploration est reglee de maniere a se trouver en relation directe avec la vitesse de propagation de l'onde, c'est-a-dire avec la distance intercalaire. Ce mode de lecture est satisfaisant lorsqu'on procede a un nombre limite de mesures, mais il est evidemment preferable d'enregistrer les resultats sur un graphique. Dans ce cas, les impulsions incidentes et les impulsions reflechies sont transmises a un convertisseur temps-tension au moyen d'un circuit logique transistorise. Cet appareil permet un ajustement continu du zero de sortie pour toute distance intercalaire choisie arbitrairement entre 2 et 4 mm, grace a quoi on peut obtenir un enregistrement autour d'un axe zero. En outre, toute variation de 100 {mu}m de la

  2. Engine 3E. NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers. Final report; Engine 3E. NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalis, N.; Homann; Schubert

    1999-11-05

    This is the final report of the Technology Project 'NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers', which is part of the Engine 3E 2010 programme of the BMBF, which was to promote research in aircraft engineering. In this project, technologies were developed to achieve a 60% reduction of NO{sub x} emissions as compared to ICAO '95 in an annular combustion chamber in realistic operating conditions where the emissions of substances oher than NO{sub x} were to be of the same level as the emissions of modern jet drives. Further, the design of the new combustion chamber was to be conventional in order to retain the possibility of converting existing propulsion systems to the new technology. [German] Diese Notiz enthaelt den Abschlussbericht des Technologievorhabens 'NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern'. Das Vorhaben ist Teil des Luftfahrtfoerderprogramms Engine 3E 2010 der Bundesregierung und wird vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) unter dem Foerderkennzeichen 20T9540 gefoerdert. Das Programm wurde am 01. Juli 1995 begonnen und endete am 30. Juni 1999. Entsprechend dem Foerderantrag wurden in dem Vorhaben Einzeltechnologien erarbeitet, die erforderlich sind, um eine 60% Reduktion der NO{sub x}-Emissionen gegenueber ICAO '95 in einer Ringbrennkammer unter realistischen Betriebsbedingungen zu demonstrieren, wobei die restlichen Emissionen das Emissionsniveau moderner Triebwerke nicht ueberschreiten sollten. Darueber hinaus sollte das aeussere Design der zu entwickelnden Brennkammer sind von konventionellen Brennkammern nicht unterscheiden, um die Moeglichkeit der Umruestung von alten Triebwerken mit der Brennkammern der neuen Technologie offen zu halten. (orig.)

  3. Applications: REP-rate pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the following topics is discussed: (1) REP-rate pulse power technology, (2) RTF-I, 300-J, 100-pps test facility experiments, (3) transformer development, (4) reactor system studies, (5) general conceptual design, (6) economic considerations, (7) specific reactor designs, (8) low-current density diode physics studies, and (9) plasma injected, microsecond, E-beam diodes

  4. Evolution of REP diversity: a comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunvář, Jaroslav; Lichá, I.; Schneider, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 385 (2013) ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/1801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : REP elements * Stenotrophomonas maltophilia * Pseudomonas fluorescens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2013

  5. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  6. Critical experiments in AQUILON with fuels slightly enriched in uranium 235 or in plutonium; Experiences critiques dans aquilon portant sur des combustibles legerement enrichis en uranium 235 et en plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrillac, M; Ledanois, G; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Reactivity comparisons have been, made in Aquilon II between geometrically identical lattices differing only by the composition of the fuel. The fuel elements consist in metallic uranium single rods with either slight differences of the isotopic composition (0.69 - 0.71 - 0.83 - 0.86 per cent of uranium 235) or slight additions of plutonium (0.043 per cent). Five lattices pitches have bean used, in order to produce a large variation of spectrum. Two additional sets of plutonium fuels are prepared to be used in the same conditions. The double comparisons: natural enriched 235 versus natural-enriched plutonium are made in such a way that a very precise interpretation is permitted. The results are perfectly consistent which seems to prove that the calculation methods are convenient. Further it can been inferred that the usual data, namely for the ratio of the {eta} of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu seem reliable. (authors) [French] On a compare neutroniquement dans Aquilon II des reseaux geometriquement identiques mais comportant de petites differences de composition du combustible. EL s'agit de barres d'uranium metallique, les unes avec des teneurs differentes en isotopes 235 (0,69 - 0,71 - 0,83 - 0,86 pour cent) les autres comportant une legere addition de plutonium (0,043 pour cent). Les comparaisons ont ete faites a cinq pas differents, de maniere a mettre en jeu une assez large variation de spectre. Deux autres jeux de combustible au plutonium seront utilises ulterieurement dans les memes conditions. Les resultats des mesures se presentent sous forme de doubles comparaisons: naturel-enrichi 235/naturel-enrichi plutonium. On s'est place dans des conditions qui permettent des interpretations tres precises. Les resultats sont remarquablement coherents, ce qui semble montrer que les methodes de calcul sont bien adaptees, Ils tendent d'autre part a prouver que les valeurs numeriques admises dans la litterature, notamment pour le rapport des {eta} de l'U 235 et de Pu 239

  7. A Physics and Tabulated Chemistry Based Compression Ignition Combustion Model: from Chemistry Limited to Mixing Limited Combustion Modes Un modèle de combustion à allumage par compression basé sur la physique et la chimie tabulée : des modes de combustion contrôlés par la chimie jusqu’aux modes contrôlés par le mélange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordet N.

    2011-11-01

    experimental measurements carried out on a 2 liter Renault Diesel engine and good agreements are found. Ce papier présente une nouvelle approche 0D phénoménologique pour prédire le déroulement de la combustion dans les moteurs Diesel à injection directe pour toutes les conditions d’utilisation usuelles. Le but de ce travail est de développer une approche physique en vue d’améliorer la prédiction de la pression cylindre et du dégagement d’énergie, avec un nombre minimum d’essais nécessaires à la calibration. Les contributions principales de cette étude sont la modélisation de la phase de pré-mélange de la combustion et une extension du modèle pour les stratégies d’injections multiples. Dans ce modèle, le taux de dégagement d’énergie dû à la combustion pour la phase pré-mélangée est relié à un taux de réaction moyen du carburant. Ce taux de réaction moyen de carburant est évalué à l’aide d’une approche basée sur un taux de réaction local de carburant tabulé et la détermination d’une fonction de densité de probabilité (PDF de la fraction de mélange (Z. Cette PDF permet de prendre en compte la distribution de richesse existante dans la zone pré-mélangée. L’allure de cette PDF présumée est une β-fonction standardisée. Les fluctuations de la fraction de mélange sont décrites avec une équation de transport pour la variance de Z. La définition standard de la fraction de mélange, établie dans le cas de flammes de diffusion, est ici adaptée à une combustion pré-mélangée de type Diesel pour décrire l’inhomogénéité de la richesse dans le volume de contrôle. La chimie détaillée est décrite au travers de la tabulation du taux de réaction relatif à la flamme principale et du délai d’auto-inflammation relatif à la flamme froide, ces tabulations sont fonction de la variable d’avancement c, du taux de gaz brûlé ainsi que des grandeurs thermodynamiques telles que la température et la pression. Le

  8. Recent developments concerning French fuel elements used in natural uranium - graphite - CO{sub 2} reactor systems; Developpements recents des elements combustibles francais de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M; Stohr, J A; Jeanpierre, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    internal can of the annular element, has necessitated very much research work. - the exact temperature drop at the contact between the uranium and the can, and the strength of the lower end of the cartridge are points which are increasingly crucial in the case of the annular element. All in all the annular element thus calls for a great research effort. This effort is justified by the big step forwards in which it will result in the case of the EDF reactors thanks to its high specific power and to the high weight of uranium in each cartridge. (authors) [French] La politique choisie en France pour le developpement des elements combustibles destines aux reacteurs de l'Electricite de France, consiste a chercher, pour chaque pile nouvelle, a beneficier au maximum des progres techniques les plus recents en etudiant chaque fois un nouvel element combustible permettant une puissance par canal aussi elevee que possible. Les derniers elements combustibles ainsi etudies par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique sont de deux types differents: un element a tube d'uranium ferme aux deux extremites et refroidi exterieurement (ce type d'element, retenu pour les reacteurs EDF 2, EDF 3 et EDF 4 permet des puissances specifiques maximum de l'ordre de 6 MW/t). Un element a tube d'uranium ouvert, refroidi interieurement et exterieurement, appele clemont annulaire et dont on etudie la possibilite pour EDF5. Un tel element peut permettre des puissances specifiques superieures a 12 MW/t. Ces deux types d'elements possedent des caracteristiques communes: la gaine, pour le refroidissement externe, comporte des ailettes en chevron. Ce type de profil, qui a recu recemment des ameliorations notables augmentant son efficacite thermique, a l'avantage important d'eviter les vibrations de cartouche mais a pose des problemes technologiques de tenue au cyclage thermique qui ont necessite une etude approfondie. les cartouches sont placees a l'interieur de chemise en graphite, ce qui limite les efforts

  9. The Non-Destructive Testing of Fuel Elements and Their Components for the United Kingdom Power-Reactor Development Programme; Controle Non Destructif des Elements Combustibles et de Leurs Parties Constitutives dans le Cadre du Programme de Developpement des Reacteurs de Puissance au Royaume-Uni; Nedestruktivnoe ispytanie teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov i ikh komponentov dlya osushchestvleniya programmy soedinennogo korolevstva po razrabotke ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov; Ensayo No Destructivo de Elementos Combustibles y sus Componentes, en el Marco del Programa de Reactores de Potencia del Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, C. A.; Campsie, I. C. [U.K.A.E.A., Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancs. (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    and the ends closed. In addition, the integrity of end closures is established, by radiography. Multiple exposures are commonly made to examine the whole of circumferential weld adequately. The disposition of the fuel can also be recorded accurately by using a panoramic technique. The use of colour radiography is also discussed. Pins are normally tested for leakage after filling with helium, using a mass-spectrometer leak detector. Pins not filled with helium may be tested using a ''back-pressurizing'' technique. Conventional ''probing'' and ''sniffing'' methods are used when it is desirable to locate the sites of leaks. The bubble test in liquids is also used, as a cheap and simple test. The use of krypton-85 as a tracer gas is discussed. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les methodes d'essai que les laboratoires charges des elements combustibles ont elaborees dans le cadre du programme etabli par le des reacteurs> en vue de mettre au point des aiguilles de combustible pour diverses filieres de reacteurs. Ces aiguilles sont contenues dans des gaines de 5 a 15 mm de diametre, les materiaux utilises etant des aciers inoxydables et des alliages de zirconium, a) Detection de defauts dans les gaines. Examen par ultrasons a l'aide de deux traducteurs immerges. Les tubes sont animes d'un mouvement helicoidal rapide dans un reservoir fixe. Chaque signal de defaut est verifie et enregistre. Pour regler le dispositif et verifier sa stabilite, on utilise comme temoins des fentes'pratiquees a l'arc a la surface des tubes. Dans certains cas, on a egalement recours au controle par courants de Foucault. Les auteurs decrivent deux procedes: l'un, a debit rapide, est fonde sur un systeme de bobines encerclant le tube; l'autre, a exploration heliccfldale, utilise une bobine se deplacant le long du tube. Les signaux fournis par un circuit a pont sont selectionnes selon la phase et filtres, pour des frequences de 30 a 60 kHz. b) Controle des dimensions de tubes et de

  10. Release of Fission Products from UC-ZrC Fuel Inserts; Degagement des produits de fission liberes dans des noyaux combustibles UC-ZrC; Vydelenie produktov deleniya iz topliv UC - ZrC; Liberacion de productos de fision por pastillas de combustible de UC-ZrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, F.; Von der Decken, C. B.; Schifferstein, K. [Brown Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.M.B.H., Duesseldorf (Germany); Clauss, A.; Reichel, H.; Rygaert, J.; Ruston, W. R. [Societe d' Etudes de Recherches et d' Applications pour l' Industrie (S.E.R.A.I.), Brussels (Belgium)

    1963-11-15

    energies obtained from different types of pellets, although the values of D/r{sub 0}{sup 2} sometimes differed by four orders of magnitude at the same sample temperatures. After irradiation, the activities of the isotopes I{sup 131}, Sr{sup 85}, Ba{sup 140} and Ce{sup 141} were determined in the graphite of the capsules. Except for I{sup 131}, the activities were higher than those expected for a release by recoil only. The values for Sr{sup 89}, Ba{sup 140} and Ce{sup 141} are too high to be a result of a diffusion of their corresponding rare gas precursors. It is assumed that the measured isotopes or their non-rare gas precursors were released by diffusion. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie sous irradiation, dans une boucle, le degagement des produits de fission liberes par des pastilles dont la composition approximative etait UC + 20 ZrC. Il s'agissait de verifier la possibilite d'utiliser ces pastilles comme noyaux d'elements combustibles spheriques pour le reacteur a haute temperature actuellement construit a Juliers par la societe Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau GmbH. Les essais ont ete faits sur des pastilles encapsulees dans du graphite et sur des pastilles non encapsulees. La surface de certaines pastilles etait constituee par une couche de carbure de zirconium pur d'une epaisseur de 1 a 2 mm. Les echantillons ent ete places dans des fours electriques a resistance pouvant atteindre une temperature de 1600{sup o}C. Pendant l'irradiation, les flux de neutrons etaient de 3 a 4 x 10{sup 10}n/cm{sup 2}s. La boucle permettait de mesurer, pendant l'irradiation, le degagement de {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 133}Xe et {sup 135}Xe et de determiner indirectement les quantites de {sup 133}I et {sup 135}I, apres l'arret du reacteur. Le degagement minimum de {sup 131}I, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 140}Ba et {sup 141}Ce a ete determine radiochimiquement apres retrait des echantillons. Il a ete egalement possible de mesurer la fraction de recul {epsilon}{sub R} seule, le

  11. The Application of Various Nondestructive Testing Methods to Fuel Elements of the Orgel Type; Application des Differentes Methodes d'Essais Non Destructifs aux Elements Combustibles du Type Orgel; Primenenie razlichnykh nedestruktivnykh metodov ispytanij k toplivnym ehlementam tipa ''orgel''; Aplicacion de Distintos Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo a los Elementos Combustibles de Tipo Orgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, P.; Jansen, J. [EURATOM, C.C.R., Ispra (Italy)

    1965-09-15

    . There is a device making it possible to examine four or six fuel elements simultaneously, or two or three separately. Standard radiographic tests. Particular stress is laid on the study of welds, and the limits of the experimental conditions in order to obtain good definition are given. In conclusion, the authors present a plan for a semi-industrial inspection system, describing the various possibilities for treatment, and try to define a general policy of non-destructive tests applied to fuel elements. (author) [French] Le memoire presente les differentes methodes employees pour la detection des defauts dans les tubes de gaine des elements combustibles (defauts de type dimensionnel ou defauts structuraux). Les auteurs evoquent egalement les tests finaux sur elements combustibles complets, en particulier: radiographie des soudures et tests d'etanchete. Ce sujet a deja ete partiellement traite. La recherche des caracteristiques dimensionnelles sur tube de gaine lisse en poudre d'aluminium frittee (SAP) a fait l'objet de recherches assez poussees. En particulier: 1. Mesures des diametres internes et externes par utilisation de capteurs pneumatiques et enregistrement des resultats; 2. Mesures des epaisseurs par utilisation, soit des ultrasons en methode de resonance, soit des rayons y (contrat EURATOM - Istituto Sperimentale Metalli Leggeri); 3. Controle de la fleche; 4. Tests sur tubes a ailettes. La detection des defauts sur tube de gaine lisse a egalement fait l'objet de travaux et un critere de rejet a ete adopte suivant l'utilisation future des tubes de gaines. a) La creation de defauts artificiels en fonction de la nocivite des defauts reels dans la poudre d'aluminium frittee est expliquee dans le memoire. Cette etude a montre, en effet, une grande sensibilite aux defauts du type longitudinal crees generalement lors de la transformation par de grosses inclusions. b) Tests par ultrasons. Defauts longitudinaux: Une comparaison entre la methode a deux capteurs et la

  12. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardini P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  13. Instruments used to measure or check {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel; Appareils de mesure ou de controle {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, n, des circuits des usines de traitement du minerai ou du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A; Brunet, M; Kermagoret, M; Labeyrie, J; Roux, G; Vasseur, J; Weil, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the {beta} and {alpha} coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm{sup 3} of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of {alpha} detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to {gamma}. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of {gamma} activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the {alpha} activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the {beta} {gamma} activity of residue from a 100 cm{sup 3} sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [French] Parmi les controles relatifs au minerai en cours de traitement, figure le dosage rapide de thorium. Cette mesure est realisee au moyen d'un appareillage a scintillation qui met en evidence la coincidence des emissions {beta} et {alpha} du ThC et du ThC'. Le traitement des combustibles irradies s'accompagne d'un grand nombre de controles radioactifs portant sur le fonctionnement des operations de fixation et d'elution de l'uranium dans les echangeurs d'ions, sur la concentration du

  14. Visualisation of Gasoline and Exhaust Gases Distribution in a 4-Valve Si Engine; Effects of Stratification on Combustion and Pollutants Visualisation de la répartition du carburant et des gaz brûlés dans un moteur à 4 soupapes à allumage commandé ; effet de la stratification sur la combustion et les polluants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps B.

    2006-12-01

    des dégagements d'énergie et des émissions de polluants très distincts. Le niveau de tumbleet l'emplacement de l'étincelle sont aussi modifiés. L'observation de la stratification telle qu'elle est réellement dans le moteur constitue un moyen pertinent pour expliquer ses performances. Les paramètres permettant d'optimiser les niveaux de NOx et d'HC peuvent en être déduits, de même que l'efficacité des stratégies de recirculation et d'injection du carburant. Les résultats des visualisations ont été confirmés par des mesures obtenues dans un moteur monocylindre muni d'une culasse conventionnelle avec la même géométrie de chambre de combustion.

  15. 3d Simulation of Di Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation Using a Two-Component Reference Fuel Simulation 3D de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans un moteur Diesel à injection directe en utilisant un carburant de référence à deux composants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barths H.

    2006-12-01

    reference fuels. The contributions of the different reaction paths (thermal, prompt, nitrous, and reburn to the NO formation are shown. Finally, the importance of the mixing process for the prediction of soot emissions is discussed. En séparant calculs aérodynamiques et calculs chimiques, le modèle instationnaire de flamelet permet d'introduire des mécanismes chimiques complets qui comprennent plusieurs centaines de réactions. Ceci est indispensable pour décrire les différents processus qui ont lieu dans un moteur Diesel à injection directe (ID tels que l'auto-inflammation, la fin de la phase de prémélange partiel, la transition vers une combustion diffusive et la formation de polluants tels que les NOx et les suies. Il n'est pas nécessaire de simplifier les taux de réactions hautement non linéaires, d'autre part, la structure complète du processus de combustion est conservée. En utilisant le modèle de type Representative Interaction Flamelet (RIF, l'ensemble monodimensionnel instationnaire d'équations différentielles aux dérivées partielles est résolu en interaction avec le code CFD 3D. La solution ainsi obtenue est couplée avec les flux gazeux et le champ de mélange par l'intermédiaire de plusieurs paramètres dépendant du temps (l'enthalpie, la pression, le taux scalaire de dissipation. En retour, le modèle de flamelet fournit les concentrations moyennes des espèces chimiques, qui sont ensuite exploitées par le code CFD 3D pour calculer les champs de températures et les densités. La densité est nécessaire au code CFD 3D pour déterminer les flux turbulents et le champ de mélange. La formation des polluants est déterminée expérimentalement dans un moteur Diesel Volkswagen DI 1900. Le moteur est alimenté avec du gazole et deux carburants de référence. Un des carburants de référence est du n-décane pur. Le second est un carburant bicomposant formé de 70 % (du volume liquide de n-décane et de 30 % d'alpha-méthylnaphtalène (Idea

  16. Mailis Reips : Prezhde vsego neobhodimo natshat / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Haridusminister Mailis Reps kakskeelse hariduse vajalikkusest vene õppekeelega koolides, noorte keeleoskusest, eesti keele õpetamise kvaliteedist, õpetajate eesti keele oskusest, õppetöö kvaliteedist

  17. Device for controlling the composition of the mixture burnt in the combustion spaces of an internal combustion engine. Einrichtung zur Regelung der Zusammensetzung des in den Brennraeumen einer Brennkraftmaschine zur Verbrennung kommenden Betriebsgemisches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latsch, R; Bianchi, V

    1986-07-31

    The purpose of the invention is to create a device by which the extent of the reaction to the control of the composition of the mixture burnt in the combustion spaces of an internal combustion engine can be measured in a sensitive, responsive and safe way, where the position of the elements detecting the reaction should have a relatively small effect on the accuracy of the measurement and the extent of measurement. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the use of 2 thermal sensors connected to a control device (photo-electric diode, photo-electric transistor), one of which acts catalytically and causes the parts of the gas mixture there to react. The thermal sensor output signals are periodically integrated via the piston work and are entered in the control device. The measured temperature is a measure of how far the method of operation of the internal combustion engine has approached its limits. (HWJ).

  18. Obliquamente, os mitos. (República, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A República é um texto repleto de mitos, que ora são condenados, ora integrados à educação na cidade. No livro II a discussão mostra quais são condenáveis e quais são úteis. E o motivo dessa posição ambivalente de Platão a respeito do mito é um só: os mitos se imprimem na alma. Sendo assim, eles são formadores do caráter. O problema é que há mitos pseûdos, ou seja, falsos, mentirosos, fictícios. E há mitos que possuem um elemento de verdade e um elemento pseûdos. Mas eles jamais são completamente verdadeiros. Ora, qual a função do pseûdos, considerando que os mitos formam o caráter? Um discurso, seja ficcional, ou mítico, pode ser filosófico? Se isso for possível, o texto da República não é ele mesmo uma ficção? Um mito? Por breves apontamentos, este estudo segue essas questões.

  19. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  20. Proposal of a numerical modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers of turbojet engines; Proposition d`une modelisation numerique des ecoulements reactifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravet, F. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)]|[SNECMA, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Baudoin, Ch.; Schultz, J.L. [SNECMA, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France)

    1996-12-31

    Simplifying hypotheses are required when combustion and aerodynamic phenomena are considered simultaneously. In this paper, a turbulent combustion model is proposed, in which the combustion chemistry is reduced to a single reaction. In this way, only two variables are needed to describe the problem and combustion can be characterized by the consumption of one of the two reactive species. In a first step, the instantaneous consumption rate is obtained using the Lagrangian form of the mass fraction equation of the species under consideration, and by considering the equilibrium state only. This state is determined in order to preserve the consistency with results that should be obtained using a complete kinetics scheme. In a second step, the average rate is determined using the instantaneous consumption term and a probabilistic density function. This model was tested on various configurations and in particular on an experimental main chamber and on a reheating chamber. Results indicate that this model could be used to predict temperature levels inside these combustion chambers. Other applications, like the prediction of pollutant species emission can be considered. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  1. Experimental study of the aluminum droplet combustion under forced convection. Influence of the gaseous atmosphere; Etude experimentale de la combustion des gouttes d'aluminium en convection forcee. Influence de l'atmosphere gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarou-Kanian, V.

    2003-12-15

    Because of its high energetic power, the combustion of aluminum particles in solid propellant rocket motors improves the efficiency of heavy-lift launcher as Ariane 5. Aluminum particles burn in a gaseous atmosphere essentially composed of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, HCl, H{sub 2}, and CO, at high pressure (P=60-70 atm) and high temperature (T>3000 K). In the present work, we have been particularly interested in the influence of the gaseous atmosphere on the different burning processes both in the gas-phase and at the aluminum droplet surface. An experimental set-up was developed in order to describe precisely, thanks to several analysis techniques (high-speed camera, pyrometry, spectrometry, SEM, nuclear activation) the combustion of aerodynamically levitated millimetric aluminum droplets in gas mixtures with compositions close to the propellant ones (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}). The main result is that each species plays a different role in the aluminum combustion. The water vapor has the biggest influence in the gas-phase process due to the production of hydrogen facilitating the heat and mass diffusion between the flame and the droplet. Nitrogen is essentially acting in surface reactions with the formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) and oxynitride (AlON) which may completely cover the droplet and stop the gas-phase combustion. Carbon dioxide has a double effect. On the one hand, CO{sub 2} burns in the flame, but it is less efficient than H{sub 2}O because the heat and mass transfer properties are poorer for CO than for H{sub 2}. On the other hand, a carbon dissolution phenomenon occurs in the aluminum droplet during burning which may reach saturation (20-25% molar) and involves a carbon rejection at the surface leading to the end of the gas-phase combustion. (author)

  2. Determination of the Effectiveness of Control Rods in the VVER Reactor Fuel Assemblies; Determination de l'Efficacite des Barres de Reglage dans les Ensembles Combustibles du reacteur VVER; Opredelenie ehffektivnosti reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej v sborkakh reaktora VVEHR; Determinacion de la Eficacia de las Barras de Control en los Conjuntos de Elementos Combustibles del Reactor VVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V. N.; Lunin, G. L.; Komissarov, L. V.; Kamyshan, A. N.; Halizev, V. I.; Andrianov, G. Ja.; Voznesenskij, V. A.; Kuz' micheva, V. A.; Lebedev, V. I. [Ordena Lenina Institut Atomnoj Energii Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1964-06-15

    The paper describes experiments done in homogeneous mock-ups of the fuel assemblies from the VVER Reactor (at one level of enrichment) to determine the effectiveness of absorbing systems comprising shim fuel assemblies or water cavities and of absorbing rods clad in jackets made of differing materials. The paper also gives data on some experiments that have been done in mock-ups of assemblies with differing levels of enrichment. These experiments make it possible to verify the methods used in calculation and to evaluate the prospects of using them for heterogeneous reactors. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit les experiences qui ont ete faites pour determiner l 'efficacite des absorbants contenus dans les barres de compensation, l'effet cavitaire et l 'efficacite des absorbants gaines de materiaux divers, au moyen d'assemblages homogenes de cartouches de combustible du reacteur VVER (reacteur de puissance ralenti et refroidi a l 'eau ayant le meme taux d'enrichissement. On y trouve en outre des donnees sur certaines experiences executees a l 'aide d'assemblages de cartouches de combustible taux d'enrichissement differents. Ces travaux permettent de verifier la methode de calcul et d'evaluer ses possibilites d'application aux reacteurs non homogenes. (author) [Spanish] Se describen en la memoria experimentos para determinar la eficacia de los materiales absorbentes contenidos en las barras de compensacion, el efecto de cavitacion y la eficacia de los materiales absorbentes revestidos de diversos materiales, realizados con ayuda de los conjuntos homogeneos de elementos combustibles del reactor VVER (reactor de potencia moderado y refrigerado por agua) con un solo grado de enriquecimiento. Ademas, se exponen datos sobre los experimentos efectuados con ayuda de conjuntos de grados de enriquecimientos; variados. Tales experimentos permiten verificar el metodo de calculo teorico, utilizad o y evaluar la posibilidad de aplicarlo a los reactores no homogeneos. (author

  3. Gas-flow detector for uranium contamination on finned-can surface of a reactor fuel; Detecteur a courant gazeux pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire; Gazopotochnyj detektor zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov; Detector de flujo gaseoso para medir la contaminacion de uranio en la superficie de la vaina de aletas de los elementos combustibles para reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Shiojiri, T; Maeda, Y [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    Calder Hall-type reactor-fuel and all JRR-3 fuels are to be inspected by this counter. (author) [French] Le detecteur a courant gazeux presente par les auteurs est un compteur proportionnel a grille, specialement concu pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire. Un compteur proportionnel classique, compose seulement d'une cathode et d'un collecteur, n'est guere capable de deceler les particules alpha emises par l'uranium contaminant une surface rugueuse telle que les nervures d'une gaine de combustible nucleaire, par suite du manque d'uniformite du champ electrique pres de la surface. C'est pourquoi les auteurs ont construit un compteur proportionnel a grille. Cet appareil, de forme cylindrique, comprend le combustible, une grille, des collecteurs et une cathode, tous les elements etant disposes suivant le meme axe. Le combustible est place au centre de la grille a laquelle on applique une tension negative. L'espace entre le combustible et la grille sert de collecteur d'ions. La grille, faite de fils paralleles minces en tungstene, disposes suivant un cylindre autour du combustible, est reliee a la terre. Les collecteurs sont constitues de 16 minces fils de tungstene disposes de la meme maniere que la grille, mais chaque fil est isole electriquement des autres. Tous les collecteurs sont interconnectes par des resistances de 5 x 10{sup 4} ohms et relies au positif de la haute tension par une resistance. L'espace entre la grille, les collecteurs et la cathode sert a la multiplication du gaz, tout comme dans un compteur proportionnel classique. Chaque resistance de 5 x 10{sup 4} ohms isole la capacite parasite de chaque collecteur. La sortie du detecteur est couplee a un amplificateur a faible impedance d'entree. La faible impedance d'entree diminue aussi l'influence facheuse de la capacite parasite du circuit d'entree. Il en resulte un rapport favorable signal/bruit de fond, ce qui permet une bonne detection des particules

  4. Study of a device for the direct measurement of the fission gas pressure inside an in-pile fuel element; Etude d'un dispositif pour la mesure directe de la pression des gaz de fission a l'interieur d'un element combustible en pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavaud, B; Uschanoff, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The fission gas pressure inside a fuel element made of a refractory fuel constitutes an important limiting factor for the burn-up. Although it is possible to calculate approximately the volume of gas produced outside the fuel during its life-time; it is nevertheless very difficult to evaluate the pressure since the volume allowed to the fission gases, as well as their temperature are known only very approximately. This physical value, which is essential for the technologist, can only be known by direct in-pile measurement of the pressure. The report describes the equipment which has been developed for this test. (authors) [French] La pression des gaz de fission a l'interieur d'un element combustible a combustible refractaire constitue une des limitations importantes du taux de combustion. Si on peut approcher par calcul la determination du volume, des gaz degages hors du combustible au cours de sa vie, il est par contre tres difficile d'evaluer la pression car le volume alloue aux gaz de fission et leur temperature sont tres mal connus. Cette donnee essentielle pour le technologue ne peut etre atteinte que par une mesure directe en pile de la pression. Le rapport decrit l'appareillage qui a ete mis au point pour cet essai. (auteurs)

  5. Retrofit MHB Hamm. Process-related optimization of the combustion air system MHB Hamm; Retrofit MHB Hamm. Prozess- und verfahrenstechnische Optimierung des Verbrennungsluftsystems MHB Hamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Frank [SC Schumacher Consulting handelnd fuer Xervon Energy GmbH, Ritterhude (Germany); Lindke, Carsten [MHB Hamm Betriebsfuehrungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamm (Germany); Auel, Werner [Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a process-related optimization of the combustion air system of the waste incinerator Hamm. Subsequently to the historical aspects of this waste incinerator and the development of its calorific values, the authors describe the tender Retrofit, its implementation as well as the first practical experiences.

  6. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  7. Burners. The decrease of nitrogen oxides in combustion process: the 2 nd generation GR LONOxFLAM burner; Les bruleurs, la reduction des oxydes d`azote dans la combustion: bruleur GR LONOxFLAM de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.C. [EGCI Pillard, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Pillard company has developed, in cooperation with GDF (the French national gas utility), the GR-LONOxFLAM burner concept for reducing NOx emission levels and solid combustion products. The concept consists, for gaseous fuels, in the combination of an internal recirculation and a gas staging process; for liquid fuels, a separated flame process and air staging are combined. These concepts allow for an important reduction in NOx and non-burned residues, even with standard-size burners

  8. The combustion system of the MAN 20V35/44G gas engine; Das Brennverfahren des Gasmotors 20V35/44G von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Markus; Auer, Matthias; Stiesch, Gunnar [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The new gas engine 20V35/44G by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE has a power output of 10.6 MW. The high effective efficiency level of 48.4 % as well as numerous technical innovations allow an environment-friendly, economical and reliable engine operation. Key to achieve this is the combustion system, which has been optimised during advanced engineering by means of modern simulation tools and extensive single-cylinder tests. (orig.)

  9. Formation and destruction mechanisms of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion in circulating fluidized beds; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction des oxydes d`azote lors de la combustion du charbon en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrel, G.; Lecuyer, I. [Universite du Haut-Rhin, 68 - Mulhouse (France)

    1997-01-01

    Formation and reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO and N{sub 2}O) during coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed (CFBC) are very complicated and yet badly known. The aim of the present study was to better characterize these phenomena on a small-sized experimental unit (reactor diameter: 5 cm), with the possibility to re-inject the solids in the bottom of the furnace, as in a real industrial unit. This should allow then to develop a numerical set of chemical reactions involving the nitrogen oxides. The experimental results showed that coal ash plays a great role in reducing nitrogen oxides, the determining parameter being the quantity of unburnt carbon remaining in the ash. The study then detailed the interaction between nitrogen oxides and de-volatilized (char) according to the temperature, NO{sub x} concentration and the mass of solid. In the absence of oxygen small quantities of char can very significantly reduce NO as well as N{sub 2}O. It was possible to establish destruction kinetics on these particles, and orders of reaction could be determined versus the NO{sub x} concentration and the char particle mass (heterogeneous phase chemical reactions). Then, the coal pyrolysis study enabled to identify the products released during coal devolatilization and thermogravimetric analyses displayed several successive weight losses due CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} releases, during a linear temperature increase. Lastly coal combustion was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental results, a model was developed to calculate NO{sub x} concentrations during the coal combustion and validated. The NO and N{sub 2}O contents calculated are thoroughly correlated with the experimental data whatever the injection carbon/oxygen ratio is. (author) 96 refs.

  10. Modeling of the PWR fuel mechanical behaviour and particularly study of the pellet-cladding interaction in a fuel rod; Contribution a la modelisation du comportement mecanique des combustibles REP sous irradiation, avec en particulier le traitement de l`interaction pastille-gaine dans un crayon combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdequin, N.

    1995-05-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power plants, fuel cladding constitutes the first containment barrier against radioactive contamination. Computer codes, developed with the help of a large experimental knowledge, try to predict cladding failures which must be limited in order to maintain a maximal safety level. Until now, fuel rod design calculus with unidimensional codes were adequate to prevent cladding failures in standard PWR`s operating conditions. But now, the need of nuclear power plant availability increases. That leads to more constraining operating condition in which cladding failures are strongly influenced by the fuel rod mechanical behaviour, mainly at high power level. Then, the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) becomes important, and is characterized by local effects which description expects a multidimensional modelization. This is the aim of the TOUTATIS 2D-3D code, that this thesis contributes to develop. This code allows to predict non-axisymmetric behaviour too, as rod buckling which has been observed in some irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS. By another way, PCI is influenced by under irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS which includes a densification model and a swelling model. The latter can only be used in standard operating conditions. However, the processing structure of this modulus provides the possibility to include any type of model corresponding with other operating conditions. In last, we show the result of these fuel volume variations on the cladding mechanical conditions. (author). 25 refs., 89 figs., 2 tabs., 12 photos., 5 appends.

  11. Evaluation of turbulent transport and flame surface dissipation using direct numerical simulation of turbulent combustion; Evaluation des termes de transport et de dissipation de surface de flamme par simulation numerique directe de la combustion turbulente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughanem, H.

    1998-03-24

    The assumption of gradient transport for the mean reaction progress variable has a limited domain of validity in premixed turbulent combustion. The existence of two turbulent transport regimes, gradient and counter-gradient, is demonstrated in the present work using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of plane flame configurations. The DNS data base describes the influence of the heat release factor, of the turbulence-to-flame velocity ratio, and of an external pressure gradient. The simulations reveal a strong correlation between the regime of turbulent transport and the turbulent flame speed and turbulent flame thickness. These effects re not well described by current turbulent combustion models. A conditional approach `fresh gases / burnt gases` is proposed to overcome these difficulties. Furthermore, he development of flame instabilities in turbulent configurations is also observed in the simulations. A criterion is derived that determines the domain of occurrence of these instabilities (Darrieus- Landau instabilities, Rayleigh- Taylor instabilities, thermo-diffusive instabilities). This criterion suggests that the domain of occurrence of flame instabilities is not limited to small Reynolds numbers. (author) 98 refs.

  12. Qualification des logiciels numériques. Application à un logiciel d'analyse de la combustion dans les moteurs à allumage commandé Qualification of Numerical Software. Application to a Software for Analysing Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignes J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La simulation numérique est actuellement très utilisée pour étudier les systèmes physiques. Elle nécessite un programme de calcul scientifique constitué d'un modèle mathématique représentatif du problème étudié et des méthodes numériques de résolution associées. Elle fournit des résultats numériques censés représenter le phénomène physique. Pour pouvoir valider la simulation, il est absolument indispensable, d'une part, d'estimer la propagation des erreurs d'arrondi due à l'arithmétique approchée des ordinateurs et, d'autre part, d'évaluer l'influence des erreurs de données sur les résultats fournis. Nous présentons, dans cet article, le logiciel CADNA qui permet de valider les logiciels numériques. Nous l'appliquons à un logiciel de simulation d'analyse de la combustion dans les moteurs à allumage commandé et en montrons son efficacité. For analyzing physical phenomena, numerical simulation is used more and more frequently. Starting with a mathematical model describing the phenomenon being analyzed, this simulation consists in creating a scientific computing program expressing this model by implementing the numerical methods required for solving it. Simulation is considered to be valid when the results its provides are in agreement with the results issuing from experimenting with the phenomenon. However, to conclude in the possible validity of the simulation, the numerical results provided by the computer must be previously validated. Yet, these results contain a computing error resulting from the propagation of round-off errors caused by the floating-point arithmetic used by the computer. They also contain an error coming from the uncertainties concerning the data of the problem. Hence it is first indispensable to assess the influence of these errors. This article is made up of two parts. The first part concerns the validation of numerical software results. After making a brief review of the floating

  13. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P R; Sautray, R R; Girard, B R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence sur la decontamination. L'activite en

  14. Processing Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} fuel extracted from high temperature reactors HTGCR; Etude du traitement des combustibles Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} issus de reacteurs a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, C; Lessart, P; Pianezza, E; Verry, C; Villain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The object of this investigation is solubilisation head-end (from crushing and grinding phase to non included first purification phase) of pulverulent ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} (200 - 500 microns diameter) contained in a graphite matrix extracted from a 4.10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermalized neutrons average flux with an irradiation of 80000 MWjT{sup -1} HTGCR reactor. After having succinctly described different bibliographic processes we have chosen the burn - leach of reactor fuel and graphite matrix containing it. The technology of burner is original in nuclear field and still more by utilizing ultra-sounds to intensify burning reaction and to minimize the weight of unburnables. The mixture of ThO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and fission products oxides is solubilized by boiling HNO{sub 3} 13 M + HF 0.05 M. This process is profit-learning in a thorium recuperation and reprocessing point of view. In the contrary-case it would be interesting to consider a dry-process which would permit to separate solid ThF{sub 4} from gaseous UF{sub 6}. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet le traitement initial de mise en solution ou 'head-end' (allant de la phase broyag-concassage a la phase de premiere purification exclue) d'un combustible ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} pulverulent (de 200 a 500 {mu} de diametre) contenu dans une matrice de graphite issu d'un reacteur HTGCR surgenerateur a neutrons thermiques de flux moyen 4. l0{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et taux d'irradiation 80000 MWjT{sup -1}. Apres exposition succincte des differents procedes bibliographiques decrits, nous avons finalement choisi le traitement par combustion-attaque ('Burn-Leach') du combustible et de la matrice etanche graphite qui le contient. La technologie du bruleur est originale dans le domaine nucleaire d'autant qu'elle utilise les ultra-sons pour ameliorer le rendement de la reaction de combustion et reduire au minimum le poids des imbrules. Le melange ThO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O

  15. Development of reduced kinetic schemes for the description of pollutants formation in combustion; Mise au point de schemas cinetiques reduits pour decrire la formation des polluants dans la combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrendier, M.

    1998-12-17

    The typical dimensions of details chemical-kinetic mechanisms proposed to describe combustion systems are too large for multi-dimensional computations applications. The objective of reduction methods is to construct low-dimensional schemes that can be incorporated in industrial codes. We consider here a new class of methods based on a mathematical analysis of the detailed chemical-kinetic mechanisms, and the identification of a low-dimensional manifold that describes the slow dynamics of the chemical system. The mathematical reduction methods considered in this work are the Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifold (ILDM) method proposed by Maas and Pope (1992), and the Singular Perturbation (PS) method proposed by Duchene and Rouchon (1996). The domain of validity of the ILDM or PS reduced schemes is limited to a high temperature domain T {>=} T{sub c}. This result suggests that ignition is out of the domain of application of reduced mechanisms. In the case of a CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-air combustion system, and using a two-dimensional slow manifold, we find T{sub c} {approx} 750 K. We also find that for that particular system, 2 progress variables are sufficient for an accurate description of the structure and the velocity of a laminar premixed flame. In the case of a CH{sub 4}-air combustion system, and using a two-dimensional slow manifold, we find T{sub c}{approx}1500 K. We also find that 2 progress variables are insufficient for an accurate description of the structure and the velocity of a laminar premixed flame. The study of the different NO formation mechanisms show that the thermal NO mechanism (the Zeldovich mechanism) is dominant for premixed configurations with lean or stoichiometric conditions ({phi}){>=}1.2), and for non-premixed configurations at high temperatures and high pressures (T{sub air}{>=}1000 K, P {>=} 10 bars). Under these conditions, the MPKIVA sub model used to describe NO formation in the IFP version of the KIVA code performs reasonably well. An

  16. La représentation de l'espace chez des Touaregs du Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond BERNUS

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Une cartographie éphémère, par des cartographes d'occasion qui dessinent habituellement sur le sable. Des Touaregs reportent sur le papier une représentation graphique originale de leurs itinéraires, dans des régions où les repères sont rares et où le réseau hydrographique sert de trame aux aires de nomadisation.

  17. Numerical and experimental study of the influence of the operational parameters on the formation mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion of mixtures of cellulosic and plastic materials; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des parametres operatoires sur les mecanismes de formation des oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion de melanges de materiaux cellulosiques et plastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andzi Barhe, T.

    2004-10-15

    The current thesis was performed within a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD of the University of Poitiers) and the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie d'Environnement (LPCE) of the University of Ouagadougou. It was financed by Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). The principle object of this study is the optimisation of the combustion process during the incineration of waste. This optimisation is aimed at the reduction of the polluting emissions, principally CO and NO, during the incineration of cellulosic and plastic materials. It involves the analysis of the influence of the operational parameters on the polluting emissions and the control of reaction mechanisms of formation and reduction of these pollutants during the combustion process. Consequently, the study was performed in two parts: an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental part was realised using a fixed bed counterflow reactor. This setup simulates the combustion within an industrial waste incinerator. The reactor allows the combustion of a vertical layer of waste mixture (wood, cardboard, PET, polyamide) to be followed. Three model mixtures representative of the makeup of household waste were studied in order to determine the influence of the composition of the waste on the emission of pollutants (CO and NO). The obtained results show that this parameter has a practically negligible influence within the tested parameter range. Consequently the formation of pollutants depends on the operating parameters - the equivalence ratio and the temperature. A numerical study of the influence of these parameters in order to show their impact on the mechanisms of pollutant formation and to determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. The numerical study was performed with software developed at the LCD. This programme based on a detailed chemical model coupled to a simple physical model. It uses the

  18. A Method of Identification and Inspection for Inventory Control of Irradiated Fuel Elements; Methode d'Identification et d'Inspection Permettant de Proceder a l'Inventaire des Elements Combustibles Irradies; Metod identifikatsii i proverki pri inventarnom kontrole obluchennykh toplivnykh ehlementov; Metodos de Identificacion e Inspeccion para el Control de las Existencias de Elementos Combustibles Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinderman, E. M.; Mills, J. S. [Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    The reactor discharge and irradiated fuel storage locations should be examined in any complete special nuclear materials inventory. They present, however, special physical difficulties to the auditor or inventory control manager. In these locations the distance between object and observer and the poor illumination and optical distortion caused by the shielding media (water, lead glass) contribute to the difficulties of materials inventory. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties and to provide a system for positive identification of reactor discharged fuel, we have developed a compact and convenient optical examination system utilizing a fixed examination station, a periscope, a telescope, and a camera. This system has been tested in a cobalt irradiation pool by examination of test coupons which were marked in various ways, and then treated in a hot, circulating water loop. In the test system, a water-filled periscope, 11-ft long, a catadioptric telescope placed 16 ft from the periscope, and a 35-mm camera for recording the observations were used. The telescope, camera and mountings are all readily portable since they weigh in total less than 22 lb and have maximum dimensions of 29 in. Photographic observations of test resolution charts in air 20 ft away from the object lens of the telescope have demonstrated that the system can resolve markings 22 {mu}m in width. This corresponds to a resolution of 0.8 second of arc. Tests performed on the water system have shown that resolution in this system is better than 50 {mu}m at 20 ft. This corresponds to a resolution of about 1 second of arc. It is clear that the resolution can never be better than the air path system. The present system used in an actual fuel inventory should adequately reproduce any inventory markings. (author) [French] Tout inventaire complet des matieres nucleaires speciales exige un controle au point de dechargement du reacteur et au point de stockage du combustible irradie. Or, ce controle pose

  19. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep' proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep', in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replica...

  20. Extraction apparatus used in the treatment of irradiated fuels; Les appareils d'extraction utilises dans le traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Talmont, X [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The two qualities necessary in an extractor in the case of solvent extraction of radioactive materials are that they should occupy little space and require little maintenance. In this paper various types of apparatus designed to this effect are examined: firstly mixer-decanter types with mechanical shaking and with shaking and decantation ultrasonically accelerated; then pulsed columns; finally hydro-cyclones. The chemical engineering studies peculiar to the running, supply and control of each of these extractors are described in detail. In certain cases some results obtained on radioactive solutions on a pilot scale are given. (author) [French] Faible encombrement, peu d'entretien, telles sont les deux qualites qu'un extracteur doit posseder dans le cas d'extraction par solvant de matieres radioactives. Dans ce texte seront examines differents types d'appareils concus dans cet esprit: d'abord les appareils typez melangeurs-decanteurs a agitation mecanique, a agitation et decantation accelerees aux ultra-sons; puis les colonnes pulsees; enfin les hydrocyclones. Pour chacun de ces extracteurs seront detaillees les etudes de genie chimique propres a son fonctionnement, a son alimentation, a son controle. Pour certains seront notes quelques resultats obtenus sur des solutions radioactives a l'echelle pilote. (auteur)

  1. Presentation of the health impact evaluation study of atmospheric emissions of a major coal combustion installation; Mise a jour de l'etude d'evaluation de l'impact sur la sante des rejets atmospheriques des tranches charbon d'une grande installation de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnard, R

    2004-12-15

    In the framework of a working group on the major installations, a study has been realized on a today coal combustion installation. The direct risk by inhalation and the risks bond to indirect exposure of atmospheric releases were analyzed. The calculation method is explained and the uncertainties are discussed to present the results. (A.L.B.)

  2. A methodology for extending domain coverage in SemRep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Shin, Dongwook; Kilicoglu, Halil; Sneiderman, Charles; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    We describe a domain-independent methodology to extend SemRep coverage beyond the biomedical domain. SemRep, a natural language processing application originally designed for biomedical texts, uses the knowledge sources provided by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS©). Ontological and terminological extensions to the system are needed in order to support other areas of knowledge. We extended SemRep's application by developing a semantic representation of a previously unsupported domain. This was achieved by adapting well-known ontology engineering phases and integrating them with the UMLS knowledge sources on which SemRep crucially depends. While the process to extend SemRep coverage has been successfully applied in earlier projects, this paper presents in detail the step-wise approach we followed and the mechanisms implemented. A case study in the field of medical informatics illustrates how the ontology engineering phases have been adapted for optimal integration with the UMLS. We provide qualitative and quantitative results, which indicate the validity and usefulness of our methodology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-12-31

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Fortsetzung eines vom Berichterstatter bearbeiteten OeKOR-Teilprojekts zur chemischen Charakterisierung von Emissionen aus dem Hausbrand von Braunkohle galt es, auf der Basis einer an der Flaechennutzung ausgerichteten Untergliederung der Stadtregion Leipzig in unterschiedliche Strukturtypen langfristige Immissionsbeobachtungen zu beginnen mit dem Ziel, eine Zustandsanalyse des Umweltmediums Luft bezueglich des Gehalts an fluechtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) in ihrer gesamten Breite zu ermoeglichen. Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen

  4. Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description Oxydation et réduction des minerais de fer-titane dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Hoed P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite (FeTiO3 is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes. Its reduction and oxidation are described by the system Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-Ti2O3. The phase diagram at 1 000°C, presented here, offers a useful tool for predicting reactions and their products. We see that Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite and TiO2 (rutile form a stable phase assemblage following the oxidation of FeTiO3 (ilmenite in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe2TiO5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10-15.5atm stabilizes Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes. We speculate that the reduction of Fe-Ti oxides in several practical instances does not reach completion (and equilibrium under the imposed atmospheres operating in fuel reactors. L’ilménite (FeTiO3 est considéré comme un transporteur d’oxygène potentiel pour les procédés en boucle chimique. Ses mécanismes de réduction et d’oxydation sont décrits à travers le système Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-TiO3. Le diagramme de phase à 1 000°C, présenté ici, est un outil utile pour prédire les réactions et les produits. Nous constatons que Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite et TiO2 (rutile forment un assemblage de phase stable après oxydation de l’ilménite (FeTiO3 dans l’air. La réduction subséquente de Fe2TiO5 à la pression partielle de 10−15,5atm stabilise vers Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, une solution solide d’ilménite. Une réduction plus poussée va produire du fer métallique et compromettre l’intégrité du transporteur d’oxygène dans la boucle chimique. Il est probable que la réduction des oxydes Fe-Ti ne soit pas, en pratique, complète et n’atteigne pas l’équilibre dans les conditions rencontrées en opération dans les réacteurs de réduction.

  5. The Role of Attrition and Solids Recovery in a Chemical Looping Combustion Process Effet de l’attrition et de la récupération des particules dans le procédé de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramp M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state behavior of a Chemical Looping Combustion process of interconnected fluidized bed reactors is simulated. The simulations have been carried out in two different scales, 50 kWth and 100 MWth. Attrition model derived from small scale laboratory experiments has been employed for the prediction of the process behavior in terms of attrition and Oxygen Carrier loss. Information on Oxygen Carrier characteristics and reaction kinetics were taken from literature. Realistic circulation mass flows of Oxygen Carrier particles are obtained and Oxygen Carrier losses are quantified. The large scale process looses significantly more Oxygen Carrier than the small scale process based on the same amount of thermal energy produced. Incomplete conversion in the air reactor could be identified as a critical point. Another issue is the fuel gas bypassing the Oxygen Carrier particles through bubbles in the large scale process which leads to lowered fuel conversions. The simulations indicate that a similar performance of a pilot scale and a large scale process is not guaranteed due to the scale-up effect on fluid dynamics. Furthermore, the simulations allow an assessment of the influence of the quality of the solids recovery system on the Oxygen Carrier loss. The distribution of the losses between possible origins is investigated and different changes in the solids recovery system are discussed regarding their potential to decrease the Oxygen Carrier loss. For example, the addition of a second-stage cyclone after the air reactor of the large scale process reduces the Oxygen Carrier loss significantly. Le présent travail propose un modèle de simulation en continu du procédé de combustion en boucle chimique constitué de deux lits fluidisés interconnectés. Les simulations ont été conduites à deux échelles 50 kWth correspondant à une installation pilote et 100 MWth correspondant à une installation industrielle. Un modèle d

  6. 3D printing with RepRap cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A systematic guide consisting of over 100 recipes which focus on helping you understand the process of 3D printing using RepRap machines. The book aims at providing professionals with a series of working recipes to help make their fuzzy notions into real, saleable projects/objects using 3D printing technology. This book is for novice designers and artists who own a RepRap-based 3D printer, have fundamental knowledge of its working, and who desire to gain better mastery of the printing process. For the more experienced user, it will provide a handy visual resource, with side-by-side comparisons

  7. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  8. Report by the AERES on the unit: Fuel Study Department (DEC) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA); Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles (DEC) sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DEC (Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles, Fuel Study Department) which comprises four departments: a department of analysis and characterization of fuel behaviour (SA3C) which comprises four laboratories, a Plutonium, Uranium and Minor Actinides department (SPUA) which comprises four laboratories, a department for the investigation and simulation of fuel behaviour (four laboratories) and the Leca-Star department (3 laboratories and a project group). The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications on different themes (fundamental research on fuels, fuel design, fabrications, characterizations and property measurements, experimental irradiations, characterization of irradiated fuels and chemical and radio-chemical analysis, modelling and simulation). A more detailed assessment is presented for each theme in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  9. 36 Évaluation des risques de pollution en métaux lourds (Hg, Cd, Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    eaux et des sédiments de l'estuaire du fleuve Konkouré (Rep. de Guinée) .... ont été effectués en période de fin d'étiage au mois d'avril 2009 à bord d'une ... Tableau 1 : Résultats des analyses physicochimiques de l'eau in situ des différentes ...

  10. Perception du risque et vulnérabilité des milieux humides sur la côte ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ils repéreront et évalueront les facteurs de stress associés aux changements climatiques pour ensuite analyser les facteurs qui influent sur la gestion des milieux humides et sur la perception des risques au sein des collectivités locales. Cette analyse débouchera sur l'élaboration de lignes directrices pour encourager les ...

  11. Overview of RepLab 2012: Evaluating Online Reputation Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amigó, E.; Corujo, A.; Gonzalo, J.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the goals, organization and results of the first RepLab competitive evaluation campaign for Online Reputation Management Systems (RepLab 2012). RepLab focused on the reputation of companies, and asked participant systems to annotate different types of information on tweets

  12. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. GENOMIQUE ET LIPIDES Génomique et métabolisme des lipides des plantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delseny Michel

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Il existe dans les bases de données publiques une énorme quantité de séquences d’ADN dérivées de plantes, et notamment la séquence complète du génome d’Arabidopsis thaliana, une plante modèle pour les oléagineux, proche parente du colza. Ces données constituent une ressource importante non seulement pour la compréhension de métabolisme lipidique et de sa régulation, mais aussi pour la sélection et le développement de variétés nouvelles d’oléagineux produisant davantage d’huiles ou des huiles de composition nouvelle. Cette abondance de séquences peut être exploitée, en utilisant les recherches d’homologies, pour identifier les gènes, pour obtenir des informations sur leur fonction, comme pour repérer des gènes candidats codant des fonctions nouvelles. L’analyse de ces bases de données a révélé que la majeure partie des gènes codant des enzymes impliquées dans le métabolisme lipidique appartient à des petites familles multigéniques, reflétant la diversification des fonctions des isoformes. Une analyse du catalogue des ADNc séquencés en aveugle reflète les niveaux d’expression des différents gènes et fournit un aperçu des régulations des flux au travers des voies métaboliques conduisant à la biosynthèse des lipides de réserve. La disponibilité de mutants et de lignées transgéniques d’Arabidopsis et le développement de puces à ADN qui permettent l’analyse simultanée de plusieurs milliers de gènes conduiront à une meilleure compréhension des facteurs qui régulent le métabolisme des huiles dans les graines. Une telle connaissance facilitera la manipulation de la composition des huiles et des quantités produites dans les graines.

  14. Characterization of the adenoassociated virus Rep protein complex formed on the viral origin of DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zengi; Brister, J. Rodney; Im, Dong-Soo; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between the adenoassociated virus (AAV) replication proteins, Rep68 and 78, and the viral terminal repeats (TRs) is mediated by a DNA sequence termed the Rep-binding element (RBE). This element is necessary for Rep-mediated unwinding of duplex DNA substrates, directs Rep catalyzed cleavage of the AAV origin of DNA replication, and is required for viral transcription and proviral integration. Six discrete Rep complexes with the AAV TR substrates have been observed in vitro, and cross-linking studies suggest these complexes contain one to six molecules of Rep. However, the functional relationship between Rep oligomerization and biochemical activity is unclear. Here we have characterized Rep complexes that form on the AAV TR. Both Rep68 and Rep78 appear to form the same six complexes with the AAV TR, and ATP seems to stimulate formation of specific, higher order complexes. When the sizes of these Rep complexes were estimated on native polyacrylamide gels, the four slower migrating complexes were larger than predicted by an amount equivalent to one or two TRs. To resolve this discrepancy, the molar ratio of protein and DNA was calculated for the three largest complexes. Data from these experiments indicated that the larger complexes included multiple TRs in addition to multiple Rep molecules and that the Rep-to-TR ratio was approximately 2. The two largest complexes were also associated with increased Rep-mediated, origin cleavage activity. Finally, we characterized a second, Rep-mediated cleavage event that occurs adjacent to the normal nicking site, but on the opposite strand. This second site nicking event effectively results in double-stranded DNA cleavage at the normal nicking site

  15. Deformable M-Reps for 3D Medical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Stephen M.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Joshi, Sarang; Thall, Andrew; Chen, James Z.; Fridman, Yonatan; Fritsch, Daniel S.; Gash, Graham; Glotzer, John M.; Jiroutek, Michael R.; Lu, Conglin; Muller, Keith E.; Tracton, Gregg; Yushkevich, Paul; Chaney, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    M-reps (formerly called DSLs) are a multiscale medial means for modeling and rendering 3D solid geometry. They are particularly well suited to model anatomic objects and in particular to capture prior geometric information effectively in deformable models segmentation approaches. The representation is based on figural models, which define objects at coarse scale by a hierarchy of figures – each figure generally a slab representing a solid region and its boundary simultaneously. This paper focuses on the use of single figure models to segment objects of relatively simple structure. A single figure is a sheet of medial atoms, which is interpolated from the model formed by a net, i.e., a mesh or chain, of medial atoms (hence the name m-reps), each atom modeling a solid region via not only a position and a width but also a local figural frame giving figural directions and an object angle between opposing, corresponding positions on the boundary implied by the m-rep. The special capability of an m-rep is to provide spatial and orientational correspondence between an object in two different states of deformation. This ability is central to effective measurement of both geometric typicality and geometry to image match, the two terms of the objective function optimized in segmentation by deformable models. The other ability of m-reps central to effective segmentation is their ability to support segmentation at multiple levels of scale, with successively finer precision. Objects modeled by single figures are segmented first by a similarity transform augmented by object elongation, then by adjustment of each medial atom, and finally by displacing a dense sampling of the m-rep implied boundary. While these models and approaches also exist in 2D, we focus on 3D objects. The segmentation of the kidney from CT and the hippocampus from MRI serve as the major examples in this paper. The accuracy of segmentation as compared to manual, slice-by-slice segmentation is reported. PMID

  16. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  17. Analyse de la dynamique non-linéaire et du contrôle des instabilités de combustion fondée sur la "Flame Describing Function" (FDF)

    OpenAIRE

    Boudy , Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with an investigation of combustion instabilities in premixed combustors. This problem has been the subject of a continuous effort in relation with the many issues encountered in practical systems like those used in propulsion and energy production. Combustion instabilities usually arise from the coupling between combustion and acoustic eigenmodes of the system. In most cases such resonances lead to vibrations, structural fatigue and intensified heat fluxes to the cha...

  18. Identification and Characterization of the Novel p97 co-factors, Rep8 and ASPL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Louise Kjær

    to the ER membrane with the UBX domain situated in the cytosol. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In tests, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Additional precipitation experiments revealed that Rep8......The highly conserved and ubiquitin-specific AAA ATPase p97 acts on ubiquitylated substrates in diverse cellular mechanisms such as chromatin-associated degradation, fusion of homotypic membranes and ER-associated degradation. Different p97 cofactors associate with the ATPase, thereby constituting...... that ASPL localizes to the ER membrane and in vitro ASPL leads to disassembly of the p97 hexameric ATPase. Rep8 was found to interact with p97 both in vitro and in vivo, and the binding was mediated through the N-domain of p97 and the UBX domain of Rep8. Localization studies showed that Rep8 localizes...

  19. Identification of Tilletia species using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Župunski Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing 167 non-processed seed samples of wheat, it was found that 145 samples (86.8 % were contaminated with Tilletia species, while 22 (13.2 % samples were not contaminated. By using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique, it was found that DNA isolates of T. tritici originated from Serbian wheat samples had 80 % similarity with positive control for T. tritici. One isolate shared similarity of 60% with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. It was supposed that this isolate belongs to T. bromi. Isolate of T. laevis shared a similarity of 70 % with isolates of T. tritici and T. controversa, while T. walkeri was more than 10 % similar with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. Although T. controversa and T. tritici had high percent of genetic similarity, they were clustered separately. Our results suggest that rep-PCR fingerprinting could be a useful tool for monitoring presence of morphologically similar Tilletia species in wheat production areas.

  20. Ultra Fast, High Rep Rate, High Voltage Spark Gap Pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    current rise time. The spark gap was designed to have a coaxial geometry reducing its inductance. Provisions were made to pass flowing gas between the...ULTRA FAST, HIGH REP RATE, HIGH VOLTAGE SPARK GAP PULSER Robert A. Pastore Jr., Lawrence E. Kingsley, Kevin Fonda, Erik Lenzing Electrophysics and...Modeling Branch AMSRL-PS-EA Tel.: (908)-532-0271 FAX: (908)-542-3348 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Directorate Ft. Monmouth

  1. Design of the Small Rods Forming the Fuel Element of the First Charge of the EL4 Reactor. Cladding Problems; Etude des crayons constituant l'element combustible du premier jeu d'EL4 - probleme de la gaine; Problema pokrytiya nebol'shikh steeknej, obrazushchikh toplivnyj ehlement pervoj zagruzki reaktora EL.4; Estudio de las barras que constituyen los elementos combustibles de la primera carga del reactor EL4 - el problema de las vainas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, H.; Ringot, C.; Weisz, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-11-15

    The fuel element for the first charge of EL4 makes use of stainless steel cans. The grade of steel chosen and the can thickness depend on the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength required. The operating stresses and temperatures are such that fabrication of a can lasting throughout the life of the fuel element calls for a highly resistant grade of steel, of thickness greater than 0.5 mm. When the can bears on the fuel as a result of creep, deformation in diametrical clearance may lead to ovalization and folding, while deformation in longitudinal clearance may cause buckling of the can. Numerous tests have been carried out on cans of thickness 0.3 and 0.4 mm to determine type of deformation as a function of clearance. To be certain of avoiding ovalization with the thicknesses proposed and to keep the internal temperature of the fuel as low as possible, the clearance must be reduced to zero in fabrication. (author) [French] L'element combustible du premier jeu EL4 utilise des gaines en acier inoxydable. Le choix de la nuance et de l'epaisseur de la gaine est lie a des considerations de tenue a la corrosion et de tenue mecanique. Les contraintes et les temperatures d'utilisation ne permettent pas de concevoir une gaine resistante pendant toute la vie de l'element combustible a moins d'utiliser une nuance tres resistante et d'epaisseur superieure a 0,5 mm. On admet que la gaine s'applique par fluage sur le combustible: la deformation dans les jeux diametraux peut conduire a la formation d'une ovalisation et d'un pli; la deformation dans les jeux longitudinaux peut conduire a des flambages de la gaine. De nombreux essais ont ete realises sur des gaines d'epaisseurs 0,3 et 0,4 mm pour connaitre le mode de deformation en fonction des jeux. Pour etre certain de ne jamais avoir d'ovalisation avec les epaisseurs envisagees, et pour avoir la temperature a coeur du combustible la plus basse possible, on est conduit a reduire a zero le jeu en fabrication. (author

  2. The thermo-mechanics of the PWR fuel rod; La thermomecanique du crayon de combustible REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France, EDF, 75 - Paris (France); Gautier, B.; Chaigne, G. [Electricite de France, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    1999-03-29

    The fuel rod mechanics is of a great importance in the safety and performance of the reactors. In this domain a meeting has been organized by the SFEN the 18 march 1998 at Paris. With the participation of scientists from CEA, EDF and Framatome, the physics of the fuel rods was presented based on four main aspects. Two first papers dealt with the solicitations of the fuel rod in normal and accidental conditions. The physical phenomena under irradiation were then detailed in the four following talks. Three papers presented the simulation and the codes of the fuel-cladding interactions with the diabolo effect. The last paper was devoted to the experiment feedback and the research programs. (A.L.B.)

  3. Subventions et bourses en faveur de l'égalité des sexes et du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Seed Alliance repère et encourage les occasions d'étendre l'application des ... In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of IDRC's ... in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

  4. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  5. Quantification of the distribution of hydrogen by nuclear microprobe at the Laboratory Pierre Sue in the width of zirconium alloy fuel clad of PWR reactors; Quantification de la repartition de l'hydrogene a la microsonde nucleaire du Laboratoire Pierre Sue dans l'epaisseur de tubes de gainage du combustible des REP en alliage de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules (DSM/DRECAM/LPS-CNRS) UMR9956, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bossis, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMULM2E), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, D.; Bechade, J.L.; Brachet, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMALA2M), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    Among the analysis techniques by ions beams, the micro ERDA (Elastic Detection Analysis) is an interesting technique which allows the quantitative distribution of the hydrogen in materials. In particular, this analysis has been used for hydride zirconium alloys, with the nuclear microprobe of the Laboratory Pierre Sue. This probe allows the characterization of radioactive materials. The technique principles are recalled and then two examples are provided to illustrate the fuel clad behavior in PWR reactors. (A.L.B.)

  6. Quantification of hydrogen distribution with the nuclear microprobe of the Pierre Sue Laboratory in the thickness of the PWR fuel cladding in zirconium alloy; Quantification de la repartition de l'hydrogene a la microsonde nucleaire du Laboratoire Pierre Sue dans l'epaisseur du tube de gainage du combustible des REP en alliage de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, C. [Laboratoire Pierre Sue (DSM/DRECAM/LPS) - CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bossis, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI/LM2E), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Hamon, D.; Bechade, J.L.; Brachet, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA/LA2M), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    In a first part of this study, are detailed the general principles of the specific technique ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) used in the Pierre Sue Laboratory. Then, the contribution of this technique is illustrated with two studies examples on the behaviour of PWR nuclear fuel cladding. (O.M.)

  7. Calage thermodynamique du point mort haut des moteurs à piston Thermodynamic Calibration of Top Dead Center in Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchon P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu'on utilise un système d'acquisition rapide de données sur moteur, il se pose souvent le problème d'associer des grandeurs calculées, comme le volume de la chambre de combustion, à des grandeurs mesurées comme la pression dans le cylindre. II est alors indispensable de synchroniser avec une grande précision absolue ces deux grandeurs en repérant avec soin au moins un point de référence de la cinématique bielle-manivelle. Dans la méthode développée ici on a choisi de déterminer la position angulaire du vilebrequin correspondant au Point Mort Haut (PMH grâce à l'exploitation du signal de pression-cylindre acquis en compression-détente sans combustion, le moteur étant entraîné en rotation. Le principe du calage consiste à calculer l'écart existant entre le PMH et l'angle de la pression maximale qui est aisément repérable. Basée sur des considérations thermodynamiques théoriques, cette méthode de calage a été testée avec succès au cours d'essais effectués sur divers moteurs dont on a fait varier en particulier le rapport volumétrique, le remplissage et les pertes à la segmentation. La précision de la méthode est de l'ordre de 1/10e de degré de rotation vilebrequin. When a fast data-acquisition system is used for an engine, the problem often arises of associating both calculated data, such as combustion chamber volume, and measured data, such as pressure inside the cylinder. It then becomes indispensable to synchronize these two data with great absolute accuracy by carefully determining at least a reference point in the kinematics of the connecting-rod/crank shaft assembly. In the method developed here, we have chosen to determine the angular position of the crankshaft corresponding to top dead center (TDC by making use of the cylinder-pressure signal recorded during compression/expansion without combustion for motored engine. The calibration principle consists in calculating the shift between TDC and the

  8. Structures and properties of (U,Pu)O{sub 2} containing non-active fission products. A simulation of irradiated nuclear fuel; Structure et proprietes de (U, Pu)O{sub 2} contenant des produits de fission sous forme inactive. Une simulation de combustible nucleaire irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We have made oxides with the same uranium and plutonium content, the same stoichiometry and the same fission product content as an oxide fuel (U{sub 0,8}PuO{sub 2})O{sub 1,96} after 2 per cent burn up. We have calculated the stoichiometry changes due to irradiation and checked the calculation by X rays parameters measurements. We have calculated and measured the contraction of the oxide lattice due to fission products in solid solution. Microprobe analysis of precipitates have been made and have lead to the identification of non metallic barium containing compounds and have shown the particular behaviour of molybdenum. Some physical properties have been measured especially the electrical resistivity, the thermal diffusivity and the vapour pressure of zirconium in solid solution. (author) [French] Nous avons fabrique des oxydes dont la composition en uranium et plutonium, la stoechiometrie et la teneur en produit de fission, sont identiques a celles d'un oxyde (U{sub 0,8}PuO{sub 2})O{sub 1,96} ayant subi 2 pour cent de combustion. Nous avons calcule les changements de stoechiometrie entraines par l'irradiation et controle ces calculs par des mesures de parametre. Nous avons calcule et mesure la contraction du reseau due aux produits de fissions solubles dans la matrice. Des analyses a la microsonde des precipites de produits de fission insolubles ont ete faites et ont conduit a l'identification de composes non metalliques contenant du baryum et a la mise en evidence du role particulier du molybdene. Certaines proprietes physiques ont ete mesurees sur ces composes, en particulier la resistivite electrique, la diffusivite thermique et la tension de vapeur du zirconium dissout dans la matrice. (auteur)

  9. The development of a cell-assembly for the treatment of irradiated fuels on a semi-industrial scale; Etude concernant la realisation d'un ensemble de cellules destinees a des traitements de combustibles irradies a l'echelle semi-industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Couture, J; Lefort, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The main studies and experiments involved in the development of a cell-assembly for the treatment of irradiated fuels on a semi-industrial scale are described. It must be possible to modify or transform each of these cells without interrupting the rest of the pilot. A full-scale prototype cell (3 x 4 x 6 m) has been built with an {alpha}-protection independent of the {gamma}-protection. It features all the main characteristics: tightness to {gamma} losses, dense glass lighting, ventilation. This cell has made possible trials on transfer, remote-controls and tele-dismantling, as well as the development of new methods of rapidly connecting hydraulic circuits. In conclusion the final form is given of the cells selected for the pilot. (author) [French] Il est decrit les principales etudes et experiences faites en vue de la realisation d'un ensemble de cellules destinees a des traitements de combustibles irradies a l'echelle semi-industrielle. Chacune de ces cellules doit pouvoir etre modifiee ou transformee sans interrompre le reste du pilote. Une cellule prototype vraie grandeur (3x4x6 m) est construite avec une protection {alpha} independante de la protection {gamma}. Elle comporte tous les elements importants: porte {gamma} etanche, eclairage verre dense, ventilation. Cette cellule a permis des experiences de transferts de telemanipulateurs et de teledemontages, ainsi que la mise au point de nouveaux procedes de jonction rapide pour des circuits hydrauliques. En conclusion, on indique la forme definitive des cellules retenues pour le pilote. (auteur)

  10. Control of surplus oxygen in the combustion zone reduces fuel costs and NO{sub x} emissions; Verringerung der Brennstoffkosten und NO{sub X}-Emissionen durch Regelung des Sauerstoffueberschusses in der Brennzone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Eric S. [Marathon Sensors Inc. (Germany); Baumann, Jens [Process Electronic GmbH (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Real time in-situ measurement of oxygen content and temperature in the combustion zone of a heating boiler or furnace permits monitoring of combustion conditions at source. Measurements of oxygen surplus and of temperature at strategic points supply us with instantaneous information for optimum control of the combustion process. Accurate and rapid measurement of oxygen surplus is vital in view of the cost explosion in the case of fuels, and also for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions. Locally available commercial high-temperature oxygen sensors make it possible to solve problems of combustion control and burner regulation with only short amortization periods and high annual financial benefits in power generating plant, petrochemicals, refinery and glassworks applications. (orig.)

  11. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  12. High-rep-rate Thomson scattering for LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Borchardt, M. T.; Holly, D. J.; Schmitz, O.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Osakabe, M.; Morisaki, T.

    2017-10-01

    A high-rep-rate pulse-burst laser system is being built for the LHD Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. This laser will have two operating scenarios, a fast-burst sequence of 15 kHz rep rate for at least 15 ms, and a slow-burst sequence of 1 kHz for at least 50 ms. There will be substantial flexibility in burst sequences for tailoring to experimental requirements. This new laser system will operate alongside the existing lasers in the LHD TS diagnostic, and will use the same beamline. This increase in temporal resolution capability complements the high spatial resolution (144 points) of the LHD TS diagnostic, providing unique measurement capability unmatched on any other fusion experiment. The new pulse-burst laser is a straightforward application of technology developed at UW-Madison, consisting of a Nd:YAG laser head with modular flashlamp drive units and a customized control system. Variable pulse-width drive of the flashlamps is accomplished by IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, producing >1.5 J q-switched pulses with 20 ns FWHM. Burst operation of this laser system will be used to capture fast time evolution of the electron temperature and density profiles during events such as ELMs, RMP perturbations, and various MHD modes. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan).

  13. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  14. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à certaines propriétés comme le point d’éclair. Cette opération utilise habituellement de la vapeur d’eau. D’autres substances peuvent remplir la même fonction, comme les hydrocarbures légers. Dans cet article, on étudie l’utilisation du gaz combustible de la raffinerie comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères dans une unité de distillation atmosphérique.

  15. Structurations formelle et conceptuelle des articles de dictionnaires : le deuxième modèle de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La contribution soumise s’inscrit dans un ensemble d’études sur les codifications utilisées durant les cent-soixante ans d’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse pour distinguer, hiérarchiser et ordonner les informations figurant dans leurs articles, qui ont déjà donné lieu à deux publications. En prenant en compte différentes modalités de codification, que nous rappelons liminairement, nous repérons trois jalons majeurs dans ce riche catalogue. Le premier, qui trouve son origine dans le “Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française” de 1856, ayant déjà été décrit, nous présentons ici le deuxième, ancré dans le “Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle” de 1866-1876, après l’avoir situé entre les deux autres. Par rapport au premier modèle de structuration des articles, qui reposait sur des moyens textuels (réductions des formes ou des occurrences des items traités et des éléments métalinguistiques introduisant les subdivisions, typographiques (affectant seulement les caractères : gras, italique, capitales et graphématiques (contrastes de majuscules et de minuscules, ponctuations, sans recours significatif à la mise en page, ni aux symboles, le second modèle, qui s’est diffusé, pendant plus d’un siècle, dans des dictionnaires très divers, a donné une place croissante aux symboles diacritiques (mais pas alphanumériques – ce sera la spécificité du troisième modèle, à partir du “Dictionnaire du français contemporain” de 1966 et, dans les ouvrages les plus volumineux, il a tiré parti des moyens offerts par la mise en page. Notre contribution présente en détail, en parcourant les divers groupes de dictionnaires concernés, l’ensemble de la mise en œuvre de ce deuxième modèle, qui avait vocation à permettre à leurs utilisateurs de repérer plus aisément certaines subdivisions des articles, sans cependant toujours refléter leur structuration conceptuelle profonde, sans doute

  16. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  17. Dosimetry techniques of thermal neutrons and {gamma} radiation in reactor cores; Techniques de dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques et du rayonnement {gamma} dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, J; Draganic, I; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Chemical studies under radiation done in the reactor cores require to be followed by dosimetry. When the irradiations are done in the reflector, one can limit to the measure of the {gamma} and the neutron radiation. For the dosimetry of the {gamma} radiation, a dosimeter of ferrous sulfate is convenient until doses of about 10{sup 6} rep. The use of aired oxalic acid solutions permits to reach 10{sup 7} rep. The dosimetry of thermal neutrons has been made with solutions of cobalt sulphate or paper filter impregnated with this salt. The total chemical effect of the {gamma} and of the slow neutrons radiation is obtained with solutions of ferrous sulfate added with lithium sulphate. (M.B.) [French] Les etudes de chimie sous radiation faites dans les piles exigent d'etre suivies par dosimetrie. Lorsque les irradiations sont effectues dans le reflecteur, on peut se limiter a doser le rayonnement {gamma} et les neutrons. Pour la dosimetrie du rayonnement {gamma}, un dosimetre a sulfate ferreux convient jusqu'a des doses d'environ 10{sup 6} rep. L'emploi de solutions aerees d'acide oxalique permet d'atteindre 10{sup 7} rep. La dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques a ete faite avec des solutions de sulfate de cotalt ou du papier filtre impregne de ce sel. L'effet chimique total du rayonnement {gamma} et des neutrons lents est obtenu avec des solutions de sulfate ferreux additionne de sulfate de lithium. (M.B.)

  18. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  19. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  20. Direct numerical simulation of two-phases turbulent combustion: application to study of propagation and structure of flames; Simulation numerique directe de la combustion turbulente diphasique: application a l'etude de la propagation et de la structure des flammes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canneviere, K.

    2003-12-15

    This work is devoted to the study of the propagation and the structure of two-phases turbulent flames. To this end, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are used. First, numerical systems for two-phases flow simulations is presented along with a specific chemical model. Then, a study of laminar spray flames is carried out. An analytical study related to the dynamics of evaporation of droplets is first proposed where the influence on the equivalence ratio of the ratio between the heating delay of the droplet and the evaporation delay is detailed. The simulation of a propagating flame through a cloud of droplets is carried out and a pulsating behavior is highlighted. A study of these flames according to the topology of liquid fuel enabled us to characterize a double flame structure composed of a premixed flame and a diffusion flame. Our last study is devoted to spray turbulent flames. Two-phase combustion of turbulent jets has been simulated. By varying the spray injection parameters (density, equivalence ratio), a database has been generated. This database allowed us to describe local and global flame regimes appearing in the combustion of sprays. They have been categorized in four main structures: open and closed external regime, group combustion and mixed combustion. Eventually, a combustion diagram has been developed. It involves the spray vaporization time, the mean inter-space between droplets or group of droplets and eventually the injected equivalence ratio. (author)

  1. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  2. Contribution to the study of influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the combustion of a preliminary mixture in a enclosed medium; Contribution a l`etude de l`influence des conditions hydrodynamiques sur la combustion d`un melange prealable dans un milieu confine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    This thesis is a study on the internal combustion of a pistons engine. the first chapter is devoted to the description of the experimental device and measurement means. The combustion chamber is described with its adaptation to new experimental conditions. The second chapter concerns the diagnosis means to interpret the hydrodynamic conditions by the cross checking of displays with the measures of flow speed by laser velocimetry. The third chapter gives the result of analysis on the process of the birth of a turbulent flow in a whirl movement. The study of the electric spark and the initial phase of the combustion, in media with or without movement, is in the last chapter. (N.C.)

  3. DNA structure modulates the oligomerization properties of the AAV initiator protein Rep68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mansilla-Soto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rep68 is a multifunctional protein of the adeno-associated virus (AAV, a parvovirus that is mostly known for its promise as a gene therapy vector. In addition to its role as initiator in viral DNA replication, Rep68 is essential for site-specific integration of the AAV genome into human chromosome 19. Rep68 is a member of the superfamily 3 (SF3 helicases, along with the well-studied initiator proteins simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40-LTag and bovine papillomavirus (BPV E1. Structurally, SF3 helicases share two domains, a DNA origin interaction domain (OID and an AAA(+ motor domain. The AAA(+ motor domain is also a structural feature of cellular initiators and it functions as a platform for initiator oligomerization. Here, we studied Rep68 oligomerization in vitro in the presence of different DNA substrates using a variety of biophysical techniques and cryo-EM. We found that a dsDNA region of the AAV origin promotes the formation of a complex containing five Rep68 subunits. Interestingly, non-specific ssDNA promotes the formation of a double-ring Rep68, a known structure formed by the LTag and E1 initiator proteins. The Rep68 ring symmetry is 8-fold, thus differing from the hexameric rings formed by the other SF3 helicases. However, similiar to LTag and E1, Rep68 rings are oriented head-to-head, suggesting that DNA unwinding by the complex proceeds bidirectionally. This novel Rep68 quaternary structure requires both the DNA binding and AAA(+ domains, indicating cooperativity between these regions during oligomerization in vitro. Our study clearly demonstrates that Rep68 can oligomerize through two distinct oligomerization pathways, which depend on both the DNA structure and cooperativity of Rep68 domains. These findings provide insight into the dynamics and oligomeric adaptability of Rep68 and serve as a step towards understanding the role of this multifunctional protein during AAV DNA replication and site-specific integration.

  4. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  5. « Société de l'information », deuxième époque ? Transformation du statut de l'usage des TIC au travers des nouvelles propriétés des objets communicants

    OpenAIRE

    Weygand, Félix

    2007-01-01

    Notre contribution présente brièvement ce qu'on décrit actuellement comme de nouvelles ruptures techniques en cours dans les TIC. Il s'agira d'une part de repérer les « effets de mode » contenus dans ces descriptions, qui reprennent des appréhensions ou des enthousiasmes récurrents dès que l'on est confronté à des ruptures techniques, d'autre part de s'interroger sur la pertinence de nos outils d'analyse des innovations face à ces éventuelles ruptures. En effet, indépendamment de l'opinion op...

  6. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  7. República, Confiança e Sociedade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Filgueiras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on discute la question de la confiance comme élément central de la mise en place d'institutions vertueuses dans un ordre républicain. On y avance que la confiance peut être un concept central pour la pensée républicaine vu que le thème des vertus repose, dans le monde contemporain, non pas sur les qualités des citoyens mais plutôt sur l'excellence des institutions politiques. Une autre inflexion de la confiance est ici traitée, en opposition à l'idée de confiance interpersonnelle, prônée par la théorie de la modernisation. Selon les orientations de Simmel et de l'expérimentalisme démocratique de John Dewey, on y présente une autre modalité de la question de la confiance comme ciment social et élément central de la construction de la République dans la politique contemporaine.

  8. Euclides da Cunha e a República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ventura

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A revisão da República é central na obra de Euclides da Cunha, presente em seus artigos de jornal e na maior parte de seus livros. Analisou o regime republicano não só em Os sertões (1902, em que tratou da guerra de Canudos, como em Contrastes e confrontos (1907 e em Á margem da história (1909. Foi testemunha e intérprete dos rumos do novo regime, que ajudara a fundar com artigos de propaganda política no jornal A Província de S. Paulo.The revision of the Republic is a central concern in the works of Euclides da Cunha. It appears in his newspaper articles and in most of his books. He analysed the republican regime not only in Os sertões (Rebellion in the backlands, 1902, in which he deals with the Canudos War, but also in Contrastes e confrontos (1907 and in À margem da história (1909. He both witnessed and interpreted the trends of the new regime which he had helped to set up with his political articles in the newspaper A Província de S. Paulo.

  9. Regulation and drive system for high rep-rate magnetic-pulse compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Cook, E.G.; Hawkins, S.; Meyers, A.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.A.; Smith, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The essentially unlimited rep-rate capability of non-linear magnetic systems has imposed strict requirements on the drive system which initiates the pulse compression. An order of magnitude increase in the rep-rates achieved by the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) gas blown system is not difficult to achieve in the magnetic compressor. The added requirement of having a high degree of regulation at the higher rep-rates places strict requirements on the triggerable switch for charging and de-Queing. A novel feedback technique which applies the proper bias to a magnetic core by comparing a reference voltage to the charging voltage eases considerably the regulation required to achieve low jitter in magnetic compression. The performance of the high rep-rate charging and regulation systems will be described in the following pages

  10. Hariduspoliitikas ilmnevad üksmeele märgid / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 7. juuni lk. 2, Nädaline 10. juuni lk. 2. Haridusminister Mailis Reps Res Publica ja Isamaaliidu ühisest haridusprogrammist ning juba teostumas hariduspoliitilistest eesmärkidest

  11. The Filament-specific Rep1-1 Repellent of the Phytopathogen Ustilago maydis Forms Functional Surface-active Amyloid-like Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, Wieke R.; van der Velden, Gisela J.; de Jong, Jan F.; Kruijtzer, John A. W.; Liskamp, Rob M. J.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Muller, Wally H.; Gebbink, Martijn F. B. G.; Wosten, Han A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Repellents of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis are involved in formation of hydrophobic aerial hyphae and in cellular attachment. These peptides, called Rep1-1 to Rep1-11, are encoded by the rep1 gene and result from cleavage of the precursor protein Rep1 during passage of the secretion pathway.

  12. Expression, purification, characterization and subcellular localization of the goose parvovirus rep1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Peng, Gaojing; Liu, Guangqing

    2013-07-01

    The goose parvovirus (GPV) Rep1 protein is both essential for viral replication and a potential target for GPV diagnosis, but its protein characterization and intracellular localization is not clear. We constructed a recombinant plasmid, pET28a/GPV-Rep1, and expressed the Rep1 gene in BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli. A protein approximately 75 kDa in size was obtained from lysates of E. coli cells expressing the recombinant plasmid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that after induction with 0.6 mM isopropyl β-D-thiogalactosidase (IPTG) at 30°C for 5 h, the Rep1 protein was highly overexpressed. Two methods used to purify proteins, a salinity-gradient elution and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, were performed. The amount of Rep1 protein obtained by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was 41.23 mg, while 119.9 mg of Rep1 protein was obtained by a salinity-gradient elution from a 1 L E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture. An immunogenicity analysis showed that the protein could significantly elicit a specific antibody response in immunized goslings compared to control groups. Antibody titers peaked to 1:5120 (optical density (OD) 450 = 3.9) on day 28 after immunization but had mean titers of 1:10,240 (OD450 = 4.2) in gosling groups immunized with a commercially available GPV-attenuated vaccine strain. Experiments examining subcellular localization showed that the Rep1 protein appeared to associate predominantly with the nuclear membrane, especially during later times of infection. This work provides a basis for biochemical and structural studies on the GPV Rep1 protein.

  13. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  14. Migración irregular de haitianos hacia república dominicana y sus implicaciones socio-económicas en el desarrollo de ambas naciones

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalles Mejía, José Manuel; Uribe Mendoza, Cristhian José

    2017-01-01

    84 páginas : gráficos. Esta investigación analiza la migración irregular de haitianos hacia la República Dominicana y sus implicaciones socio-económicas en el desarrollo de ambas naciones durante el período 2010-2015. Este tema reviste gran importancia en el entendido de que los dos países analizados, con condiciones económicas, políticas, sociales y culturales con marcadas diferencias, hoy día comparten y conviven en una misma isla a causa del fenómeno de la migración. Se hace una des...

  15. The role of the fuel injection system for combustion process optimization of highly turbocharged PC diesel engines; Die Rolle des Einspritzsystems bei der Brennverfahrensoptimierung von hochaufgeladenen Pkw-Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, Juergen; Leonhard, Rolf; Krueger, Michael; Naber, Dirk; Pitt, J. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In order to comply with continuously rising requirements from emission legislation and fuel economy enhancement, modern Diesel engines for passenger cars still offer a variety of measures. Focus of this paper is the importance of a highly flexible fuel-injection system and an optimized injection strategy as direct measures to improve both, tail-pipe emission as well as vehicle fuel economy. An integrated system approach of high pressure pump, injector and nozzle provides the latest injection patterns combined with an increased rail pressure level with a best-in-class hydraulic efficiency. The resulting improvement in the injection system and thus in the combustion also enables the introduction of additional indirect, very effective measures for fuel consumption reduction, such as downsizing and downspeeding. In order to fully utilize the potent of the mentioned approaches, the application of advanced boosting technology is an additional key factor. Bosch Diesel injection technology and optimized combustion systems pave the way to achieve the goal of efficient emission reduction. (orig.)

  16. Consolidation des systèmes d'approvisionnement en Amérique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) jouent un rôle clé dans la modernisation des systèmes d'administration publique, en général, ... Reporte final : VII Conferencia Anual sobre Compras Gubernamentales de las Américas, 18 al 20 de Octubre de 2011, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

  17. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  18. Radio-protection problems presented by iodine isotopes in nuclear fuel chemical treatment plants (1962); Les problemes de radioprotection poses par les isotopes de l'iode dans les installations de traitement chimique des combustibles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzigues, H; Scheidhauer, J; Messainguiral, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The origin of radio-iodine and the conditions in which it is liberated are given. The authors review the question of the risks associated with the presence of this radioelement In the atmosphere. Finally a method is proposed for the trapping and rapid measuring of the iodine in the vapour form, applicable to radioprotection. (authors) [French] L'origine et les conditions de liberation du radioiode sont exposees. Les auteurs font le point de la question des risques associes a la presence de ce radioelement dans l'atmosphere. Enfin, une methode de piegeage et de mesure rapide de l'iode a l'etat de vapeur applicable a la radioprotection, est proposee. (auteurs)

  19. Power Split Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric System Stratégie de séparation des flux de puissance pour un système électrique hybride à pile à combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The power management of a hybrid system composed of a fuel cell, a battery and a DC/DC power converter is developed. A decoupled control strategy is proposed, aimed at balancing the power flow between the stack and the battery and avoiding electrochemical damage due to low oxygen concentration in the fuel cell cathode. The controller is composed of two components. The first controller regulates the compressor, and as a consequence the oxygen supplied to the cathode, via a classic Proportional-Integral controller. The second controller optimally manages the current demanded by the fuel cell and battery via a linear-quadratic control strategy acting on the converter. An Extended Kalman Filter is also designed in order to estimate the battery State of Charge. The closed-loop performance was tested in simulation using a 310th-order system model. Ce papier illustre une stratégie de gestion de puissance pour un système hybride composé d’une pile à combustible, d’une batterie et d’un convertisseur DC/DC. Dans le but d’équilibrer les flux de puissance entre la pile à combustible et la batterie et d’éviter les dégâts causés par une dépression d’oxygène dans le cathode de la pile, un contrôleur découplé est proposé. Ce contrôleur se compose de deux parties. La première, un régulateur proportionnel-intégral, commande le compresseur et, par conséquent, le flux d’oxygène fourni au cathode. La deuxième, un régulateur linéaire-quadratique, gère le courant demandé par la pile à combustible et la batterie. Pour estimer l’état de charge de la batterie, un filtre de Kalman étendu a aussi été conçu. Les performances de la stratégie ont été analysées en simulation avec un modèle de batterie du 310e ordre.

  20. Checking the sealing of fuel elements by helium sweating - case of the reactors G2 (1960); Controle de l'etancheite des elements combustibles par ressuage d'helium - cas du reacteur G2 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B; D' Orival, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Choumoff, S [Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    The G2 slug is a welded, hermetically sealed unit; the seal is checked by placing the fuel element in a helium atmosphere under pressure, then measuring the quantity of helium it releases in a vessel under vacuum. The theoretical aspect and the conditions of industrial application are reviewed, and the installations described. (author) [French] La cartouche G2 se presente comme un ensemble soude, hermetique; le controle d'etancheite s'effectue en immergeant l'element combustible dans une atmosphere d'helium sous pression puis en mesurant la quantite d'helium qu'il restitue dans une enceinte sous vide. L'aspect theorique et les conditions d'exploitation industrielle sont evoques et les installations decrites. (auteur)

  1. Étude économique des foyers domestiques par la technique d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les foyers font partie de la vie courante. Chaque ménage en utilise pour la cuisson de ses repas. Dans les pays en développement, la plupart des populations utilisent surtout des foyers à combustibles ligneux. Les effets négatifs sur l'environnement sont aujourd'hui bien connus : poches de désertification, érosion des sols, ...

  2. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  3. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  4. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  5. provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alberto Cervini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio que se informa se investigaron las relaciones entre progreso de aprendizaje (valor agregado, motivación y autoconcepto académico del alumno en Matemática, en el marco de los efectos de las características socioeconómicas y académicas del alumno y de su escuela. Para la medición del valor agregado se utilizaron los resultados de dos pruebas estandarizadas de Matemática aplicadas a una cohorte de alumnos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina en dos momentos diferentes (séptimo y noveno años de Educación General Bási ca - EGB. Las mediciones de motivación y de autoconcepto se basaron en respuestas a ítemes binarios de actitudes con respecto a Ma temática y fueron definidas utilizando el análisis de la componente prin - cipal, a partir de la matriz de correlación tetracórica (método heurístico. Para el análisis de las correlaciones se utilizó la téc nica estadística de modelos multinivel. El presente estudio relaciona los resultados empíricos con la teoría del habitus de Bourdieu. Inicialmente, el autoconcepto resulta significativa y positivamente asociado con el puntaje en la prueba y con el progreso de aprendizaje posterior. Este efecto continúa siendo significati vo aun cuando se controlan los efectos del nivel socioeconómi - co y del género del alumno. Sin embargo, su capacidad ex plicativa es muy tenue desde el punto de vista práctico. Si bien este resultado confirmaría la hipótesis central de la teoría de la reproducción, indica un sendero a través del cual podrían producirse transformaciones. Uno de los desafíos del sistema educativo es promover el habitus escolar cultivado (autoconcepto más allá de las determinaciones sociales, culturales y económicas.

  6. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awedikian, Rafi; Francois, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickael; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68

  7. Molecular characterization of Salmonella isolates by REP-PCR and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albufera, U; Bhugaloo-Vial, P; Issack, M I; Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y

    2009-05-01

    Eighteen Salmonella isolates from both human and food (non-human) sources (fish, meat, and poultry) were characterized using conventional culture methods, biochemical, serological, and molecular analyses. REP-PCR and RAPD produced DNA profiles for differentiation purposes. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC), repetitive extragenic palindronic (REP) and BOXAIR primers were selected for REP-PCR and two arbitrary primers, namely OPP-16 and OPS-11 were used for RAPD to generate DNA fingerprints from the Salmonella isolates. REP-PCR method showed greater discriminatory power in differentiating closely related strains of the related strains of Salmonella and produced more complex banding patterns as compared with RAPD. A dendogram was constructed with both sets of profiles using SPSS Version 13.0 computer software and showed that most human isolates were separately clustered from the non-human isolates. Two of the human isolates were closely related to some of the non-human isolates. A good correlation was also observed between the serogrouping of the O antigen and the molecular profiles obtained from REP-PCR and RAPD data of the Salmonella isolates. The results of a principal coordinate analysis (PCA) corresponded to the clustering in the dendrogram.

  8. Les impacts des énergies fossiles sur l'environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Landrieu , Guy

    1994-01-01

    La satisfaction de leurs besoins en énergie est l'un des principaux facteurs de la transformation de leur environnement par les sociétés industrielles. Les combustibles carbonés fossiles, qui représentent environ 90% de la production commerciale d'énergie dans le monde, ont un rôle important dans ce processus de transformation. Une première donnée qui explique l'ampleur des impacts sur l'environnement liés aux combustibles fossiles est l'importance des flux de matières en circulation. On extr...

  9. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : cgbemavo@yahoo.fr. 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  10. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P.R.; Sautray, R.R.; Girard, B.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence

  11. Device for controlling the current by an electromagnetic load, particularly by an electromagnetic injection valve of an internal combustion engine. Einrichtung zum Steuern des Stromes durch einen elektromagnetischen Verbraucher, insbesondere durch ein elektromagnetisch betaetigbares Einspritzventil einer Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, P; Hoenig, G; Kauff, H

    1980-07-24

    The invention refers to a device for controlling the current by an electromagnetic load, particularly the electromagnetically actuated injection valve of an internal combustion engine. A first electrical switching device and an ammeter are connected in series with the electromagnetic load between two voltage supply wires, with a free running circuit and a threshold switch together with the ammeter. The invention is characterised by the fact that the free running circuit has a series circuit consisting of a second electrical switching device and a second ammeter, and the first switching device is controlled, depending on time and depending on reaching the upper and lower limits of current flowing through the load and reaching the lower threshold value. The ammeter in the free running circuit has at least one threshold value switch, whose output is coupled to a time control circuit for one of the two switching devices. The time dependent flow control is carried out during the stopping phase of the electro-magnetic load by counting processes.

  12. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  13. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  14. Turbulent combustion modelization via a tabulation method of detailed kinetic chemistry coupled to Probability Density Function. Application to aeronautical engines; Modelisation de la combustion turbulente via une methode tabulation de la cinetique chimique detaillee couplee a des fonctions densites de probabilite. Application aux foyers aeronautiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rullaud, M

    2004-06-01

    A new modelization of turbulent combustion is proposed with detailed chemistry and probability density functions (PDFs). The objective is to capture temperature and species concentrations, mainly the CO. The PCM-FTC model, Presumed Conditional Moment - Flame Tabulated Chemistry, is based on the tabulation of laminar premixed and diffusion flames to capture partial pre-mixing present in aeronautical engines. The presumed PDFs is introduced to predict averaged values. The tabulation method is based on the analysis of the chemical structure of laminar premixed and diffusion flames. Hypothesis are presented, tested and validated with Sandia experimental data jet flames. Then, the model is introduced in a turbulent flow simulation software. Three configurations are retained to quantify the level of prediction of this formulation: the D and F-Flames of Sandia and lifted jet flames of methane/air of Stanford. A good agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. The validity of this method is then demonstrated. (author)

  15. El concepto de República en José Martí

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ibrahim Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    El acercamiento a una visión martiana sobre el concepto de la república es la esencia del artículo, donde se parte del análisis de sus textos, situando el concepto de república en el centro de su pensamiento y su actuar políticos e ideológicos, que han devenido objeto de análisis y valoraciones desde diversos ángulos, perspectivas y proyecciones por autores que a lo largo del siglo XX, y en la actualidad. El elemento esencial de la concepción es el ser individualmente considerado, cuya unión ...

  16. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  17. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  18. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  19. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  20. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmark, Ephraim

    2005-01-01

    .... "Flameless Combustion" is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability limits and therefore extremely low NOx production, efficient...

  1. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  3. Interlaboratory reproducibility of DiversiLab rep-PCR typing and clustering of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul G; Hujer, Andrea M; Hujer, Kristine M; Bonomo, Robert A; Seifert, Harald

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the reproducibility of DiversiLab rep-PCR fingerprints between two laboratories with the aim of determining if the fingerprints and clustering are laboratory-specific or portable. One-hundred non-duplicate Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were used in this study. DNA isolation and rep-PCR were each performed separately in two laboratories and rep-PCR patterns generated in laboratory A were compared with those from laboratory B. Twelve A. baumannii isolates processed in laboratory A showed ≥98 % pattern similarity with the corresponding 12 isolates tested in laboratory B and were considered identical. Sixty-four isolates showed 95-97.9 % similarity with their corresponding isolates. Twenty-three isolates showed 90-94 % similarity with the corresponding isolates, while one isolate showed only 87.4 % similarity. However, intra-laboratory clustering was conserved: isolates that clustered in laboratory A also clustered in laboratory B. While clustering was conserved and reproducible at two different laboratories, demonstrating the robustness of rep-PCR, interlaboratory comparison of individual isolate fingerprints showed more variability. This comparison allows conclusions regarding clonality to be reached independent of the laboratory where the analysis is performed.

  4. REP Executive Education focuses on Midwest plant off-site emergency preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2015-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security News and Stories, PRESS RELEASES The Center for Homeland Defense and Security burgeoning Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Executive Education Program convened June 8-12 with a special focus on emergency preparedness policy and strategic issues for...

  5. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri, is a group of black-spored aspergilli which taxonomy has been elusive. REP-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automate...

  6. How Often Is p[subscript rep] Close to the True Replication Probability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; MacDonald, Justin A.; Rice, Stephen; Clason, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Largely due to dissatisfaction with the standard null hypothesis significance testing procedure, researchers have begun to consider alternatives. For example, Killeen (2005a) has argued that researchers should calculate p[subscript rep] that is purported to indicate the probability that, if the experiment in question were replicated, the obtained…

  7. RiskREP: Risk-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies are required to be in control of the security of their IT assets. This is especially challenging in the presence of limited budgets and conflicting requirements. Here, we present Risk-Based Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (RiskREP), a method for managing IT security

  8. Overview of RepLab 2014: Author Profiling and Reputation Dimensions for Online Reputation Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amigó, E.; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, J.; Chugur, I.; Corujo, A.; Gonzalo, J.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.; Spina, D.; Kanoulas, E.; Lupu, M.; Clough, P.; Sanderson, M.; Hall, M.; Hanbury, A.; Toms, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the organisation and results of RepLab 2014, the third competitive evaluation campaign for Online Reputation Management systems. This year the focus lied on two new tasks: reputation dimensions classification and author profiling, which complement the aspects of reputation

  9. 75 FR 78694 - Proposed Residential Exchange Program Settlement Agreement Proceeding (REP-12); Public Hearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ..., 2010, on BPA's Web site at http://www.bpa.gov/corporate/ratecase/2012/rep-12.cfm . Hard copies of these.... Bonneville Power Admin., 928 F.2d 905 (9th Cir. 1991). Due to the burdensome, expensive and contentious... Electric v. Bonneville Power Admin., 501 F.3d 1009 (9th Cir. 2007) (PGE), the Court found that BPA had...

  10. Applications of the rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technique to study microbial diversity, ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    A large number of repetitive DNA sequences are found in multiple sites in the genomes of numerous bacteria, archaea and eukarya. While the functions of many of these repetitive sequence elements are unknown, they have proven to be useful as the basis of several powerful tools for use in molecular diagnostics, medical microbiology, epidemiological analyses and environmental microbiology. The repetitive sequence-based PCR or rep-PCR DNA fingerprint technique uses primers targeting several of these repetitive elements and PCR to generate unique DNA profiles or 'fingerprints' of individual microbial strains. Although this technique has been extensively used to examine diversity among variety of prokaryotic microorganisms, rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting can also be applied to microbial ecology and microbial evolution studies since it has the power to distinguish microbes at the strain or isolate level. Recent advancement in rep-PCR methodology has resulted in increased accuracy, reproducibility and throughput. In this minireview, we summarize recent improvements in rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting methodology, and discuss its applications to address fundamentally important questions in microbial ecology and evolution.

  11. O ethos do repórter de TV da Rede Globo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Benetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os elementos instituintes das imagens de si de repórteres de televisão da Rede Globo, maior emissora do Brasil. A partir do conceito de ethos discursivo, discutimos como o discurso autorreferente afirma a identidade do jornalista e certos efeitos de verdade a respeito da reportagem. Por meio da análise do discurso de cinco entrevistas de repórteres da Rede Globo concedidas à também jornalista Fátima Bernardes, propomos que o ethos do repórter constrói-se em três dimensões: os atributos do “bom jornalista”, as características do “bom repórter” e as particularidades de pertencimento ao campo jornalístico. Como articuladores do ethos, os valores morais e os aspectos relacionados às rotinas profissionais convocam a audiência a se conectar com certas definições sobre o jornalismo.

  12. Birmingham Rep, Youth and Community, and the Products and Possibilities of Precarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Birmingham Rep, a leading producing theatre based in the UK's "second city", has historically had a complex relationship with the cultural priorities of its home city. In recent years, Birmingham City Council has faced multiple challenges represented by debt burden, government-imposed cuts in public funding, scandals linked to failing…

  13. Control conception for REP 1300 MW units of the Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Guesnier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes the control equipment for the REP 1300 MW units including the reactor protection system, the control rods drive system and nuclear instrumentation, the control of the auxiliaries in the systems important for the reactor safety and the safety survey computer. Finally, the digital connections between different control systems are presented

  14. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations of on-board control of combustion air and/or fuel for emission reduction in internal combustion engines. Final report; Durchfuehrung theoretischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen zu den Moeglichkeiten der On-Board-Beeinflussung der Verbrennungsluftzusammensetzung und/oder des Kraftstoffs fuer Verbrennungsmotoren mit dem Ziel der Emissionsminderung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velji, A.; Hofmann, U.

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made in order to find the optimal composition of combustion air for simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions. The effect was found to be in the same order of magnitude as with exhaust recirculation. 'Optimized' air should have an oxygen content of more than 20 percent and a CO2 content of more than 10 percent, with nitrogen more or less accounting for the rest. [German] Ausgehend von der Abgasrueckfuehrung wurde in theoretischen und experimentellen Untersuchungen die optimale Zusammensetzung der Verbrennungsluft zur gleichzeitigen Reduktion der NO{sub x}- und Partikelemission ermittelt. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es mit dieser Verbrennungsluft moeglich ist, eine aehnlich hohe NO{sub x}-Reduktion wie bei der Abgasrueckfuehrung zu erzielen, ohne dass die Partikelemission drastisch ansteigt. Die 'optimale' Verbrennungsluft muss einen Sauerstoffgehalt groesser als 20% und einen CO{sub 2}-Gehalt groesser als 10% aufweisen. Der Rest besteht im Wesentlichen aus Stickstoff. (orig.)

  16. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  17. Yeast identification by sequencing, biochemical kits, MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Xiao, Meng; Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2017-12-08

    No study has comprehensively evaluated the performance of 28S nrDNA and ITS sequencing, commercial biochemical test kits, MALDI-TOF MS platforms, and the emerging rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technology using a cohort of yeast strains collected from a clinical microbiology laboratory. In this study, using 71 clinically important yeast isolates (excluding Candida albicans) collected from a single centre, we determined the concordance of 28S nrDNA and ITS sequencing and evaluated the performance of two commercial test kits, two MALDI-TOF MS platforms, and rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting. 28S nrDNA and ITS sequencing showed complete agreement on the identities of the 71 isolates. Using sequencing results as the standard, 78.9% and 71.8% isolates were correctly identified using the API 20C AUX and Vitek 2 YST ID Card systems, respectively; and 90.1% and 80.3% isolates were correctly identified using the Bruker and Vitek MALDI-TOF MS platforms, respectively. Of the 18 strains belonging to the Candida parapsilosis species complex tested by DiversiLab automated rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting, all were identified only as Candida parapsilosis with similarities ≥93.2%, indicating the misidentification of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. However, hierarchical cluster analysis of the rep-PCR DNA fingerprints of these three species within this species complex formed three different discrete clusters, indicating that this technology can potentially differentiate the three species. To achieve higher accuracies of identification, the databases of commercial biochemical test kits, MALDI-TOF MS platforms, and DiversiLab automated rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting needs further enrichment, particularly for uncommonly encountered yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Transmission of Streptococcus mutans by DiversiLab rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Ghazal, Tariq; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2016-09-01

    This two-part study investigated the genetic diversity and transmission of Streptococcus mutans using the DiversiLab repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) approach. For children with S. mutans and participating household members, analysis for evidence of unrelated child-to-child as well as intra-familial transmission was evaluated based on commonality of genotypes. A total of 169 index children and 425 household family members from Uniontown, Alabama were evaluated for genetic diversity using rep-PCR. Thirty-four unique rep-PCR genotypes were observed for 13,906 S. mutans isolates. For transmission, 117 child and household isolates were evaluated for shared genotype (by child and by genotype cases, multiple matches possible for each child). Overall, children had 1-9 genotypes and those with multiple genotypes were 2.3 times more likely to have caries experience (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces>0). Only 28% of children shared all genotypes within the household, while 72% had at least 1 genotype not shared with anyone in the household. Children had genotype(s) not shared with any household members in 157 cases. In 158 cases children and household members shared a genotype in which 55% (87/158 cases) were shared with more than one family member. Children most frequently shared genotypes with their mothers (54%; 85/158), siblings (46%; 72/158) and cousins (23%; 37/158). A reference library for S. mutans for epidemiological surveillance using the DiversiLab rep-PCR approach is detailed. The genetic diversity of S. mutans in this population demonstrated frequent commonality of genotypes. Evidence for both child-to-child and intra-familial transmission of S. mutans was observed by rep-PCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Aerodynamic and Combustion in Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de l'aérodynamique et de la combustion dans les moteurs diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delhaye B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and combustion simulation applications to automotive power train development, and the methodologies we developed at PSA to integrate numerical simulation into the development process. We illustrate these methodologies with some applications concerning the development of PSA HDI engines. Dans cet article, on présente un panorama des applications de la mécanique des fluides numérique et de la simulation de la combustion pour le développement des groupes motopropulseurs, ainsi que les méthodologies que nous avons conçues au sein du groupe PSA pour intégrer la simulation numérique dans ce processus de développement. Nous illustrons cette démarche par des exemples d'applications issues du développement des moteurs HDI injection directe common rail de PSA.

  20. Development and validation of an Eulerian model towards the simulation of fuel injection in internal combustion engines; Developpement et validation d'un modele eulerien en vue de la simulation des jets de carburants dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truchot, B.

    2005-12-15

    The objective of this work is to develop an Eulerian two phase model to improve the prediction of fuel injection in internal combustion engines, particularly the dense liquid zone close to the nozzle. Lagrangian models, usually used in engine simulations, are based on the assumption of dispersed two phase flows with low liquid volume fraction, which is not fulfilled in the case of direct injection engine technology. Different Eulerian approaches are available in the literature. Physical phenomena that occur near the nozzle and characteristics of each model lead to the choice of a two fluids two pressures model. Several open terms appear in the equations of the model: exchange between the two phases and turbulent correlations. Closures of exchange terms are based on the spherical droplets hypothesis while a RANS approach is adopted to close turbulent correlations. This model has been integrated in the IFP CFD code, IFP-C3D. Several numerical tests and analytical validations (for single and two phase flows) have been then carried out in order to check the correct implementation of equations and the predictivity of the model and closures. Modifications in the turbulent model of the gas have required validations in both the gas phase (flow behind a sudden enlargement) and the liquid phase (pure liquid injection). A two phase mixing layer has been then used to validate the whole model. Finally, injection tests have been achieved under realistic conditions (similar to those encountered in automotive engines) in order to check the feasibility of engine computations using the developed Eulerian approach. These tests have also allowed to check the compatibility of this approach with the specificities of engine simulations (especially mesh movement). (author)

  1. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  2. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  3. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  4. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  5. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  6. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  7. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  8. Análisis de la relación comercial entre la República de Colombia y la República de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Escobar, Juán Sebastián; Bermudez Monroy, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Dadas las relaciones de cooperación internacional que presentan las Repúblicas de Colombia y Costa Rica, que se evidencia en los fuertes vínculos comerciales existentes entre las dos naciones, Proexport por medio de su oficina comercial en Costa Rica, ha mantenido al tanto la situación en la que se desenvuelve la alianza comercial entre Colombia y Costa Rica. Él último de estos informes, demuestra la potencialidad de Costa Rica como un mercado para los bienes colombianos y una posibilidad par...

  9. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  10. ReRep: Computational detection of repetitive sequences in genome survey sequences (GSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Ferreira Marcelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome survey sequences (GSS offer a preliminary global view of a genome since, unlike ESTs, they cover coding as well as non-coding DNA and include repetitive regions of the genome. A more precise estimation of the nature, quantity and variability of repetitive sequences very early in a genome sequencing project is of considerable importance, as such data strongly influence the estimation of genome coverage, library quality and progress in scaffold construction. Also, the elimination of repetitive sequences from the initial assembly process is important to avoid errors and unnecessary complexity. Repetitive sequences are also of interest in a variety of other studies, for instance as molecular markers. Results We designed and implemented a straightforward pipeline called ReRep, which combines bioinformatics tools for identifying repetitive structures in a GSS dataset. In a case study, we first applied the pipeline to a set of 970 GSSs, sequenced in our laboratory from the human pathogen Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of leishmaniosis, an important public health problem in Brazil. We also verified the applicability of ReRep to new sequencing technologies using a set of 454-reads of an Escheria coli. The behaviour of several parameters in the algorithm is evaluated and suggestions are made for tuning of the analysis. Conclusion The ReRep approach for identification of repetitive elements in GSS datasets proved to be straightforward and efficient. Several potential repetitive sequences were found in a L. braziliensis GSS dataset generated in our laboratory, and further validated by the analysis of a more complete genomic dataset from the EMBL and Sanger Centre databases. ReRep also identified most of the E. coli K12 repeats prior to assembly in an example dataset obtained by automated sequencing using 454 technology. The parameters controlling the algorithm behaved consistently and may be tuned to the properties

  11. Study of atmospheric emissions from liquid and solid fuels burning facilities and from raw phosphate chemical treatment in Sfax City (Tunisia); Etude des residus de combustion des fuels liquide et solide et de traitement chimique du phosphate brut dans la ville de Sfax (Tunisie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, Ch; Tili, A.; Serbaji, M.M. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Dept. des Sciences de la Terre, Sfax (Tunisia); Medhioub, K. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), Sfax (Tunisia)

    2002-07-01

    Study of atmospheric emissions from solid and liquid fuels burning facilities and from chemical treatment processes of raw phosphate in Sfax City (Tunisia) shows different forms of pollution concerning mainly sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), sulfuric and phosphoric acid mists, fluorinated compounds and dust. Limited performances of amortized and/or over used de-pollution systems can explain high atmospheric emissions above emission limits. Gaseous pollution has been shown as coming mainly from phosphate treatment processes inside the chemical complex 'SIAPE' while particulate pollution is coming from all specific industries (SIAPE, charcoal facilities and weaving and soap factories). Calculated emission factors of these industries for some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn) are very different. They are ranging from 0.3 to 9.5 g/t for phosphate treatment residues. Excepted Ni with 15.5 g/t, they are rather small for heavy fuels combustion residues. It, nevertheless, exceeds the emission factor of Ni for the phosphate treatment process. Volumes of emissions and calculated annual fluxes of metals are showing that 'SIAPE' could be a potential source of atmospheric pollution in the city. Its contribution to metal emissions is really exceeding emissions from well identified heavy fuels burning facilities in the city. Just to compare, Ni emissions from its processes are equal to emissions from 38 heavy fuels burning facilities of 4.8 t/day capacity (Ni 1 046 kg/year instead of 27 kg/year). Such a fact is clearly pointing out the high level of anthropogenic pollution from chemical processes adopted for primary matter transformation. They hence should be fitted with suitable de-pollution systems. (authors)

  12. Fuel Combustion Laboratory | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion Laboratory Fuel Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the combustion chamber platform for fuel ignition kinetics research, was acquired to expand the lab's

  13. A Rapid-Insertion Control-Absorber Mechanism for Use in Hollow Fuel Elements; Mecanisme d'Insertion Rapide d'Absorbants pour Utilisation dans des Elements Creux; Mekhanizm bystrogo vvoda poglotitelya dlya ispol'zovaniya v polykh toplivnykh ehlementakh; Mecanismo para la Insercion Rapida de Absorbentes en Elementos Combustibles Huecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, E. S.F. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1964-06-15

    reglee avec une precision de 4 x 10{sup -3}cm et on peut le retirer a des vitesses de 0,04 cm/s'et 0,01 cm/s. Le mecanisme est constitue par un moteur a vernier qui entraihe une vis sans fin et eleve ou abaisse un obturateur cylindrique adapte a la protection a sa base d'un electro-aimant qui soutient un tube absorbant. Il y a un espace important autour du tube absorbant, qui tombe en chute libre (il rencontre seulement la resistance visqueuse du ralen- tisseur/refroidisseur) jusqu'a ce qu'il soit arrete dans sa chute par une barre centrale passant a travers la vis sans fin et aboutissant a un amortisseur a ressort circulaire situe au sommet du mecanisme. Apres la chute du tube absorbant, le moteur fait descendre rapidement l'obturateur dans lequel on engage de nouveau le tube. La dimension du mecanisme est comprise dans les dimensions d'ensemble de l'element et on peut le sortir du reacteur en meme temps que l'element ou separement, au moyen de la bouteille de dechargement du combustible [Spanish] El autor describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y funcionales de un mecanismo de mando para absorbentes de control, de insercion rapida, aplicable a los elementos combustibles huecos, verticales, de los reactores de ensayo de materiales de tipo DIDO, cuyo flujo termico es de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} s. La aceleracion descendente inicial del absorbente es la debida a la gravedad y la carrera total, de 61 cm, se cumple en 0,4 s. El intervalo de disparo del iman es de 5 ms. El absorbente pesa 7 kg, tiene una superficie efectiva de 1000 cm{sup 2} de Cd y una capacidad de regulacion del 3% de la reactividad. Su posicion puede fijarse con una precision de 4 x 10{sup -3}cm y la velocidad de extraccion varia entre 0,04 cm/s y 0,01 cm/s. El mecanismo consta de un motor de avance a vernier que acciona un tornillo de guia y puede elevar o bajar un obturador blindado cilindrico de ajuste estricto que lleva un electroiman en el extremo inferior y sostiene el absorbente tubular. La luz radial

  14. A república e o sonho The republic and its dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Chaves de Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O desencanto com a República brasileira tem sido tema de reflexões desde os seus momentos iniciais. Buscando os conteúdos concretos dos sonhos republicanos na década de 1880 e na Primeira República vamos achar uma importante defasagem entre eles não exatamente em função do marco cronológico, mas do grupo social que, respectivamente, os acalentou.The disillusion with the Brazilian Republic since its first days has been a topic of academician reflexions. Examinating the concrete contents of the 1880`s and the First Republic republican dreams we will find a substantive difference between them. To be exact, this difference must not be related to the chronological demarcation but to the social group that embraced each of them.

  15. El concepto de República en José Martí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ibrahim Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El acercamiento a una visión martiana sobre el concepto de la república es la esencia del artículo, donde se parte del análisis de sus textos, situando el concepto de república en el centro de su pensamiento y su actuar políticos e ideológicos, que han devenido objeto de análisis y valoraciones desde diversos ángulos, perspectivas y proyecciones por autores que a lo largo del siglo XX, y en la actualidad. El elemento esencial de la concepción es el ser individualmente considerado, cuya unión constituye el pueblo, que deviene así no un ente abstracto y amorfo, sino un conglomerado de personas

  16. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  17. RiskREP: Risk-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Niedrite, Laila; Strazdina, Renate; Wangler, Benkt

    2011-01-01

    Companies are under pressure to be in control of their assets but at the same time they must operate as efficiently as possible. This means that they aim to implement “good-enough security‿ but need to be able to justify their security investment plans. In this paper, we present a Risk-Based Requirements Prioritization method (RiskREP) that extends misuse case-based methods with IT architecture based risk assessment and countermeasure definition and prioritization. Countermeasure prioritizati...

  18. SEATURTLE: Sustained Engagement Autonomous Tracking of Underwater RepTiLEs

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    While oceans cover the majority of our planet, these vast expanses remain relatively unexplored. Among the most interesting parts of the ocean are the shallow reef systems, which contain a huge amount of the planet’s biodiversity. The Sustained Engagement Autonomous Tracking of Underwater RepTiLEs or SEATURTLE is a low cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicle designed to carry out missions in these shallow environments. Its small displacement and precise movement make it ideal for navigating tight ...

  19. Lipofection of purified adeno-associated virus Rep68 protein: toward a chromosome-targeting nonviral particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartina, S; Roscilli, G; Rinaudo, D; Delmastro, P; Toniatti, C

    1998-09-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) integrates very efficiently into a specific site (AAVS1) of human chromosome 19. Two elements of the AAV genome are sufficient: the inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and the Rep78 or Rep68 protein. The incorporation of the AAV integration machinery in nonviral delivery systems is of great interest for gene therapy. We demonstrate that purified recombinant Rep68 protein is functionally active when directly delivered into human cells by using the polycationic liposome Lipofectamine, promoting the rescue-replication of a codelivered ITR-flanked cassette in adenovirus-infected cells and its site-specific integration in noninfected cells. The sequencing of cloned virus-host DNA junctions confirmed that lipofected Rep68 protein triggers site-specific integration at the same sites in chromosome 19 already characterized in cells latently infected with AAV.

  20. A Comparison of Molecular Typing Methods Applied to Enterobacter cloacae complex: hsp60 Sequencing, Rep-PCR, and MLST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular typing using repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR and hsp60 sequencing were applied to a collection of diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates. To determine the most practical method for reference laboratories, we analyzed 71 E. cloacae complex isolates from sporadic and outbreak occurrences originating from 4 geographic areas. While rep-PCR was more discriminating, hsp60 sequencing provided a broader and a more objective geographical tracking method similar to multilocus sequence typing (MLST. In addition, we suggest that MLST may have higher discriminative power compared to hsp60 sequencing, although rep-PCR remains the most discriminative method for local outbreak investigations. In addition, rep-PCR can be an effective and inexpensive method for local outbreak investigation.

  1. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  2. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  3. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  4. The adeno-associated virus major regulatory protein Rep78-c-Jun-DNA motif complex modulates AP-1 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, C. Krishna; Meyers, Craig; Zhan Dejin; You Hong; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Liu Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) is negatively associated with cervical cancer (CX CA), a cancer which is positively associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Mechanisms for this correlation may be by Rep78's (AAV's major regulatory protein) ability to bind the HPV-16 p97 promoter DNA and inhibit transcription, to bind and interfere with the functions of the E7 oncoprotein of HPV-16, and to bind a variety of HPV-important cellular transcription factors such as Sp1 and TBP. c-Jun is another important cellular factor intimately linked to the HPV life cycle, as well as keratinocyte differentiation and skin development. Skin is the natural host tissue for both HPV and AAV. In this article it is demonstrated that Rep78 directly interacts with c-Jun, both in vitro and in vivo, as analyzed by Western blot, yeast two-hybrid cDNA, and electrophoretic mobility shift-supershift assay (EMSA supershift). Addition of anti-Rep78 antibodies inhibited the EMSA supershift. Investigating the biological implications of this interaction, Rep78 inhibited the c-Jun-dependent c-jun promoter in transient and stable chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) assays. Rep78 also inhibited c-Jun-augmented c-jun promoter as well as the HPV-16 p97 promoter activity (also c-Jun regulated) in in vitro transcription assays in T47D nuclear extracts. Finally, the Rep78-c-Jun interaction mapped to the amino-half of Rep78. The ability of Rep78 to interact with c-Jun and down-regulate AP-1-dependent transcription suggests one more mechanism by which AAV may modulate the HPV life cycle and the carcinogenesis process

  5. CoolRep H22: Synthesis report on R and D results on geological disposal up to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, Hiroyuki; Hioki, Kazumasa; Osawa, Hideaki; Fujita, Tomoo; Shibata, Masahiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Shinji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari

    2011-02-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing research and development on geological disposal technology of high level radioactive waste. At the end of fiscal year 2009, the Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate of JAEA made publicly available the 'CoolRep H22', which is a web-based report that summarizes the R and D results, on its website. This document reports the contents of CoolRep H22. (author)

  6. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  7. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  8. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures; Projet de norme C.E.I. pour la surveillance des structures internes des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenty, A.

    1994-06-01

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe.

  9. Acceptance test for 900 MWe PWR unit replacement steam generators; Essai de reception des generateurs de vapeur de remplacement des tranches REP 900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourguechon, B.

    1993-12-31

    During the first half of 1994, the Gravelines 1 steam generators will be replaced (SG replacement procedure). The new SG`s differ from the former components notably by the alloy used for the tube bundle, in this case, the high chromium content Inconel 690. So, from this standpoint, they are to be considered as PWR 900 replacement SG first models and their thermal efficiency has consequently to be assessed. This will provide an opportunity of ensuring that the performance of the components delivered is in compliance with requirements and of making the necessary provisions if significant deviations are observed. The EFMT branch, which has been in charge of the instrumentation and acceptance of the different SG first models since the first PWR plants were commissioned, will be responsible for the acceptance tests and the ultimate validation of a performance assessment procedure applicable to the future replacement steam generators. The methods and tests proposed for SG expert appraisal are based on consideration of the importance of primary measurement quality for satisfactory SG assessment and of the new test facilities with which the 900 and 1 300 PWR plants are gradually being equipped. These facilities provide an on-site computer environment for tests compatible with the tools (PATTERN, etc.) used at EFMT and in other departments. This test is the first of this kind performed by EFMT and the test facility of a nuclear power plant. (author). 6 figs.

  10. Irradiation Behaviour of Uranium Carbide Fuels; Comportement des carbures d'uranium sous l’effet de l'irradiation; ПОВЕДЕНИЕ УРАНО-КАРБИДНОГО ТОПЛИВА ПРИ ОБЛУЧЕНИИ; Comportamiento de los combustibles de carburo de uranio frente a la irradiación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinizer, D. I.; Webb, B. A.; Berger, S. [Atomics International, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1963-08-15

    is a void-free, single-phase microstructure in the decarburized region of the originally hyperstoichiometric fuel. No carbon transfer is observed with hypo- stoichiometric U-C. Carbon removed from hyperstoichiometric (J-C fuel is readily transferred across the Na bond to carburize stainless-steel cladding in both in-pile and out-of-pile experiments. This transfer represents a possible limitation of choice of fuel composition for Na-bonded stainless-steel-clad elements. Nevertheless, available data lead to the present conclusions that stoichiometric or hyperstoichiometric U-C Na-bonded to stainless steel can be effectively used in Na-cooled power reactors. Fission-gas release or fuel swelling do not represent limitations under presently conceived Na-cooled reactor conditions. Alternative cladding materials such as Cb alloys or gas-bonded fuel elements may be required for ultra-high-temperature applications. (author) [French] Des combustibles UC ayant uùe composition quasi stoechiométrique, obtenus par fusion à l’arc électrique et enfermés dans des gaines en acier inoxydable avec lien de sodium ou de NaK, ont été irradiés à des températures au centre allant jusqu'à 1950°F (1065°C) [température moyenne: 1750°F (950°C)] et des taux de combustion allant jusqu'à 25 000 MWj/t d'U, Les combustibles stoechiométriques et légèrement tiyperstoechiométriques accusent une augmentation à peu près linéaire du diamètre pour des taux de combustion allam jusqu'à 25 000 MWj/t d'U. Pour une température au centre moyenne de 1500°F (815°C), l'augmentation de diamètre est inférieure à 3% au-dessus de 25 000 MWj/t d’U; elle est proportionnellement moindre losque la température du combustible s'abaisse. A la température moyenne de 1000°F (540°C), on observe une dilatation qui est à peu près égal à celle que l'on peut prévoir du fait de l'accumulation des produits de fission. La libération des gaz de fission est estimée à moins de 1% au-dessus de

  11. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les synergies ont été mises en commun au fur et à mesure des progrès de la recherche. .... Recherche normative (sur le rôle et la performance des institutions .... Système national d'information sur la gestion environnementale connecté à 19 ...... Un fort contrôle centralisé sur l'élaboration des politiques nationales peut ...

  12. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  13. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2017 ... ... de Biochimie et Immunologie Appliquée, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Biologiques, Alimentaires et .... l'intoxication des agriculteurs et des consommateurs, ... source d'alimentation en eau et au pouvoir d'achat des.

  14. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  15. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  16. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  17. Internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  18. Caracterisation environnementale des emissions atmospheriques d'une source fixe et creation d'un outil de gestion dynamique =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marie-Claude

    Une caracterisation des emissions atmospheriques provenant des sources fixes en operation, alimentees au gaz et a l'huile legere, a ete conduite aux installations visees des sites no.1 et no.2. La caracterisation et les calculs theoriques des emissions atmospheriques aux installations des sites no.1 et no.2 presentent des resultats qui sont en dessous des valeurs reglementaires pour des conditions d'operation normales en periode hivernale et par consequent, a de plus fortes demandes energetiques. Ainsi, pour une demande energetique plus basse, le taux de contaminants dans les emissions atmospheriques pourrait egalement etre en dessous des reglementations municipales et provinciales en vigueur. Dans la perspective d'une nouvelle reglementation provinciale, dont les termes sont discutes depuis 2005, il serait souhaitable que le proprietaire des infrastructures visees participe aux echanges avec le Ministere du Developpement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs (MDDEP) du Quebec. En effet, meme si le principe de droit acquis permettrait d'eviter d'etre assujetti a la nouvelle reglementation, l'application de ce type de principe ne s'inscrit pas dans ceux d'un developpement durable. L'âge avance des installations etudiees implique la planification d'un entretien rigoureux afin d'assurer les conditions optimales de combustion en fonction du type de combustible. Des tests de combustion sur une base reguliere sont donc recommandes. Afin de supporter le processus de suivi et d'evaluation de la performance environnementale des sources fixes, un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale a ete developpe. Dans ce contexte, la poursuite du developpement d'un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale faciliterait non seulement le travail des personnes affectees aux inventaires annuels mais egalement le processus de communication entre les differents acteurs concernes tant intra- qu'inter-etablissement. Cet outil serait egalement un bon

  19. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a clear definition of “fuel and combustion stratifications” is obvious in literature. Hence, it is difficult to compare stratification levels of different PPC strategies or other combustion concepts. T...

  20. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  1. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  2. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  3. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  4. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  5. Combustion stratification for naphtha from CI combustion to PPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johansson, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrated the change in combustion homogeneity from conventional diesel combustion via partially premixed combustion towards HCCI. Experiments are performed in an optical diesel engine at a speed of 1200 rpm with diesel fuel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is

  6. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  7. La República de los historiadores del Paraguay posbélico

    OpenAIRE

    Telesca, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    En ocasión del bicentenario de la adopción de la República como sistema de gobierno, e independiente tanto de España como de Buenos Aires, este artículo reflexiona sobre como los historiadores paraguayos de fines de siglo XIX reflexionaron sobre el tema, relacionándolo con la adopción de un nuevo sistema de gobierno con la constitución de 1870 (calco de la argentina). Fil: Telesca, Ignacio. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET ...

  8. RePS: a sequence assembler that masks exact repeats identified from the shotgun data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ni, Peixiang

    2002-01-01

    We describe a sequence assembler, RePS (repeat-masked Phrap with scaffolding), that explicitly identifies exact 20mer repeats from the shotgun data and removes them prior to the assembly. The established software is used to compute meaningful error probabilities for each base. Clone......-end-pairing information is used to construct scaffolds that order and orient the contigs. We show with real data for human and rice that reasonable assemblies are possible even at coverages of only 4x to 6x, despite having up to 42.2% in exact repeats. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-May...

  9. Leptospirosis porcina: prevalencia serológica en establecimientos productores de la República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Petrakovsky M, Jessica; Tinao, Julio; Esteves M, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp en cerdos que no presentaban sintomatología clínica, pertenecientes a establecimientos de producción porcina ubicados en todo el territorio de la República Argentina. Materiales y métodos. La asignación de predios y muestras se realizó en forma proporcional a los registrados en cada provincia a lo largo de todo el país. En total se estudiaron 1.524 predios, de los cuales se tomaron 19.872 muestras de suero y en la prim...

  10. La función administrativa ejercida por el Congreso de la República

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Maribel

    2017-01-01

    La función administrativa en Colombia, no sólo es desarrollada por la Rama Ejecutiva del poder público, sino que también es ejercida por la Rama Legislativa para el cumplimiento de sus fines. Es a partir de la Constitución de 1991, cuando en desarrollo del mandato Constitucional y de las facultades que tiene el Congreso de la República, se expidieron dos normativas: la ley 3ª de 1992 (por la cual se expiden normas sobre las Comisiones del Congreso de Colombia y se dictan otras disposici...

  11. La radio en la segunda república española: sociedad y publicidad

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Morillas, Sebastián

    2006-01-01

    El artículo versa sobre la evolución del medio radio durante la II República Española a la vez que analiza la publicidad radiofónica de la época y sus efectos en una sociedad a punto de dividirse en dos bandos enfrentados en armas. This article is about the evolution of the radio broadcast during the Second Spanish Republic. It also analyses the radio commercials in that time, and how this commercials had a great influence on Spanish society, which was close to a civil war.

  12. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  13. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  14. Development of low-cost open source 3D gel printer "RepRap SWIM-ER"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kei; Basher, Samiul; Ota, Takafumi; Tase, Taishi; Takamatsu, Kyuichiro; Saito, Azusa; Khosla, Ajit; Kawakami, Masaru; Furuawa, Hidemitsu

    2017-04-01

    Gels are soft and wet materials having low friction, good biocompatibility, and material permeability. It is expected that gel materials will be used as new kinds of industrial materials in the engineering and medical applications. But it cannot build a complicated shape. Soft & Wet Matter Engineering Laboratory developed a 3D gel Printer "SWIM-ER", has enabled modeling of complex shapes of the gel. However, this is expensive. Therefore not all of the gel researchers and the companies have such a device. To solve this problem, we manufacture a low-cost open-source 3D gel printer "RepRap SWIM-ER" from the RepRap. We made the components required to manufacture the "RepRap SWIM-ER" from the 3D printer and chose a light source. In addition, we produced the P-DN gel for RepRap SWIM-ER and conducted the molding test to confirm whether RepRap SWIM-ER can used it.

  15. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  16. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    was in collaboration with Prof. R. Bowersox (Texas A&M University) and Dr. K. Kobayashi ( Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA). 4.2 Ignition... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  17. Infrared monitoring of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.C.; Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Solomon, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for combustion monitoring is described. A combination of emission, transmission, and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy yields data on the temperature and composition of the gases, surfaces and suspended particles in the combustion environment. Detection sensitivity of such trace exhaust gases as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and unburned hydrocarbons is at the ppm level. Tomographic reconstruction converts line-of-sight measurements into spatially resolved temperature and concentration data. Examples from various combustion processes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Industrial measurements are described that have been performed directly in the combustion zone and in the exhaust duct of a large chemical recovery boiler. Other measurements of hot slag show how FT-IR spectroscopy can determine the temperature and optical properties of surfaces. In addition, experiments with water droplets show that transmission FT-IR data yield spectra that characterize particle size and number density

  18. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  19. Etude du secteur des préparations pour desserts 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Combris, Pierre; Goglia, Raffaella; Henini, Marion; Lafitte, Caroline; Soler, Louis Georges; Spiteri, Marine; Stevenin, Florence; Observatoire de la Qualité de l'Alimentation

    2010-01-01

    Cette étude sectorielle de suivi du marché des préparations pour desserts repose principalement sur les informations relevées sur les emballages, notamment les valeurs nutritionnelles, la taille des portions indiquées, les repères nutritionnels, les recommandations de consommation… Pour cette première année d’étude, la base de données compte 155 références, correspondant à une couverture d’au moins 67% du marché en volume. Pour affiner au mieux les traitements effectués, le secteur a été déco...

  20. Realidades de la independencia del Banco de la República Realities of the independence of the Banco de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmanovitz Salomón

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La autonomía del banco central Colombiano es parte del proceso político que buscaba reducir el exagerado centralismo colombiano. Sin embargo el poder central no fue limitado en grado suficiente por la Constitución del 1991, como muestra el hecho de que el Ministro de Hacienda es el Presidente de la Junta Directiva del Banco de la República. Esto no sucede en ningun banco independiente del mundo por que los objetivos del gobierno son distintos a los del Banco Central y el Ministerio de Finanzas podría desviar al Banco de sus objetivos antiinflacionarios fundamentales. En Colombia, el gobierno no sólo participa en la Junta para acomodar sus múltiples objetivos sino también hace opocisión pública a la política monetaria y así la desacredita. El articulo plantea que el principio de no reelección hace que el horizonte de tiempo sea muy corto para que el gobierno coseche los frutos de una política de estabilización. El gobierno tiende a gastar en exceso para mejorar su imagen pública y el desajuste lo tiene que enfrentar el gobierno siguiente. De modo que la coordinación entre el Banco Central y el gobierno se torna muy conflictiva.The autonomy of the Central Bank of Colombia is part of a political process which seeks to reduce Colombia' s exaggerated centralismo However, central power was not limited to a sufficient degree by the Constitution of 1991, as demonstrated by the fact that the Minister of Finance is the President of the Board of Directors of the Banco de la República. This does not happen in any independent bank in the world, because the objectives of the government are different from those of the central bank, and the Minister of Finance could divert the Bank away from its fundamental anti-inflationary objectives. This article proposes that the principle of no reelection makes the time horizon very short for the government to reap the fruits of a stabilization policy. The government tends to spend in excess in order to

  1. Numerical simulations of stationary and transient spray combustion for aircraft gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fossi, Athanase Alain

    2017-01-01

    Le développement des turbines à gaz d’aviation actuelles et futures est principalement axé sur la sécurité, la performance, la minimisation de la consommation de l’énergie, et de plus en plus sur la réduction des émissions d’espèces polluantes. Ainsi, les phases de design de moteurs sont soumises auxaméliorations continues par des études expérimentales et numériques. La présente thèse se consacre à l’étude numérique des phases transitoires et stationnaires de la combustion au sein d’une turbi...

  2. Averróis e a República de Platão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Rosalie Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre República é o único comentário de uma obra de Platão deixado por Averróis, o comentador por antonomásia, diga-se de Aristóteles. Embora se tenha perdido o original árabe, a teles. Embora se tenha perdido o original árabe, a posteridade recebeu uma versão hebraíca e duas latinas. O comentário (ou paráfrase a República de Platão pode ser considerado uma obra original - divida em três livros - já que apenas um terço dela corresponde ao texto platônico. Além de apresentar conceitos aristotélicos retirados da Ética Nicomaquéia e de obras políticas de Al-Farabi, Averróis apresenta reflexões próprias e faz críticas à sociedade em que vive

  3. RepExplore: addressing technical replicate variance in proteomics and metabolomics data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Enrico; Schneider, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput omics datasets often contain technical replicates included to account for technical sources of noise in the measurement process. Although summarizing these replicate measurements by using robust averages may help to reduce the influence of noise on downstream data analysis, the information on the variance across the replicate measurements is lost in the averaging process and therefore typically disregarded in subsequent statistical analyses.We introduce RepExplore, a web-service dedicated to exploit the information captured in the technical replicate variance to provide more reliable and informative differential expression and abundance statistics for omics datasets. The software builds on previously published statistical methods, which have been applied successfully to biomedical omics data but are difficult to use without prior experience in programming or scripting. RepExplore facilitates the analysis by providing a fully automated data processing and interactive ranking tables, whisker plot, heat map and principal component analysis visualizations to interpret omics data and derived statistics. Freely available at http://www.repexplore.tk enrico.glaab@uni.lu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Progressive Conversion from B-rep to BSP for Streaming Geometric Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Scorzelli, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a novel progressive approach to generate a Binary Space Partition (BSP) tree and a convex cell decomposition for any input triangles boundary representation (B-rep), by utilizing a fast calculation of the surface inertia. We also generate a solid model at progressive levels of detail. This approach relies on a variation of standard BSP tree generation, allowing for labeling cells as in, out and fuzzy, and which permits a comprehensive representation of a solid as the Hasse diagram of a cell complex. Our new algorithm is embedded in a streaming computational framework, using four types of dataflow processes that continuously produce, transform, combine or consume subsets of cells depending on their number or input/output stream. A varied collection of geometric modeling techniques are integrated in this streaming framework, including polygonal, spline, solid and heterogeneous modeling with boundary and decompositive representations, Boolean set operations, Cartesian products and adaptive refinement. The real-time B-rep to BSP streaming results we report in this paper are a large step forward in the ultimate unification of rapid conceptual and detailed shape design methodologies.

  5. Topology reconstruction for B-Rep modeling from 3D mesh in reverse engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénière, Roseline; Subsol, Gérard; Gesquière, Gilles; Le Breton, François; Puech, William

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays, most of the manufactured objects are designed using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software. Nevertheless, for visualization, data exchange or manufacturing applications, the geometric model has to be discretized into a 3D mesh composed of a finite number of vertices and edges. But, in some cases, the initial model may be lost or unavailable. In other cases, the 3D discrete representation may be modified, for example after a numerical simulation, and does not correspond anymore to the initial model. A reverse engineering method is then required to reconstruct a 3D continuous representation from the discrete one. In previous work, we have presented a new approach for 3D geometric primitive extraction. In this paper, to complete our automatic and comprehensive reverse engineering process, we propose a method to construct the topology of the retrieved object. To reconstruct a B-Rep model, a new formalism is now introduced to define the adjacency relations. Then a new process is used to construct the boundaries of the object. The whole process is tested on 3D industrial meshes and bring a solution to recover B-Rep models.

  6. Identification of new isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis using rep-PCR products and delta-endotoxin electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.G. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR has been used to analyze the distribution of REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic and ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus sequences (rep-PCR found within the genome of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, with the purpose to analyze the genetic similarities among 56 subspecies samples and 95 field isolates. The PCR products were analyzed by EB-AGE (ethidium bromide-agarose electrophoresis and then submitted to banding comparisons, based on the Phyllip software algorithm. When the banding similarities were considered for comparison purposes among all the strains, the phylogenic tree patterns varied according to the rep-PCR primers considered, but, from a broader point of view, the ERIC sequences produced better results, which, together with electron microscopy analysis of the released parasporal bodies and colony morphology characteristics, allowed to detect two possible new subspecies of B. thuringiensis.

  7. RepSox improves viability and regulates gene expression in rhesus monkey-pig interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Luo, Zhao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Qi-Rong; Wang, Jun-Xia; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the small molecule, RepSox, on the expression of developmentally important genes and the pre-implantation development of rhesus monkey-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. Rhesus monkey cells expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 which have a normal (42) chromosome complement, were used as donor cells to generate iSCNT embryos. RepSox increased the expression levels of the pluripotency-related genes, Oct4 and Nanog (p  0.05), this was not significant. RepSox can improve the developmental potential of rhesus monkey-pig iSCNT embryos by regulating the expression of pluripotency-related genes.

  8. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  9. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  10. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  11. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  12. Iberia : capital federal de la IIª República Española (Un proyecto de Rubio i Tuduri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sambricio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A los pocos meses de proclamarse, en 1931, la II República Española, Nicolás Rubio i Tuduri presentaba —en el marco de la Exposición organizada por la Asociación de Arquitectos de Cataluña, celebrada en la barcelonesa Galería Maragall— una propuesta un tanto sorprendente: el proyecto de una nueva Capital Federal de la República Española que él denominaba Iberia.

  13. Heavy water reactors physics; Physique des reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    particulieres aux reseaux comportant le refroidissement par gaz mesures de distributions fines de densite (indices de spectre, etc mesures sur des reseaux ou des echantillons comportant de l'uranium a des enrichissements differents ou du plutonium. Dans la deuxieme partie on passe en revue les etudes de caractere theorique. L'ensemble des resultats a permis d'asseoir des methodes de calcul qui ont accru notablement la comprehension des phenomenes neutroniques dans les reseaux, et d'etablir un formulaire rendant compte des experiences sur reseaux neufs et capable de predire correctement l'evolution des proprietes neutroniques du combustible avec l'irradiation. Quelques etudes particulieres aux reacteurs de puissance sont mentionnees. (auteurs)

  14. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  15. Santé des adolescents et des jeunes au Burkina Faso : état des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'est agi d'une étude évaluative ayant utilisé une revue documentaire associée à une interview des acteurs clés et un atelier de validation et d'identification des interventions pertinentes pour un plan stratégique national. La situation de la santé des adolescents et des jeunes est caractérisée par des grossesses précoces ...

  16. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  17. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  18. Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Wilsonomyces carpophilus in Khorasan Razavi Using rep-PCR Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barazandeh Aq Kariz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shot hole disease of stone fruit trees resulted from Wilsonomyces carpophilus can weaken the trees and reduce the quantity and quality of the crops worldwide particularly in semi-arid regions. Coryneum blight or shot hole disease infects all the stone fruit trees including peach, nectarine, apricot, sour cherry, plum, cherry, and almond. One of the most important strategies to manage any plant disease is to use resistant cultivars. In this way, it is very important to have knowledge about the status of genetic diversity and to determine the relationship between isolates of the causal agent fungus. The main objective of the present research was to study the genetic diversity of W. carpophilus in Khorasan Razavi province using the rep-PCR molecular fingerprinting method. Materials and Methods: Sampling was performed from peach, nectarine, plum, apricot and cherry orchards of Quchan, Torqabeh, Shandiz, Chenaran, Neishabur, Kalat, Torbat Heidarieh and Mashhad during spring and summer of 2012 and 2013. Mono-conidial isolates were recovered from infected leaves, fruits, and twigs of different parts of orchards. Infected collected leaves, twigs, and fruits were transferred to the laboratory. By using techniques of Klimesova and Prasil (1989 and Mehta (1998 from the cut parts between infected and healthy tissues of each isolate, cuts of 2-3 mm from leaf, fruit and twig were prepared by the scalpel. These pieces were surface sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite liquid about 1 to 3 minutes based on the thickness of tissue. Then, the samples were cultured on PDA, MEA, and WA media and incubated at 18, 20, and 25 °C. The isolated fungi were purified and identified. The research was performed on 20 fungal isolates collected from different stone fruit trees. Genomic DNA was amplified using BOX A1R, ERIC2, ERIC1R, REP2-I, and REP1R-I primers. Thirty-eight of 39 fragments amplified were polymorphic for 100 to 5000 base pairs. Similarity matrix

  19. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Tracking an individual streamer branch among others in a pulsed induced discharge J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 2823--9 [29] van Veldhuizen E M and Rutgers...2005) AIAA–2005–0405. [99] E.M. Van Veldhuizen (ed) Electrical Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fun- damentals and Applications (New York: Nova...Vandooren J, Van Tiggelen P J 1977 Reaction Mechanism and Rate Constants in Lean Hydrogen–Nitrous Oxide Flames Combust. Flame 28 165 [201] Dean A M, Steiner

  20. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  1. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  2. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DES-exposed grandchildren have? Researchers are also studying possible health effects among women and men who are the children ... for unexposed men. In addition, researchers are studying possible health effects on the grandchildren of mothers who were exposed ...

  4. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tableaux Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels japonais entre 1860 et 1945… 19 Histoire, tourisme et hôtellerie en Corée depuis les années 1870… 59-60 Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels chinois depuis 1863… 84 Les hôtels de luxe et leurs capacités d’hébergement en Corée en 2000… 103 Les flux de personnes suscités par les hôtels « super luxe » de Séoul en 2000… 105 L’activité des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999 (en wons)… 106 Propriété et gestion des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999…. 110 La c...

  5. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    potential and surface properties of their mixtures were investigated, in an ... suppose that the electrostatic repulsive interactions between the two anion ... concentration, et de la conformation des ..... proteins and polysaccharides in solutions,.

  6. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  7. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast is a versatile ATPase complex involved in several biological functions including membrane fusion, protein folding, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. In addition, p97 plays a central role in degradation of misfolded secretory proteins via the ER-associated degradation pathway. This functional diversity of p97 depends on its association with various cofactors, and to further our understanding of p97 function it is important that these cofactors are identified and analyzed. Here, we isolate and characterize the human protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8 is a transmembrane protein that localizes to the ER membrane with its UBX domain facing the cytoplasm. Knock-down of Rep8 expression in human cells leads to a decreased association of p97 with the ER membrane and concomitantly a retarded degradation of misfolded ER-derived proteasome substrates. Thus, Rep8 tethers p97 to the ER membrane for efficient ER-associated degradation.

  8. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise; Kriegenburg, Franziska; Lages Lino Vala, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    is a transmembrane protein that localizes to the ER membrane with its UBX domain facing the cytoplasm. Knock-down of Rep8 expression in human cells leads to a decreased association of p97 with the ER membrane and concomitantly a retarded degradation of misfolded ER-derived proteasome substrates. Thus, Rep8 tethers p......The protein known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast is a versatile ATPase complex involved in several biological functions including membrane fusion, protein folding, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. In addition, p97 plays a central role in degradation of misfolded...... protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8...

  9. A method and software for segmentation of anatomic object ensembles by deformable m-reps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, Stephen M.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Joshi, Sarang; Gash, A. Graham; Stough, Joshua; Thall, Andrew; Tracton, Gregg; Chaney, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Deformable shape models (DSMs) comprise a general approach that shows great promise for automatic image segmentation. Published studies by others and our own research results strongly suggest that segmentation of a normal or near-normal object from 3D medical images will be most successful when the DSM approach uses (1) knowledge of the geometry of not only the target anatomic object but also the ensemble of objects providing context for the target object and (2) knowledge of the image intensities to be expected relative to the geometry of the target and contextual objects. The segmentation will be most efficient when the deformation operates at multiple object-related scales and uses deformations that include not just local translations but the biologically important transformations of bending and twisting, i.e., local rotation, and local magnification. In computer vision an important class of DSM methods uses explicit geometric models in a Bayesian statistical framework to provide a priori information used in posterior optimization to match the DSM against a target image. In this approach a DSM of the object to be segmented is placed in the target image data and undergoes a series of rigid and nonrigid transformations that deform the model to closely match the target object. The deformation process is driven by optimizing an objective function that has terms for the geometric typicality and model-to-image match for each instance of the deformed model. The success of this approach depends strongly on the object representation, i.e., the structural details and parameter set for the DSM, which in turn determines the analytic form of the objective function. This paper describes a form of DSM called m-reps that has or allows these properties, and a method of segmentation consisting of large to small scale posterior optimization of m-reps. Segmentation by deformable m-reps, together with the appropriate data representations, visualizations, and user interface, has been

  10. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  11. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  12. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  13. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  14. Typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains by REP-PCR Tipificação de amostras aviárias patogênicas de Escherichia coli pela REP-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was used to establish the clonal variability of 49 avian Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from different outbreak cases of septicemia (n=24, swollen head syndrome (n=14 and omphalitis (n=11. Thirty commensal strains isolated from poultry with no signs of these illnesses were used as control strains. The purified DNA of these strains produced electrophoretic profiles ranging from 0 to 15 bands with molecular sizes varying from 100 bp to 6.1 kb, allowing the grouping of the 79 strains into a dendrogram containing 49 REP-types. Although REP-PCR showed good discriminating power it was not able to group the strains either into specific pathogenic classes or to differentiate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. On the contrary, we recently demonstrated that other techniques such as ERIC-PCR and isoenzyme profiles are appropriate to discriminate between commensal and APEC strains and also to group these strains into specific pathogenic classes. In conclusion, REP-PCR seems to be a technique neither efficient nor universal for APEC strains discrimination. However, the population clonal structure obtained with the use of REP-PCR must not be ignored particularly if one takes into account that the APEC pathogenic mechanisms are not completely understood yet.A técnica de REP (Repetitive extragenic palindrome-PCR foi utilizada para avaliar a variabilidade genética de 49 amostras de Escherichia coli patogênicas para aves (APEC, isoladas de aves de corte (frangos em diferentes surtos de septicemia (n=24, síndrome da cabeça inchada (n=14 e onfalite (n=11. Trinta amostras comensais, isoladas de frangos sem sinais de doença, foram utilizadas como controle. A análise do perfil eletroforético obtido por reação de REP-PCR utilizando DNA purificado das amostras evidenciou a amplificação de 0 a 15 bandas de DNA com pesos moleculares

  15. ¿Por qué no la Segunda República Argentina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel ALCÁNTARA SÁEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El autor analiza en este artículo el proceso de Reforma Constitucional que se está desarrollando en Argentina. Teniendo en cuenta la coyuntura actual del régimen político, el desarollo de este proceso de reforma y los cambios previstos que van a resultar de esta «Refundación de la República» el autor apunta las posibilidades y problemas que estos datos permiten vislumbrar.ABSTRACT: In this article, the author analyzes the present process of Constitutional Reform in Argentina. Studying the current moment of argentinian political regime, the development of this reform process and possible changes of this «Republic Refoundation» the author points out the possibilities and problems that this information indicates.

  16. El Museo de Arte del Banco de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available El Banco de la República desde sus comienzos, en los años veinte y treinta del siglo pasado, ha apoyado la cultura. De esas épocas datan los inicios de las colecciones de numismática y orfebrería, creadas con la intención de preservar y defender el patrimonio artístico y cultural colombiano. A ese atesoramiento se une el desarrollo de otras colecciones que son referencia obligada para el conocimiento de la historia de Colombia: la colección documental (bibliográfica, hemerográfica, audiovisual, la de arte, a partir de 1957 y la de filatelia.

  17. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon outside the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep Dave Weldon (at left) looks at the U.S. Lab, called Destiny. With him are Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, Dana Gartzke, the congressman's chief of staffm and Boeing workers. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  18. Evolución y relevancia del turismo en la República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Real Aquino, Héctor Julio

    2014-01-01

    República Dominicana es un país que durante las últimas décadas ha sufrido grandes transformaciones socioeconómicas, anteriormente su economía dependía casi exclusivamente de la elaboración y exportación de productos agrícolas como: la caña de azúcar, cacao, tabaco, y en menor medida, la industria textil. Ese panorama se ha modificado, debido en gran parte al turismo, dado que este subsector de la economía se ha convertido en la principal actividad económica del país. La evolución y relevanci...

  19. 3d Modeling of Combustion for Di-Si Engines Modélisation 3D de la combustion dans les moteurs à injection directe d'essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duclos J. P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct injection of gasoline is a promising concept to reduce fuel consumption of SI engines. The development of GDI engines is difficult and 3D CFD is a way to support its design. It requires models able to describe the spray and its evaporation and combustion. This paper presents a model, the ECFM, that enables to compute combustion for stratified load in the GDI engines. This model is a development of the Coherent Flame Model which includes thermal expansion effects, and is coupled with a burnt/unburnt gases conditionnal thermodynamic properties description. The model is validated by comparing measurements and computations on the GDI Mitsubishi engine in production. L'injection directe d'essence (IDE est un concept prometteur pour les moteurs à allumage commandé. La mise au point de ce type de moteur est néanmoins délicate, et le calcul 3D des chambres de combustion est un moyen d'aider à leur conception. Ceci nécessite cependant de disposer de modèles adaptés, à même de décrire le jet d'essence, son évaporation et la combustion du mélange créé. Cet article présente un modèle ECFM de simulation de la combustion dans les moteurs IDE, y compris en fonctionnement stratifié. C'est un développement du modèle flamme cohérente qui comprend des effets d'expansion thermique et est couplé avec une description conditionnelle gaz frais/gaz brûlés des grandeurs thermodynamiques. Ce modèle a été validé par rapprochement de mesures et simulations sur le moteur GDI Mitsubishi.

  20. Protección contra la violencia sexual en la República Democrática del Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mosely, Sarah; Cetinoglu, Talita; Glad, Marit

    2010-01-01

    Si bien la prestación de servicios a los supervivientes de la violencia sexual es la principal prioridad en la República Democrática del Congo, la protección para las mujeres y niñas también puede mejorarse.

  1. Open-Source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M; Anzalone, N C; Heldt, C L

    2016-08-01

    The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the performance of lab-on-a-chip paper-based microfluidic prototyping, this study reports on the development of a RepRap upgrade capable of converting a Prusa Mendel RepRap into a wax 3-D printer for paper-based microfluidic applications. An open-source hardware approach is used to demonstrate a 3-D printable upgrade for the 3-D printer, which combines a heated syringe pump with the RepRap/Arduino 3-D control. The bill of materials, designs, basic assembly, and use instructions are provided, along with a completely free and open-source software tool chain. The open-source hardware device described here accelerates the potential of the nascent field of electrochemical detection combined with paper-based microfluidics by dropping the marginal cost of prototyping to nearly zero while accelerating the turnover between paper-based microfluidic designs. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. 78 FR 53774 - Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, FEMA-REP-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... available when FEMA REP-10 was first developed, such as smartphones and social media. Removes technical... proposed policy does not have the force or effect of law. FEMA seeks comment on the proposed policy, which... the force or effect of law. Authority: 6 U.S.C. 313-314a; Sec. 109, Pub. L. 96-295; E.O. 12148; 44 CFR...

  3. Feature selection and data sampling methods for learning reputation dimensions: The University of Amsterdam at RepLab 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gârbacea, C.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on our participation in the reputation dimension task of the CLEF RepLab 2014 evaluation initiative, i.e., to classify social media updates into eight predefined categories. We address the task by using corpus-based methods to extract textual features from the labeled training data to

  4. Engineered bacterial hydrophobic oligopeptide repeats in a synthetic yeast prion, [REP-PSI+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima eGasset-Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The yeast translation termination factor Sup35p, by aggregating as the [PSI+] prion, enables ribosomes to read-through stop codons, thus expanding the diversity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. Yeast prions are functional amyloids that replicate by templating their conformation on native protein molecules, then assembling as large aggregates and fibers. Prions propagate epigenetically from mother to daughter cells by fragmentation of such assemblies. In the N-terminal prion-forming domain, Sup35p has glutamine/asparagine-rich oligopeptide repeats (OPRs, which enable propagation through chaperone-elicited shearing. We have engineered chimeras by replacing the polar OPRs in Sup35p by up to five repeats of a hydrophobic amyloidogenic sequence from the synthetic bacterial prionoid RepA-WH1. The resulting hybrid, [REP-PSI+], i was functional in a stop codon read-through assay in S. cerevisiae; ii generates weak phenotypic variants upon both its expression or transformation into [psi-] cells; iii these variants correlated with high molecular weight aggregates resistant to SDS during electrophoresis; and iv according to fluorescence microscopy, the fusion of the prion domains from the engineered chimeras to the reporter protein mCherry generated perivacuolar aggregate foci in yeast cells. All these are signatures of bona fide yeast prions. As assessed through biophysical approaches, the chimeras assembled as oligomers rather than as the fibers characteristic of [PSI+]. These results suggest that it is the balance between polar and hydrophobic residues in OPRs what determines prion conformational dynamics. In addition, our findings illustrate the feasibility of enabling new propagation traits in yeast prions by engineering OPRs with heterologous amyloidogenic sequence repeats.

  5. A Primeira República Portuguesa (1910-1926: partidos e sistema político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiôa, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For historical, organisational, clientelist, violent and constitutional reasons the Portuguese Republican Party became the dominant party in the political system of the Portuguese First Republic (1910-1926. The opposition felt alternation via elections would be difficult to achieve so resorted to violent and unconstitutional practices to reach government. The Portuguese political parties modernised themselves in this period, but failed to turn into mass parties. In major cities they acted as a cadre party and in the rural area as a party of notables. The First Republic failed to take solid steps to democratise the political system were And Portugal remained tied to the liberal and elitist tradition of the nineteenth century, although in a republican version.El Partido Republicano Portugués se convirtió en el partido dominante del sistema político de la Primera República Portuguesa (1910-1926 debido a causas históricas, organizacionales, clientelistas, violentas y constitucionales. La oposición sentía que difícilmente conseguiría la alternancia política a través de elecciones, y por lo tanto, recurre a prácticas violentas e inconstitucionales para llegar al gobierno. Los partidos políticos portugueses se modernizaron en este período, pero no se convirtieron en partidos de masas. En las principales ciudades actuaban como partidos de cuadros y en las zonas rurales como partidos de notables. Durante la Primera República no se dieron pasos consistentes para democratizar el sistema político. Portugal se mantuvo ancorado a la tradición liberal y elitista del siglo XIX, aunque en una versión republicana.

  6. Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des populations rurales pour un developpement durable au Benin: etude de cas. ... Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ...

  7. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...

  8. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  9. La cartografía colonial española durante la Segunda República (1931-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urteaga, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Second Republic set aside a big amount of resources, both human and economic, to survey the colonies. The consecutive republican governments kept a strong continuity on the schemes for colonial cartography, with no significant changes over the plans established in past periods. Cartographic work was focused in Morocco’s territory, and was carry out by a military unit named Comisión Geográfíca de Marruecos y Límites (Morocco’s Geographical Commission. This paper, built on primary sources, examines the institutional framework of Spanish colonial cartography during the republican period, identifies the leading mapmakers, and discusses the main cartographic surveys.

    La Segunda República dedicó cuantiosos recursos, económicos y humanos, a la cartografía de las posesiones coloniales. Los sucesivos gobiernos republicanos mantuvieron una fuerte continuidad, organizativa y funcional, en el ámbito de la cartografía colonial, sin que se detecte ningún cambio significativo respecto a los planes trazados en etapas anteriores. La actividad cartográfica continuó centrada en el territorio de Marruecos, y fue protagonizada por una unidad dependiente del Ministerio de la Guerra, la Comisión Geográfica de Marruecos y Límites. En este trabajo, que se apoya en fuentes primarias, se ofrece una descripción del marco institucional de la cartografía colonial durante el período republicano, se identifica a sus artífices, y se da cuenta de los levantamientos cartográficos realizados. [fr] La Deuxième République a consacré nombreux ressources, économiques et humains, à la cartographie des possessions coloniales. Les successifs gouvernements républicains ont tenu une forte continuité, d’organisation et fonctionnelle, dans le domaine de la cartographie coloniale, sans qu’on ne puisse détecter aucun changement significatif en relation aux plans tracés en étapes antérieures. L’activité cartographique a continu

  10. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  11. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  12. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  13. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  15. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  16. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  17. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  18. Graphite reactor physics; Physique des piles a graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P; Cogne, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Noc, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    physique des piles de puissance a graphite et uranium naturel se poursuit depuis parallelement au developpement de ce type de piles. L'etude systematique des proprietes des reseaux en fonction du pas, de la geometrie du combustible et du diametre des canaux de refroidissement a pu etre entreprise a partir de 1960 grace a l'empilement critique MARIUS. Cette etude a permis de couvrir un domaine tres etendu: pas variant de 19 a 38 cm, barreaux et tubes d'uranium dont les sections droites vont de 6 a 35 cm{sup 2}, canaux dont le diametre est compris entre 70 et 140 mm. On a pu ainsi verifier, et au besoin adapter, les methodes de calcul de reseaux. Le fonctionnement des piles de Marcoule, ainsi que les experiences effectuees sur ces piles au cours des dernieres annees, ont apporte des renseignements precieux sur l'evolution globale des proprietes neutroniques du combustible en fonction de l'irradiation. Des experiences plus precises ont egalement ete faites dans MARIUS avec des combustibles contenant du plutonium (combustibles irradiee ou reconstitues), et seront entreprises des le debut 1965 en temperature dans l'empilement critique CESAR, dont la construction s'acheve a Cadarache. Les analyses des combustibles irradies permettent de completer ces resultats et de faciliter leur interpretation. Il sera ainsi possible de verifier dans tout le domaine utile de temperature les theories de thermalisation et de spectres developpees en France. L'efficacite de barres de controle en fonction de leurs dimensions, des materiaux les constituant, et des reseaux les environnant a ete mesuree dans MARIUS, et les resultats ont ete confrontes d'une part avec le calcul, d'autre part avec les mesures effectuees dans EDF 1. Les etudes du controle proprement dit des piles a graphite ont porte essentiellement sur les risques d'instabilites spatiales, et sur les moyens de les deceler et de les combattre, ainsi que sur les deformations du flux provoquees par les barres de controle. (auteurs)

  19. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  20. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  1. Study of the thermal drop at the uranium-can interface for fuel elements in gas-graphite reactors; Etude de la chute thermique au contact uranium-gaine pour des elements combustibles de reacteur de la filiere graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussat, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Levenes, G; Michel, M [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (France)

    1964-07-01

    The report reviews the tests now under way at the CEA, for determining the thermal contact resistance at the uranium-can interface for fuel elements used in gas-graphite type reactors. These are laboratory tests carried out with equipment based on the principle of a heat flow across a stack of test pieces having planar contact surfaces. The following points emerge from this work: - for a metallic uranium element canned in magnesium, of the type G-2 or EDF-2, a value of 0.2 deg C/W/cm{sup 2} seems reasonable for can temperatures of 400 deg C and above. - this value is independent of the micro-geometric state of the uranium surface in a range of roughness which easily includes those observed on tubes and rods produced industrially. - for the internal cans of elements cooled internally and externally, the value of the contact resistance for temperatures of under 400 deg C as a function of the stresses in the can has not yet been measured exactly. (authors) [French] Le rapport fait le point des essais actuellement en cours au CEA pour determiner la resistance thermique de contact uranium-gaine pour des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz. Ces essais sont effectues en laboratoire sur des appareils bases sur le principe d'une circulation de flux de chaleur a travers un empilement d'eprouvettes dont les faces en contact sont planes. De l'etude, il ressort essentiellement que: - pour un element a uranium metallique et gaine de magnesium type G-2 ou EdF-2, on peut admettre la valeur de 0,2 deg C/W/cm{sup 2} pour des temperatures de gaines de 400 deg C et plus. - cette valeur ne depend pas de l'etat de surface microgeometrique de l'uranium pour un domaine de rugosites couvrant largement celles que l'on observe sur des tubes et barreaux fabriques en serie. - pour les gaines internes d'elements a refroidissement interne et externe la valeur de la resistance de contact reste a preciser pour les temperatures inferieures a 400 deg C, en fonction des contraintes existant dans les

  2. Instabilités de l'écoulement interne des moteurs à propergol solide

    OpenAIRE

    Feraille, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Les longs moteurs à propergol solide peuvent présenter des oscillations de poussée dues à des fluctuations de la pression dans la chambre de combustion. Une source de ces fluctuations peut être l'instabilité de l'écoulement interne (écoulement de Taylor), dont l’étude au sens classique a déjà été effectuée par J.Griffond (2001) sur l'écoulement monophasique. Elle est présentée au premier chapitre, ainsi que le problème des oscillations de poussée et une première analyse des mesures effectuées...

  3. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a

  4. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  5. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  6. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  7. Charte du Conseil des Gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    7. favoriser des communications ouvertes et franches entre le personnel, la direction ..... de dresser le procès-verbal des réunions du Conseil et de ses comités et de veiller à ce ... et des résultats qu'il obtient, et non de sa gestion quotidienne.

  8. Use of glasses as industrial dosimeters; Utilisation des verres comme dosimetres industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Le Clerc, P.; Bonnaud, M. [Centre de Recherches des Glaceries de Saint-Gobain (France)

    1959-07-01

    Glasses have the property of colouring under the action of ionizing radiations. We endeavoured to specify the conditions under which the intensity of coloration can be used as a measure of the quantity of radiation to which the glass has been submitted. In the case of a glass loaded with cobalt, a study of the optical density at different wavelengths enabled us to find the factors governing the formation of coloured centres and their conservation in the glass. We give a set of calibrating curves for different values of these parameters (irradiation rate, irradiation temperature; fading time and fading temperature), enabling determination of radiation doses in the range from 10 000 to 1 000 000 rep from measured optical density. (author) [French] Les verres ont la propriete de se colorer sous l'action des rayonnements ionisants. Nous avons cherche a preciser les conditions dans lesquelles l'intensite de la coloration peut servir de mesure de la quantite du rayonnement auquel le verre a ete soumis. Dans le cas d'un verre charge au cobalt, l'etude de la densite optique a differentes longueurs d'onde a mis en evidence divers facteurs dont depend la formation des centres colores et leur conservation dans le verre. En prenant comme parametres ces divers facteurs (temperature d'irradiation, intensite d'irradiation, temperature de conservation et duree de conservation) nous avons etabli des courus d'etalonnage permettant la determination de doses entre 10 000 et 1 000 000 rep d'apres la densite optique observee. (auteur)

  9. Use of glasses as industrial dosimeters; Utilisation des verres comme dosimetres industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Le Clerc, P; Bonnaud, M [Centre de Recherches des Glaceries de Saint-Gobain (France)

    1959-07-01

    Glasses have the property of colouring under the action of ionizing radiations. We endeavoured to specify the conditions under which the intensity of coloration can be used as a measure of the quantity of radiation to which the glass has been submitted. In the case of a glass loaded with cobalt, a study of the optical density at different wavelengths enabled us to find the factors governing the formation of coloured centres and their conservation in the glass. We give a set of calibrating curves for different values of these parameters (irradiation rate, irradiation temperature; fading time and fading temperature), enabling determination of radiation doses in the range from 10 000 to 1 000 000 rep from measured optical density. (author) [French] Les verres ont la propriete de se colorer sous l'action des rayonnements ionisants. Nous avons cherche a preciser les conditions dans lesquelles l'intensite de la coloration peut servir de mesure de la quantite du rayonnement auquel le verre a ete soumis. Dans le cas d'un verre charge au cobalt, l'etude de la densite optique a differentes longueurs d'onde a mis en evidence divers facteurs dont depend la formation des centres colores et leur conservation dans le verre. En prenant comme parametres ces divers facteurs (temperature d'irradiation, intensite d'irradiation, temperature de conservation et duree de conservation) nous avons etabli des courus d'etalonnage permettant la determination de doses entre 10 000 et 1 000 000 rep d'apres la densite optique observee. (auteur)

  10. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  11. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  12. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  13. Le statut vitaminique des individus et des populations…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Comme le souligne un récent rapport du Haut comité de santé publique, le statut vitaminique des individus et des populations demeure une question d’actualité. Si les études ne révèlent plus de signes évocateurs de carence, au plus des problèmes de déficiences pour certains groupes à risque, des interrogations, demeurent malgré le contexte d’abondance, concernant la couverture des besoins, laquelle pourrait s’avérer inférieure aux valeurs considérées comme satisfaisantes.

  14. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables

    2013-01-01

    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  15. Liste des auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Madeleine Akrich      Ecole des Mines – Centre de Sociologie de l’innovation – Paris Noël Barbe      Association comtoise des Arts et Traditions populaires – Besançon Lucien Bernot      Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) – Paris Anni Borzeix      Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) –     Groupement d’intérêt public (GIP) « Mutations industrielles » – Paris François Boudarias      Laboratoire d’Anthropologie et de sociologie de Tours (LAST) Dominique Boullier ...

  16. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  17. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Face à ce constat, le défi de la recherche serait la détermination du niveau actuel de contamination des légumes feuilles et des eaux du barrage et celui de l'État serait l'initiation de programmes de sensibilisation des producteurs par rapport à une gestion plus rigoureuse des pesticides. Mots-clés : pratiques paysannes, ...

  18. Combustion & Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLDRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLRDC) supports the experimental and computational study of fundamental combustion phenomena to...

  19. Therapeutic Antiviral Effect of the Nucleic Acid Polymer REP 2055 against Persistent Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordeen, Faseeha; Scougall, Catherine A.; Grosse, Arend; Qiao, Qiao; Ajilian, Behzad B.; Reaiche-Miller, Georget; Finnie, John; Werner, Melanie; Broering, Ruth; Schlaak, Joerg F.; Vaillant, Andrew; Jilbert, Allison R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have both entry and post-entry inhibitory activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. The inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs prevented DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vitro and protected ducks from DHBV infection in vivo and did not result from direct activation of the immune response. In the current study treatment of primary human hepatocytes with NAP REP 2055 did not induce expression of the TNF, IL6, IL10, IFNA4 or IFNB1 genes, confirming the lack of direct immunostimulation by REP 2055. Ducks with persistent DHBV infection were treated with NAP 2055 to determine if the post-entry inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs could provide a therapeutic effect against established DHBV infection in vivo. In all REP 2055-treated ducks, 28 days of treatment lead to initial rapid reductions in serum DHBsAg and DHBV DNA and increases in anti-DHBs antibodies. After treatment, 6/11 ducks experienced a sustained virologic response: DHBsAg and DHBV DNA remained at low or undetectable levels in the serum and no DHBsAg or DHBV core antigen positive hepatocytes and only trace amounts of DHBV total and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were detected in the liver at 9 or 16 weeks of follow-up. In the remaining 5/11 REP 2055-treated ducks, all markers of DHBV infection rapidly rebounded after treatment withdrawal: At 9 and 16 weeks of follow-up, levels of DHBsAg and DHBcAg and DHBV total and cccDNA in the liver had rebounded and matched levels observed in the control ducks treated with normal saline which remained persistently infected with DHBV. These data demonstrate that treatment with the NAP REP 2055 can lead to sustained control of persistent DHBV infection. These effects may be related to the unique ability of REP 2055 to block release of DHBsAg from infected hepatocytes. PMID:26560490

  20. Application des TIC à l'atténuation des effets des catastrophes dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Amérique centrale est souvent aux prises avec des inondations et des ... (SIG) et de traitement des images, afin de cartographier les dangers et de modéliser les ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  1. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadullin, A N; Ahmethanov, E N; Iovleva, O V; Mitrofanov, G A

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW)

  2. El montaje de la transición argentina. Un análisis de los films La República perdida, La República perdida II y Evita, quien quiera oír que oiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Judith Margulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se propone reconstruir una zona de la historia del documental argentino a partir del abordaje de tres films que tuvieron un alto impacto en Argentina hacia la transición democrática: La República perdida (Miguel Pérez, 1983, su secuela La República perdida II (Miguel Pérez, 1986 y Evita, quien quiera oír que oiga (Eduardo Mignogna, 1984. Dada la importancia de estos films -tanto en términos políticos como de impacto en el público-, intentaremos situarlos en contexto y analizar algunos aspectos inherentes a su lógica fílmica.

  3. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  4. REPRISE DES COURS - Yoga

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de Yoga

    2015-01-01

    REPRISE DES COURS – Venez nombreux ! Yoga, Sophrologie, Tai Chi La liste des cours pour le semestre allant du 1er septembre 2015 au 31 janvier 2016 est disponible sur notre site web : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch Lieu Les cours ont lieu dans la salle des clubs, à l’entresol du restaurant No 2, Bât. 504 (dans la salle no 3 pour la Sophrologie). Prix des cours Le prix pour le semestre (environ 18 leçons) est fixé à 220 CHF plus 10 CHF d’adhésion annuelle au Club. Couple : 200 CHF par personne. 2 cours par semaine : 400 CHF. Inscriptions Les inscriptions aux cours seront prises directement auprès du professeur, lors de la 1ère séance. Avant de s’inscrire pour le semestre, il est possible d’essayer une séance gratuitement. Informations : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch ----------------------------------------- cern.ch/club-yoga/

  5. Praxis des Klebens

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkauff, Petra

    1989-01-01

    Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich um einen Leitfaden fur Klebepraktiker. Es werden die verschiedenen Einzelschritte beim kleben beschrieben, als auch die vorbereitenden Massnahmen und anschliessenden Prufverfahren auf Festigkeit behandelt. Das Buch sollte an keinem Arbeitsplatz fehlen, wo man sich mit Problemen der Fugetechnik des Klebens beschaftigt.

  6. Dimensions des stabulations 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika; Schneider, Claudia; Schürmann, Stefan; Spengler Neff, Anet; Werne, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Les «Dimensions des stabulations» contiennent toutes les dimensions pour les stabulations et les parcours pour la production animale en agriculture biologique. Cette liste sert d’instrument de planification pour les éleveurs, d’outil de travail pour la vulgarisation et d’ouvrage de référence pour le contrôle bio.

  7. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    économique des services rendus par les écosystèmes marins. La richesse ... croissance plus rapide que la moyenne de l‟économie ...... services and natural capital. Nature. 387, 253-260. .... d‟interactions où l‟humain est partie prenante. In.

  8. La physique des infinis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Laplace, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Écrire l'histoire de l'Univers, tel est l'objectif commun des physiciens des particules et des astrophysiciens. Pour y parvenir, deux approches s'épaulent : la voie de l'infiniment petit, que l'on emprunte via de gigantesques accélérateurs de particules, et celle de l'infiniment grand, dont le laboratoire est l'Univers. Un Univers qui est bien loin d'avoir livré tous ses secrets. On connaît à peine 4,8 % de la matière qui le constitue, le reste étant composé de matière noire (25,8 %) et d'énergie noire (69,4 %), toutes deux de nature inconnue. Et si la récente découverte du boson de Higgs valide le Modèle standard de la physique des particules, celui-ci est toujours incomplet et doit être étendu à ou dépassé. Est-on arrivé au bout du jeu de poupées russes de la matière ? Quelles sont les particules manquantes ? Faut-il revoir les lois fondamentales ? Quels instruments faut-il mettre en œuvre pour accéder à cette « nouvelle physique » ? Comment parler de Super Big Science aux citoye...

  9. Liberalismo, iluminismo y romanticismo: el problema de la libertad en dos novelas de la República Restaurada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Hernández Landa Valencia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo propone una reflexión en torno a la forma como influyen tres corrientes de pensamiento, el liberalismo, el iluminismo y el romanticismo, en la representación del problema de la libertad en dos novelas históricas publicadas en la República Restaurada: Monja y casada, virgen y mártir, de Vicente Riva Palacio, y El pecado del siglo, de José Tomás de Cuéllar. Se busca mostrar que dichas corrientes se entrecruzan en un solo texto, que ello contribuye a la conformación de un concepto de libertad restringida y que la forma específica que adquiere ese concepto se explica a partir de la postura ideológica y política de los autores en el contexto de la República Restaurada.

  10. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  11. Patrimonio arqueológico e identidades en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ulloa Hung

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se abordan algunos de los principales problemas que presenta el estudio y conservación del patrimonio arqueológico de la República Dominicana a la luz de los nuevos retos y problemas que ha generado la globalización, así como de otras deformaciones impuestas por determinados procesos históricos y políticos dentro de la historia del país. El análisis también intenta hacer un llamado a la conservación y estudio del patrimonio arqueológico dominicano a la luz de nuevos conceptos y categorías usadas para el estudio del tema en el campo de la arqueología y la sociología, en especial, el punto de vista que prioriza la actividad de los agentes sociales. Por último, se intentan puntualizar aspectos que se consideran esenciales para generar una visión distinta en el abordaje del patrimonio arqueológico y que, a larga, podrían redundar en el desarrollo de una percepción distinta sobre la disciplina arqueol��gica en el país.

  12. João do Rio, Repórter da Pobreza na Cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise da Costa Oliveira Siqueira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como modelo a Belle Époque parisiense, o Rio de Janeiro, na virada do século XIX para o XX, sofria a transição para uma ordem capitalista urbana. Nesse contexto, o escritor e repórter João Paulo Barreto - o João do Rio - vagou pela cidade, observou parcelas da sociedade que raramente figuravam nas páginas de livros e jornais. No livro A Alma Encantadora das Ruas dedicou um capítulo às várias formas de pobreza e exploração presentes na capital federal. A partir dessa temática, o objetivo deste artigo é estudar as representações da pobreza como apresentadas no livro de João do Rio e paralelamente abordar a questão do texto jornalístico como mediador simbólico - reflexo de um tempo e de uma cultura.

  13. Mapa educativo nacional. Una experiencia en la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Rodolfo Bozzano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Mapa Educativo Nacional (MEN es un SIG generado a partir del desarrollo e integración de 24 Mapas Educativos Provinciales sobre la base de un modelo conceptual general, con una visión dinámica de los 49.000 establecimientos educativos, así como de su contexto territorial. Los objetivos del trabajo son: a sistematizar los aportes al Proyecto MEN desde la teoría cartográfica, reconociendo instancias de concepción, construcción y comunicación de los mapas que lo integran, así como vinculaciones entre territorio, espacio y espacialidades emergentes de la concreción de la tarea; y b identificar en qué medida la concreción del Proyecto MEN en la República Argentina contribuye a fortalecer un enfoque dialéctico conocimiento-realidad sobre el territorio y la gestión aplicado a un objeto de estudio e intervención concreto de desarrollo institucional, con el propósito de promover un círculo virtuoso de transformación entre sujetos de cambio y agentes de desarrollo.

  14. High-resolution observations in the western Mediterranean Sea: the REP14-MED experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Reiner; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Beguery, Laurent; Borrione, Ines; Funk, Andreas; Hemming, Michael; Hernandez-Lasheras, Jaime; Heywood, Karen J.; Kaiser, Jan; Knoll, Michaela; Mourre, Baptiste; Oddo, Paolo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Queste, Bastien Y.; Russo, Aniello; Shitashima, Kiminori; Siderius, Martin; Thorp Küsel, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    The observational part of the REP14-MED experiment was conducted in June 2014 in the Sardo-Balearic Basin west of Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Two research vessels collected high-resolution oceanographic data by means of hydrographic casts, towed systems, and underway measurements. In addition, a vast amount of data was provided by a fleet of 11 ocean gliders, time series were available from moored instruments, and information on Lagrangian flow patterns was obtained from surface drifters and one profiling float. The spatial resolution of the observations encompasses a spectrum over 4 orders of magnitude from 𝒪(101 m) to 𝒪(105 m), and the time series from the moored instruments cover a spectral range of 5 orders from 𝒪(101 s) to 𝒪(106 s). The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the huge data set which has been utilised by various studies, focusing on (i) water masses and circulation, (ii) operational forecasting, (iii) data assimilation, (iv) variability of the ocean, and (v) new payloads for gliders.

  15. Leptospirosis porcina: prevalencia serológica en establecimientos productores de la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Petrakovsky M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp en cerdos que no presentaban sintomatología clínica, pertenecientes a establecimientos de producción porcina ubicados en todo el territorio de la República Argentina. Materiales y métodos. La asignación de predios y muestras se realizó en forma proporcional a los registrados en cada provincia a lo largo de todo el país. En total se estudiaron 1.524 predios, de los cuales se tomaron 19.872 muestras de suero y en la primera etapa se procesaron 3.631 de los mismos. Este estudio toma en consideración zonas identificadas por provincia, municipio y predios. Los sueros fueron analizados por la técnica de MAT (prueba de microaglutinación. Resultados. El 30% de las muestras resultaron positivas a la prueba tamiz empleada (primera etapa del MAT. La mayoría presentó coaglutininas a dos o a tres serovariedades. Al realizar la titulación de los sueros (segunda etapa del MAT, el porcentaje de positividad se mantuvo, siendo los serovares de mayor prevalencia Castellonis e Icterohaemorrhagiae. El 90% de las muestras presentó un título final de 1:200. Conclusiones. La existencia de sueros positivos en todas las provincias indica el contacto de los animales con la leptospira a lo largo de todo el país.

  16. Chikungunya en la República Dominicana: lecciones aprendidas en los primeros seis meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pimentel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La epidemia de chikungunya en la República Dominicana se inició en febrero de 2014. En los primeros seis meses se registraron 429 421 casos, que representaron 65% de todos los notificados a la Organización Panamericana de la Salud por 33 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas. Esta epidemia se ha transmitido con rapidez en dicho país y ha demandado una intensa respuesta intersectorial, que ha liderado el Ministerio de Salud Pública y, especialmente, el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y la red de los servicios de salud. Considerando que afectará a miles de personas, el objetivo de este artículo es describir las actuaciones realizadas y compartir los resultados y las lecciones aprendidas durante estos primeros meses con los ministerios de salud y los profesionales de los países de la Región para ayudarles a preparar una respuesta adecuada para afrontarla de forma efectiva y eficiente.

  17. The Dual Half-Arc data structure: towards the universal B-rep data structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, François; Bugoslawski, P.; Mioc, Darka

    2014-01-01

    , or more generally, the topology of any topological space. For this purpose, we generalize an existing data structure from 2D to 3D and design a new 3D data structure that realizes the synthesis between an existing 3D data structure (the Dual Half-Edge (See Footonote 1) data structure) and the generalized...... 3D Quad-Arc data structure, (See Footonote 2) and at the same time, improves the Dual Half-Edge towards a simpler and more effective representation of cell complexes through B-rep structures. We generalize the idea of the Quad-Arc data structure from 2D to 3D, but instead of transforming a simple...... edge of the Quad-Edge data structure to an arc with multiple points along it, we group together primal edges of the Dual Half-Edge that have the same dual Half-Edge vertex tags (volume tags) into one Dual Half-Arc whose dual is the common Dual Half-Edge and primal faces corresponding to dual...

  18. Les revistes bilingües a la Tortosa de la II República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carme Gombau Domingo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En l’àmbit de la premsa tortosina en català del primer terç del segle xx es donen dues actituds lingüístiques: la fabriana i la tortosinista. La primera, partidària del model de llengua de l’IEC, era minoritària als anys vint però es generalitza a partir dels anys trenta (La Veu de Tortosa, La Veu Comarcal, Ara, Acció, Vida Tortosina i Lluita; mentre que el tortosinisme, que es correspon amb una ideologia cada cop més localista i que eleva el «parlar tortosí» a la categoria de llengua, queda reduït durant la II República a tres revistes bilingües: La Zuda, Germanor i La Santa Cinta. There were two linguistic actitudes in the tortosine press of the first third in the 20th century: the fabriana amb the tortosinista. The fabriana, in favour of the IEC linguistic model, was in minority during the 20’s, but it became widespread from the 30’s (La Veu de Tortosa, La Veu Comarcal, Ara, Acció, Vida Tortosina i Lluita. The second, the tortosinista, had a local ideology and compared the tortosinisme talk as a complet language, but it was reduced during the ii Republic to three magazines: La Zuda, Germanor i La Santa Cinta.

  19. Sistema de salud de República Dominicana The health system of Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rathe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de la República Dominicana y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud dominicano, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y la generación de información. También se discuten la participación de los usuarios en la operación y evaluación del sistema de salud y las más recientes innovaciones implementadas, dentro de las que destacan la nueva Ley General de Salud, la nueva Ley de Seguridad Social y el Plan Decenal de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Dominican Republic and the characteristics of the Dominican health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health and the generation of health information. The participation of health care users in the operation and evaluation of the system and the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the new Social Security Law and the Decennial Health Plan are also discussed.

  20. Representações cômicas da República no contexto do Getulismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Chaves Flores

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso as representações cômicas e discursivas da República e a trajetória política de Getúlio Vargas, a partir de uma narrativa que se assenta no método regressivo. Para isso, trabalhei com uma série de caricaturas publicadas em jornais e revistas na duração entre 1930 e 1954, confrontando a intertextualidade dessas imagens com alguns discursos satíricos e irônicos produzidos por memorialistas. Procuro demonstrar que há semelhança entre a inversão humorística e a textualidade da memória, quando inventam a respeito de seu tempo e dos outros imagens verossímeis.This article analyses the comic and discursive representations of the Brazilian Republic and Getúlio Vargas’ political career, starting from a narrative constructed in the regressive method. For that, I worked with a series of cartoons published in newspapers and magazines in the span of time between 1954 and 1930, matching the intertextuality of these images with some of the satiric and ironic speeches produced by witnesses. It is demonstrated there is likeness between the comic inversion and the textuality of the memory, when they invent concerning their time and other ones, the verisimilitude of the images.

  1. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR MEDIANTE rep-PCR DE AISLADOS NATIVOS DE Bacillus thuringiensis, OBTENIDOS DE MUESTRAS DE SUELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Galvis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis es una bacteria Gram-positiva formadora de esporas, que produ - ce cristales parasporales de naturaleza proteica, tóxicos contra diferentes órdenes de insectos y biodegradables e inocuos para otras especies. Esta investigación empleó el modelo experimen - tal, que mediante técnicas de observación permi - tió, la identificación microbiológica y bioquímica de B. thuringiensis a partir de muestras de suelo de los municipios de Cúcuta, El Zulia, Los Patios, San Cayetano y Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia, y su posterior caracteri - zación con los marcadores moleculares Bc-Rep y MB1. Se identificaron microbiológica y bioquí - micamente 10 aislados como B. thuringiensis ; los resultados del análisis filogenético mostraron diferencias significativas en los agrupamientos obtenidos con los marcadores Bc-Rep y MB1. Con Bc-Rep se registró un índice de similaridad bajo (18%, mientras que con el marcador MB1 se obtuvo un índice mayor de similitud, 58%. En este trabajo se evidenció una gran variabilidad genética entre los aislados, que mostraron a los marcadores Bc-Rep y MB1 como altamente efectivos para diferenciar cepas estrechamente relacionadas, convirtiéndose en una herramienta genética de gran valor para estudios de identifi-cación y diversidad en B. thuringiensis.

  3. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origin

    plante, effectuée pour la première fois, a révélé la présence des alcaloïdes, des flavonoïdes, des tanins catéchiques, des terpènes, des coumarines et des composés cyanogénétiques. Quant aux saponines et les quinones libres, ils sont présents chez les fleurs et absents chez les feuilles. La caractérisation des molécules.

  4. Producer for vegetal combustibles for internal-combustion motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-12-28

    A producer is described for internal-combustion motors fed with wood or agricultural byproducts characterized by the fact that its full operation is independent of the degree of wetness of the material used.

  5. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  6. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    OpenAIRE

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.; Lygeros A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à cer...

  7. Revolución versus reforma educativa en la segunda república española. Elementos de ruptura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel FERNÁNDEZ SORIA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Están fuera de toda duda las conexiones existentes entre la República de 1931-35 y la de 1936-39. En este sentido estamos de acuerdo con quienes afirman que el estallido de la guerra del 36 es el resultado de un proceso que arranca del mismo año en que se proclama la II República, iniciándose ya entonces —como sostiene Andrés M. Kramer— la «mecánica de guerra civil». La educación republicana en tiempo de guerra no puede quedar fuera de esta consideración, porque aquélla sumerge sus cimientos más profundos en la política educativa de 1931-35. Efectivamente, muchas de las acciones educativas y culturales llevadas a cabo durante la guerra no tendrían fácil explicación si no se examina previamente la tarea de la República del 31 en estos mismos aspectos.

  8. El Ecoturismo en los Humedales: Análisis de las Potencialidades de República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Orgaz Agüera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El turismo se configura como uno de los principales motores económicos de República Dominicana. En este sentido, el turismo de sol y playa es la principal tipología turística en el país. Aunque, República Dominicana cuenta con numerosas potencialidades turísticas para poner en marchas nuevas formas de turismo: Turismo gastronómico, turismo ornitológico, turismo cultural, ecoturismo, etc. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las potencialidades existentes en República Dominicana para desarrollar el ecoturismo en las zonas de humedales. La metodología ha consistido en un trabajo de campo, a través de las entrevistas, los grupos de discusión y la observación participante. Los resultados muestran las grandes potencialidades que tiene el país para desarrollar el ecoturismo en los humedales, y contribuir así, al desarrollo socioeconómico de las comunidades locales. 

  9. Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ( Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder : Lepidoptera, Cossidae). Implications dans la stratégie de protection de la cacaoculture en Côte d'Ivoire.

  10. A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Ning; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Qiu, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Chi-Young; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in a surface-exposed region of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae P40 protein as a consequence of homologous DNA recombination between RepMP5 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuesens, Emiel B M; van de Kreeke, Nick; Estevão, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Sluijter, Marcel; Hartwig, Nico G; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Vink, Cornelis

    2011-02-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen that causes a range of respiratory tract infections. The first step in infection is adherence of the bacteria to the respiratory epithelium. This step is mediated by a specialized organelle, which contains several proteins (cytadhesins) that have an important function in adherence. Two of these cytadhesins, P40 and P90, represent the proteolytic products from a single 130 kDa protein precursor, which is encoded by the MPN142 gene. Interestingly, MPN142 contains a repetitive DNA element, termed RepMP5, of which homologues are found at seven other loci within the M. pneumoniae genome. It has been hypothesized that these RepMP5 elements, which are similar but not identical in sequence, recombine with their counterpart within MPN142 and thereby provide a source of sequence variation for this gene. As this variation may give rise to amino acid changes within P40 and P90, the recombination between RepMP5 elements may constitute the basis of antigenic variation and, possibly, immune evasion by M. pneumoniae. To investigate the sequence variation of MPN142 in relation to inter-RepMP5 recombination, we determined the sequences of all RepMP5 elements in a collection of 25 strains. The results indicate that: (i) inter-RepMP5 recombination events have occurred in seven of the strains, and (ii) putative RepMP5 recombination events involving MPN142 have induced amino acid changes in a surface-exposed part of the P40 protein in two of the strains. We conclude that recombination between RepMP5 elements is a common phenomenon that may lead to sequence variation of MPN142-encoded proteins.

  12. La gestion des résultats des entreprises innovantes

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse s’intéresse à la gestion des résultats dans le cadre des entreprises innovantes. Elle est constituée de trois articles. Dans le premier, il s’agit d’examiner si les résultats des entreprises innovantes sont gérés et si le stade de développement des innovations influence cette gestion des résultats. Il apparaît que les résultats des entreprises innovantes sont gérés à la hausse. Cette gestion ne semble intervenir qu’au cours de l’activité d’innovation (c’est-à-dire lorsque les entr...

  13. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  14. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  15. Fuels and Combustion | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuels and Combustion Fuels and Combustion This is the March 2015 issue of the Transportation and , combustion strategy, and engine design hold the potential to maximize vehicle energy efficiency and performance of low-carbon fuels in internal combustion engines with a whole-systems approach to fuel chemistry

  16. Uncertainty study of the PWR pressure vessel fluence. Adjustment of the nuclear data base; Etudes des incertitudes sur la fluence dans les cuves des REP. Ajustement des donnees de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodeli, I A

    1994-01-01

    The code system devoted to the calculation of the sensitivity and uncertainty of of the neutron flux and reaction rates calculated by the transport codes, has been developed. Adjustment of the basic data to experimental results can be performed as well. Various sources of uncertainties can be taken into account, such as those due to the uncertainties in the cross-sections, response functions, fission spectrum and space distribution of neutron source, geometry and material composition uncertainties... One -As well as two- dimensional analysis can be performed. Linear perturbation theory is applied. The code system is sufficiently general to be used for various analysis in the fields of fission and fusion. The principal objective of our studies concerns the capsule dosimetry study realized in the framework of the 900 MWe PWR pressure vessel surveillance program. The analysis indicates that the present calculations, performed by the code TRIPOLI-2, using the ENDF/B-IV based, non-perturbed neutron cross-section library in 315 energy groups, allows to estimate the neutron flux and the reaction rates in the surveillance capsules and in the most calculated and measured reaction rates permits to reduce these uncertainties. The results obtained with the adjusted iron cross-sections, response functions and fission spectrum show that the agreement between the calculation and the experiment was improved to become within 10% approximately. The neutron flux deduced from the experiment is then extrapolated from the capsule to the most exposed pressure vessel location using the calculated lead factor. The uncertainty in this factor was estimated to be about 7%. (author). 39 refs., 52 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein is necessary for rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, Katharina; Rau, Peter; Schäfer, Benjamin [Institut für Biomaterialien und biomolekulare Systeme, Abteilung für Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Gronenborn, Bruno [Institut des Sciences du Végétal, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jeske, Holger, E-mail: holger.jeske@bio.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Biomaterialien und biomolekulare Systeme, Abteilung für Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA plant viruses, encode a replication-initiator protein (Rep) that is indispensable for virus replication. A potential cyclin interaction motif (RXL) in the sequence of African cassava mosaic virus Rep may be an alternative link to cell cycle controls to the known interaction with plant homologs of retinoblastoma protein (pRBR). Mutation of this motif abrogated rereplication in fission yeast induced by expression of wildtype Rep suggesting that Rep interacts via its RXL motif with one or several yeast proteins. The RXL motif is essential for viral infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants, since mutation of this motif in infectious clones prevented any symptomatic infection. The cell-cycle link (Clink) protein of a nanovirus (faba bean necrotic yellows virus) was investigated that activates the cell cycle by binding via its LXCXE motif to pRBR. Expression of wildtype Clink and a Clink mutant deficient in pRBR-binding did not trigger rereplication in fission yeast. - Highlights: • A potential cyclin interaction motif is conserved in geminivirus Rep proteins. • In ACMV Rep, this motif (RXL) is essential for rereplication of fission yeast DNA. • Mutating RXL abrogated viral infection completely in Nicotiana benthamiana. • Expression of a nanovirus Clink protein in yeast did not induce rereplication. • Plant viruses may have evolved multiple routes to exploit host DNA synthesis.

  18. The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein is necessary for rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipp, Katharina; Rau, Peter; Schäfer, Benjamin; Gronenborn, Bruno; Jeske, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA plant viruses, encode a replication-initiator protein (Rep) that is indispensable for virus replication. A potential cyclin interaction motif (RXL) in the sequence of African cassava mosaic virus Rep may be an alternative link to cell cycle controls to the known interaction with plant homologs of retinoblastoma protein (pRBR). Mutation of this motif abrogated rereplication in fission yeast induced by expression of wildtype Rep suggesting that Rep interacts via its RXL motif with one or several yeast proteins. The RXL motif is essential for viral infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants, since mutation of this motif in infectious clones prevented any symptomatic infection. The cell-cycle link (Clink) protein of a nanovirus (faba bean necrotic yellows virus) was investigated that activates the cell cycle by binding via its LXCXE motif to pRBR. Expression of wildtype Clink and a Clink mutant deficient in pRBR-binding did not trigger rereplication in fission yeast. - Highlights: • A potential cyclin interaction motif is conserved in geminivirus Rep proteins. • In ACMV Rep, this motif (RXL) is essential for rereplication of fission yeast DNA. • Mutating RXL abrogated viral infection completely in Nicotiana benthamiana. • Expression of a nanovirus Clink protein in yeast did not induce rereplication. • Plant viruses may have evolved multiple routes to exploit host DNA synthesis

  19. Des dispositions responsables à prendre pour la protection des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En considérant l'effet néfaste des maladies, des parasites, du changement climatique et d'autres facteurs environnementaux (les OGM par exemple) sur la survie des abeilles, la baisse de leurs populations dans certaines parties du monde ne saurait être attribuée aux seules pesticides. En plus, l'impact de ces derniers sur ...

  20. Aspects des Onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.

  1. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R.; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    1997-01-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data

  2. Environmental sensing and combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoleri, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Environmental Sensing and Combustion Diagnostics. Topics covered include: Incineration Systems Applications, Permitting, And Monitoring Overview; Infrared Techniques Applied to Incineration Systems; Continuous Emission Monitors; Analyzers and Sensors for Process Control And Environmental Monitoring

  3. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  4. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ..., rubber, drugs, dried blood, dyes, certain textiles, and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium..., furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal products and machinery manufacturing, pesticide... standard that will comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dust. The Agency...

  5. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  6. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  7. Usages des TIC et socialisation professionnelle des enseignants-chercheurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lavielle-Gutnik, Nathalie; Massou, Luc

    2013-01-01

    En prenant appui sur une nouvelle analyse des données recueillies dans l’enquête Tec-Meus (2008-2011, MSH Lorraine) sur la place accordée par des enseignants-chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans leur activité d’enseignement, nous souhaitons nous focaliser dans cet article sur la compréhension des processus de socialisation professionnelle en jeu dans leur usage déclaré des TIC. Par socialisation professionnelle, nous e...

  8. Combustion means for solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, D.

    1987-09-23

    A combustion device for solid fuel, suitable for coal, coke, charcoal, coal-dust briquettes etc., comprising:- a base stand with an opening therein, an imperforate heat resistant holding board locatable to close said opening; a combustion chamber standing on the base stand with the holding board forming the base of the combustion chamber; a wiper arm pivoted for horizontal wiping movement over the upper surface of the holding board; an inlet means at a lower edge of said chamber above the base stand, and/or in a surrounding wall of said chamber, whereby combustion air may enter as exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber; an exhaust pipe for the exhaust gases; generally tubular gas-flow heat-exchange ducting putting the combustion chamber and exhaust pipe into communication; and means capable of moving the holding board into and out of the opening for removal of ash or other residue. The invention can be used for a heating system in a house or in a greenhouse or for a boiler.

  9. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  10. Classe de langue et compétence évaluative des enseignants : entre pratiques évaluatives et politique éducative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sadiqui

    2014-12-01

    Dans une dernière partie nous esquisserons, en nous basant sur une approche didactique, quelques repères qui permettraient à tout enseignant ou futur enseignant de repenser les éléments organisateurs d’un dispositif d’évaluation ,et donc de construire une compétence évaluative en classe de langue, si on veut vraiment mettre en place une nouvelle politique éducative relative à l’enseignement/apprentissage des langues ,en l’occurrence celle du FLE au lycée au Maroc.

  11. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (U.R.M.E.R). Université Abou –Baker Belkaid B.p : 119 Tlemcen 13000 Algerie. 2. Unité de Développement de la Technologie Du Silicium. UDTS, BP 399, Alger, Algérie. Accepté le : 08/06/2011. صخلم. داوﻣﻟا نﻣ ﻲﺗﻟا ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ،ﺔﻋﺎﻧﺻ يأ رﯾوطﺗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﯾﺳﯾﺋر ﻼﻣﺎﻋ ةرﯾﺧﻷا تاوﻧﺳﻟا ...

  12. Mykotische Infektionen des Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayser P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die häufigste mykotische Infektion des Penis stellt die Balanitis/Balonoposthitis durch Candida albicans dar. Sie weist eine steigende Inzidenz auf und scheint vornehmlich durch Genitalverkehr übertragen zu werden. Penile Infektionen durch Dermatophyten sind sehr selten, obwohl die Tinea inguinalis zu den häufigeren Erkrankungen zählt. Eine Mitbeteiligung des Penis im Rahmen von Systemmykosen kennzeichnet zumeist ein schwer verlaufende Erkrankung. Ursächlich kann beim immunoinkompetenten Patienten nahezu jeder Erreger in Frage kommen. Biopsie sowie Gewebekultur aus den meist ulzerativen Veränderungen können die Diagnose sichern. Die meisten superfiziellen Infektionen sprechen zufriedenstellend auf eine topische antimykotische Behandlung an, insbesondere wenn Provokationsfaktoren und die Möglichkeit der sexuellen Transmission berücksichtigt werden. Ausgedehnte Infektionen durch Dermatophyten, Hefen und natürlich systemische Infektionen erfordern eine systemische antimykotische Therapie.

  13. Chimie des processus biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cours : Chimie biologique radicalaire : de l’origine de l’ADN au métabolisme d’aujourd’hui Il est généralement admis que les radicaux libres, espèces chimiques très réactives, sont des poisons pour les systèmes vivants qui ont élaboré des mécanismes efficaces pour s’en protéger et s’en débarrasser lorsqu’ils viennent à se former, par accident. Par exemple ce qu’on appelle communément le stress oxydant est une situation caractérisée par une accumulation de radicaux issus de l’oxygène moléculai...

  14. La cogestion des Ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'eau, le sol, les nutriments, la lumière du soleil — ce sont des choses de la vie. .... habitent encore ces régions, soit de 9 % à 14 % de la population mondiale. ...... La guerre civile a fait vivre au Cambodge des années de chaos, d'anarchie et ...... et les allégeances politiques sont des facteurs qu'il est impossible d'ignorer.

  15. La datation des objets : quelques exemples concrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence de Finance

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dater un objet, le resituer au temps de sa création, l'élever parfois au rang de référent chronologique pour la datation d'autres œuvres stylistiquement comparables, est un acte important qui mérite la plus grande attention et de nombreuses vérifications. La validité d’un chronogramme, d’un poinçon, doit être vérifiée, ainsi que l'homogénéité de l'œuvre. Relever les marques d'ateliers, signatures, estampilles peut conduire à une datation approchée, à défaut d'être précise. Des éléments iconographiques ou techniques fournissent aussi des repères chronologiques, mais les documents d'archives (commandes, factures quand ils sont conservés, sont de plus sûrs outils. Enfin les comparaisons stylistiques, utilisées avec prudence, permettent de proposer des fourchettes chronologiques en attendant de réunir plus de précisions. Le ministère de la Culture et de la Communication met en ligne des catalogues d’objets datés qui constituent autant de référentiels chronologiques, aides à la datation.The act of dating an object implies the restitution of the period in which it was created. It is an act which can give the object a status as a marker for dating other objects with similar stylistic characteristics. So dating is an important process, which requires great attention and numerous verifications. The authenticity of a chronogram, of a hallmark, must be verified as must be the homogeneity if the object. Noting the marks of workshops, signatures or other identification markers can lead to approximate dating for lack of a precise year. Iconographical elements and technical features can also help date an object, but archival sources (commissions, bills, when they survive, are surer tools for dating. Stylistic comparisons are to be used with prudence, only allowing for a chronological period whilst awaiting further details. The Ministry of Culture and Communication puts on the web some catalogues of dated objects which

  16. Des Ogle's old stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Sutton, D.; Wallace, R.

    1998-01-01

    On 17 October 1997 Sylvia Bryan of RD4 Kaitaia wrote to 'Dear Somebody-Everybody' at the Anthropology Department, University of Auckland, urging further examination of an adzed stump found by Des Ogle during planting out of the Te Aupouri forest. The authors have since sought out relevant information and present it here for the interests of our readers. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  17. Impacto económico del turismo de crucero: caso República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Acosta Guzmán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido al rápido crecimiento de la actividad turística en el segmento del turismo de cruceros en el mundo actual, gobiernos y actores involucrados en esta clasificación especial del turismo, han observado la necesidad de conocer de forma más profunda la magnitud del impacto económico, que la industria del crucero produce en los diferentes destinos turísticos. Además, entender en particular, cómo los cruceristas gastan su dinero durante su estadía, es una información esencial para los diferentes actores involucrados en la gestión, crecimiento y desarrollo de esta actividad turística. La presente investigación tiene como propósito analizar el impacto económico del turismo de crucero en la República Dominicana. Cuando se habla de turismo de cruceros, no sólo se hace referencia a la embarcación y a los puertos-destino, sino a una compleja red en donde actúan múltiples factores que directa o indirectamente hacen de este producto turístico uno de los más importantes. Se considera la Encuesta de Gasto y Opinión a Pasajeros de Cruceros sobre el consumo que realizan los turistas de cruceros en su estadía en el país, tomando en cuenta los productos que adquieren como unidad económica de consumo, es decir, bienes y servicios inherentes al propio viaje como comidas, bebidas, entretenimientos, transporte local, tours, entre otros gastos, se excluye el alojamiento, así como las compras para fines comerciales.

  18. Recovery of trans-plutonium elements; Recuperation des elements transplutoniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espie, J Y; Poncet, B; Simon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the recovery of americium and curium from the fission-product solution obtained from the processing of irradiated fuel elements made of natural metallic uranium alloyed with aluminium, iron and silicon; these elements have been subjected to an average irradiation of 4000 MW days/ton in a gas-graphite type reactor having a thermal power of 3.7 MW/ton of uranium. The process used consists of 3 extraction cycles and one americium-curium separation: - 1) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: extraction of actinides and lanthanides; elimination of fission products; - 2) extraction cycle in 8 per cent D2EHPA: decontamination from the fission products, decontamination of actinides from lanthanides; - 3) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: separation of the complexing agent and concentration of the actinides; - 4) americium-curium separation by precipitation. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet, la recuperation de l'americium et du curium de la solution de produits de fission provenant du traitement de combustibles irradies a base d'uranium naturel metallique allie a l'aluminium, le fer, et le silicium, et ayant subi une irradiation moyenne de 4000 MWj/t dans une pile du type graphite-gaz, dont la puissance thermique est de 3.7 MW/t d'uranium. Le procede utilise comprend 3 cycles d'extraction et une separation americium-curium: - 1. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: extraction des actinides et des lanthanides, elimination des produits de fission; - 2. cycle d'extraction dans le D2EHPA a 8 pour cent: decontamination en produits de fission, decontamination des actinides en lanthanides; - 3. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: separation du complexant et concentration des actinides; - 4. separation americium-curium par precipitation. (auteurs)

  19. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  20. Dictionnaire des risques psychosociaux

    CERN Document Server

    Zawieja, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Stress, suicide, harcèlement, épuisement professionnel, workaholism... Au-delà de la souffrance qu'elles désignent, ces notions souvent récentes constituent une approche inédite, et demandent à mieux être comprises, dans leur ensemble et isolément. C'est tout l'enjeu de ce dictionnaire, pionnier en son genre. Le lecteur y trouvera représentés, avec les 314 entrées (rédigées par 251 contributeurs) qui le composent, tous les champs disciplinaires s'intéressant à la souffrance au travail : psychologie du travail et des organisations, psychologie sociale et psychosociologie, psychanalyse, psychopathologie et psychiatrie, ergonomie, sociologie du travail et des organisations, médecine du travail, droit du travail et de la sécurité sociale, sciences de gestion, philosophie... Y sont détaillés les principaux concepts, notions, approches, méthodes, théories, outils, études, etc., ayant cours dans l'étude des risques psychosociaux, mais aussi certaines professions emblématiques (infirmières,...

  1. Le vernis des apparences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Nicosia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de comprendre l’incidence sémiotique du nettoyage d’un tableau ainsi que la résultante cognitive induite sur l’observateur. Cette étude confronte l’analyse des phénomènes visuels engendrés par le jaunissement du vernis et son retrait, à des entretiens réalisés à dessein. Le retrait d’un vernis jauni change considérablement l’image. L’heure, le climat, la saison et l’activité même des personnages s’en trouvent ainsi modifié. La patine peut être perçue, soit comme un obstacle à l’exploration, soit pour ceux qui l’apprécient, comme le medium d’une relation plus intime entre l’œuvre et l’observateur.The purpose of this article is to understand the semiotic impact of the cleaning of a painting and the cognitive effects induced on the observer. This study analyses conjointly the visual phenomenon generated by yellowing varnish and its removal and controlled interviews of observers.The removal of yellowing varnish modifies considerably the perception of the picture. Daytime, climate, season and characters activities are modified. The patina may be perceived either as an obstacle to the painting exploration, or, for those who appreciate it, as a medium for a closer relationship between the painting and the observer.

  2. Harmonische Reduktion des linken Ventrikels

    OpenAIRE

    Atila, M. (Mehmet)

    2005-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die harmonische Reduktion des linken Ventrikels am Modell des ausgewachsenen Hausschweins, unter Verwendung von Saugkappen variabler Größe untersucht. In 10 Schweinen mit Herzen normaler Größe und Funktion wurde eine Saugkappe, in Größe und Form an das abzufaltende Wandsegment angepasst, auf die epikardiale Oberfläche des schlagenden Herzens gesetzt. Wir führten Messungen der linksventrik. und der pulmonalart. Drücke, des ventrikulären Durchmessers und der Her...

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  4. HERCULES Advanced Combustion Concepts Test Facility: Spray/Combustion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, presents a review of work being done within the framework of HERCULES (High Efficiency R and D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) - the international R and D project concerning new technologies for ships' diesels. The work involves the use and augmentation of simulation models. These are to be validated using experimental data. The report deals with the development of an experimental set-up that will simulate combustion in large two-stroke diesel engines and allow the generation of reference data. The main element of the test apparatus is a spray / combustion chamber with extensive possibilities for optical observation under variable flow conditions. The results of first simulations confirm concepts and shall help in further work on the project. The potential offered by high-speed camera systems was tested using the institute's existing HTDZ combustion chamber. Further work to be done is reviewed.

  5. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  6. La recherche en action : des solutions locales, des effets durables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) appuie la production et l'application de connaissances qui améliorent de façon notable la situation des habitants des pays en développement.

  7. Analyse des caractéristiques structurelles et des performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    28 févr. 2014 ... performances technico-économiques de la riziculture irriguée en Côte d' .... en nous basant sur les prix des intrants et des produits en vigueur au cours ..... la recherche et de la vulgarisation et le transfert de technologies ; (2) ...

  8. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats ont montré que les méthodes de gestion de l'enherbement ont .... Le contrôle des adventices en riziculture irriguée a principalement .... mesurer la hauteur des plantes et la longueur ..... Performance agronomique du Sys- tème de ...

  9. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), le tabac est la seule et unique source de revenus. Les cultivateurs de tabac, au Malawi ...

  10. Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - phase II. Au cours de la première phase du projet (projet no 103765), les chercheurs ont effectué une analyse de marché pour le bambou et les produits du bambou, comparé les ...

  11. Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises dans le service de pneumo-phtysiologie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo de ... Logistical support represented by material support, drug supply, cleaning of premises, and littering occupied respectively 100%, 91%, 42% and 73%.

  12. Combustion Modeling with the G-Equation Modélisation de la combustion avec l'équation de G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters N.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigations concerning the turbulent flame front propagation in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engines were made by implementing a flamelet model in the CFD code Fire. The advantage of this combustion model is the decoupling of the chemistry from the turbulent flow. For this purpose the combustion chamber has to be divided into a burned and an unburned area, which is realized by transporting a scalar field (G-Equation. The reference value defines the present averaged flame position. The complete reaction kinetics is calculated interactively with the CFD code in a one dimensional Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF code. This combustion model was verified by simulating a 2. 0 l-2 V gasoline engine with homogeneous combustion where a parameter study was conducted to check the flamelet model for plausibility. Finally, the potential of this combustion model was investigated by simulating a hypothetical 2. 0 1-4 V GDI engine. Une investigation numérique relative à la propagation des fronts de flammes turbulents dans les moteurs à essence à injection directe (GDI a été menée en implantant un modèle de flameletdans le code 3D Fire. L'avantage de ce modèle de combustion est de découpler la chimie de l'écoulement turbulent en divisant la chambre de combustion en deux zones : brûlée et imbrûlée, à l'aide d'une équation de transport d'un scalaire (équation de G. Une valeur de référence de ce scalaire définit la position moyenne de la flamme. Une chimie complète est calculée interactivement avec le calcul 3D à l'aide d'un code monodimensionnel RIF (Representative Interactive Flamelet. Le modèle de combustion a été validé sur la simulation d'un moteur 2 litres à 2 soupapes en combustion homogène pour vérifier la représentativité de l'approche flamelet . Puis, le potentiel du modèle de combustion a été étudié en simulant un moteur modèle 2 litres 4 soupapes GDI.

  13. Twenty-fifth symposium (international) on combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the papers presented at this conference are contained in this volume. The other one-third appear in special issues of ''Combustion and Flame'', Vol. 99, 1994 and Vol. 100, 1995. Papers are divided into the following sections: Supersonic combustion; Detonations and explosions; Internal combustion engines; Practical aspects of combustion; Incineration and wastes; Sprays and droplet combustion; Coal and organic solids combustion; Soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Reaction kinetics; NO x ; Turbulent flames; Turbulent combustion; Laminar flames; Flame spread, fire and halogenated fire suppressants; Global environmental effects; Ignition; Two-phase combustion; Solid propellant combustion; Materials synthesis; Microgravity; and Experimental diagnostics. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  14. Hacia una república conservadora : el programa político del Partido Agrario Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Teófilo Gil Cuadrado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El Partido Agrario Español (PAE, fundado en enero de 1934 y presidido por José Martínez de Velasco, representó, dentro de la II República española, una alternativa conservadora y, al tiempo, leal al régimen. El programa político del PAE aceptaba la República —a diferencia de otros partidos derechistas del momento, como la CEDA y los monárquicos— y defendía la unidad nacional, el establecimiento de una segunda Cámara legislativa, la protección de la agricultura y la industria mediante aranceles, el libre comercio dentro de las fronteras nacionales y la revisión de algunas leyes del primer bienio como la Reforma Agraria de 1932. El objetivo era la configuración de una República conservadora distinta, en aspectos fundamentales, a la diseñada por la Constitución de 1931 y la legislación del bienio social-republicano.The Spanish Agrarian Party (Partido Agrario Español, PAE, founded in january of 1934 and presided by José Martínez de Velasco, was, in the political life of the Spanish Second Republic, a conservative and republican option. The agrarian program accepted the republican regime —in opposition to other conservative parties, like the CEDA or the monarchists— and defended the national union, the establishment of a Senate, the protection of the national agriculture and industry trough tariffs, the free trade in the Spanish market and the revision of some laws voted in the first biennium like the Agrarian Reform, promulgated in 1932. The idea was to establish a conservative Republic, different, in some fundamental aspects, of the regime designed by the Constitution of 1931 and the legislation approved during the socialist-republican biennium.

  15. Galeguismo, agro e agrarismo na Galicia da II República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabo Villaverde, Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Partido Galeguista (PG was created in December 1931 as the expression of Galician nationalism during the Second Republic (1931-1936. Prior to that, the Galician nationalists had been very influential in the cultural sphere but rather powerless from a political point of view. The PG regarded agriculture and peasantry as a priority, not only because of their objective importance in the Galician economy and society in the 1930s but also because they were seen as the bulwarks of the national identity. In fact, the characteristics, needs and paths of development of the Galician agrarian sector were usually defined as opposed to those of the rest of Spain. It is then understable that the PG tried to win the agrarian unions over, and that it is arguable that it had plenty of common features with the so-called Agrarian Parties in other European regions.

    O Partido Galeguista (PG foi creado en decembro de 1931 como expresión do nacionalismo galego durante a Segunda República (1931-1936. Con anterioridade, os nacionalistas galegos foron moi influíntes no eido cultural pero maiormente inoperantes dende o punto de vista político. O PG consideraba a agricultura e o campesiñado como unha prioridade, non só pola súa importancia obxectiva na economía e sociedade galegas dos anos trinta senón tamén porque eran vistos como os baluartes da identidade nacional. De feito, as características, necesidades e vías de desenvolvemento do sector agrario galego eran normalmente definidas en oposición ás do resto de España. É daquela comprensible que o PG tentase gañarse ás sociedades agrarias, e mesmo se pode afirmar que tiña moitos puntos en común cos chamados Partidos Agrarios doutras rexións europeas.

  16. A natureza dos números na República de Platão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácio Borges de Araújo Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É incontestável a presença das matemáticas nos diálogos de Platão, todavia o alcance e o sentido desta presença é matéria de controvérsia entre os especialistas. Alguns acreditam que os temas matemáticos empregados nos diálogos são fantasias matemáticas, outros defendem baseados, sobretudo no testemunho de Aristóteles, que Platão teria substituído na sua hipótese as formas inteligíveis pelos números ideais. Sem tomar partido de antemão nestas querelas, o que propomos aqui é uma investigação acerca da natureza dos números fundamentada exclusivamente nos textos de Platão, particularmente orientada por uma passagem do livro VII do diálogo República(525 b11- c3, em que Sócrates diz o seguinte: "Seria, portanto, conveniente colocar este estudo, ò Glaucon, dentro de uma legislação e persuadir aqueles que vão participar das grandes coisas na cidade a irem ao cálculo e a aplicarem-se a ele, não nos seus afazeres privados, mas até chegarem à contemplação da natureza dos números através da própria intelecção (...".The presence of the mathematics in Plato's dialogues is unquestionable. However, its reach and sense is controversial for some specialists. Some believe that the mathematical themes employed in the dialogues are mathematical fantasies; on the other hand, others defend, based on the Aristotle's testimonies, that Plato would have substituted the intelligible forms by the ideal numbers in his hypothesis. Having not taken part in the quarrel, we propose an investigation on the nature of the numbers based exclusively in Plato's texts, particularly oriented by the a passage in book VII of Republic (525 b11 - c3, in which Socrates says: "Then it would be fitting, Glaucon, to set this study down in law and persuade those who are going to participate in the greatest things in the city to go to calculation and to take it up, not after the fashion of private men, but stay with it until they come to the

  17. Proyectos de parcelas con servicios desarrollados por el INVI en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Howley, Carlos

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, has not escaped the phenomenon of urban growth and the concentration of large slum areas or hovels, mainly due to the migratory movements of the peasants who have been driven from the country. As a viable solution to the enormous problem of housing in this city, INVI, with the participation of the World Bank, is putting forward projects for lots supplied with services in which infrastructure services are installed on urban land and plots or parcels of land are given to families so that they can build or complete their houses. These projects are located in places registering a greater tendency towards development. The urban plan formulated in both projects is of an eminently pedestrian nature with a reduced thoroughfare for vehicles. In the pedestrian precinct, it was possible to lay down what have been called mini-parks, which involve widening the pedestrian thoroughfare and, in addition to constituting green areas distributed throughout the projects, they also reinforce the idea of a neighbourhood. Because of the scope of the projects, a series of installations have been provided to maintain their own community services, as well as commercial and institutional ones, which are distributed strategically.Santo Domingo, capital de la República Dominicana, no ha escapado al fenómeno del crecimiento urbano y a la concentración de grandes tugurios o arrabales, debido principalmente a los movimientos migratorios de los campesinos expulsados del campo. Como una solución viable al gran problema de la vivienda de esta ciudad, el INVI, con la participación del Banco Mundial, plantea proyectos de parcelas con Servicios en los cuales se instalan servicios de infraestructura en tierras urbanas y se proporcionan parcelas o solares a familias para que éstas construyan o completen sus viviendas. Se ubican estos proyectos en sitios que acusan una mayor tendencia de desarrollo. El esquema urbano

  18. La Primera línea de la Falange contra la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Parejo Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Partido de retaguardia, reunión de emboscados, así fue como al poco tiempo comenzó a ser vista la Falange por sus propios socios. Emboscados, en principio, lo fueron aquellos individuos, malos españoles en el imaginario colectivo de la derecha reaccionaria, que pudieron luchar contra la República y no lo hicieron. En la práctica, sin embargo, dicho calificativo respondió a un sentimiento muy concreto que se extendió por buena parte de la España Nacional y que vino a identificar a aquellos malos patriotas con los falangistas de la retaguardia. Así, mientras aquellos oportunistas conspiraban a salvo de las balas para imponer su modelo de estado totalitario y excluyente, en los frentes de batalla y a decir de los reaccionarios luchaban muchos españoles con nobleza y elevación de espíritu. Las continuas concentraciones, los desfiles, las misas al aire libre, los rituales nocturnos de antorchas protagonizadas por la Falange, aquella acusación, sin duda legítima a tenor de todo esto, se apoyó, no obstante, en una percepción torcida de la realidad.Ambushed, in principle, they were it who they could fight against the Republic and they didn’t make it. In the practice, however, that epithet was used by the reactionary right to attack the falangists of the rearguard. According to the reactionaries, while those opportunists conspired safe of the bullets to impose their model of totalitarian state, in the battle fronts many Spaniards fought with nobility and spirit elevation. The continuous concentrations, the parades, the religious rituals outdoors, the night rituals of brands played by the Falange, that accusation leaned on, nevertheless, in a bent perception of the reality. With this article, therefore, and using unpublished documental sources, we want to analyze the contribution of a Falange that became a fundamental pillar for the overthrow of the Second Spanish Republic in very little time.

  19. Utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excréta et des eaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les responsables de ce projet piloteront l'application et l'adaptation des principes directeurs relatifs à l'utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excreta et des eaux grises en agriculture et en aquaculture (Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture), que ...

  20. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  1. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  2. Motor vehicles and internal combustion engines; Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargende, M.; Wiedemann, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book comprises the papers presented at the 3rd Stuttgart symposium. It reviews the state of the art in science and engineering and outlines future perspectives in the fields of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. As the conference, the book comprises three sections: 'Engines' on DI spark ignition engines and diesel engines, mixing, combustion and exhaust purification. 'Motor cars' discusses acoustics and aeroacoustics, aerodynamics and wind tunnel technology, comfort, driving gear and stability control. 'Motor vehicle systems' contains papers on thermomanagement, control and automation, real-time applications in motor car simulation, software tools in the control systems development process, and simulation in motor vehicle systems development. Finally, the plenary paper 'Fuel cells, a solution for non-polluting motor car drives' by Dr.-Ing. F. Panik is also contained in the book. [German] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die Vortraege des 3. Stuttgarter Symposiums. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den aktuellen Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik und zeigt zukuenftige Perspektiven im Bereich Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren. Entsprechend der Tagung gliedert sich das Buch in drei Teile. Teil 1 'Motoren' besteht aus Vortraegen ueber Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung und Dieselmotoren, Gemischbildung, Verbrennung und Abgasnachbehandlung, Analyse, Simulation und Motorkomponenten. Teil 2 'Kraftfahrzeuge' enthaelt Arbeiten ueber Fahrzeugakustik und Aeroakustik, Fahrzeug-Aerodynamik und Windkanaltechnik, Fahrzeugkomfort, Fahrwerk und Fahrdynamik. Teil 3 'Kraftfahrzeugsystemtechnik' enthaelt Beitraege ueber Thermomanagement, Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik, Echtzeitanwendungen in der Kfz-Simulationstechnik, Softwaretools im Steuergeraete-Entwicklungsprozess und Simulation in der Kraftfahrzeug-Systementwicklung. Der abschliessende Plenarvortrag des Symposiums &apos

  3. La disputa por la república en el siglo XIX y la prensa en México

    OpenAIRE

    Toussaint, Florence

    2006-01-01

    A partir de la consumación de la independencia, se inicia la disputa por definir el tipo de gobierno que había de asumir el país. Esta oscila entre la República federal y la centralista durante casi todo el tiempo, aunque hay dos momentos en los cuales la forma monárquica aparece como opción. Se conoce a estos periodos como el Primer Imperio y el Segundo Imperio. No duran muchos años. Sin embargo, dan lugar a enconadas luchas internas, sobre todo durante la presencia de...

  4. La República peregrina: hombres de armas y letras en América Andina, 1810-1884

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaud, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Del 18 al 20 de mayo de 2005 se realizó en el Instituto de Estudios Peruanos el coloquio internacional «La República peregrina: Hombres de armas y letras en América Andina, 1810-1884». El evento, co-organizado por el Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos y el IEP, reunió durante tres días a una veintena de historiadores especialistas en el siglo XIX, provenientes de todos los países andinos —de Chile hasta Venezuela, pasando por Argentina—, pero también de Inglaterra, Francia y Estados Unidos...

  5. Rep-PCR typing of Staphylococcus spp. strains in meat paste production line and identification of their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A meat paste production line and its microbial parameters have been evaluated in single Czech company. The raw meat paste samples before heat treatment were tested positively for the presence of three staphylococci species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Subsequent microbial analysis of meat paste components and ingredients (fresh meat, water, spices, equipment identified only the spices used as positive for S. aureus (coriander, cinnamon, badian, mustard – (10 - 40 cfu/g and S. haemolyticus strains (juniper, ginger. The collection of sixteen collected strains (S. aureus (n = 4, S. haemolyticus (n = 4, S. epidermidis (n = 8 has been typed with the rep-PCR method utilising (GTG5 primer. Analysis of the fingerprints using the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA clustering method revealed presence of eleven strain clusters with similarity lower than 90%: two fingerprint clusters of S. aureus, three individual clusters characteristic for S. haemolyticus and six different S. epidermidis specific clusters. The S. aureus strains from different types of spice were identical, resp. very similar. Molecular tracking composed from the rep-PCR analysis of acquired isolates and comparison among all collected fingerprints confirmed the spices to be the source of both S. aureus and S. haemolyticus strains identified in raw meat paste. The additional rep-PCR analysis of the S. epidermidis collection confirmed usability and performance of this method. The antibiotic susceptibility to fourteen individual antibiotics has been examined among the collected staphylococci strains. The predominant erythromycin resistance (68.8% was followed with the resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.2%. Other resistances observed were less frequent (clindamycin – 12.5%, oxacillin – 6.3%, tetracycline – 6.3%, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim – 6.3%, chloramphenicol – 6.3%, novobiocin – 6

  6. Rediseño y fabricación de una impresora 3D RepRap.

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas González, Joan

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es conseguir las habilidades necesarias para fabricar una impresora 3D del tipo Rep Rap, una tipología de impresoras Open source. Una vez conseguido este objetivo se rediseñan piezas de la propia impresora con el objetivo de mejorar el diseño actual. Se plantea el proyecto como iniciación al mundo de la impresión 3D y de los materiales plásticos con los que se puede trabajar, PLA, HDPE, ABS o NYLON. Se instruye al lector para que tambié...

  7. Política externa do vizinho distante : estudo de caso da República Cooperativa da Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Erick Cavalcanti Linhares

    2012-01-01

    Esta tese trata das relações externas da República Cooperativa da Guiana, num recorte temporal de quarenta e quatro anos, que vão desde a independência, em 1966 até 2010, período no qual se desenvolveram importantes transformações mundiais, bem como no relacionamento político-diplomático. Remontam a essa época, a formação do marco institucional de representação dos interesses sociais e produtivos, tanto na economia guianense, quanto no âmbito internacional. O objetivo foi traç...

  8. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  9. Production of recombinant AAV vectors encoding insulin-like growth factor I is enhanced by interaction among AAV rep regulatory sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilley Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are promising tools for gene therapy. Currently, their potential is limited by difficulties in producing high vector yields with which to generate transgene protein product. AAV vector production depends in part upon the replication (Rep proteins required for viral replication. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the start codon and upstream regulatory elements of Rep78/68 in AAV helper plasmids can regulate recombinant AAV (rAAV vector production. We further tested whether the resulting rAAV vector preparation augments the production of the potentially therapeutic transgene, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. Results We constructed a series of AAV helper plasmids containing different Rep78/68 start codon in combination with different gene regulatory sequences. rAAV vectors carrying the human IGF-I gene were prepared with these vectors and the vector preparations used to transduce HT1080 target cells. We found that the substitution of ATG by ACG in the Rep78/68 start codon in an AAV helper plasmid (pAAV-RC eliminated Rep78/68 translation, rAAV and IGF-I production. Replacement of the heterologous sequence upstream of Rep78/68 in pAAV-RC with the AAV2 endogenous p5 promoter restored translational activity to the ACG mutant, and restored rAAV and IGF-I production. Insertion of the AAV2 p19 promoter sequence into pAAV-RC in front of the heterologous sequence also enabled ACG to function as a start codon for Rep78/68 translation. The data further indicate that the function of the AAV helper construct (pAAV-RC, that is in current widespread use for rAAV production, may be improved by replacement of its AAV2 unrelated heterologous sequence with the native AAV2 p5 promoter. Conclusion Taken together, the data demonstrate an interplay between the start codon and upstream regulatory sequences in the regulation of Rep78/68 and indicate that selective mutations in Rep78/68 regulatory elements

  10. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    mélange pulvérulent de coke et de calcaire. La réduction est assurée par le gaz CO à 1250°C [2]. Le procédé Kawazaki iron powder utilise la calamine comme matière première et aussi CO comme gaz réducteur pour élaborer des poudres de fer. [3]. Un autre procédé plus connu qui fabrique les poudres de fer à partir de la.

  11. Glossaire des sigles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABM Anti-ballistic missile = Missile antimissile balistique AGM Air-to-ground missile = Missile air-sol AIEA Agence Internationale de l’Energie Atomique ALCM Air-launched cruise missile = Missile de croisière air-sol ANSEA Association des Nations du Sud-Est asiatique ANT* Arme nucléaire tactique ASAT Anti-satellite = Arme antisatellite ASW Anti-submarine warfare = Guerre anti-sous-marine AWACS Airborne warning and control system = Système aérien de contrôle et d’alerte BMD Ballistic missile d...

  12. Improvement of fuel combustion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A.G.; Babii, V.I.; Enyakin, Y.P.; Kotler, V.R.; Ryabov, G.V.; Verbovetskii, E.K.; Nadyrov, I.I. [All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-01

    The main problems encountered in the further development of fuel combustion technologies at thermal power stations in Russia are considered. Experience is generalized and results are presented on the efficiency with which nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by means of technological methods when burning natural gas, fuel oil, and coal. The problems that arise in the introduction of new combustion technologies and in using more promising grades of coal are considered. The results studies are presented that show that low grade Russian coals can be burnt in circulating fluidized bed boilers. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  14. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  15. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  16. Assessment of subcriticality during PWR-type reactor refueling; Evaluation de la sous-criticite lors des operations de chargement d'un reacteur nucleaire REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdier, A

    2005-04-15

    During the core loading period of a PWR, any fuel assembly misplacements may significantly reduce the existing criticality margin. The Dampierre 4-18 event showed the present monitoring based on the variations of the outside-core detector counting rate cannot detect such misplacements. In order to circumvent that, a more detailed analysis of the available signal was done. We particularly focused on the neutronic noise analysis methods such as MSM (modified source multiplication), MSA (amplified source multiplication), Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman-{alpha} methods. The experimental part of our work was dedicated to the application of those methods to a research reactor. Finally, our results showed that those methods cannot be used with the present PWR instrumentation. Various detector positions were then studied using Monte Carlo calculations capable of following the neutron origin. Our results showed that the present technology does not allow us to use any solution based on neutron detection for monitoring core loading. (author)

  17. Experimental validation of calculation schemes connected with PWR absorbers and burnable poisons; Validation experimentale des schemas de calcul relatifs aux absorbants et poisons consommables dans les REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenov, P.

    1995-10-01

    In France 80% of electricity is produced by PWR reactors. For a better exploitation of these reactors a modular computer code Apollo-II has been developed. his code compute the flux transport by discrete ordinate method or by probabilistic collisions on extended configurations such as reactor cells, assemblies or little cores. For validation of this code on mixed oxide fuel lattices with absorbers an experimental program Epicure in the reactor Eole was induced. This thesis is devoted to the validation of the Apollo code according to the results of the Epicure program. 43 refs., 65 figs., 1 append.

  18. Probe for detection of denting in PWR steam generator tubes; Sonde de detection du denting des tubes de generateurs de vapeur REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardin, J P; Germain, J L; Nio, J C

    1994-07-01

    In certain types of PWR steam generator, oxide deposits can lead to embedding, and subsequently to deformation of a tube (the phenomenon of ``denting``). Such embedding changes the vibratory behavior of the tubes and can result in fatigue cracking. This type of cracking can also be worsened in the event of improper assembly of the anti-vibration spacer bars supporting the U-bends. To prevent such incidents and provide for effective preventive condition-directed maintenance of its PWR steam generators, EDF has undertaken the study and development of a probe to detect this type of phenomenon. The studies began in 1990 and led to the building of an initial prototype probe. The principle behind the probe consists in inducing vibration in the U-bend and determining the main resonance modes of the tube. Measurements of frequency and amplitude and calculation of damping enable characterization of the mechanical behavior of the U-bend. The most important parameter is damping, for which the value must be sufficiently high to ensure that the tube is not subjected to major vibratory amplitudes during operation. Numerous tests have been performed with the first prototype version of the probe, on a mock-up in the test area and on one of the demounted steam generators on the Dampierre site. These different tests have enabled validation of the operating principle, fine-tuning the process, pinpointing certain mechanical problems in the probe design, and obtaining the first indications as to the real vibratory behavior of U-bends on a steam generator. On the basis of these preliminary tests, the specifications were drawn up for an industrial version of the probe. Following a call for bids and the choice of a manufacturer, work began on fabrication of a new probe model in 1993. This version was delivered at the end of 1993 and testing began in 1994. (authors). 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. La gestion des ressources humaines peut-elle être un facteur de fidélisation de la clientèle du centre E. Leclerc Casteldis ?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie Ple

    2010-01-01

    Le secteur de la grande distribution est un domaine passionnant par son histoire, son évolution et sa place au cœur de nombreuses mutations de notre société. L'explorer à travers la gestion des ressources humaines est tout de suite paru attirant. Étant donné que la grande distribution évolue dans un contexte de plus en plus compétitif, la fidélisation de la clientèle est devenue un de ses grands enjeux. La grande distribution a développé des outils de fidélisation, mais ils sont largement rep...

  20. Isolement et identification des levures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOMERCQ

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available La fermentation du moût de raisin est assurée par les levures qui se trouvent sur la pellicule du raisin, sur les rafles, et aussi, par celles qui envahissent le matériel de vendange et de vinification dès que la récolte est commencée. L'apparition deLa fermentation du moût de raisin est assurée par les levures qui se trouvent sur la pellicule du raisin, sur les rafles, et aussi, par celles qui envahissent le matériel de vendange et de vinification dès que la récolte est commencée. L'apparition des signes de la fermentation est spontanée. La fermentation est rapide dans la majorité des cas, si elle devient trop violente et que la température s'élève dangeureusement, il faut la « canaliser », la calmer. Des accidents peuvent se produire; des arrêts de fermentation laissant des sucres non fermentés pouvant être attaqués par d'autres microorganismes, des développements de levures formant des substances nuisibles à la qualité; par la suite, il s'agit d'obtenir la stabilité du vin, en particulier, éviter les refermentations des vins doux. L'étude de ces problèmes nécessite une étude préliminaire, celle des levures responsables de la fermentation alcoolique du jus de raisin, qui ne peut être faite que sur des cultures pures, isolées au préalable à l'aide de prélèvements soigneusement réalisés.s signes de la fermentation est spontanée. La fermentation est rapide dans la majorité des cas, si elle devient trop violente et que la température s'élève dangeureusement, il faut la « canaliser », la calmer. Des accidents peuvent se produire; des arrêts de fermentation laissant des sucres non fermentés pouvant être attaqués par d'autres microorganismes, des développements de levures formant des substances nuisibles à la qualité; par la suite, il s'agit d'obtenir la stabilité du vin, en particulier, éviter les refermentations des vins doux. L'étude de ces problèmes nécessite une étude pr

  1. Le Débat des semences

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Solutions pour les lois nationales régissant le contrôle des ressources génétiques et des ...... des pouvoirs) qui reconnaissent, dans une certaine mesure, les droits de gestion collectifs des ...... documentés, les performances physiques, etc.

  2. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  3. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sö ren; Jarząbek, Michał; Hadrich, Torsten; Michels, Dominik L.; Palubicki, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical

  4. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  5. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  6. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  7. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  8. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  9. Combustion Research Facility | A Department of Energy Office of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Research Facility Back to Sandia National Laboratory Homepage Combustion Research Search the CRF Combustion Chemistry Flame Chemistry Research.Combustion_Chemistry.Flame_Chemistry Theory and Modeling Theory and Modeling Combustion Kinetics High Pressure Chemistry Chemistry of Autoignition

  10. Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline emissions in advanced engine technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's combustion research and combustion and engine research activities include: Developing experimental and simulation research platforms

  11. Study and simulation of the rim effect in rep fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermitte, B.

    1996-01-01

    The RIM effect has been discovered fifteen years ago during the examination of first irradiated rods at more than 45 gWJ/TU in experimental reactors. The rods observation revealed a continuously degradation of the granular structure in the pellet skin, jointly to the porosity increase in this area. This study proposes a RIM formation and development mechanism for high combustion level. The first part presents the simulation of the fission gases in the fuel fraction concerned by the RIM. In the proposed model the gas bubbles increase is bound to the volume fraction of restructured fuel. This model allows the determination of the pores volume fraction in the fuel, the average size of these pores and the volume distribution of the fission gases between the bubbles and the fuel matrix. (A.L.B.)

  12. Development of an exhaust sensor for control of internal combustion engines and exhaust treatment systems - CatSens. Final report; Entwicklung eines Abgassensors zur Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen - CatSens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepperhoff, G.; Milanovic, I.

    2002-05-01

    A sensor system for controlling combustion processes in small-scale furnaces and internal combustion engines and for on-board diagnosis of exhaust treatment systems, e.g. NO{sub x} adsorber catalytic converters in motor cars, was developed. [German] Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes soll ein Sensorsystem zur Regelung der Verbrennungsprozesse in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Verbrennungsmotoren sowie zur Regelung und Ueberwachung (On-Board Diagnose) von Abgasnachbehandlungseinrichtungen wie z.B. NO{sub x}-Adsorberkatalysatoren in Kraftfahrzeugen, entwickelt werden. (orig.)

  13. Chirurgie des grassmanniennes

    CERN Document Server

    Lafforgue, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Les compactifications diverses de variétés de modules sont un thème important et récurrent des mathématiques modernes, et elles connaissent un grand nombre d'applications. Ce livre traite le cas de cellules de Schubert minces, qui sont de sous-variétés naturelles de grassmanniennes. L'auteur a été amené à traiter ces questions par un cas particulier lié à ses travaux sur le programme de Langlands. Dans cette monographie, il en développe une théorie plus systématique, présentant le fortes similarités avec celle des modules du courbes stables. The various compactifications of moduli spaces are an important recurrent theme of modern mathematics, and they have a large number of applications. This book treats the case of thin Schubert varieties, which are natural subvarieties of Grassmannians. The author was led to these questions by a particular case linked to his work on the Langlands program. In this monograph, he develops the theory in a more systematic way, which exhibits strong similarities...

  14. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    développement et la croissance des organismes vivant dans l'eau et particulièrement les micro- organismes. Le suivi des températures enregistrées oscille entre 9 et 16°C dans les trois sites d'observation durant la période ... de la lumière du soleil. Le site C est bien aéré et .... Effets de différents modes de gestion des eaux ...

  15. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion

  16. Co-combustion of sewage sludge; Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-09-01

    Thermal sewage disposal pursues the following aims: destruction of organic pollutants contained in the sludge; concentration and removal or almost complete fixation of inorganic pollutants in the residue matrix; minimisation of the mass solid residue; production of useful products; utilisation of the caloric content. The thermal treatment chain should be as short as possible; intermediate stages in separate reactors such as digestion, drying, degasification or gasification should be avoided if the material is ultimately to be combusted. The present paper examines and assesses the co-combustion of sewage sludge. [Deutsch] Mit der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung werden folgende Ziele verfolgt: - Zerstoerung der im Schlamm enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe, - Konzentration und Ausschleusung oder weitestgehende Fixierung der anorganischen Schadstoffe in die Reststoffmatrix, - Minimierung der Masse an festen Restabfaellen, - Herstellung verwertbarer Produkte, - Nutzung des Waermeeinhalts. Die thermische Behandlungskette sollte moeglichst kurz sein; Zwischenschritte wie Faulung, Trocknung, Ent- oder Vergasung in getrennten Reaktoren sollten vermieden werden, wenn letztendlich doch verbrannt wird. Das Verfahren der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm wird hier untersucht und bewertet. (orig./SR)

  17. El Gobierno de la República en el exilio : crónica de un imposible retorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Flores

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El triunfo de los aliados en la Segunda Guena Mundial hizo que los republicanos españoles exiliados en 1939 concibiesen esperanzas de un inmediato retomo de la República a su país con el apoyo aliado. Con esta idea se reconstituyeron las instituciones de la República Española en el exilio en México D. R, en agosto de 1945. En este artículo se analiza el proceso de esa reconstitución y los sucesivos gobiernos que se sucedieron hasta la disolución de las instituciones en junio de 1977, después de un imposible retorno.The victory of the salles in the Second World war did that the Spanish republicans exiled in 1939 were conceiving hopes ofan immediate return ofthe Republic to his(its country with the allied support. With this idea there were re-constituted the institutions of the Spanish Republic in the exile in México D.F., in August, 1945. In this article there are analyzed the process of this reconstitution and the successive governments that happened up to the dissolution of the institutions in June, 1977, afíer impossible I come back.

  18. Summary Record of the First Meeting of the Radioactive Waste Repository Metadata Management (RepMet) Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    National radioactive waste repository programmes are collecting large amounts of data to support the long-term management of their nations' radioactive wastes. The data and related records increase in number, type and quality as programmes proceed through the successive stages of repository development: pre-siting, siting, characterisation, construction, operation and finally closure. Regulatory and societal approvals are included in this sequence. Some programmes are also documenting past repository projects and facing a challenge in allowing both current and future generations to understand actions carried out in the past. Metadata allows context to be stored with data and information so that it can be located, used, updated and maintained. Metadata helps waste management organisations better utilise their data in carrying out their statutory tasks and can also help verify and demonstrate that their programmes are appropriately driven. The NEA Radioactive Waste Repository Metadata Management (RepMet) initiative aims to bring about a better understanding of the identification and administration of metadata - a key aspect of data management - to support national programmes in managing their radioactive waste repository data, information and records in a way that is both harmonised internationally and suitable for long-term management and use. This is a summary record of the 1. meeting of the RepMet initiative. The actions and decisions from this meeting were sent separately to the group after the meeting, but are also included in this document (Annex A). The list of participants is attached as well (Annex B)

  19. Adeno-associated virus Rep-mediated targeting of integrase-defective retroviral vector DNA circles into human chromosome 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuohao; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is capable of targeted integration in human cells. ► Integrase-defective retroviral vector (IDRV) enables a circular DNA delivery. ► A targeted integration system of IDRV DNA using the AAV integration mechanism. ► Targeted IDRV integration ameliorates the safety concerns for retroviral vectors. -- Abstract: Retroviral vectors have been employed in clinical trials for gene therapy owing to their relative large packaging capacity, alterable cell tropism, and chromosomal integration for stable transgene expression. However, uncontrollable integrations of transgenes are likely to cause safety issues, such as insertional mutagenesis. A targeted transgene integration system for retroviral vectors, therefore, is a straightforward way to address the insertional mutagenesis issue. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the only known virus capable of targeted integration in human cells. In the presence of AAV Rep proteins, plasmids possessing the p5 integration efficiency element (p5IEE) can be integrated into the AAV integration site (AAVS1) in the human genome. In this report, we describe a system that can target the circular DNA derived from non-integrating retroviral vectors to the AAVS1 site by utilizing the Rep/p5IEE integration mechanism. Our results showed that after G418 selection 30% of collected clones had retroviral DNA targeted at the AAVS1 site.

  20. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  1. An incinerator for combustable radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingquan; Jiang Yun; Zhang Yinsheng; Chen Boling; Zhang Shihang

    1989-01-01

    An incinerator has been built up in Shanghai. In this paper, the devices of the incinerator, main parameters of the process, and the results of non-radioactive waste and simulated radwaste combustion tests were contributed. That provides reference information for radwaste treatment with incineration process

  2. 75 FR 32142 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... Contact Mat Chibbaro, P.E., Fire Protection Engineer, Office of Safety Systems, OSHA Directorate of..., and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium). Industries that may have combustible dust hazards include..., chemical manufacturing, textile manufacturing, furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal...

  3. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Kiil, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Several options are available to control the emission of SO2 from combustion processes. One possibility is to use a cleaner technology, i.e. fuel switching from oil and coal to natural gas or biomass, or to desulphurize coal and oil. Another possibility is to change to a different technology...

  4. Multi-zone modelling of PCCI combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egüz, U.; Somers, L.M.T.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion is a promising concept for the diesel combustion. Although EDI PCCI assures very low soot and NO xemission levels, the injection is uncoupled from combustion, which narrows down the operating conditions. The main

  5. Approche historique des classifications en psychiatrie

    OpenAIRE

    Garrabé , J.

    2011-01-01

    Resume Des le milieu du xixe siecle s?est posee la question des criteres de classification des maladies. Pour les maladies mentales, diverses classifications ont alors ete proposees par des auteurs francais (Morel) et allemands (Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). A partir de la fin du xixe siecle, le Bureau International de Statistique (Paris) a publie a une Classification Internationale des Maladies, a revision decennale (J. Bertillon). Cette tache a ete poursuivie dans l?entre-deux-guerres pa...

  6. Complications du traitement traditionnel des fractures : aspects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tous les patients reçus avec des complications du traitement traditionnel des fractures ont été inclus dans ce travail. Le diagnostic des lésions était clinique et radiologique. Nous avions reçu 51 patients porteurs de complications suite à des traitements de médecine traditionnelle, soit 13,7% du total des patients hospitalisés ...

  7. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  8. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  9. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  10. Rôle des feux de savane sur les caractéristiques biogéochimiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les feux de brousse dont les effets dépendent aussi bien de leurs intensités ainsi que de leur saison d'occurrence, sont considérés comme une perturbation écologique majeure des écosystèmes savanicoles. L'objectif général de cette étude est de générer des connaissances sur l'effet de la quantité du combustible et de ...

  11. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  12. Modeling of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki

    2012-10-01

    Recently, many experimental study of plasma-assisted combustion has been done. However, numerous complex reactions in combustion of hydrocarbons are preventing from theoritical study for clarifying inside the plasma-assisted combustion, and the effect of plasma-assist is still not understood. Shinohara and Sasaki [1,2] have reported that the shortening of flame length by irradiating microwave without increase of gas temperature. And they also reported that the same phenomena would occur when applying dielectric barrier discharges to the flame using simple hydrocarbon, methane. It is suggested that these phenomena may result by the electron heating. To clarify this phenomena, electron behavior under microwave and DBD was examined. For the first step of DBD plasma-assisted combustion simulation, electron Monte Carlo simulation in methane, oxygen and argon mixture gas(0.05:0.14:0.81) [2] has been done. Electron swarm parameters are sampled and electron energy distribution function (EEDF)s are also determined. In the combustion, gas temperature is higher(>1700K), so reduced electric field E/N becomes relatively high(>10V/cm/Torr). The electrons are accelerated to around 14 eV. This result agree with the optical emission from argon obtained by the experiment of reference [2]. Dissociation frequency of methane and oxygens are obtained in high. This might be one of the effect of plasma-assist. And it is suggested that the electrons should be high enough to dissociate methane, but plasma is not needed.[4pt] [1] K. Shinohara et al, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys., 42, 182008 (1-7) (2009).[0pt] [2] K. Sasaki, 64th Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, 56, 15 CT3.00001(2011).

  13. Combustive management of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris

  14. Des cartes dans la classe…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gimeno

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available La majorité des enseignants qui veulent faire des cartes — et les faire réaliser aux élèves — pour répondre aux exigences des instructions officielles, doivent surmonter leur manque de compétences en cartographie et en didactique ainsi que les difficultés propres aux logiciels de cartographie encore peu performants. Ces compétences et la réflexion qui les accompagne sont pourtant accessibles aux enfants de l’école élémentaire…

  15. Combustion plans. Nordrhein-Westfalen opts for environment-friendly disposal of sewage sludge; Aktion Ofen. NRW plant umweltvertraegliche Klaerschlammverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H.; Giegrich, J.; Knappe, F. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    According to the plans of the Nordrhein-Westfalen minister of the environment, sewage sludge will be banned as a fertiliser. Instead, it is to be disposed in accordance with the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management and the requirements of the recycling industry. This is the result of a study carried out on behalf of the Ministry which is summarised here. Combustion capacities will be required. [German] Auf die Verbrennungskapazitaeten in NRW rollt eine Klaerschlammlawine zu. Nach den Plaenen des Duesseldorfer Umweltministeriums soll die sogenannte landwirtschaftliche Verwertung kuenftig eingeschraenkt werden. Die Verwertung soll den gesetzlichen Vorgaben des Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes und den Anforderungen der Kreislaufwirtschaft entsprechen. Dies ergibt sich aus einer Studie des Ministeriums, die hier zusammengefasst ist. (orig.)

  16. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Institut international de recherche sur les cultures des zones tropicales ... In ROSSA's latest bulletin issue: A farewell message from Simon Carter, the Regional Director of the ... Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania.

  17. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants; Perspectives a long terme des couts de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Tailles et localisations optimales des usines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C; Vaumas, P de [Saint-Gobain Nucleaire, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1964-07-01

    processing plants are shown, different from those in part two. The indirect effect of these reprocessing programmes on the availability of plutonium, and therefore on the possibility.of undertaking plutonium burning reactor programmes, must be taken into account. (authors) [French] L'objet de cette communication est d'apporter une contribution a la solution du probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des combustibles nucleaires irradies, associees a des programmes de puissance electrique installee. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie la structure des couts d'investissements et d'exploitation des usines de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie, l'influence de la taille des usines sur ces couts et ces structures de couts. Au cout de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie s'ajoute d'autre part le cout du transport des combustibles irradies des lieux de production aux sites des usines de traitement. La recherche du cout minimum pour la production d'un pays ou d'un ensemble de pays fait donc intervenir a la fois la taille et la localisation des usines. On indique les couts de transport previsibles pour l'uranium naturel irradie et la structure de ces couts (transport, assurance, couts et amortissement des containers). Dans une deuxieme partie, et pour differents echeanciers de combustibles irradies a traiter chaque annee, on determine les tailles et les localisations optimales des usines de traitement et la sensibilite de ces resultats, aux hypotheses de base concernant le cout du traitement, le cout du transport, l'annee de demarrage du programme d'usines, l'horizon choisi. - le probleme de nature combinatoire, assez complexe, est resolu par l'application des methodes de la programmation dynamique. - on montre que les methodes sont egalement applicables au probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des elements du type MTR, associees aux programmes de reacteurs de recherche ainsi qu

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