WorldWideScience

Sample records for combining disparate measures

  1. Linking Diversity and Disparity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadeb Sarkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The purpose of this paper is to examine links between the diversity measures (Patil and Taillie 1982 and the disparity measures (Lindsay 1994, quantities apparently developed for somewhat different purposes. We demonstrate that numerous diversity measures satisfying all the desirable criteria mentioned by Patil and Taillie can be defined by the generating functions of certain disparities and the associated residual adjustment functions. This provides the statistician and the ecologist a wide class of flexible indices for the statistical measurement of diversity.

  2. Combining disparate data for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  3. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  4. Robust Combining of Disparate Classifiers Through Order Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2001-01-01

    Integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers via combiners or meta-learners has led to substantial improvements in several difficult pattern recognition problems. In this article we investigate a family of combiners based on order statistics, for robust handling of situations where there are large discrepancies in performance of individual classifiers. Based on a mathematical modeling of how the decision boundaries are affected by order statistic combiners, we derive expressions for the reductions in error expected when simple output combination methods based on the the median, the maximum and in general, the ith order statistic, are used. Furthermore, we analyze the trim and spread combiners, both based on linear combinations of the ordered classifier outputs, and show that in the presence of uneven classifier performance, they often provide substantial gains over both linear and simple order statistics combiners. Experimental results on both real world data and standard public domain data sets corroborate these findings.

  5. Combining disparate data sources for improved poverty prediction and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Neeti; Jacques, Damien Christophe

    2017-11-14

    More than 330 million people are still living in extreme poverty in Africa. Timely, accurate, and spatially fine-grained baseline data are essential to determining policy in favor of reducing poverty. The potential of "Big Data" to estimate socioeconomic factors in Africa has been proven. However, most current studies are limited to using a single data source. We propose a computational framework to accurately predict the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) at a finest spatial granularity and coverage of 552 communes in Senegal using environmental data (related to food security, economic activity, and accessibility to facilities) and call data records (capturing individualistic, spatial, and temporal aspects of people). Our framework is based on Gaussian Process regression, a Bayesian learning technique, providing uncertainty associated with predictions. We perform model selection using elastic net regularization to prevent overfitting. Our results empirically prove the superior accuracy when using disparate data (Pearson correlation of 0.91). Our approach is used to accurately predict important dimensions of poverty: health, education, and standard of living (Pearson correlation of 0.84-0.86). All predictions are validated using deprivations calculated from census. Our approach can be used to generate poverty maps frequently, and its diagnostic nature is, likely, to assist policy makers in designing better interventions for poverty eradication. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Unequal before the Law : Measuring Legal Gender Disparities across the World

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Sarah; Islam, Asif; Ramalho, Rita; Sakhonchik, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Several economies have laws that treat women differently from men. This study explores the degree of such legal gender disparities across 167 economies around the world. This is achieved by constructing a simple measure of legal gender disparities to evaluate how countries perform. The average number of overall legal gender disparities across 167 economies is 17, ranging from a minimum of ...

  7. 2D Sub-Pixel Disparity Measurement Using QPEC / Medicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cournet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of its earth observation missions, CNES created a library called QPEC, and one of its launcher called Medicis. QPEC / Medicis is a sub-pixel two-dimensional stereo matching algorithm that works on an image pair. This tool is a block matching algorithm, which means that it is based on a local method. Moreover it does not regularize the results found. It proposes several matching costs, such as the Zero mean Normalised Cross-Correlation or statistical measures (the Mutual Information being one of them, and different match validation flags. QPEC / Medicis is able to compute a two-dimensional dense disparity map with a subpixel precision. Hence, it is more versatile than disparity estimation methods found in computer vision literature, which often assume an epipolar geometry. CNES uses Medicis, among other applications, during the in-orbit image quality commissioning of earth observation satellites. For instance the Pléiades-HR 1A & 1B and the Sentinel-2 geometric calibrations are based on this block matching algorithm. Over the years, it has become a common tool in ground segments for in-flight monitoring purposes. For these two kinds of applications, the two-dimensional search and the local sub-pixel measure without regularization can be essential. This tool is also used to generate automatic digital elevation models, for which it was not initially dedicated. This paper deals with the QPEC / Medicis algorithm. It also presents some of its CNES applications (in-orbit commissioning, in flight monitoring or digital elevation model generation. Medicis software is distributed outside the CNES as well. This paper finally describes some of these external applications using Medicis, such as ground displacement measurement, or intra-oral scanner in the dental domain.

  8. The combined influence of binocular disparity and shading on pictorial shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorschot, P. C A; Kappers, A. M L; Koenderink, Jan J.

    The combined influence of binocular disparity and shading on pictorial shape was studied. Stimuli were several pairs of stereo photographs of real objects. The stereo base was 0, 7, or 14 cm, and the location of the light source was varied over three positions (one from about the viewpoint of the

  9. A quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for different disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghan; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yun, Lijun; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Color asymmetry is a common phenomenon in stereoscopic display system, which can cause visual fatigue or visual discomfort. When the color difference between the left and right eyes exceeds a threshold value, named binocular color fusion limit, color rivalry is said to occur. The most important information brought by stereoscopic displays is the depth perception produced by the disparity. As the stereo pair stimuli are presented separately to both eyes with disparities and those two monocular stimuli differ in color but share an iso-luminance polarity, it is possible for stereopsis and color rivalry to coexist. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to measure the color fusion limit for different disparity levels. In particular, it examines how the magnitude and sign of disparity affect the binocular color fusion limit that yields a fused, stable stereoscopic percept. The binocular color fusion limit was measured at five levels of disparities: 0, +/-60, +/-120 arc minutes for a sample color point which was selected from the 1976 CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram. The experimental results showed that fusion limit for the sample point varied with the level and sign of disparity. It was an interesting result that the fusion limit increased as the disparity decreases at crossed disparity direction (sign -), but there is almost no big change at uncrossed disparity direction (sign +). We found that color fusion was more difficult to achieve at the crossed disparity direction than at the uncrossed disparity direction.

  10. Development and Dissemination of the El Centro Health Disparities Measures Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria Behar; O'Day, Joanne E; Norris, Timothy B; Adebayo, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred

    2017-09-01

    This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad. The open-access library of measures (available through www.miami.edu/sonhs/measureslibrary) contains brief descriptions of each measure, scoring information (where available), links to related peer-reviewed articles, and measure items in both languages. Links to measure websites where commercially available measures can be purchased are included, as is contact information for measures that require author permission. Links to several other measures libraries are hosted on the library website. Other researchers may contribute to the library. El Centro investigators began the library by electing to use a common set of measures across studies to assess demographic information, culture-related variables, proximal outcomes of interest, and major outcomes. The collection was expanded to include other health disparity research studies. In 2012, a formal process was developed to organize, expand, and centralize the library in preparation for a gradual process of dissemination to the national and international community of researchers. The library currently contains 61 measures encompassing 12 categories of constructs. Thus far, the library has been accessed 8,883 times (unique page views as generated by Google Analytics), and responses from constituencies of users and measure authors have been favorable. With the paucity of availability and accessibility of translated

  11. Evaluating stereoscopic displays: both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Maurice H. P. H.; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Kort, Yvonne A. W.

    2011-03-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure potential performance advantages. However, completion time and accuracy may not fully reflect all the benefits of stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we argue that perceived workload is an additional valuable indicator reflecting the extent to which users can benefit from using stereoscopic displays. We performed an experiment in which participants were asked to perform a visual path-tracing task within a convoluted 3D wireframe structure, varying in level of complexity of the visualised structure and level of disparity of the visualisation. The results showed that an optimal performance (completion time, accuracy and workload), depend both on task difficulty and disparity level. Stereoscopic disparity revealed a faster and more accurate task performance, whereas we observed a trend that performance on difficult tasks stands to benefit more from higher levels of disparity than performance on easy tasks. Perceived workload (as measured using the NASA-TLX) showed a similar response pattern, providing evidence that perceived workload is sensitive to variations in disparity as well as task difficulty. This suggests that perceived workload could be a useful concept, in addition to standard performance indicators, in characterising and measuring human performance advantages when using stereoscopic displays.

  12. Combined resection–recession versus combined recession–retroequatorial myopexy of medial rectus muscles for treatment of near-distance disparity Esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghali MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Manar A Ghali Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Purpose: To compare and evaluate the efficacy of two different surgical techniques for the treatment of near-distance disparity esotropia; combined resection–recession and recession–retroequatorial myopexy of medial rectus muscles. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 28 patients diagnosed with convergence excess esotropia who had worn their full cycloplegic refraction and/or bifocal glasses for at least 6 months and still had near-distance disparity esotropia. The patients were divided into 2 groups; Group I underwent combined bimedial rectus muscles resection 2.5 mm from the insertion end with recession based on near-angle esotropia according to current surgical tables with 1 mm add of recession for each muscle, while Group II underwent bimedial recession based on far angle combined with retroequatorial myopexy at 13–14 mm from insertion. A satisfactory result was defined as orthophoria or esotropia <10 prism diopters (∆ at near and distance with reduction of the near-distance disparity to <10 ∆. The patients were followed up for at least 2 years for stability of correction and late onset consecutive exotropia. Results: In Group I, all the patients had satisfactory alignments at near and far with residual near–far disparity ≤10 ∆, no cases of overcorrection at far was reported; while in Group II, all cases had orthophoria at far, but 4 cases (28.6% showed near–far disparity >10 ∆. Conclusion: The technique of combined resection–recession is safe, easy and more effective in the treatment of near-distance disparity esotropia regardless of the level of accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio, with stability of results though longer follow-up period is still needed. Keywords: near-distance disparity, esotropia, Ac/A ratio, retroequatorial myopexy, slanted recession

  13. Stereoscopic Roadside Curb Height Measurement using V-Disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thøgersen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available...... results show that the system can measure the height of the roadside curb with good accuracy and precision....

  14. Measures of trajectory ensemble disparity in nonequilibrium statistical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E; Sivak, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis), Jensen–Shannon divergence (time-asymmetry), Chernoff divergence (work cumulant generating function), and Rényi divergence

  15. Covering one eye in fixation-disparity measurement causes slight movement of fellow eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsz, H. J.; Bour, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    In the subjective measurement of fixation disparity (FD), the subject fuses contours presented in the peripheral macular areas of both eyes (fusion lock). The position of the eyes relative to each other is monitored by means of two haploscopically seen vertical lines presented in the central macular

  16. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Des Jarlais

    Full Text Available It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014. 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5 for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3 for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8. An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis for all racial/ethnic groups.

  17. Subjective and objective measurements of visual fatigue induced by excessive disparities in stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Kim, Dongchan; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Park, Hyun Wook; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-03-01

    As stereoscopic displays have spread, it is important to know what really causes the visual fatigue and discomfort and what happens in the visual system in the brain behind the retina while viewing stereoscopic 3D images on the displays. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used for the objective measurement to assess the human brain regions involved in the processing of the stereoscopic stimuli with excessive disparities. Based on the subjective measurement results, we selected two subsets of comfort videos and discomfort videos in our dataset. Then, a fMRI experiment was conducted with the subsets of comfort and discomfort videos in order to identify which brain regions activated while viewing the discomfort videos in a stereoscopic display. We found that, when viewing a stereoscopic display, the right middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal lobule, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral cuneus were significantly activated during the processing of excessive disparities, compared to those of small disparities (< 1 degree).

  18. Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust feature estimation by non-rigid hierarchical image registration and its application in disparity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Amir; Choudhry, Aadil Jaleel; Ullah, Shan

    2017-03-01

    Industries are moving towards automation in order to increase productivity and ensure quality. Variety of electronic and electromagnetic systems are being employed to assist human operator in fast and accurate quality inspection of products. Majority of these systems are equipped with cameras and rely on diverse image processing algorithms. Information is lost in 2D image, therefore acquiring accurate 3D data from 2D images is an open issue. FAST, SURF and SIFT are well-known spatial domain techniques for features extraction and henceforth image registration to find correspondence between images. The efficiency of these methods is measured in terms of the number of perfect matches found. A novel fast and robust technique for stereo-image processing is proposed. It is based on non-rigid registration using modified normalized phase correlation. The proposed method registers two images in hierarchical fashion using quad-tree structure. The registration process works through global to local level resulting in robust matches even in presence of blur and noise. The computed matches can further be utilized to determine disparity and depth for industrial product inspection. The same can be used in driver assistance systems. The preliminary tests on Middlebury dataset produced satisfactory results. The execution time for a 413 x 370 stereo-pair is 500ms approximately on a low cost DSP.

  20. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  1. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  2. Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Health Disparities conduct transdisciplinary research involving social, behavioral, biological, and genetic research to improve knowledge of the causes of health disparities and devise effective methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease and promoting ...

  3. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ik People" People Awakening Resilience Project (PARP), Cuqyun "Measuring" Treatment and Health Services Research Alcohol Treatment and ... addressing Health Disparities . 1 2009-2013 Health Disparities Strategic Plan, p.4 2 Ibid, p.4 3 ...

  4. Measuring Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Efforts to Improve Data Collection.

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Collins Higgins; Erin Fries Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in the quality of health care contribute to higher rates of disease, disability, and mortality in racial and ethnic minority groups. A new policy brief examines recent federal and state activities aimed at strengthening the collection of health-related data on race, ethnicity, and primary language. It highlights three states—California, Massachusetts, and New Jersey—that implemented laws or regulations guiding data collection activities by hospitals, health plans, and governme...

  5. Reduction of regional disparities in electric power prices by spatially effective measures and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G

    1984-01-01

    For a long time energy policy has been trying to reduce disparities in electric power prices by administrative and financial measures alone. Governmental planning was opening up new prospects when long-range fuel transport - and in particular the transport of hard coal by ship or by rail - was seeing a drop in prices in the mid seventies. Since fuel transport has been lower-priced than the transport of equivalent quantities of electric power, regional disparities in electric power prices which are due to the respective supply structures may be levelled by way of power plant site selection and power plant installation according to the specific regional loads. A decentralized expansion of power generation within reach of the consumer requires but a minimum of wiring. Structural price disparities are reduced in particular in regions importing electric power at excessive prices. In addition, costs may be saved by rational energy utilization consisting above all in the application of dual-purpose power plants and by the rationalization of network infrastuctures. The study abstracted is part of a research project of the Federal Research Institute for Land Studies and Planning. The project is dealing with concepts of decentralized electric power supply and space heating. It adds to already existing related studies which deal above all with the basic problems of scheduling and planning the contents and inner structure of decentralized energy concepts.

  6. Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Julia F; Baade, Peter D; Yu, Yan; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-08-01

    Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters. We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units. We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels. We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival

  7. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children's health and health care. Individual parental LEP

  8. Combination of ATLAS Higgs Boson measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Monticelli, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The results obtained from the different decay channels are combined to study the properties of the Higgs boson mass, production and decay, and test the SM theoretical precision with increased accuracy, using about 36 fb^{-1} of p-p collisions data collected at 13 TeV.

  9. Disparate effects of heparin on free thyroxine measured by two different radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Bayer, M.F.; Nierenberg, D.; Lewis, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Heparin causes a rise in free thyroxine (FT4) measured by equilibrium dialysis (E.D.). With the introduction of at least 4 commercial radioimmunoassays (RIA) for FT4, FT4 measurements have become accepted as one of the best routine thyroid function tests. Investigators have indicated that FT4 levels determined by RIA may be of particular value in patients hospitalized for various severe nonthyroidal illnesses in whom conventional thyroid function tests tend to be abnormal. However, very little information is as yet available on possible effects of various drugs on FT4 levels measured by these new methods. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of heparin on FT4 measured by 2 different RIA procedures: RIA-I, GammaCoat FT4 by clinical Assays and RIA-II, Amerlex FT4 by Amersham

  10. Combined Risk Measures: Representation Results and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttsche, O.E.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of risk play a crucial role in different areas of modern finance. This includes pricing of financial products, capital allocation and derivation of economic capital. Key to this analysis is the quantification of the risk via risk measures. A promising approach is to

  11. Evaluating stereoscopic displays : both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van M.H.P.H.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Woods, A.J.; Holliman, N.S.; Dodgson, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure

  12. Disparity in formulations used for fluorescent X-ray intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Raj; Gupta, Sheenu

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a problem in computations of X-ray fluorescence cross-sections, shell/sub-shell fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig yields, vacancy alignment, etc. from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies. While using barn/atom as a unit for cross-sections if the atomic masses are not considered it causes a discrepancy in the measured cross-section, yield and alignment values. Most of the earlier publications are being quoted where such an oversight has occurred and discrepancy is evident. - Highlights: → Manuscript gives basic formulation for measurements of fluorescent X-ray intensities. → Most publications ignored the fact that use of barn/atom units for cross-sections requires atomic masses. → Published experimental results higher by a factor ≥2 or less by factor 1/M K . → Inspection of published data on XRF parameters needed.

  13. Spatiotemporal discordance in five common measures of rurality for US counties and applications for health disparities research in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Cohen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural populations face numerous barriers to health, including poorer health care infrastructure, access to care, and other sociodemographic factors largely associated with rurality. Multiple measures of rurality used in the biomedical and public health literature can help assess rural-urban health disparities and may impact the observed associations between rurality and health. Furthermore, understanding what makes a place truly rural versus urban may vary from region to region in the United States.Purpose: The objectives of this study are to compare and contrast five common measures of rurality and determine how well-correlated these measures are at the national, regional, and divisional level, as well as to assess patterns in the correlations between the prevalence of obesity in the population aged 60+ and each of the five measures of rurality at the regional and divisional level.Methods: Five measures of rurality were abstracted from the US Census and US Department of Agriculture (USDA to characterize US counties. Obesity data in the population aged 60+ were abstracted from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Spearman’s rank correlations were used to quantify the associations among the five rurality measurements at the national, regional, and divisional level, as defined by the US Census Bureau. Geographic information systems were used to visually illustrate temporal, spatial, and regional variability. Results: Overall, Spearman’s rank correlations among the five measures ranged from 0.521 (percent urban-Urban Influence Code to 0.917 (Rural-Urban Continuum Code-Urban Influence Code. Notable discrepancies existed in these associations by Census region and by division. The associations between measures of rurality and obesity in the 60+ population varied by rurality measure used and by region. Conclusion: This study is among the first to systematically assess the spatial, temporal, and regional differences

  14. Measuring Disparities: Bias in the SF-36v2 among Spanish-speaking Medical Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Joseph J.; Perzynski, Adam; Love, Thomas E.; Lewis, Steven A.; Murray, Patrick M.; Huber, Gail; Ruo, Bernice; Baker, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many national surveys have found substantial differences in self-reported overall health (SROH) between Spanish-speaking Hispanics and other racial/ethnic groups. However, because cultural and language differences may create measurement bias, it is unclear whether observed differences in SROH reflect true differences in health. Objectives This study uses a cross-sectional survey to investigate psychometric properties of the SF-36v2 for subjects across four racial/ethnic and language groups. Multi-group latent variable modeling was used to test increasingly stringent criteria for measurement equivalence. Subjects Our sample (N = 1281) included 383 non-Hispanic whites, 368 non-Hispanic blacks, 206 Hispanics interviewed in English and 324 Hispanics interviewed in Spanish recruited from outpatient medical clinics in two large urban areas. Results We found weak factorial invariance across the four groups. However, there was no strong factorial invariance. The overall fit of the model was substantially worse (change in CFI > .02, RMSEA change > .003) after requiring equal intercepts across all groups. Further comparisons established that the equality constraints on the intercepts for Spanish-speaking Hispanics were responsible for the decrement to model fit. Conclusions Observed differences between SF-36v2 scores for Spanish speaking Hispanics are systematically biased relative to the other three groups. The lack of strong invariance suggests the need for caution when comparing SF-36v2 mean scores of Spanish-speaking Hispanics with those of other groups. However, measurement equivalence testing for this study supports correlational or multivariate latent variable analyses of SF-36v2 responses across all four subgroups, since these analyses require only weak factorial invariance. PMID:21430580

  15. Matas test combined with MR flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, Haruo; Masui, Takayuki; Takahashi, Motoichiro; Mochizuki, Takao; Kaneko, Masao; Ohta, Atsuko; Shirakawa, Toyomi.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the temporary or permanent therapeutic occlusion of the carotid artery, evaluation of the cerebral collateral circulation via the circle of Willis is necessary in order to prevent complications. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the flow velocity of the contralateral common carotid artery using Renal Time Acquisition and Velocity Evaluation (RACE) before and during a Matas test and to estimate brain collateral circulation. Five normal subjects were studied with a 1.5 T superconducting imager (Siemens, Erlangen) using a neck coil. RACE is a one-dimensional projective flow measurement technique using fast low angle shot (FLASH) without phase encoding gradient (FLASH sequence: TR=20 ms, TE=6 ms, FA=90 degrees, FOV=220 mm, slice thickness=8 mm). The total acquisition time is about 10 seconds without need for electrocardiographic synchronization. Flow velocity of the common carotid artery was evaluated using the RACE technique before and during a Matas test. The relative flow ratio of the contralateral carotid artery (flow velocity during the Matas test divided by that before the Matas test) was calculated. Additionally, using a head coil, 3 dimensional time-flight MR angiograms of the brain were obtained for each subject order to evaluate the anterior communicating artery. Six out of the 10 common carotid arteries were sufficiently compressed to stop blood flow. The relative mean ratio was 1.74 with a standard deviation of 0.36. The anterior communicating artery was visualized in all subjects. Increased blood volume is thus thought to maintain the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere affected by compression of the common carotid artery via the anterior communicating artery. MR flow measurement using RACE before and during the Matas test seems to be a noninvasive method for evaluating cerebral collateral circulation via the circle of Willis. (author)

  16. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  17. Examination of the optimal operation of building scale combined heat and power systems under disparate climate and GHG emissions rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.; Modi, V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CHP attributable reductions, not viable by electric generation alone, are defined. • Simplified operating strategy heuristics are optimal under specific circumstances. • Phosphoric acid fuel cells yield the largest reductions except in the extremes. • Changes in baseline emissions affect the optimal system capacity and operating hours. - Abstract: This work aims to elucidate notions concerning the ideal operation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by investigating how various metrics change as a function of the GHG emissions from the underlying electricity source, building use type and climate. Additionally, a new term entitled “CHP Attributable” reductions is introduced to quantify the benefits from the simultaneous use of thermal and electric energy, removing benefits achieved solely from fuel switching and generating electricity more efficiently. The GHG emission benefits from implementing internal combustion engine, microturbines, and phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cell based CHP systems were evaluated through an optimization approach considering energy demands of prototypical hospital, office, and residential buildings in varied climates. To explore the effect of electric GHG emissions rates, the ideal operation of the CHP systems was evaluated under three scenarios: “High” GHG emissions rates, “Low” GHG emissions rates, and “Current” GHG emissions rate for a specific location. The analysis finds that PA fuel cells achieve the highest GHG emission reductions in most cases considered, though there are exceptions. Common heuristics, such as electric load following and thermal load following, are the optimal operating strategy under specific conditions. The optimal CHP capacity and operating hours both vary as a function of building type, climate and GHG emissions rates from grid electricity. GHG emissions reductions can be as high as 49% considering a PA fuel cell for a

  18. A combined system for measuring animal motion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M S; Young, C W; Li, Y C

    2000-01-31

    In this study, we have developed a combined animal motion activity measurement system that combines an infrared light matrix subsystem with an ultrasonic phase shift subsystem for animal activity measurement. Accordingly, in conjunction with an IBM PC/AT compatible personal computer, the combined system has the advantages of both infrared and ultrasonic subsystems. That is, it can at once measure and directly analyze detailed changes in animal activity ranging from locomotion to tremor. The main advantages of this combined system are that it features real time data acquisition with the option of animated real time or recorded display/playback of the animal's motion. Additionally, under the multi-task operating condition of IBM PC, it can acquire and process behavior using both IR and ultrasound systems simultaneously. Traditional systems have had to make separate runs for gross and fine movement recording. This combined system can be profitably employed for normative behavioral activity studies and for neurological and pharmacological research.

  19. Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering: A Framework for Integrating Disparate Data to Understand Network Representativeness and Scaling Up Sparse Ecosystem Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Maddalena, D. M.; Langford, Z.; Hargrove, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    Disparate in situ and remote sensing time series data are being collected to understand the structure and function of ecosystems and how they may be affected by climate change. However, resource and logistical constraints limit the frequency and extent of observations, particularly in the harsh environments of the arctic and the tropics, necessitating the development of a systematic sampling strategy to maximize coverage and objectively represent variability at desired scales. These regions host large areas of potentially vulnerable ecosystems that are poorly represented in Earth system models (ESMs), motivating two new field campaigns, called Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) for the Arctic and Tropics, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering (MSTC) provides a quantitative methodology for stratifying sampling domains, informing site selection, and determining the representativeness of measurement sites and networks. We applied MSTC to down-scaled general circulation model results and data for the State of Alaska at a 4 km2 resolution to define maps of ecoregions for the present (2000-2009) and future (2090-2099), showing how combinations of 37 bioclimatic characteristics are distributed and how they may shift in the future. Optimal representative sampling locations were identified on present and future ecoregion maps, and representativeness maps for candidate sampling locations were produced. We also applied MSTC to remotely sensed LiDAR measurements and multi-spectral imagery from the WorldView-2 satellite at a resolution of about 5 m2 within the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) in Alaska. At this resolution, polygonal ground features—such as centers, edges, rims, and troughs—can be distinguished. Using these remote sensing data, we up-scaled vegetation distribution data collected on these polygonal ground features to a large area of the BEO to provide distributions of plant functional types that can

  20. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisa, Allen Lewis; Kiriba, Deodatus

    2012-03-28

    Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs) in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$). By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem) was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$), the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug) was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29-1.18 US$). In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  1. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malisa Allen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. Methods To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. Results ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$. By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$, the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29–1.18 US$. Conclusions In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  2. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  3. A combined sustainability index for electricity efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldrath, T.; Ayalon, O.; Shechter, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most substantial tools that serve decision makers in their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions includes energy efficiency measures that in most cases benefit from governmental assistance for achieving electricity consumption reduction goals. This paper examines five energy efficiency measures, defining a combined sustainability index. A multi-criteria analysis of five predefined indices was developed (economic, environmental, technology, social and political), providing a combined index for each measure and a tool for identifying the preferred measure within a specific situation, based on its total sustainability score. In this research, a case study was conducted and the preferred measure was found to be municipal street lighting systems, based on its high political and social scores, and its relatively high installation potential. The second choice would be replacement of chillers in the industrial sector, and the least favorable measure is the replacement of water pumps in the water sector. The methodology described brings into account the technological specifications of the measure implemented, and the specific national conditions under which it is implemented. - Highlights: • A MCDA of five indices was developed to define a combined sustainability index. • Criteria defined were environment, technology, economy, social and political. • Five energy efficiency measures were rated, based on their total sustainability score. • Measures were in five main electricity consumption sectors. • The preferred measure found in the case study was municipal street lighting systems.

  4. Allometric disparity in rodent evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson LAB

    2013-01-01

    In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results ...

  5. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C E Hughes

    Full Text Available In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008-2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests. Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR 0.77 (0.71, 0.84 compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in 'Others' (majority of Asian descent. The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol, was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93, Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30, and 'Others' 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07. Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to

  6. Optimal Design of Experiments by Combining Coarse and Fine Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A.; Brenner, Michael P.; Colwell, Lucy J.

    2017-11-01

    In many contexts, it is extremely costly to perform enough high-quality experimental measurements to accurately parametrize a predictive quantitative model. However, it is often much easier to carry out large numbers of experiments that indicate whether each sample is above or below a given threshold. Can many such categorical or "coarse" measurements be combined with a much smaller number of high-resolution or "fine" measurements to yield accurate models? Here, we demonstrate an intuitive strategy, inspired by statistical physics, wherein the coarse measurements are used to identify the salient features of the data, while the fine measurements determine the relative importance of these features. A linear model is inferred from the fine measurements, augmented by a quadratic term that captures the correlation structure of the coarse data. We illustrate our strategy by considering the problems of predicting the antimalarial potency and aqueous solubility of small organic molecules from their 2D molecular structure.

  7. Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) - SEER Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.

  8. Expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements by GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, K.; Arandjic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with possible ways of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements for four types of GM counters with a same counter's tube, in cases when the contributors of these uncertainties are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomena. Nowadays, as a consequence of electromagnetic radiation, the latter phenomenon is especially marked in urban environments. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variable 'number of pulses from background radiation' and 'number of pulses induced by overvoltage' depend on the technological solution of the counter's reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements of the applied types of GM counters. (author)

  9. Combined Reactor and Microelectrode Measurements in Laboratory Grown Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Harremoës, Poul

    1994-01-01

    A combined biofilm reactor-/microelectrode experimental set-up has been constructed, allowing for simultaneous reactor mass balances and measurements of concentration profiles within the biofilm. The system consists of an annular biofilm reactor equipped with an oxygen microelectrode. Experiments...... were carried out with aerobic glucose and starch degrading biofilms. The well described aerobic glucose degradation biofilm system was used to test the combined reactor set-up. Results predicted from known biofilm kinetics were obtained. In the starch degrading biofilm, basic assumptions were tested...... with the microelectrode measurements. It was established, that even with a high molecular weight, non-diffusible substrate, degradation took place in the depths of the biofilm. Intrinsic enzymatic hydrolysis was not limiting and the volumetric removal rate of oxygen was zero order....

  10. Improving Scene Classifications with Combined Active/Passive Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Rodier, S.; Vaughan, M.; McGill, M.

    The uncertainties in cloud and aerosol physical properties derived from passive instruments such as MODIS are not insignificant And the uncertainty increases when the optical depths decrease Lidar observations do much better for the thin clouds and aerosols Unfortunately space-based lidar measurements such as the one onboard CALIPSO satellites are limited to nadir view only and thus have limited spatial coverage To produce climatologically meaningful thin cloud and aerosol data products it is necessary to combine the spatial coverage of MODIS with the highly sensitive CALIPSO lidar measurements Can we improving the quality of cloud and aerosol remote sensing data products by extending the knowledge about thin clouds and aerosols learned from CALIPSO-type of lidar measurements to a larger portion of the off-nadir MODIS-like multi-spectral pixels To answer the question we studied the collocated Cloud Physics Lidar CPL with Modis-Airborne-Simulation MAS observations and established an effective data fusion technique that will be applied in the combined CALIPSO MODIS cloud aerosol product algorithms This technique performs k-mean and Kohonen self-organized map cluster analysis on the entire swath of MAS data as well as on the combined CPL MAS data at the nadir track Interestingly the clusters generated from the two approaches are almost identical It indicates that the MAS multi-spectral data may have already captured most of the cloud and aerosol scene types such as cloud ice water phase multi-layer information aerosols

  11. Combined Measurements of the Higgs Boson Mass and Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Combined measurements of the Higgs boson mass, as well its production cross sections and branching fractions, are performed using the H->yy and H->ZZ->4l decay channels. The measurements are based on 36.1 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV. The Higgs boson mass is measured to be 124.98 +/- 0.19 (stat) +/- 0.21 (syst) GeV. The rates for gluon fusion, vector-boson fusion, VH, and ttH production, as well as kinematic subdivisions of these processes, are found to be compatible with the Standard Model. The measured ratios of the Higgs boson couplings to their SM predictions are also consistent with the predictions.

  12. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor......An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... for frequent measurements, and thereby the possibility for detailed determination of the denitrification biokinetics. An internal nitrate electrode calibration is implemented in the experiments to avoid the often-encountered electrode drift problem. It was observed that the best experimental design...

  13. Combination of phlebography and sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.

    1988-01-01

    Phlebographic visualisation offers the highest spatial resolution of all imaging methods both in respect of veins of the leg and pelvis and of the abdomen. Phlebography offers optimal conditions for assessing morphological changes at the veins and in their direct neighbourhood. No quantitative information is available via phlebography if haemodynamics are disturbed; qualitative information is yielded merely to a restricted extent (by assessing flow velocity and collaterals). Direct sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure is particularly suitable for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of disturbed haemodynamic conditions; in this respect it stands out among the function tests based on the employment of apparatures. If it is combined with phlebography, it is possible not only to optimise the diagnostic yield in the hands of one investigator, but also to reduce the invasiveness of both methods to one single puncture, since the puncture needle is at the same time also an instrument to measure the pressure. The article points out the possibilities and limitations of combining a) ascending phlebography of the leg and pelvis with peripheral venous pressure measurement (phlebodynamometry) and b) visualisation of the veins of the pelvis and vena cava inferior with central sanguinous venous pressure measurement (CP). Indicatious and technical execution are described. (orig.) [de

  14. What Are Cancer Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the factors associated with cancer disparities, examples of how the cancer burden differs across certain population groups, and NCI actions to understand and reduce cancer disparities.

  15. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  16. Combined techniques for network measurements at accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pschorn, I.

    1999-01-01

    Usually network measurements at GSi (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionen forschung) are carried out by employing the Leica tachymeter TC2002K etc. Due to time constraints and the fact that GSi possesses only one of these selected, high precision total-stations, it was suddenly necessary to think about employing a Laser tracker as the major instrument for a reference network measurement. The idea was to compare the different instruments and to proof if it is possible at all to carry out a precise network measurement using a laser tracker. In the end the SMX Tracker4500 combined with Leica NA3000 for network measurements at GSi, Darmstadt and at BESSY Il, Berlin (both located in Germany) was applied. A few results are shown in the following chapters. A new technology in 3D metrology came up. Some ideas of applying these new tools in the field of accelerator measurements are given. Finally aspects of calibration and checking the performance of the employed high precision instrument are pointed out in this paper. (author)

  17. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified.

  18. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2017-03-03

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronic air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.

  19. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronic air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.

  20. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  1. A Combined Approach to Measure Micropollutant Behaviour during Riverbank Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Derx, Julia; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as natural treatment process. The advantages of RBF over surface water abstraction are the elimination of for example suspended solids, biodegradable compounds (like specific micropollutants), bacteria and viruses (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). However, in contrast to its importance, remarkably less is known on the respective external (e.g. industrial or municipal sewage) and the internal (e.g. wildlife and agricultural influence) sources of contaminants, the environmental availability and fate of the various hazardous substances, and its potential transport during soil and aquifer passage. The goal of this study is to get an insight in the behaviour of various micropollutants and microbial indicators during riverbank filtration. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling approaches. The study area comprises an alluvial backwater and floodplain area downstream of Vienna. The river is highly dynamic, with discharges ranging from 900 m3/s during low flow to 11000 m3/s during flood events. Samples were taken in several monitoring wells along a transect extending from the river towards a backwater river in the floodplain. Three of the piezometers were situated in the first 20 meters away from the river in order to obtain information about micropollutant behaviour close to the river. A total of 9 different micropollutants were analysed in grab samples taken under different river flow conditions (n=33). Following enrichment using SPE, analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Faecal indicators (E. coli and enterococci) and bacterial spores were enumerated in sample volumes of 1 L each using cultivation based methods (ISO 16649-1, ISO 7899-2:2000 and ISO 6222). The analysis showed that some compounds, e.g. ibuprofen and diclofenac, were only found in the river. These compounds were already degraded in the first ten meters away from the river. Analysis of

  2. A similarity measure method combining location feature for mammogram retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiong; Xin, Junchang; Huang, Yukun; Li, Chen; Xu, Ling; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hao; Gu, Huizi; Qian, Wei

    2018-05-28

    Breast cancer, the most common malignancy among women, has a high mortality rate in clinical practice. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment can reduce the mortalities of breast cancer greatly. The method of mammogram retrieval can help doctors to find the early breast lesions effectively and determine a reasonable feature set for image similarity measure. This will improve the accuracy effectively for mammogram retrieval. This paper proposes a similarity measure method combining location feature for mammogram retrieval. Firstly, the images are pre-processed, the regions of interest are detected and the lesions are segmented in order to get the center point and radius of the lesions. Then, the method, namely Coherent Point Drift, is used for image registration with the pre-defined standard image. The center point and radius of the lesions after registration are obtained and the standard location feature of the image is constructed. This standard location feature can help figure out the location similarity between the image pair from the query image to each dataset image in the database. Next, the content feature of the image is extracted, including the Histogram of Oriented Gradients, the Edge Direction Histogram, the Local Binary Pattern and the Gray Level Histogram, and the image pair content similarity can be calculated using the Earth Mover's Distance. Finally, the location similarity and content similarity are fused to form the image fusion similarity, and the specified number of the most similar images can be returned according to it. In the experiment, 440 mammograms, which are from Chinese women in Northeast China, are used as the database. When fusing 40% lesion location feature similarity and 60% content feature similarity, the results have obvious advantages. At this time, precision is 0.83, recall is 0.76, comprehensive indicator is 0.79, satisfaction is 96.0%, mean is 4.2 and variance is 17.7. The results show that the precision and recall of this

  3. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  4. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  5. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  6. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  7. Gender disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jennifer A; Patel, Vinisha; Varela, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    The existence of disparities in delivery of health care has been the subject of increased empirical study in recent years. Some studies have suggested that disparities between men and women exist in the diagnoses and treatment of health conditions, and as a result measures have been taken to identify these differences. This article uses several examples to illustrate health care gender bias in medicine. These examples include surgery, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, critical care, and cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, we discuss reasons why these issues still occur, trends in health care that may address these issues, and the need for acknowledgement of the current system's inequities in order to provide unbiased care for women in the future. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  8. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  9. Conjunctions between motion and disparity are encoded with the same spatial resolution as disparity alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Read, Jenny C A

    2012-10-10

    Neurons in cortical area MT respond well to transparent streaming motion in distinct depth planes, such as caused by observer self-motion, but do not contain subregions excited by opposite directions of motion. We therefore predicted that spatial resolution for transparent motion/disparity conjunctions would be limited by the size of MT receptive fields, just as spatial resolution for disparity is limited by the much smaller receptive fields found in primary visual cortex, V1. We measured this using a novel "joint motion/disparity grating," on which human observers detected motion/disparity conjunctions in transparent random-dot patterns containing dots streaming in opposite directions on two depth planes. Surprisingly, observers showed the same spatial resolution for these as for pure disparity gratings. We estimate the limiting receptive field diameter at 11 arcmin, similar to V1 and much smaller than MT. Higher internal noise for detecting joint motion/disparity produces a slightly lower high-frequency cutoff of 2.5 cycles per degree (cpd) versus 3.3 cpd for disparity. This suggests that information on motion/disparity conjunctions is available in the population activity of V1 and that this information can be decoded for perception even when it is invisible to neurons in MT.

  10. Predicting Visual Disability in Glaucoma With Combinations of Vision Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Stephanie; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; West, Sheila K; Johnson, Chris A; Friedman, David S; Kong, Xiangrong; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2018-04-01

    We characterized vision in glaucoma using seven visual measures, with the goals of determining the dimensionality of vision, and how many and which visual measures best model activity limitation. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 150 older adults with glaucoma, collecting seven visual measures: integrated visual field (VF) sensitivity, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), area under the log CS function, color vision, stereoacuity, and visual acuity with noise. Principal component analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of vision. Multivariable regression models using one, two, or three vision tests (and nonvisual predictors) were compared to determine which was best associated with Rasch-analyzed Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15) person measure scores. The participants had a mean age of 70.2 and IVF sensitivity of 26.6 dB, suggesting mild-to-moderate glaucoma. All seven vision measures loaded similarly onto the first principal component (eigenvectors, 0.220-0.442), which explained 56.9% of the variance in vision scores. In models for GQL scores, the maximum adjusted- R 2 values obtained were 0.263, 0.296, and 0.301 when using one, two, and three vision tests in the models, respectively, though several models in each category had similar adjusted- R 2 values. All three of the best-performing models contained CS. Vision in glaucoma is a multidimensional construct that can be described by several variably-correlated vision measures. Measuring more than two vision tests does not substantially improve models for activity limitation. A sufficient description of disability in glaucoma can be obtained using one to two vision tests, especially VF and CS.

  11. Combined measurements on stationary flow of helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijsselstein, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Transport phenomena in helium II can in principle be described by a two fluid model. One of the fluids, the superfluid component, carries no entropy and has no viscosity while its velocity field is curl free. The other, the normal component, behaves like an ordinary fluid and carries the entropy of the whole liquid. In measuring flow two different methods are required because of the two independent velocity fields. This thesis describes an experiment where both techniques are applied to flow through a capillary of 0.62 mm, enabling direct comparison. The apparatus is described, and details of the measuring techniques are reported. An extended treatment of second-sound phenomena in a Helmholtz resonator is given. The results of the measurements are reported and discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  13. Improving pilot mental workload evaluation with combined measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral performance, subjective assessment based on NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), as well as physiological measures indexed by electrocardiograph (ECG), event-related potential (ERP), and eye tracking data were used to assess the mental workload (MW) related to flight tasks. Flight simulation tasks were carried out by 12 healthy participants under different MW conditions. The MW conditions were manipulated by setting the quantity of flight indicators presented on the head-up display (HUD) in the cruise phase. In this experiment, the behavioral performance and NASA-TLX could reflect the changes of MW ideally. For physiological measures, the indices of heart rate variability (HRV), P3a, pupil diameter and eyelid opening were verified to be sensitive to MW changes. Our findings can be applied to the comprehensive evaluation of MW during flight tasks and the further quantitative classification.

  14. Discharge estimation combining flow routing and occasional measurements of velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Corato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is proposed for estimating river discharge hydrographs during flood events, using only water level data at a single gauged site, as well as 1-D shallow water modelling and occasional maximum surface flow velocity measurements. One-dimensional diffusive hydraulic model is used for routing the recorded stage hydrograph in the channel reach considering zero-diffusion downstream boundary condition. Based on synthetic tests concerning a broad prismatic channel, the "suitable" reach length is chosen in order to minimize the effect of the approximated downstream boundary condition on the estimation of the upstream discharge hydrograph. The Manning's roughness coefficient is calibrated by using occasional instantaneous surface velocity measurements during the rising limb of flood that are used to estimate instantaneous discharges by adopting, in the flow area, a two-dimensional velocity distribution model. Several historical events recorded in three gauged sites along the upper Tiber River, wherein reliable rating curves are available, have been used for the validation. The outcomes of the analysis can be summarized as follows: (1 the criterion adopted for selecting the "suitable" channel length based on synthetic test studies has proved to be reliable for field applications to three gauged sites. Indeed, for each event a downstream reach length not more than 500 m is found to be sufficient, for a good performances of the hydraulic model, thereby enabling the drastic reduction of river cross-sections data; (2 the procedure for Manning's roughness coefficient calibration allowed for high performance in discharge estimation just considering the observed water levels and occasional measurements of maximum surface flow velocity during the rising limb of flood. Indeed, errors in the peak discharge magnitude, for the optimal calibration, were found not exceeding 5% for all events observed in the three investigated gauged sections, while the

  15. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  16. Rural Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Delta Region for specific data. U.S. – Mexico Border While life expectancy in many counties of ... documents the successes, challenges, and relevant information for planning. ... on rural/urban disparities see What sources cover health behaviors and ...

  17. Disparities at the intersection of marginalized groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John W.; Williams, David R.; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disparities exist across several dimensions of social inequality, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and gender. Most investigations of health disparities focus on one dimension. Recent calls by researchers argue for studying persons who are marginalized in multiple ways, often from the perspective of intersectionality, a theoretical framework applied to qualitative studies in law, sociology, and psychology. Quantitative adaptations are emerging but there is little guidance as to what measures or methods are helpful. Here, we consider the concept of a joint disparity and its composition, show that this approach can illuminate how outcomes are patterned for social groups that are marginalized across multiple axes of social inequality, and compare the insights gained with that of other measures of additive interaction. We apply these methods to a cohort of males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, examining disparities for black males with low early life SES vs. white males with high early life SES across several outcomes that predict mental health, including unemployment, wages, and incarceration. We report striking disparities in each outcome, but show that the contribution of race, SES, and their intersection varies. PMID:27531592

  18. 34 CFR 222.162 - What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in current expenditures or revenues per pupil measured? 222.162... of the Act § 222.162 What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are...

  19. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    cancer. The reasons for this racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and mortality are unknown but may stem from economic , social, psychological...them are elevated in the prostate tumors of African American men. We further hypothesize that elevated cholesterol, which is an essential component of...cancer promotional effects of high cholesterol. Essentially , we anticipate the level of cholesterol reduction needed to protect the prostate will be

  20. Understanding China’s electricity market reform from the perspective of the coal-fired power disparity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Dunguo

    2014-01-01

    In China, electricity consumption has grown quickly, supply is highly dependent on coal-fired power, and the prices of electricity are determined by the government, which increases the need for reform to enhance efficiency. In response to disputes about China’s electricity market reform, this paper analyses the efficiency of China’s coal-fired power plants using the Data Envelopment Analysis—Slack Based Measure (DEA-SBM) method on three levels: groups, provinces, and plants. The results indicate that there are both coal-electricity efficiency disparities and generation-hour arrangement unfairness across groups; the disparity across provinces is obvious and long-lasting, as indicated by capacity surpluses and coal-electricity efficiencies; and the disparities are displayed in detail by the estimation at the plant level. The disparities are primarily caused by the generator combination and generation hour arrangement. Competition may be able to solve the disparities, but a further comparison indicates that competition at the national level will enhance the efficiency to a greater degree than competition at the regional level. These results demonstrate that both competition and a united electricity market are necessary for further electricity market reform. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the coal-fired electricity efficiency from three levels. • There are efficiency disparities and hour arrangement unfairness at group level. • The disparities and unfairness are long-lasting across provinces. • The disparities and unfairness are detailed by analysis at plant level. • Competition at national market can improve the efficiency better than at regional market

  1. Philanthropy and disparities: progress, challenges, and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Faith; Sessions, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Philanthropy has invested millions of dollars to reduce disparities in health care and improve minority health. Grants to strengthen providers' cultural competence, diversify health professions, and collect data have improved understanding of and spurred action on disparities. The persistence of disparities in spite of these advances has shifted philanthropic attention toward strategies to change social, economic, and environmental conditions. We argue that these evolving perspectives, along with earlier groundwork, present new opportunities for funders, especially in combination with progress toward universal health coverage. This article looks at how philanthropy has addressed health disparities over the past decade, with a focus on accomplishments, the work remaining to be done, and how funders can help advance the disparities agenda.

  2. Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruspa, Marta

    2013-01-01

    A combination is presented of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic scattering data where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account by the combination method, resulting in improved precision.

  3. Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruspa, Marta [Univ. Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration; ZEUS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A combination is presented of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic scattering data where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account by the combination method, resulting in improved precision.

  4. Measuring Digital Signage ROI : A combination of Digital Signage and Mobile Advertising as a method for measuring Digtal Signage ROI

    OpenAIRE

    Helander, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Marketing has changed a lot the past decade. New modern marketing channels have been developed and marketing have become more effective. This has affected the expectations advertisers have on advertising channels. One thing advertisers increasingly expect is to be able to efficiently measure the result of advertising, the ROI. A method for measuring ROI of digital signage is in focus in this study. The measurement is enabled by a combination of digital signage and mobile advertising. First a ...

  5. Combining Near-Subject Absolute and Relative Measures of Longitudinal Hydration in Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cian; McIntyre, Christopher; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Davies, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The feasibility and additional value of combining bioimpedance analysis (BIA) with near-subject absolute measurement of total body water using deuterium dilution (TBWD) in determining longitudinal fluid status was investigated.

  6. Information and treatment of unknown correlations in the combination of measurements using the BLUE method

    CERN Document Server

    Valassi, A

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of large positive correlations in the combinations of several measurements of a single physical quantity using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) method. We suggest a new approach for comparing the relative weights of the different measurements in their contributions to the combined knowledge about the unknown parameter, using the well-established concept of Fisher information. We argue, in particular, that one contribution to information comes from the collective interplay of the measurements through their correlations and that this contribution cannot be attributed to any of the individual measurements alone. We show that negative coefficients in the BLUE weighted average invariably indicate the presence of a regime of high correlations, where the effect of further increasing some of these correlations is that of reducing the error on the combined estimate. In these regimes, we stress that the correlations provided as input to BLUE combinations need to be assessed with extreme ca...

  7. 3D measurement using combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach is a commonly used 3D measurement technique. In this technique, an error that equals integer multiples of the phase-shifted fringe period, i.e. period jump error, often exists in the absolute analog code, which can lead to gross measurement errors. To overcome this problem, the present paper proposes 3D measurement using a combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach. Based on 3D measurement using the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, one set of low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns with an odd-numbered multiple of the original phase-shifted fringe period is added. Thus, the absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, and the low-frequency absolute analog code measured value can also be obtained by adding low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns. Then, the corrected absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by correcting the former by the latter, and the period jump errors can be eliminated, resulting in reliable analog code unwrapping. For the proposed approach, we established its measurement model, analyzed its measurement principle, expounded the mechanism of eliminating period jump errors by error analysis, and determined its applicable conditions. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively eliminate period jump errors, reliably perform analog code unwrapping, and improve the measurement accuracy.

  8. A combination of preliminary results on gauge boson couplings measured by the LEP Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary measurements of triple gauge boson couplings (TGCs) and quartic gauge boson couplings (QGCs) from the four LEP experiments. We give an updated combination of the charged TGCs, g1z, kg and lg in single and multi-parameter fits. Updated results from the QGCs from the ZZgg vertex, ac/Lambda^2 and a0/Lambda^2, are given as well. The combinations of neutral TGCs hiv anf fiv are also presented, including an updated fiv combination.

  9. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. A method and tool for combining differential or inclusive measurements obtained with simultaneously constrained uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieseler, Jan

    2017-11-01

    A method is discussed that allows combining sets of differential or inclusive measurements. It is assumed that at least one measurement was obtained with simultaneously fitting a set of nuisance parameters, representing sources of systematic uncertainties. As a result of beneficial constraints from the data all such fitted parameters are correlated among each other. The best approach for a combination of these measurements would be the maximization of a combined likelihood, for which the full fit model of each measurement and the original data are required. However, only in rare cases this information is publicly available. In absence of this information most commonly used combination methods are not able to account for these correlations between uncertainties, which can lead to severe biases as shown in this article. The method discussed here provides a solution for this problem. It relies on the public result and its covariance or Hessian, only, and is validated against the combined-likelihood approach. A dedicated software package implementing this method is also presented. It provides a text-based user interface alongside a C++ interface. The latter also interfaces to ROOT classes for simple combination of binned measurements such as differential cross sections.

  11. A method and tool for combining differential or inclusive measurements obtained with simultaneously constrained uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieseler, Jan [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    A method is discussed that allows combining sets of differential or inclusive measurements. It is assumed that at least one measurement was obtained with simultaneously fitting a set of nuisance parameters, representing sources of systematic uncertainties. As a result of beneficial constraints from the data all such fitted parameters are correlated among each other. The best approach for a combination of these measurements would be the maximization of a combined likelihood, for which the full fit model of each measurement and the original data are required. However, only in rare cases this information is publicly available. In absence of this information most commonly used combination methods are not able to account for these correlations between uncertainties, which can lead to severe biases as shown in this article. The method discussed here provides a solution for this problem. It relies on the public result and its covariance or Hessian, only, and is validated against the combined-likelihood approach. A dedicated software package implementing this method is also presented. It provides a text-based user interface alongside a C++ interface. The latter also interfaces to ROOT classes for simple combination of binned measurements such as differential cross sections. (orig.)

  12. Regional Disparities in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBOLYA KURKÓ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The abolishment of the communist regime, the establishment of a democratic legal and institutional system brought important changes in the development of the regional economy of Romania. The old – from an economic point of view – differentiating factors have lost some of their importance, mainly the level of industrialization, which, in the past, was used to measure economic development. In addition, other factors came forward, that correlate more with the economic capacity, but, nowadays, their positive effect can only be increased by the combination of several other factors: foreign investments, as an indicator of regional attractiveness, regional GDP, the level of personal income, and the appreciation of human resources. Today, in the interest of enhancing the competitiveness of the regions a special role is reserved for entrepreneurial activity, the strength of the SME sector, the role of foreign working capital in the local economy, but also the territorial concentration of R&D centers. The study focuses on some aspects of disparities regarding the regional economic structure.

  13. Measurement of turbulent mixing in a confined wake flow using combined PIV and PLIF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjertager, Lene K.; Hjertager, Bjorn H.; Deen, N.G.; Solberg, Tron; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulent mixing in a confined wake flow was studied by using the combined PIV/PLIF technique to measure instantaneous concentration and velocity fields. Measurements were performed at two slightly overlapping areas in the initial mixing zone and at an area at the end of the channel. The

  14. Combination scattering of dissociating gas applied to measurements of temperature and concentration of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkov, V.A.; Kurganova, F.I.; Grishchuk, M.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    The method to calculate the combination scattering power of the components of the dissociating N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 → 2NO+O 2 gas subjected to the laser radiation effect is given. The combination scattering power has been calculated for temperatures 400-600 K, pressures 1-3 MPa, with the neodymium laser (λ=1.06 μm) as a source and the possibility of measuring the local temperatures and concentration of the given gas components with the help of the combination scattering has been analysed. It follows from the calculated data that combination scattering power of N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 gas in excitation with the neodymium laser as a source is sufficient for detection. Gas temperature is likely to be measured with the minimum error relative to stokes and anti-stokes bands of the combination scattering, produced by nitrogen tetroxide. From calculated data it also follows that measurement of NO 2 concentration in the range 400-600 K is possible. At the same time combination scattering power, produced by NO and O 2 components is sufficient for measurement merely with the concentration of the components of the order of 10 18 molecules/cm 3 guaranteed in static conditions only at N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 gas temperature 500 K and higher

  15. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  16. Analysis of simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using different combinations of FBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashik T., J.; Kachare, Nitin; Kalyani bai, K.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) can be used for measuring temperature and or strain. In this paper analysis of different combinations of FBG is made. Certain parameters of FBG are considered such as Bandwidth, Side lobes, Peak power, and Sensitivity. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain is made using two combinations of FBG. The setup is simulated using two software. Optigrating 4.2.2 is used for designing different types of gratings such as Uniform, Apodized, Tilted and Superstructure. After designing, these files are exported to Optisystem 12 to simulate the spectrum and to observe the parameters.

  17. Solving Disparities Through Payment And Delivery System Reform: A Program To Achieve Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Xu, Lucy J; Nocon, Robert S; Cook, Scott C; Ducas, Andrea M; Chin, Marshall H

    2017-06-01

    Payment systems generally do not directly encourage or support the reduction of health disparities. In 2013 the Finding Answers: Solving Disparities through Payment and Delivery System Reform program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sought to understand how alternative payment models might intentionally incorporate a disparities-reduction component to promote health equity. A qualitative analysis of forty proposals to the program revealed that applicants generally did not link payment reform tightly to disparities reduction. Most proposed general pay-for-performance, global payment, or shared savings plans, combined with multicomponent system interventions. None of the applicants proposed making any financial payments contingent on having successfully reduced disparities. Most applicants did not address how they would optimize providers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to reduce disparities. A better understanding of how payment and care delivery models might be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities is essential. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  19. Constraints on Higgs boson couplings from a combination of ATLAS and CMS measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Combined ATLAS and CMS measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates as well as constraints on its couplings to vector bosons and fermions are presented. This combination is based on the analysis of five production processes and of the H → ZZ,WW, γγ, ττ, bb and μμ decay modes using the LHC Run-1 data. After a pedagogical introduction to the Higgs coupling interpretation framework and the combination procedure, the combined Higgs boson production and decay rates of the two experiments are presented within the context of two generic parameterisations: one based on ratios of cross sections and branching ratios and the other based on ratios of coupling modifiers, introduced within the context of a leading-order Higgs boson coupling framework. Several interpretations of the results with more model-dependent parameterisations, derived from the generic ones, are also presented.

  20. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from a combination of LHCb results

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-12-19

    A combination of measurements sensitive to the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb is performed. The inputs are from analyses of time-integrated $B^{+}\\rightarrow DK^+$, $B_{d}^{0} \\rightarrow D K^{*0}$, $B_{d} \\rightarrow D K^+ \\pi^-$ and $B^{+} \\rightarrow D K^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ tree-level decays. In addition, results from a time-dependent analysis of $B_{s}^{0} \\rightarrow D_{s}^{\\mp}K^{\\pm}$ decays are included. The combination yields $\\gamma = (72.2^{+6.8}_{-7.3})^\\circ$, where the uncertainty includes systematic effects. The 95.5% confidence level interval is determined to be $\\gamma \\in [55.9,85.2]^\\circ$. A second combination is investigated, also including measurements from $B^{+} \\rightarrow D \\pi^+$ and $B^{+} \\rightarrow D \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+$ decays, which yields compatible results.

  1. Development of a combination detector system for simultaneous measurement of Alpha and Beta/Gamma radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Ashokkumar, P.; Rekha, A.K.; Jain, Amit; Rath, D.P.; Chaudhury, Probal; Chaudhari, L.M.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of various samples for α and β/γ radioactivity is carried out in radiological laboratories. Using independent α and β/γ counting systems such measurements are done separately for same sample. In order to address the requirement of simultaneous measurement of α and β/γ activity content of radioactive samples, a counting system using combination of two detectors has been developed. Activity deposited on a 2 mm deep 30 mm diameter aluminum planchette was counted under the detector combination consisting of a ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for α and β/γ respectively. The design and fabrication of the combination detector, development of electronics associated with the system, its characterization and application are presented here

  2. Combined Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurements in Top-Antitop Quark Production at the Tevatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brochmann, M; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brucken, E; Bu, X B; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapelain, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cuth, J; Cutts, D; Das, A; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Drutskoy, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franc, J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Limosani, A; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Luna-Garcia, R; Lungu, G; Lyon, A L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansour, J; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez-Ortega, J; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miao, T; Miconi, F; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondal, N K; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nagy, E; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nett, J; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Nunnemann, T; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Orduna, J; Ortolan, L; Osman, N; Pagliarone, C; Pal, A; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parker, W; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Pondrom, L; Popov, A V; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ripp-Baudot, I; Ristori, L; Rizatdinova, F; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Rominsky, M; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sajot, G; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santi, L; Santos, A S; Sato, K; Savage, G; Saveliev, V; Savitskyi, M; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schott, M; Schwanenberger, C; Schwarz, T; Schwienhorst, R; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sekaric, J; Semenov, A; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Shabalina, E; Shalhout, S Z; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shkola, O; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simak, V; Simonenko, A; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, H; Sonnenschein, L; Sorin, V; Soustruznik, K; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stark, J; Stefaniuk, N; Stentz, D; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tokmenin, V V; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Verkheev, A Y; Vernieri, C; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vidal, M; Vilanova, D; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wahl, H D; Wallny, R; Wang, M H L S; Wang, S M; Warchol, J; Waters, D; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wobisch, M; Wolbers, S; Wolfmeister, H; Wood, D R; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, S; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Youn, S W; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, J M; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zucchelli, S

    2018-01-26

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron have measured the asymmetry between yields of forward- and backward-produced top and antitop quarks based on their rapidity difference and the asymmetry between their decay leptons. These measurements use the full data sets collected in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV. We report the results of combinations of the inclusive asymmetries and their differential dependencies on relevant kinematic quantities. The combined inclusive asymmetry is A_{FB}^{tt[over ¯]}=0.128±0.025. The combined inclusive and differential asymmetries are consistent with recent standard model predictions.

  3. Combination of Evidence with Different Weighting Factors: A Novel Probabilistic-Based Dissimilarity Measure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS with high conflict in multisensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure. Firstly, an improved probabilistic transformation function is proposed to map basic belief assignments (BBAs to probabilities. Then, a new dissimilarity measure integrating fuzzy nearness and introduced correlation coefficient is proposed to characterize not only the difference between basic belief functions (BBAs but also the divergence degree of the hypothesis that two BBAs support. Finally, the weighting factors used to reassign conflicts on BBAs are developed and Dempster’s rule is chosen to combine the discounted sources. Simple numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the merit of the proposed method. Through analysis and comparison of the results, the new combination approach can effectively solve the problem of conflict management with better convergence performance and robustness.

  4. Measurement of the CKM angle γ from a combination of LHCb results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of measurements sensitive to the CKM angle γ from LHCb is performed. The inputs are from analyses of time-integrated B + →DK + , B 0 →DK ∗0 , B 0 →DK + π − and B + →DK + π + π − tree-level decays. In addition, results from a time-dependent analysis of B s 0 →D s ∓ K ± decays are included. The combination yields γ=(72.2 −7.3 +6.8 ) ∘ , where the uncertainty includes systematic effects. The 95.5% confidence level interval is determined to be γ∈[55.9,85.2] ∘ . A second combination is investigated, also including measurements from B + →Dπ + and B + →Dπ + π − π + decays, which yields compatible results.

  5. ToF-SIMS measurements with topographic information in combined images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabrina; Ziegler, Georg; Hutter, Herbert

    2013-09-01

    In 2D and 3D time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric (ToF-SIMS) analysis, accentuated structures on the sample surface induce distorted element distributions in the measurement. The origin of this effect is the 45° incidence angle of the analysis beam, recording planar images with distortion of the sample surface. For the generation of correct element distributions, these artifacts associated with the sample surface need to be eliminated by measuring the sample surface topography and applying suitable algorithms. For this purpose, the next generation of ToF-SIMS instruments will feature a scanning probe microscope directly implemented in the sample chamber which allows the performance of topography measurements in situ. This work presents the combination of 2D and 3D ToF-SIMS analysis with topographic measurements by ex situ techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy (CM), and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The concept of the combination of topographic and ToF-SIMS measurements in a single representation was applied to organic and inorganic samples featuring surface structures in the nanometer and micrometer ranges. The correct representation of planar and distorted ToF-SIMS images was achieved by the combination of topographic data with images of 2D as well as 3D ToF-SIMS measurements, using either AFM, CM, or DHM for the recording of topographic data.

  6. A Simple Device for Measuring Static Compliance of Lung-Thorax Combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the concept of lung compliance remains a challenge to the physiology teacher because it cannot be demonstrated easily in human subjects and all attempts until now have used only simulation models. A simple device is described in the present article to measure the compliance of the "lung-thorax" combine in human subjects with…

  7. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  8. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Merel M. C.; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Hoesli, Irene M.; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R.; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M.; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y.; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the

  9. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  10. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  11. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.

  12. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengshi; Kwaku, Abuaku Benjamin; Chen, Youfang; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wen, Shi Wu

    2014-04-27

    Major efforts have been made to improve the health care system in Hunan province, China. The aims of this study were to assess whether and to what extent these efforts have impacted on gender and regional disparities of Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in recent years, especially for less developed areas. We obtained data from the 2005-2009 China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP)to conduct this study in Hunan province. Counties within the province were divided into four regions according to quartiles based on the 2007 per capita GDP. Index of Disparity (ID) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to measure the disparities of TB incidence in relation to gender and region. Bootstrap technique was used to increase the precision. The average annual incidence of TB was 111.75 per 100,000 in males and 43.44 per 100 000 in females in Hunan. The gender disparity was stable, with ID from 42.34 in 2005 to 43.92 in 2009. For regional disparity, ID, RII (mean) and RII (ratio) decreased significantly from 2005 to 2009 in males (P China, regional disparity in relation to incidence of TB decreased significantly, but the gender disparity remains in the Hunan province.

  13. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  14. Clearance measurements on activated parts of accelerators by combined methods; Verfahrenskombinierte Freigabemessung aktivierter Beschleunigerteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S.; Friedemann, S. [VKTA, Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay

    2016-07-01

    The process of clearance of radioactive materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV contents the comparison of activity to mass and surface of the material. To avoid a borderless assessment of activity of activation it is often necessary to use combined measurement methods: For clearance of collimators of a medical proton accelerator (energy range up to 200 MeV) it needs to know the nuclide composition. The energetical and geometrical calibration was fixed by experiments. The clearance based on measurements of activity distribution, gammaspectroscopy verification of nuclide composition and gamma-counting detectors. Parts of medical electron-accelerators achieved its clearance by combination of abovementioned methods and in-situ-gammaspectroscopy. Activated und contaminated lead stones achieved its clearance by measurements of fluence, laboratory evaluation of samples, in-situ-gammaspectroscopy and wipe tests.

  15. Forest Resource Measurements by Combination of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Drone Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.; Katoh, M.; Horisawa, M.

    2017-10-01

    Using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), forest attributes such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree location can be measured accurately. However, due to low penetration of laser pulses to tree tops, tree height measurements are typically underestimated. In this study, data acquired by TLS and drones were combined; DBH and tree locations were determined by TLS, and tree heights were measured by drone use. The average tree height error and root mean square error (RMSE) of tree height were 0.8 and 1.2 m, respectively, for the combined method, and -0.4 and 1.7 m using TLS alone. The tree height difference was compared using airborne laser scanning (ALS). Furthermore, a method to acquire 100 % tree detection rate based on TLS data is suggested in this study.

  16. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China: Urban-Rural Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of urban-rural disparity in childhood obesity varies across countries. The present study examined the change trend of urban-rural disparity in childhood overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of school children carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. In this study, 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included (14 458 in 1985, 7198 in 1995, 8568 in 2005 and 9719 in 2014). Height and weight of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated from their height and weight. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing continuously both in urban and rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher in urban than in rural children and adolescents in 1985, 1995 and 2005 (p overweight and obesity was observed in rural areas after 2005; as a result, the urban-rural disparity was getting narrower, and no significant urban-rural disparity was observed in 2014 (p > 0.05). The change trend of urban-rural disparity should be concerned in the future; policies and interventions focused on childhood overweight and obesity should pay attention to rural areas. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Examples of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the bacterium H. pylori (stomach cancer) in immigrant countries of origin contributes to these disparities. ( ACS ) ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  18. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  19. Combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089510

    2016-10-05

    The rotating coil is a widely used tool to measure the magnetic field and the field errors in accelerator magnets. The coil has a length that exceeds the entire magnetic field along the longitudinal dimension of the magnet and gives therefore a two-dimensional representation of the integrated field. Having a very good precision, the rotating coil lacks in versatility. The fixed dimensions make it impractical and inapplicable in situations, when the radial coil dimension is much smaller than the aperture or when the aperture is only little covered by the coil. That being the case for rectangular apertures with large aspect ratio, where a basic measurement by the rotating coil describes the field only in a small area of the magnet. A combination of several measurements at different positions is the topic of this work. Very important for a combination is the error distribution on the measured field harmonics. To preserve the good precision of the higher-order harmonics, the combination must not rely on the main ...

  20. A combination of clinical balance measures and FRAX® to improve identification of high-risk fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, David A; Dahlberg, Leif E; Hansson, Eva Ekvall

    2016-05-03

    The FRAX® algorithm quantifies a patient's 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture without taking an individual's balance into account. Balance measures assess the functional ability of an individual and the FRAX® algorithm is a model that integrates the individual patients clinical risk factors [not balance] and bone mineral density. Thus, clinical balance measures capture aspects that the FRAX® algorithm does not, and vice versa. It is therefore possible that combining FRAX® and clinical balance measures can improve the identification of patients at high fall risk and thereby high fracture risk. Our study aim was to explore whether there is an association between clinical balance measures and fracture prediction obtained from FRAX®. A cross-sectional study design was used where post hoc was performed on a dataset of 82 participants (54 to 89 years of age, mean age 71.4, 77 female), with a fall-related wrist-fracture between 2008 and 2012. Balance was measured by tandem stance, standing one leg, walking in the figure of eight, walking heel to toe on a line, walking as fast as possible for 30 m and five times sit to stand balance measures [tandem stance and standing one leg measured first with open and then with closed eyes] and each one analyzed for bivariate relations with the 10-year probability values for hip and major osteoporotic fractures as calculated by FRAX® using Spearman's rank correlation test. Individuals with high FRAX® values had poor outcome in balance measures; however the significance level of the correlation differed between tests. Standing one leg eyes closed had strongest correlation to FRAX® (0.610 p = balance measures and FRAX®. Hence, the use of clinical balance measures and FRAX® in combination, might improve the identification of individuals with high risk of falls and thereby following fractures. Results enable healthcare providers to optimize treatment and prevention of fall-related fractures. The study has

  1. Edge turbulence measurement in Heliotron J using a combination of hybrid probe system and fast cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, N.; Zang, L.; Takeuchi, M.; Mizuuchi, T.; Ohshima, S.; Kasajima, K.; Sha, M.; Mukai, K.; Lee, H.Y.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid probe system (a combination of Langmuir probes and magnetic probes), fast camera and gas puffing system were installed at the same toroidal section to study edge plasma turbulence/fluctuation in Heliotron J, especially blob (intermittent filament). Fast camera views the location of the probe head, so that the probe system yields the time evolution of the turbulence/fluctuation while the camera images the spatial profile. Gas puff at the same toroidal section was used to control the plasma density and simultaneous gas puff imaging technique. Using this combined system the filamentary structure associated with magnetic fluctuation was found in Heliotron J at the first time. The other kind of fluctuation was also observed at another experiment. This combination measurement enables us to distinguish MHD activity and electro-static activity

  2. Combined Measurement and QCD Analysis of the Inclusive ep Scattering Cross Sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Antunovic, B.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Bizot, J.C.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E.G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Boutle, S.K.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brummer, N.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bussey, P.J.; Butterworth, J.M.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C.D.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Favereau, J.; Delcourt, B.; del Peso, J.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R.K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drugakov, V.; Dubak, A.; Durkin, L.S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P.F.; Eskreys, A.; Falkiewicz, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gabathuler, E.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Gottlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grell, B.R.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J.C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K.H.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Horton, K.; Hreus, T.; Huttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T.W.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Jungst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I.I.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L.A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J.Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kostka, P.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kutak, K.; Kuze, M.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Li, G.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T.Y.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J.H.; Loktionova, N.; Long, K.R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukasik, J.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Luzniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makankine, A.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Marage, P.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Marti, Ll.; Martin, J.F.; Martyn, H.U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.D.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Nicholass, D.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R.J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Osman, S.; Ota, O.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlik, B.; Pejchal, O.; Pelfer, P.G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Plucinski, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D.D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y.D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salek, D.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A.A.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schonberg, V.; Schoning, A.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Sloan, T.; Slominski, W.; Smiljanic, I.; Smith, W.H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sorokin, Iu.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Sunar, D.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A.D.; Tassi, E.; Tchoulakov, V.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Urban, K.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, V.; Vinokurova, S.; Vlasov, N.N.; Volchinski, V.; Volynets, O.; von den Driesch, M.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J.J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wunsch, E.; Yagues-Molina, A.G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zeniaev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhokin, A.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolko, M.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q^2, and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic uncertainties into account, resulting in an improved accuracy. The combined data are the sole input in a NLO QCD analysis which determines a new set of parton distributions HERAPDF1.0 with small experimental uncertainties. This set includes an estimate of the model and parametrisation uncertainties of the fit result.

  3. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  4. Controlling disease and creating disparities: a fundamental cause perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C; Link, Bruce G

    2005-10-01

    The United States and other developed countries experienced enormous improvements in population health during the 20th century. In the context of this dramatic positive change, health disparities by race and socioeconomic status emerged for several potent killers. Any explanation for current health disparities must take these changing patterns into account. Any explanation that ignores large improvements in population health and fails to account for the emergence of disparities for specific diseases is an inadequate explanation of current disparities. We argue that genetic explanations and some prominent social causation explanations are incompatible with these facts. We propose that the theory of "fundamental causes" can account for both vast improvements in population health and the creation of large socioeconomic and racial disparities in mortality for specific causes of death over time. Specifically, we argue that it is our enormously expanded capacity to control disease and death in combination with existing social and economic inequalities that create health disparities by race and socioeconomic status: When we develop the ability to control disease and death, the benefits of this new-found ability are distributed according to resources of knowledge, money, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections. We present data on changing mortality patterns by race and socioeconomic status for two types of diseases: those for which our capacity to prevent death has increased significantly and those for which we remain largely unable to prevent death. Time trends in mortality patterns are consistent with the fundamental cause explanation.

  5. Combined measurements of the Higgs boson's couplings at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Combined measurements of the Higgs boson's production and decay rates, as well its couplings to vector bosons and fermions, are presented. The analysis uses the LHC proton-proton collision data set recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. The combination is based on the analysis of the production processes gluon fusion, vector boson fusion, and associated production with a W or Z boson or a pair of top quarks, and of the H$\\to$ZZ, WW, $\\gamma\\gamma$, $\\tau\\tau$, bb, and $\\mu\\mu$ decay modes. Dedicated searches for invisible Higgs boson decays are also considered. The combined signal strength is measured as $\\mu=1.17^{+0.10}_{-0.10}$. The Higgs boson production and decay rates are combined within the context of two generic parameterizations: one based on the ratios of cross sections and branching ratios, and the other based on the ratios of coupling modifiers. Several interpretations of the results, with more model-dependent paramet...

  6. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  7. A combined aeroelastic-aeroacoustic model for wind turbine noise: Verification and analysis of field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, semi-empirical engineering models for the three main wind turbine aerodynamic noise sources, namely, turbulent inflow, trailing edge and stall noise, are introduced. They are implemented into the in-house aeroelastic code HAWC2 commonly used for wind turbine load calculations...... and design. The results of the combined aeroelastic and aeroacoustic model are compared with field noise measurements of a 500kW wind turbine. Model and experimental data are in fairly good agreement in terms of noise levels and directivity. The combined model allows separating the various noise sources...... and highlights a number of mechanisms that are difficult to differentiate when only the overall noise from a wind turbine is measured....

  8. Combined electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram measurements as an indicator of objective sleepiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Chern-Pin; McDarby, Gary; Heneghan, Conor

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in unobtrusive and portable methods of monitoring sleepiness outside the laboratory setting. This study evaluates the usefulness of combined electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) measurements for estimating psychomotor vigilance. The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was performed at various points over the course of a day, and one channel each of ECG and PPG was recorded simultaneously. Features derived from ECG and PPG were entered into multiple linear regression models to estimate PVT values. A double-loop, subject-independent validation scheme was used to develop and validate the models. We show that features obtained from the RR interval were reasonably useful for estimating absolute PVT levels, but were somewhat inadequate for estimating within-subject PVT changes. Combined ECG and PPG measurements appear to be useful for predicting PVT values, and deserve further investigation for portable sleepiness monitoring

  9. Procalcitonin, MR-Proadrenomedullin, and Cytokines Measurement in Sepsis Diagnosis: Advantages from Test Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angeletti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elevated cytokines levels correlate with sepsis severity and mortality but their role in the diagnosis is controversial, whereas Procalcitonin (PCT has been largely used. Recently, the mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM has been combined with PCT for diagnosis optimization. In this study the combined measurement of PCT, MR-proADM, and cytokines in patients with sepsis was evaluated. Methods. One hundred and four septic patients and 101 controls were enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to evaluate applicant markers for sepsis diagnosis. Markers with best Odds Ratio (OR were combined, and the posttest probability and a composite score were computed. Results. Based upon ROC curves analysis, PCT, MR-proADM, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were considered applicant for sepsis diagnosis. Among these PCT, MR-proADM , IL-6, and TNF-α showed the best OR. A better posttest probability was found with the combination of PCT with MR-proADM and PCT with IL-6 or TNF-α compared to the single marker. A composite score of PCT, MR-proADM, and TNF-α showed the best ROC curve in the early diagnosis of sepsis. Conclusion. The combination of PCT with other markers should expedite diagnosis and treatment of sepsis optimizing clinical management.

  10. Evaluation of the combined measurement uncertainty in isotope dilution by MC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunato, G.; Wunderli, S.

    2003-01-01

    The combination of metrological weighing, the measurement of isotope amount ratios by a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) and the use of high-purity reference materials are the cornerstones to achieve improved results for the amount content of lead in wine by the reversed isotope dilution technique. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and reversed IDMS have the potential to be a so-called primary method, with which close comparability and well-stated combined measurement uncertainties can be obtained. This work describes the detailed uncertainty budget determination using the ISO-GUM approach. The traces of lead in wine were separated from the matrix by ion exchange chromatography after HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 microwave digestion. The thallium isotope amount ratio (n( 205 Tl)/n( 203 Tl)) was used to correct for mass discrimination using an exponential model approach. The corrected lead isotope amount ratio n( 206 Pb)/n( 208 Pb) for the isotopic standard SRM 981 measured in our laboratory was compared with ratio values considered to be the least uncertain. The result has been compared in a so-called pilot study ''lead in wine'' organised by the CCQM (Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere, BIPM, Paris; the highest measurement authority for analytical chemical measurements). The result for the lead amount content k(Pb) and the corresponding expanded uncertainty U given by our laboratory was:k(Pb)=1.329 x 10-10mol g-1 (amount content of lead in wine)U[k(Pb)]=1.0 x 10-12mol g-1 (expanded uncertainty U=k x uc, k=2) The uncertainty of the main influence parameter of the combined measurement uncertainty was determined to be the isotope amount ratio R 206,B of the blend between the enriched spike and the sample. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the CKM angle γ from a combination of LHCb results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d’Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Coco, V.; David, P. N Y; De Bruyn, K.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Onderwater, C. J G; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Serra, N.; Snoek, H.; Storaci, B.; Syropoulos, V.; van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of measurements sensitive to the CKM angle γ from LHCb is performed. The inputs are from analyses of time-integrated B+ → DK+, B0 → DK∗0, B0 → DK+π− and B+ → DK+π+π− tree-level decays. In addition, results from a time-dependent analysis of Bs 0 → Ds ∓K± decays are included. The

  12. Combined measurement of maternal serum FE3 and HPL for determination of fetus-placenta function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yangshui; Li Gefang; Xia Dingwen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of combined measurement of maternal serum FE 3 and HPL for determination of fetus-placenta function. Methods: Maternal serum FE 3 and HPL levels were measured with RIA in 86 complicated and 39 non-complicated pregnant women. Results: Serum FE 3 contents in pregnant women complicated with hypertensive syndrome, intrauterine fetal distress, gestation above 33 wks complicated with diabetes and 3rd grade placenta were significantly lower than those in non-complicated ones (p 3 and HPL could improve the early diagnosis of high-risk pregnancies

  13. Combination of CDF and D0 measurements of the $W$ boson helicity in top quark decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls /Michigan U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /INFN, Padua

    2012-02-01

    We report the combination of recent measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top quark decay by the CDF and D0 collaborations, based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 2.7-5.4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Combining measurements that simultaneously determine the fractions of W bosons with longitudinal (f{sub 0}) and right-handed (f{sub +}) helicities, we find f{sub 0} = 0.722 {+-} 0.081 [{+-} 0.062 (stat.) {+-} 0.052 (syst.)] and f{sub +} = -0.033 {+-} 0.046 [{+-} 0.034 (stat.) {+-} 0.031 (syst.)]. Combining measurements where one of the helicity fractions is fixed to the value expected in the standard model, we find f{sub 0} = 0.682 {+-} 0.057 [{+-} 0.035 (stat.) {+-} 0.046 (syst.)] and f{sub +} = ?0.015 {+-} 0.035 [{+-} 0.018 (stat.) {+-} 0.030 (syst.)]. The results are consistent with standard model expectations.

  14. Combination of the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy method with electrochemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendro, I.; Erdelyi, K.; Fabian, M. [MicroVacuum Ltd., Kerekgyarto u.: 10, H-1147 Budapest (Hungary); Puskas, Zs. [Minvasive Ltd., Goldmann Gy. ter 3., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Adanyi, N. [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O.B. 393 (Hungary); Somogyi, K. [MicroVacuum Ltd., Kerekgyarto u.: 10, H-1147 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: karoly.somogyi@microvacuum.com

    2008-09-30

    Optical waveguides are normally sensitive to the surrounding media and also to the surface contaminations. The effective refractive index changes at the surface. Various sensor systems were developed based on this effect. One of the most sensitive and effective methods is the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). At the same time, electrochemical methods are widely used both in inorganic and organic chemistry, and also advantages in microbiology were demonstrated. In this work, efforts are made and results are presented for the combination of these two methods for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and electrical current changes caused by the presence of cells/molecules/ions to be investigated. An electrically conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanolayer is deposited and activated on the top of the OWLS planar waveguide oxide layer. ITO layers serve as working electrodes in the electrochemical measurements. The basic setup and an integrated system are demonstrated here. Measurements using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, toluidine blue solutions, and KCl and TRIS solutions as buffer and transport media are represented. Measurements show both the changes detected by the sensor layer and the effect of the applied potential in cyclic and chrono voltammetric measurements. Results demonstrate an effective combination of optical and electrochemical methods.

  15. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  16. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  17. The Effects of Hurricane Katrina on Food Access Disparities in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, J. Nicholas; Rice, Janet C.; Swalm, Chris M.; Hutchinson, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in neighborhood food access are well documented, but little research exists on how shocks influence such disparities. We examined neighborhood food access in New Orleans at 3 time points: before Hurricane Katrina (2004–2005), in 2007, and in 2009. We combined existing directories with on-the-ground verification and geographic information system mapping to assess supermarket counts in the entire city. Existing disparities for African American neighborhoods worsened after the storm. Although improvements have been made, by 2009 disparities were no better than prestorm levels. PMID:21233432

  18. Possible Sediment Mixing and the Disparity between Field Measurements and Paleolimnological Inferences in Shallow Iowa Lakes in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W. Bachmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements of water quality in Iowa lakes contradict paleolimnological studies that used 210Pb dating techniques in 33 lakes to infer accelerating eutrophication and sediment accumulation in recent decades. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a series of water quality measurements taken in 24 of these lakes during the period 1972–2010. There was little change in the trophic state variables. Total phosphorus and algal chlorophylls did not increase, and Secchi depths did not decrease with no evidence that the lakes had become more eutrophic. Changes in daily sediment loads in the Raccoon River also did not match the paleolimnological inferred rates of soil erosion for the period 1905–2005, and an independent estimate of soil erosion rates showed a decline of 40% in the 1977 to 2012 period rather than an increase. We hypothesized that sediment mixing by benthivorous fish could be responsible for violating the basic assumption of 210Pb sediment dating that the sediments are not disturbed once they are laid down. We developed a mathematical model that demonstrated that sediment mixing could lead to false inferences about sediment dates and sediment burial rates. This study raises the possibility that sediment mixing in Iowa lakes and similar shallow, eutrophic lakes with benthivorous fish may cause significant sediment mixing that can compromise dating using 210Pb dating of sediment cores.

  19. Marked disparity between trabecular and cortical bone loss with age in healthy men. Measurement by vertebral computed tomography and radial photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.E.; Orwoll, E.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To define age-related changes in bone mineral content in normal men, we measured radial (proximal and distal) and vertebral bone mineral content in 62 men aged 30 to 92 years. Radial bone mineral content (largely cortical bone) was measured by single photon absorptiometry, and trabecular vertebral content (T12, L1 to L3) by computed tomography. Radial bone mineral content fell gradually (2% to 3.4% per decade) with age, but vertebral trabecular content fell more rapidly (12% per decade). Body size was not associated with the rate of bone loss from the distal radial and vertebral sites, but men with lower surface areas lost bone more rapidly at the predominantly cortical proximal radial site. The fact that radial cortical bone mineral content falls much less rapidly than vertebral trabecular content with age and is also associated with surface area indicates that trabecular and cortical bone compartments may be independently modulated. Age-related bone loss should not be considered a homogeneous process

  20. The Combined Effects of Measurement Error and Omitting Confounders in the Single-Mediator Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Matthew S; Kenny, David A; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-01-01

    Mediation analysis requires a number of strong assumptions be met in order to make valid causal inferences. Failing to account for violations of these assumptions, such as not modeling measurement error or omitting a common cause of the effects in the model, can bias the parameter estimates of the mediated effect. When the independent variable is perfectly reliable, for example when participants are randomly assigned to levels of treatment, measurement error in the mediator tends to underestimate the mediated effect, while the omission of a confounding variable of the mediator-to-outcome relation tends to overestimate the mediated effect. Violations of these two assumptions often co-occur, however, in which case the mediated effect could be overestimated, underestimated, or even, in very rare circumstances, unbiased. To explore the combined effect of measurement error and omitted confounders in the same model, the effect of each violation on the single-mediator model is first examined individually. Then the combined effect of having measurement error and omitted confounders in the same model is discussed. Throughout, an empirical example is provided to illustrate the effect of violating these assumptions on the mediated effect.

  1. Combining fibre optic Raman spectroscopy and tactile resonance measurement for tissue characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candefjord, Stefan; Nyberg, Morgan; Ramser, Kerstin; Lindahl, Olof A; Jalkanen, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Tissue characterization is fundamental for identification of pathological conditions. Raman spectroscopy (RS) and tactile resonance measurement (TRM) are two promising techniques that measure biochemical content and stiffness, respectively. They have potential to complement the golden standard-–histological analysis. By combining RS and TRM, complementary information about tissue content can be obtained and specific drawbacks can be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate approach to compare RS and TRM information. The approach was evaluated on measurements at the same points on porcine abdominal tissue. The measurement points were divided into five groups by multivariate analysis of the RS data. A regression analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the RS and TRM data. TRM identified one group efficiently (area under ROC curve 0.99). The RS data showed that the proportion of saturated fat was high in this group. The regression analysis showed that stiffness was mainly determined by the amount of fat and its composition. We concluded that RS provided additional, important information for tissue identification that was not provided by TRM alone. The results are promising for development of a method combining RS and TRM for intraoperative tissue characterization

  2. The assessment of changes in brain volume using combined linear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Steiner, I.; Melamed, E.; Cooper, G.

    1984-01-01

    All linear measurements employed for evaluation of brain atrophy, were performed on 148 computed tomograms of patients aged 28 to 84 without evidence of any nervous system disorder. These included size of lateral, third and fourth ventricles, width of the Sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and cortical sulci and size of the pre-pontine cistern. Various parameters indicated decrease in brain mass with age. Since the atrophic process is a diffuse phenomenon, integration of several measurements evaluating separate brain regions was made. The bicaudate ratio and the Sylvian fissure ratio (representing both central and cortical atrophy) were combined arithmetically, resulting in a correlation of 0.6390 with age (p<0.0005). With a computed canonical correlation analysis: a formula was obtained which combined measurements of the lateral and third ventricles, the Sylvian fissure and the pre-pontine cistern. This formula yealded a correlation of 0.67795 (p<0.0005). These linear measurements will enable simple and reliable assessment of reduction in brain volume during the normal aging process and in disorders accompanied by brain atrophy. (orig.)

  3. The Combined Effects of Measurement Error and Omitting Confounders in the Single-Mediator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Matthew S.; Kenny, David A.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Mediation analysis requires a number of strong assumptions be met in order to make valid causal inferences. Failing to account for violations of these assumptions, such as not modeling measurement error or omitting a common cause of the effects in the model, can bias the parameter estimates of the mediated effect. When the independent variable is perfectly reliable, for example when participants are randomly assigned to levels of treatment, measurement error in the mediator tends to underestimate the mediated effect, while the omission of a confounding variable of the mediator to outcome relation tends to overestimate the mediated effect. Violations of these two assumptions often co-occur, however, in which case the mediated effect could be overestimated, underestimated, or even, in very rare circumstances, unbiased. In order to explore the combined effect of measurement error and omitted confounders in the same model, the impact of each violation on the single-mediator model is first examined individually. Then the combined effect of having measurement error and omitted confounders in the same model is discussed. Throughout, an empirical example is provided to illustrate the effect of violating these assumptions on the mediated effect. PMID:27739903

  4. Measurement of the CKM angle γ from a combination of LHCb results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Collaboration: The LHCb collaboration; and others

    2016-12-19

    A combination of measurements sensitive to the CKM angle γ from LHCb is performed. The inputs are from analyses of time-integrated B{sup +}→DK{sup +}, B{sup 0}→DK{sup ∗0}, B{sup 0}→DK{sup +}π{sup −} and B{sup +}→DK{sup +}π{sup +}π{sup −} tree-level decays. In addition, results from a time-dependent analysis of B{sub s}{sup 0}→D{sub s}{sup ∓}K{sup ±} decays are included. The combination yields γ=(72.2{sub −7.3}{sup +6.8}){sup ∘}, where the uncertainty includes systematic effects. The 95.5% confidence level interval is determined to be γ∈[55.9,85.2]{sup ∘}. A second combination is investigated, also including measurements from B{sup +}→Dπ{sup +} and B{sup +}→Dπ{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +} decays, which yields compatible results.

  5. ttH coupling measurements in ATLAS and combined results of 8 TeV data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Ali, Babar; Seifert, Frank [IEAP CTU in Prague (Czech Republic); Gentile, Simonetta; Kuna, Marine; Monzani, Simone [La Sapienza Universita, Roma (Italy); INFN, Roma (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    After the discovery of a Higgs boson, the measurements of its properties are now at the forefront of research. The measurement of the associated production of a Higgs boson and a pair of top quarks is of particular importance as the ttH Yukawa coupling is large, and thus a probe for physics beyond the Standard Model. For the first time the ttH production was analysed in the final state with two same-sign light leptions (electrons or muons) and a hadronically decaying tau lepton: ttH → 2l+1 τ{sub had}. The analysis was based on data taken by the ATLAS experiment recorded from 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. It contributed significantly to the combined ATLAS results of the five multi-lepton final states. These results were further combined with other ATLAS ttH analyses where H → γγ and H → b anti b. The combined results are consistent with the Standard Model (SM) expectation allowing models beyond the SM to be constrained.

  6. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  7. A salient region detection model combining background distribution measure for indoor robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Lining; Chen, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Vision system plays an important role in the field of indoor robot. Saliency detection methods, capturing regions that are perceived as important, are used to improve the performance of visual perception system. Most of state-of-the-art methods for saliency detection, performing outstandingly in natural images, cannot work in complicated indoor environment. Therefore, we propose a new method comprised of graph-based RGB-D segmentation, primary saliency measure, background distribution measure, and combination. Besides, region roundness is proposed to describe the compactness of a region to measure background distribution more robustly. To validate the proposed approach, eleven influential methods are compared on the DSD and ECSSD dataset. Moreover, we build a mobile robot platform for application in an actual environment, and design three different kinds of experimental constructions that are different viewpoints, illumination variations and partial occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms existing methods and is useful for indoor mobile robots.

  8. Recurrent connectivity can account for the dynamics of disparity processing in V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Jason M.; Potetz, Brian R.; Tyler, Christopher W.; Lee, Tai Sing

    2013-01-01

    Disparity tuning measured in the primary visual cortex (V1) is described well by the disparity energy model, but not all aspects of disparity tuning are fully explained by the model. Such deviations from the disparity energy model provide us with insight into how network interactions may play a role in disparity processing and help to solve the stereo correspondence problem. Here, we propose a neuronal circuit model with recurrent connections that provides a simple account of the observed deviations. The model is based on recurrent connections inferred from neurophysiological observations on spike timing correlations, and is in good accord with existing data on disparity tuning dynamics. We further performed two additional experiments to test predictions of the model. First, we increased the size of stimuli to drive more neurons and provide a stronger recurrent input. Our model predicted sharper disparity tuning for larger stimuli. Second, we displayed anti-correlated stereograms, where dots of opposite luminance polarity are matched between the left- and right-eye images and result in inverted disparity tuning in the disparity energy model. In this case, our model predicted reduced sharpening and strength of inverted disparity tuning. For both experiments, the dynamics of disparity tuning observed from the neurophysiological recordings in macaque V1 matched model simulation predictions. Overall, the results of this study support the notion that, while the disparity energy model provides a primary account of disparity tuning in V1 neurons, neural disparity processing in V1 neurons is refined by recurrent interactions among elements in the neural circuit. PMID:23407952

  9. Combined analysis of neutron and photon flux measurements for the Jules Horowitz reactor core mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A. [DEN Reactor Studies Dept., French Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Reynard-Carette, C. [Laboratoire Chimie Provence LCP UMR 6264, Univ. of Provence, Centre St. Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J. P.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J. Y. [DEN Reactor Studies Dept., French Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Merroun, O.; Brun, J.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J. [Laboratoire Chimie Provence LCP UMR 6264, Univ. of Provence, Centre St. Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2011-07-01

    We study the combined analysis of nuclear measurements to improve the knowledge of the irradiation conditions in the experimental locations of the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The goal of the present work is to measure more accurately neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating in the reactor. In a Material Testing Reactor (MTR), nuclear heating is a crucial parameter to design the experimental devices to be irradiated in harsh nuclear conditions. This parameter drives the temperature of the devices and of the samples. The numerical codes can predict this parameter but in-situ measurements are necessary to reach the expected accuracy. For this reason, one objective of the IN-CORE program [1] is to study the combined measurements of neutron and photon flux and their cross advanced interpretation. It should be reminded that both neutron and photon sensors are not totally selective as their signals are due to neutron and photon interactions. We intend to measure the neutron flux by three different kinds of sensors (Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber and Self Powered Neutron Detector), the photon flux by two different sensors (Ionization chamber and Self Powered Gamma Detector) and the nuclear heating by two different ones (Differential calorimeter and Gamma Thermometer). For the same parameter, we expect that the use of different kinds of sensors will allow a better estimation of the aimed parameter by mixing different spectrum responses and different neutron and gamma contributions. An experimental test called CARMEN-1 is scheduled in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France) at the end of 2011, with the goal to map irradiation locations in the reactor reflector to get a first validation of the analysis model. This article focuses on the sensor selection for CARMEN-1 experiment and to the way to link neutron and photon flux measurements in view to reduce their uncertainties but also to better assess the neutron and photon contributions to nuclear

  10. Combined analysis of neutron and photon flux measurements for the Jules Horowitz reactor core mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J. P.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J. Y.; Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Merroun, O.; Brun, J.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the combined analysis of nuclear measurements to improve the knowledge of the irradiation conditions in the experimental locations of the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The goal of the present work is to measure more accurately neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating in the reactor. In a Material Testing Reactor (MTR), nuclear heating is a crucial parameter to design the experimental devices to be irradiated in harsh nuclear conditions. This parameter drives the temperature of the devices and of the samples. The numerical codes can predict this parameter but in-situ measurements are necessary to reach the expected accuracy. For this reason, one objective of the IN-CORE program [1] is to study the combined measurements of neutron and photon flux and their cross advanced interpretation. It should be reminded that both neutron and photon sensors are not totally selective as their signals are due to neutron and photon interactions. We intend to measure the neutron flux by three different kinds of sensors (Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber and Self Powered Neutron Detector), the photon flux by two different sensors (Ionization chamber and Self Powered Gamma Detector) and the nuclear heating by two different ones (Differential calorimeter and Gamma Thermometer). For the same parameter, we expect that the use of different kinds of sensors will allow a better estimation of the aimed parameter by mixing different spectrum responses and different neutron and gamma contributions. An experimental test called CARMEN-1 is scheduled in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France) at the end of 2011, with the goal to map irradiation locations in the reactor reflector to get a first validation of the analysis model. This article focuses on the sensor selection for CARMEN-1 experiment and to the way to link neutron and photon flux measurements in view to reduce their uncertainties but also to better assess the neutron and photon contributions to nuclear

  11. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  12. Temporal Integration of Auditory Stimulation and Binocular Disparity Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies using visual objects defined by luminance have reported that the auditory event must be presented 30 to 40 ms after the visual stimulus to perceive audiovisual synchrony. In the present study, we used visual objects defined only by their binocular disparity. We measured the optimal latency between visual and auditory stimuli for the perception of synchrony using a method introduced by Moutoussis & Zeki (1997. Visual stimuli were defined either by luminance and disparity or by disparity only. They moved either back and forth between 6 and 12 arcmin or from left to right at a constant disparity of 9 arcmin. This visual modulation was presented together with an amplitude-modulated 500 Hz tone. Both modulations were sinusoidal (frequency: 0.7 Hz. We found no difference between 2D and 3D motion for luminance stimuli: a 40 ms auditory lag was necessary for perceived synchrony. Surprisingly, even though stereopsis is often thought to be slow, we found a similar optimal latency in the disparity 3D motion condition (55 ms. However, when participants had to judge simultaneity for disparity 2D motion stimuli, it led to larger latencies (170 ms, suggesting that stereo motion detectors are poorly suited to track 2D motion.

  13. Coordinate alignment of combined measurement systems using a modified common points method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, P.; Xiao, W.

    2018-03-01

    The co-ordinate metrology has been extensively researched for its outstanding advantages in measurement range and accuracy. The alignment of different measurement systems is usually achieved by integrating local coordinates via common points before measurement. The alignment errors would accumulate and significantly reduce the global accuracy, thus need to be minimized. In this thesis, a modified common points method (MCPM) is proposed to combine different traceable system errors of the cooperating machines, and optimize the global accuracy by introducing mutual geometric constraints. The geometric constraints, obtained by measuring the common points in individual local coordinate systems, provide the possibility to reduce the local measuring uncertainty whereby enhance the global measuring certainty. A simulation system is developed in Matlab to analyze the feature of MCPM using the Monto-Carlo method. An exemplary setup is constructed to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method associated with laser tracker and indoor iGPS systems. Experimental results show that MCPM could significantly improve the alignment accuracy.

  14. Measurement of the CKM angle γ from a combination of B±→Dh± analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of three LHCb measurements of the CKM angle γ is presented. The decays B ± →DK ± and B ± →Dπ ± are used, where D denotes an admixture of D 0 and D ¯0 mesons, decaying into K + K − , π + π − , K ± π ∓ , K ± π ∓ π ± π ∓ , K S 0 π + π − , or K S 0 K + K − final states. All measurements use a dataset corresponding to 1.0 fb −1 of integrated luminosity. Combining results from B ± →DK ± decays alone a best-fit value of γ=72.0° is found, and confidence intervals are set γ∈[56.4,86.7]°at 68% CL, γ∈[42.6,99.6]°at 95% CL. The best-fit value of γ found from a combination of results from B ± →Dπ ± decays alone, is γ=18.9°, and the confidence intervals γ∈[7.4,99.2]°∪[167.9,176.4]°at 68% CL are set, without constraint at 95% CL. The combination of results from B ± →DK ± and B ± →Dπ ± decays gives a best-fit value of γ=72.6° and the confidence intervals γ∈[55.4,82.3]°at 68% CL, γ∈[40.2,92.7]°at 95% CL are set. All values are expressed modulo 180°, and are obtained taking into account the effect of D 0 –D ¯0 mixing

  15. Simultaneous pentafluorobenzyl derivatization and GC-ECNICI-MS measurement of nitrite and malondialdehyde in human urine: Close positive correlation between these disparate oxidative stress biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanff, Erik; Eisenga, Michele F; Beckmann, Bibiana; Bakker, Stephan J L; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-02-01

    Urinary nitrite and malondialdehyde (MDA) are biomarkers of nitrosative and oxidative stress, respectively. At physiological pH values of urine and plasma, nitrite and MDA exist almost entirely in their dissociated forms, i.e., as ONO - (ONOH, pK a =3.4) and - CH(CHO) 2 (CH 2 (CHO) 2 , pK a =4.5). Previously, we reported that nitrite and MDA react with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) in aqueous acetone. Here, we report on the simultaneous derivatization of nitrite and MDA and their stable-isotope labeled analogs O 15 NO - (4μM) and CH 2 (CDO) 2 (1μM or 10μM) with PFB-Br (10μL) to PFBNO 2 , PFB 15 NO 2 , C(PFB) 2 (CHO) 2 ), C(PFB) 2 (CDO) 2 by heating acetonic urine (urine-acetone, 100:400μL) for 60min at 50°C. After acetone evaporation under a stream of nitrogen, derivatives were extracted with ethyl acetate (1mL). A 1-μL aliquot of the ethyl acetate phase dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 was injected in the splitless mode for simultaneous GC-MS analysis in the electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode. Quantification was performed by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) the anions [M-PFB] - m/z 46 for ONO - , m/z 47 for O 15 NO - , m/z 251 for - C(PFB)(CHO) 2 , and m/z 253 for - C(PFB)(CDO) 2 . The retention times were 3.18min for PFB-ONO 2 /PFB-O 15 NO 2 , and 7.13min for - C(PFB)(CHO) 2 / - C(PFB)(CDO) 2 . Use of CH 2 (CDO) 2 at 1μM but not at 10μM was associated with an unknown interference with the C(PFB) 2 (CDO) 2 peak. Endogenous MDA can be quantified using O 15 NO - (4μM) and CH 2 (CDO) 2 (10μM) as the internal standards. The method is also useful for the measurement of nitrate and creatinine in addition to nitrite and MDA. Nitrite and MDA were measured by this method in urine of elderly healthy subjects (10 females, 9 males; age, 60-70 years; BMI, 25-30kg/m 2 ). Creatinine-corrected excretion rates did not differ between males and females for MDA (62.6 [24-137] vs 80.2 [52-118]nmol/mmol, P=0.448) and for nitrite (102 [71-174] vs

  16. Status and Prospects for Combined GPS LOD and VLBI UT1 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, K.; Kouba, J.; Ray, J.

    2010-01-01

    A Kalman filter was developed to combine VLBI estimates of UT1-TAI with biased length of day (LOD) estimates from GPS. The VLBI results are the analyses of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center group from 24-hr multi-station observing sessions several times per week and the nearly daily 1-hr single-baseline sessions. Daily GPS LOD estimates from the International GNSS Service (IGS) are combined with the VLBI UT1-TAI by modeling the natural excitation of LOD as the integral of a white noise process (i.e., as a random walk) and the UT1 variations as the integration of LOD, similar to the method described by Morabito et al. (1988). To account for GPS technique errors, which express themselves mostly as temporally correlated biases in the LOD measurements, a Gauss-Markov model has been added to assimilate the IGS data, together with a fortnightly sinusoidal term to capture errors in the IGS treatments of tidal effects. Evaluated against independent atmospheric and oceanic axial angular momentum (AAM + OAM) excitations and compared to other UT1/LOD combinations, ours performs best overall in terms of lowest RMS residual and highest correlation with (AAM + OAM) over sliding intervals down to 3 d. The IERS 05C04 and Bulletin A combinations show strong high-frequency smoothing and other problems. Until modified, the JPL SPACE series suffered in the high frequencies from not including any GPS-based LODs. We find, surprisingly, that further improvements are possible in the Kalman filter combination by selective rejection of some VLBI data. The best combined results are obtained by excluding all the 1-hr single-baseline UT1 data as well as those 24-hr UT1 measurements with formal errors greater than 5 μs (about 18% of the multi-baseline sessions). A rescaling of the VLBI formal errors, rather than rejection, was not an effective strategy. These results suggest that the UT1 errors of the 1-hr and weaker 24-hr VLBI sessions are non-Gaussian and more heterogeneous than expected

  17. Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G.A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above $5 \\cdot 10^{18}$ eV, i.e.~the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called "ankle" feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism...

  18. Weighted Evidence Combination Rule Based on Evidence Distance and Uncertainty Measure: An Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict management in Dempster-Shafer theory (D-S theory is a hot topic in information fusion. In this paper, a novel weighted evidence combination rule based on evidence distance and uncertainty measure is proposed. The proposed approach consists of two steps. First, the weight is determined based on the evidence distance. Then, the weight value obtained in first step is modified by taking advantage of uncertainty. Our proposed method can efficiently handle high conflicting evidences with better performance of convergence. A numerical example and an application based on sensor fusion in fault diagnosis are given to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method.

  19. A new method to measure galaxy bias by combining the density and weak lensing fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Arnau; Chang, Chihway; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bacon, David J.; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Crocce, Martin; Fosalba, Pablo; Manera, Marc; Vikram, Vinu

    2016-07-29

    We present a new method to measure redshift-dependent galaxy bias by combining information from the galaxy density field and the weak lensing field. This method is based on the work of Amara et al., who use the galaxy density field to construct a bias-weighted convergence field κg. The main difference between Amara et al.'s work and our new implementation is that here we present another way to measure galaxy bias, using tomography instead of bias parametrizations. The correlation between κg and the true lensing field κ allows us to measure galaxy bias using different zero-lag correlations, such as <κgκ>/<κκ> or <κgκg>/<κgκ>. Our method measures the linear bias factor on linear scales, under the assumption of no stochasticity between galaxies and matter. We use the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) simulation to measure the linear galaxy bias for a flux-limited sample (i < 22.5) in tomographic redshift bins using this method. This article is the first that studies the accuracy and systematic uncertainties associated with the implementation of the method and the regime in which it is consistent with the linear galaxy bias defined by projected two-point correlation functions (2PCF). We find that our method is consistent with a linear bias at the per cent level for scales larger than 30 arcmin, while non-linearities appear at smaller scales. This measurement is a good complement to other measurements of bias, since it does not depend strongly on σ8 as do the 2PCF measurements. We will apply this method to the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data in a follow-up article.

  20. Retrieval of aerosol profiles combining sunphotometer and ceilometer measurements in GRASP code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R.; Benavent-Oltra, J. A.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Lopatin, A.; Cazorla, A.; Lyamani, H.; Denjean, C.; Fuertes, D.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Torres, B.; Toledano, C.; Dubovik, O.; Cachorro, V. E.; de Frutos, A. M.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present an approach for the profiling of aerosol microphysical and optical properties combining ceilometer and sun/sky photometer measurements in the GRASP code (General Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties). For this objective, GRASP is used with sun/sky photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and sky radiances, both at four wavelengths and obtained from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), and ceilometer measurements of range corrected signal (RCS) at 1064 nm. A sensitivity study with synthetic data evidences the capability of the method to retrieve aerosol properties such as size distribution and profiles of volume concentration (VC), especially for coarse particles. Aerosol properties obtained by the mentioned method are compared with airborne in-situ measurements acquired during two flights over Granada (Spain) within the framework of ChArMEx/ADRIMED (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) 2013 campaign. The retrieved aerosol VC profiles agree well with the airborne measurements, showing a mean bias error (MBE) and a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 0.3 μm3/cm3 (12%) and 5.8 μm3/cm3 (25%), respectively. The differences between retrieved VC and airborne in-situ measurements are within the uncertainty of GRASP retrievals. In addition, the retrieved VC at 2500 m a.s.l. is shown and compared with in-situ measurements obtained during summer 2016 at a high-atitude mountain station in the framework of the SLOPE I campaign (Sierra Nevada Lidar AerOsol Profiling Experiment). VC from GRASP presents high correlation (r = 0.91) with the in-situ measurements, but overestimates them, MBE and MABE being equal to 23% and 43%.

  1. A procedure for combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köster, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.koester@cern.ch; Fiscarelli, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.fiscarelli@cern.ch; Russenschuck, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.russenschuck@cern.ch

    2016-05-11

    The rotating search coil is a precise and widely used tool for measuring the magnetic field harmonics of accelerator magnets. This paper deals with combining several such multipole measurements, in order to cover magnet apertures largely exceeding the diameter of the available search coil. The method relies on the scaling laws for multipole coefficients and on the method of analytic continuation along zero-homotopic paths. By acquiring several measurements of the integrated magnetic flux density at different transverse positions within the bore of the accelerator magnet, the uncertainty on the field harmonics can be reduced at the expense of tight tolerances on the positioning. These positioning tolerances can be kept under control by mounting the rotating coil and its motor-drive unit on precision alignment stages. Therefore, the proposed technique is able to yield even more precise results for the higher-order field components than a dedicated rotating search coil of larger diameter. Moreover, the versatility of the measurement bench is enhanced by avoiding the construction of rotating search coils of different measurement radii.

  2. Characterization of bentonite pore structure by combining chloride porosity and SAXS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The total water porosity, chloride porosity and the microstructure were studied in compacted samples prepared from MX-80 and Deponit bentonites equilibrated through filter plates with 0.1 M NaCl solution for 12.5 months. The dry densities of the samples varied approximately from 0.7 to 1.55 g/cm 3 . XRD and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were used to study the microstructure of the bentonites. It was obvious that the chloride porosity was lower than the water porosity in both clays, which indicates the exclusion caused by the negatively charged montmorillonite surfaces. In the XRD and SAXS measurements the measured basal spaces represented by the diffraction peaks were smaller than the theoretical ones assuming a homogenous microstructure. This indicates that there was a substantial amount of water also in the pores, which were not represented by the peaks. This could explain the difference between the measured chloride porosity and the modelling curve obtained with the Donnan model. By combining the information from the SAXS measurements and the chloride exclusion measurements, it was possible to evaluate the volumes of the soft and dense fractions and the pore sizes in each fraction for MX-80. The chloride porosity was mostly caused by the pores in the soft clay where the pore size is larger. The volume of the soft fraction decreased and its density increased with increasing density of the sample. (authors)

  3. Combination of optically measured coordinates and displacements for quantitative investigation of complex objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Peter; Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Jueptner, Werner P. O.; Nadeborn, Werner; Osten, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    Holographic interferometry makes it possible to measure high precision displacement data in the range of the wavelength of the used laser light. However, the determination of 3D- displacement vectors of objects with complex surfaces requires the measurement of 3D-object coordinates not only to consider local sensitivities but to distinguish between in-plane deformation, i.e. strains, and out-of-plane components, i.e. shears, too. To this purpose both the surface displacement and coordinates have to be combined and it is advantageous to make the data available for CAE- systems. The object surface has to be approximated analytically from the measured point cloud to generate a surface mesh. The displacement vectors can be assigned to the nodes of this surface mesh for visualization of the deformation of the object under test. They also can be compared to the results of FEM-calculations or can be used as boundary conditions for further numerical investigations. Here the 3D-object coordinates are measured in a separate topometric set-up using a modified fringe projection technique to acquire absolute phase values and a sophisticated geometrical model to map these phase data onto coordinates precisely. The determination of 3D-displacement vectors requires the measurement of several interference phase distributions for at least three independent sensitivity directions depending on the observation and illumination directions as well as the 3D-position of each measuring point. These geometric quantities have to be transformed into a reference coordinate system of the interferometric set-up in order to calculate the geometric matrix. The necessary transformation can be realized by means of a detection of object features in both data sets and a subsequent determination of the external camera orientation. This paper presents a consistent solution for the measurement and combination of shape and displacement data including their transformation into simulation systems. The

  4. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  5. Videodefaecography combined with measurement of the anorectal angle and of perineal descent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skomorowska, E.; Henrichsen, S.; Christiansen, J.; Hegedues, V.; Glostrup Sygehus, Copenhagen

    1987-01-01

    Cineradiographic defaecography combined with measurement of the anorectal angle and descent of the pelvic floor is proposed. The method used in 73 women gave valuable information in 48 patients who complained of anal incompetence, rectal tenesmus, and chronic constipation. In these patients, high and low rectal intussusception, rectocele, and pathologic movement of the pelvic floor were detected. Some of these phenomena could only be diagnosed by the radiologic method here described. Quantitations of the anorectal angle and descent of the pelvic floor placed the group with constipation halfway between normal individuals and those with anal incompetence. The value of this finding is discussed. Recent improvements in anorectal surgery often make videodefaecography decisive for the choice of the optimal operative method. Therefore, videodefaecography together with measurement of the anorectal angle and pelvic floor descent is recommended whenever anorectal surgery for correction of functional disturbances is contemplated. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of heat treatment induced residual stresses by using ESPI combined with hole-drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual stresses in heat treated specimen were measured by using ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry combined with the hole-drilling method. The specimen, made of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel, was quenched and water cooled to room temperature. Numerical simulation using a hybrid FDM/FEM package was also carried out to simulate the heat treatment process. As a result, the thermal stress fields were obtained from both the experiment and the numerical simulation. By comparision of stress fields, results from the experimental method and numerical simulation well agreed to each other, therefore, it is proved that the presented experimental method is applicable and reliable for heat treatment induced residual stress measurement.

  7. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p < 0.003 and belonging to a race/ethnicity other than “non-Hispanic White” (p = 0.011 were associated with higher levels of exposure to POS cigarette marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  8. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Farazi, Paraskevi A; Kim, Jungyoon; Michaud, Tzeyu L; Yoder, Aaron M; Soliman, Ghada; Tibbits, Melissa K; Nguyen, Minh N; Shaikh, Raees A

    2016-12-21

    While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income ( p marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  9. Combining near-subject absolute and relative measures of longitudinal hydration in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cian; McIntyre, Christopher; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Davies, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    The feasibility and additional value of combining bioimpedance analysis (BIA) with near-subject absolute measurement of total body water using deuterium dilution (TBW(D)) in determining longitudinal fluid status was investigated. Fifty-nine hemodialysis patients (17 female; age 58.4 +/- 16.1 yr; body mass index 27.0 +/- 5.4) were enrolled into a 12-mo, two-center, prospective cohort study. Deuterium concentration was measured in breath by flowing-afterglow mass spectrometry using a validated protocol ensuring full equilibration with the TBW; BIA was measured using a multifrequency, multisegmental device. Comorbidity was quantified by the Stoke score. Clinicians were blinded to body composition data. At baseline and 12 mo, there was an incremental discrepancy between TBW(BIA) and TBW(D) volumes such that greater comorbidity was associated with increasing overhydration. Forty-three patients who completed the study had no longitudinal differences in the prescribed or achieved postdialysis weights. In contrast, TBW(D) increased without a change in TBW(BIA) (mean difference -0.10 L). Changes in TBW and lean body mass differed according to baseline comorbidity; without comorbidity, BIA also identified an increase in TBW and lean body mass, whereas with increasing comorbid burden, BIA failed to demonstrate increases in tissue hydration identified by TBW(D). Combined near-patient measurements of absolute and BIA-estimated TBW are achievable in a dialysis facility by identifying changes in body composition not fully appreciated by routine assessment. BIA underestimates tissue overhydration that is associated with comorbidity, resulting in reduced sensitivity to longitudinal increases during a 12-mo period.

  10. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  11. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  12. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  13. Liquefaction assessment based on combined use of CPT and shear wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Mahler, András; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the most devastating secondary effects of earthquakes and can cause significant damage in built infrastructure. For this reason liquefaction hazard shall be considered in all regions where moderate-to-high seismic activity encounters with saturated, loose, granular soil deposits. Several approaches exist to take into account this hazard, from which the in-situ test based empirical methods are the most commonly used in practice. These methods are generally based on the results of CPT, SPT or shear wave velocity measurements. In more complex or high risk projects CPT and VS measurement are often performed at the same location commonly in the form of seismic CPT. Furthermore, VS profile determined by surface wave methods can also supplement the standard CPT measurement. However, combined use of both in-situ indices in one single empirical method is limited. For this reason, the goal of this research was to develop such an empirical method within the framework of simplified empirical procedures where the results of CPT and VS measurements are used in parallel and can supplement each other. The combination of two in-situ indices, a small strain property measurement with a large strain measurement, can reduce uncertainty of empirical methods. In the first step by careful reviewing of the already existing liquefaction case history databases, sites were selected where the records of both CPT and VS measurement are available. After implementing the necessary corrections on the gathered 98 case histories with respect to fines content, overburden pressure and magnitude, a logistic regression was performed to obtain the probability contours of liquefaction occurrence. Logistic regression is often used to explore the relationship between a binary response and a set of explanatory variables. The occurrence or absence of liquefaction can be considered as binary outcome and the equivalent clean sand value of normalized overburden corrected cone tip

  14. The Role of Binocular Disparity in Rapid Scene and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.

  15. Combined use of correlation dimension and entropy as discriminating measures for time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, K. P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2009-09-01

    We show that the combined use of correlation dimension (D2) and correlation entropy (K2) as discriminating measures can extract a more accurate information regarding the different types of noise present in a time series data. For this, we make use of an algorithmic approach for computing D2 and K2 proposed by us recently [Harikrishnan KP, Misra R, Ambika G, Kembhavi AK. Physica D 2006;215:137; Harikrishnan KP, Ambika G, Misra R. Mod Phys Lett B 2007;21:129; Harikrishnan KP, Misra R, Ambika G. Pramana - J Phys, in press], which is a modification of the standard Grassberger-Proccacia scheme. While the presence of white noise can be easily identified by computing D2 of data and surrogates, K2 is a better discriminating measure to detect colored noise in the data. Analysis of time series from a real world system involving both white and colored noise is presented as evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a combined analysis is undertaken on a real world data.

  16. Combined measurement system for double shield tunnel boring machine guidance based on optical and visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiarui; Gao, Kai; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    In order to detect the position of the cutting shield at the head of a double shield tunnel boring machine (TBM) during the excavation, this paper develops a combined measurement system which is mainly composed of several optical feature points, a monocular vision sensor, a laser target sensor, and a total station. The different elements of the combined system are mounted on the TBM in suitable sequence, and the position of the cutting shield in the reference total station frame is determined by coordinate transformations. Subsequently, the structure of the feature points and matching technique for them are expounded, the position measurement method based on monocular vision is presented, and the calibration methods for the unknown relationships among different parts of the system are proposed. Finally, a set of experimental platforms to simulate the double shield TBM is established, and accuracy verification experiments are conducted. Experimental results show that the mean deviation of the system is 6.8 mm, which satisfies the requirements of double shield TBM guidance.

  17. Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/white health gap in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian Karl; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Bird, Chloe; Escarce, Jose; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context-socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment-has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989-1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15-76% reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.

  18. Multipath detection with the combination of SNR measurements - Example from urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špánik, Peter; Hefty, Ján

    2017-12-01

    Multipath is one of the most severe station-dependent error sources in both static and kinematic positioning. Relatively new and simple detection technique using the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) measurements on three frequencies will be presented based on idea of Strode and Groves. Exploitation of SNR measurements is benefi cial especially for their unambiguous character. Method is based on the fact that SNR values are closely linked with estimation of pseudo-ranges and phase measurements during signal correlation processing. Due to this connection, combination of SNR values can be used to detect anomalous behavior in received signal, however some kind of calibration in low multipath environment has to be done previously. In case of multipath, phase measurements on different frequencies will not be affected in the same manner. Specular multipath, e.g. from building wall introduces additional path delay which is interpreted differently on each of the used carrier, due to different wavelengths. Experimental results of multipath detection in urban environment will be presented. Originally proposed method is designed to work with three different frequencies in each epoch, thus only utilization of GPS Block II-F and Galileo satellites is possible. Simplification of detection statistics to use only two frequencies is made and results using GPS and GLONASS systems are presented along with results obtained using original formula.

  19. Multipath detection with the combination of SNR measurements – Example from urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špánik Peter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipath is one of the most severe station-dependent error sources in both static and kinematic positioning. Relatively new and simple detection technique using the Signal-to-Noise (SNR measurements on three frequencies will be presented based on idea of Strode and Groves. Exploitation of SNR measurements is benefi cial especially for their unambiguous character. Method is based on the fact that SNR values are closely linked with estimation of pseudo-ranges and phase measurements during signal correlation processing. Due to this connection, combination of SNR values can be used to detect anomalous behavior in received signal, however some kind of calibration in low multipath environment has to be done previously. In case of multipath, phase measurements on different frequencies will not be affected in the same manner. Specular multipath, e.g. from building wall introduces additional path delay which is interpreted differently on each of the used carrier, due to different wavelengths. Experimental results of multipath detection in urban environment will be presented. Originally proposed method is designed to work with three different frequencies in each epoch, thus only utilization of GPS Block II-F and Galileo satellites is possible. Simplification of detection statistics to use only two frequencies is made and results using GPS and GLONASS systems are presented along with results obtained using original formula.

  20. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  1. An Automated Measurement of Ciliary Beating Frequency using a Combined Optical Flow and Peak Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woojae; Han, Tae Hwa; Kim, Hyun Jun; Park, Man Young; Kim, Ku Sang; Park, Rae Woong

    2011-06-01

    The mucociliary transport system is a major defense mechanism of the respiratory tract. The performance of mucous transportation in the nasal cavity can be represented by a ciliary beating frequency (CBF). This study proposes a novel method to measure CBF by using optical flow. To obtain objective estimates of CBF from video images, an automated computer-based image processing technique is developed. This study proposes a new method based on optical flow for image processing and peak detection for signal processing. We compare the measuring accuracy of the method in various combinations of image processing (optical flow versus difference image) and signal processing (fast Fourier transform [FFT] vs. peak detection [PD]). The digital high-speed video method with a manual count of CBF in slow motion video play, is the gold-standard in CBF measurement. We obtained a total of fifty recorded ciliated sinonasal epithelium images to measure CBF from the Department of Otolaryngology. The ciliated sinonasal epithelium images were recorded at 50-100 frames per second using a charge coupled device camera with an inverted microscope at a magnification of ×1,000. The mean square errors and variance for each method were 1.24, 0.84 Hz; 11.8, 2.63 Hz; 3.22, 1.46 Hz; and 3.82, 1.53 Hz for optical flow (OF) + PD, OF + FFT, difference image [DI] + PD, and DI + FFT, respectively. Of the four methods, PD using optical flow showed the best performance for measuring the CBF of nasal mucosa. The proposed method was able to measure CBF more objectively and efficiently than what is currently possible.

  2. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A

    2013-05-01

    Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25-64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, were used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both data sets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). The results add to the literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups.

  3. Combined High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Millimeter Wavelength Radar Measurement of Ice Crystal Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, Edwin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this research has been to improve measurements of snowfall using a combination of millimeter-wavelength radar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Observations. Snowflakes are large compared to the 532nm HSRL wavelength and small compared to the 3.2 and 8.6 mm wavelength radars used in this study. This places the particles in the optical scattering regime of the HSRL, where extinction cross-section is proportional to the projected area of the particles, and in the Rayleigh regime for the radar, where the backscatter cross-section is proportional to the mass-squared of the particles. Forming a ratio of the radar measured cross-section to the HSRL measured cross section eliminates any dependence on the number of scattering particles, yielding a quantity proportional to the average mass-squared of the snowflakes over the average area of the flakes. Using simultaneous radar measurements of particle fall velocities, which are dependent particle mass and cross-sectional area it is possible to derive the average mass of the snow flakes, and with the radar measured fall velocities compute the snowfall rate. Since this retrieval requires the optical extinction cross-section we began by considering errors this quantity. The HSRL is particularly good at measuring the backscatter cross-section. In previous studies of snowfall in the high Arctic were able to estimate the extinction cross-section directly as a fixed ratio to the backscatter cross-section. Measurements acquired in the STORMVEX experiment in Colorado showed that this approach was not valid in mid-latitude snowfalls and that direct measurement of the extinction cross-section is required. Attempts to measure the extinction directly uncovered shortcomings in thermal regulation and mechanical stability of the newly deployed DOE HSRL systems. These problems were largely mitigated by modifications installed in both of the DOE systems. We also investigated other sources of error in the HSRL direct

  4. Merging Disparate Data and Numerical Model Results for Dynamically Constrained Nowcasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirwin, A

    1999-01-01

    Our objective is to combine disparate surface current observations from sources like HF radar, Lagrangian drifters, passive remote sensing and ADCPs with open boundary flow information from any available source...

  5. EAST kinetic equilibrium reconstruction combining with Polarimeter-Interferometer internal measurement constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, H.; Liu, H. Q.; Li, K.; Zou, Z. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Wu, M. Q.; Li, G. Q.; Zeng, L.; Zang, Q.; Lv, B.; Jie, Y. X.; EAST Team

    2017-12-01

    Plasma equilibrium reconstruction plays an important role in the tokamak plasma research. With a high temporal and spatial resolution, the POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system on EAST has provided effective measurements for 102s H-mode operation. Based on internal Faraday rotation measurements provided by the POINT system, the equilibrium reconstruction with a more accurate core current profile constraint has been demonstrated successfully on EAST. Combining other experimental diagnostics and external magnetic fields measurement, the kinetic equilibrium has also been reconstructed on EAST. Take the pressure and edge current information from kinetic EFIT into the equilibrium reconstruction with Faraday rotation constraint, the new equilibrium reconstruction not only provides a more accurate internal current profile but also contains edge current and pressure information. One time slice result using new kinetic equilibrium reconstruction with POINT data constraints is demonstrated in this paper and the result shows there is a reversed shear of q profile and the pressure profile is also contained. The new improved equilibrium reconstruction is greatly helpful to the future theoretical analysis.

  6. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  7. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-01-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented

  8. Spectral emissivity measurements of liquid refractory metals by spectrometers combined with an electrostatic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T; Paradis, Paul-François; Ito, Yusuke; Masaki, Tadahiko; Watanabe, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    A spectral emissivity measurement system combined with an electrostatic levitator was developed for high-temperature melts. The radiation intensity from a high-temperature sample was measured with a multichannel photospectrometer (MCPD) over the 700–1000 nm spectral range, while a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) measured the radiation over the 1.1–6 µm interval. These spectrometers were calibrated with a blackbody radiation furnace, and the spectral hemispherical emissivity was calculated. The system's capability was evaluated with molten zirconium samples. The spectral hemispherical emissivity of molten zirconium showed a negative wavelength dependence and an almost constant variation over the 1850–2210 K temperature range. The total hemispherical emissivity of zirconium calculated by integrating the spectral hemispherical emissivity was found to be around 0.32, which showed good agreement with the literature values. The constant pressure heat capacity of molten zirconium at melting temperature was calculated to be 40.9 J mol −1 K −1 . (paper)

  9. Effect of carbogen on tumor oxygenation: combined fluorine-19 and proton MRI measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaobing; River, Jonathan N.; Zamora, Marta; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used for noninvasive evaluation of the effects of tumor-oxygenating agents. However, there have been few tests of the validity of this method. The goal of the present work was to use the T 1 of fluorine-19 in perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as a 'gold standard' for comparison with BOLD MRI. Methods and Materials: Rats bearing R3230AC tumors implanted in the hind limb were injected with an emulsion of perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether for 2-3 days before experiments, which ensured that the PFC emulsion concentrated in the tumors. We correlated changes in tumor oxygenation caused by carbogen inhalation measured by 1 H BOLD MRI with quantitative 19 F measurements. The 19 F spin-lattice relaxation rate R 1 (= 1/T 1 ) was measured to determine initial oxygen tension (pO 2 ) in each image pixel containing the PFC, and changes in pO 2 during carbogen (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) breathing. In a second carbogen breathing period, changes in water signal linewidth were measured using high spectral and spatial resolution imaging. 19 F and 1 H measurements were used to classify pixels as responders to carbogen (pixels where oxygen increased significantly) or nonresponders (no significant change in tumor oxygenation). Results: The 19 F and 1 H measurements agreed in 65% ± 11% of pixels (n = 14). Agreement was even stronger among pixels where 1 H showed increased oxygenation; 19 F measurements agreed with 1 H measurements in over 79% ± 11% of these pixels. Similarly, there was strong agreement between the two modalities in pixels where 19 F reported no change in pO 2 ; 1 H also showed no changes in 76% ± 18% of these pixels. Quantitative correlation of changes T 2 * (ΔT 2 *) in 1 H and changes R 1 (ΔR 1 ) in 19 F was weak during carbogen breathing, and averaged over the whole tumor was ∼0.40 for 14 experiments. However, the spatial patterns of 1 H and 19 F changes were qualitatively

  10. arXiv A method and tool for combining differential or inclusive measurements obtained with simultaneously constrained uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Kieseler, Jan

    2017-11-22

    A method is discussed that allows combining sets of differential or inclusive measurements. It is assumed that at least one measurement was obtained with simultaneously fitting a set of nuisance parameters, representing sources of systematic uncertainties. As a result of beneficial constraints from the data all such fitted parameters are correlated among each other. The best approach for a combination of these measurements would be the maximization of a combined likelihood, for which the full fit model of each measurement and the original data are required. However, only in rare cases this information is publicly available. In absence of this information most commonly used combination methods are not able to account for these correlations between uncertainties, which can lead to severe biases as shown in this article. The method discussed here provides a solution for this problem. It relies on the public result and its covariance or Hessian, only, and is validated against the combined-likelihood approach. A d...

  11. Prediction of HDR quality by combining perceptually transformed display measurements with machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anustup; Farrell, Suzanne; Atkins, Robin; Daly, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We present an approach to predict overall HDR display quality as a function of key HDR display parameters. We first performed subjective experiments on a high quality HDR display that explored five key HDR display parameters: maximum luminance, minimum luminance, color gamut, bit-depth and local contrast. Subjects rated overall quality for different combinations of these display parameters. We explored two models | a physical model solely based on physically measured display characteristics and a perceptual model that transforms physical parameters using human vision system models. For the perceptual model, we use a family of metrics based on a recently published color volume model (ICT-CP), which consists of the PQ luminance non-linearity (ST2084) and LMS-based opponent color, as well as an estimate of the display point spread function. To predict overall visual quality, we apply linear regression and machine learning techniques such as Multilayer Perceptron, RBF and SVM networks. We use RMSE and Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients to quantify performance. We found that the perceptual model is better at predicting subjective quality than the physical model and that SVM is better at prediction than linear regression. The significance and contribution of each display parameter was investigated. In addition, we found that combined parameters such as contrast do not improve prediction. Traditional perceptual models were also evaluated and we found that models based on the PQ non-linearity performed better.

  12. Combined local current distribution measurements and high resolution neutron radiography of operating direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Wippermann, Klaus [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research, IEF-3: Fuel Cells; Sanders, Tilman [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA); Arlt, Tobias [Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials

    2010-07-01

    Neutron radiography allows the investigation of the local fluid distribution in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) under operating conditions. Spatial resolutions in the order of some tens of micrometers at the full test cell area are achieved. This offers the possibility to study practice-oriented, large stack cells with an active area of several hundred cm{sup 2} as well as specially designed, small test cells with an area of some cm{sup 2}. Combined studies of high resolution neutron radiography and segmented cell measurements are especially valuable, because they enable a correlation of local fluid distribution and local performance [1, 2]. The knowledge of this interdependency is essential to optimise the water management and performance respecting a homogeneous fluid, current and temperature distribution and to achieve high performance and durability of DMFCs. (orig.)

  13. Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A. [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas—LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico—IST, Universidade de Lisboa—UL (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino (Italy); Samarai, I. Al [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universités Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Albuquerque, I.F.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física, São Paulo (Brazil); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET) (Argentina); Almela, A.; Andrada, B. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Anastasi, G.A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Anchordoqui, L., E-mail: auger_spokespersons@fnal.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above 5 ⋅ 10{sup 18} eV, i.e. the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called 'ankle' feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism. The fit results suggest sources characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies, hard spectra and heavy chemical composition. We also show that uncertainties about physical quantities relevant to UHECR propagation and shower development have a non-negligible impact on the fit results.

  14. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvaris, Evangelos E.; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-10-01

    A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009) for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA) volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD) and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA) produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60-75 % of the cooking OA (COA) at concentrations around 500 µg m-3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs), 20-30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol-1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06-0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  15. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Louvaris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009 for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60–75 % of the cooking OA (COA at concentrations around 500 µg m−3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs, 20–30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs, and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs. The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol−1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06–0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  16. Combining multiple ecosystem productivity measurements to constrain carbon uptake estimates in semiarid grasslands and shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, G. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Collins, S. L.; Litvak, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observational and modeling studies have indicated that semiarid ecosystems are more dynamic contributors to the global carbon budget than once thought. Semiarid carbon fluxes, however, are generally small, with high interannual and spatial variability, which suggests that validating their global significance may depend on examining multiple productivity measures and their associated uncertainties and inconsistencies. We examined ecosystem productivity from eddy covariance (NEE), harvest (NPP), and terrestrial biome models (NEPm) at two very similar grassland sites and one creosote shrubland site in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge of central New Mexico, USA. Our goal was to assess site and methodological correspondence in annual carbon uptake, patterns of interannual variability, and measurement uncertainty. One grassland site was a perennial carbon source losing 30 g C m-2 per year on average, while the other two sites were carbon sources or sinks depending on the year, with average net uptake of 5 and 25 g C m-2 per year at the grassland and shrubland site, respectively. Uncertainty values for cumulative annual NEE overlapped between the three sites in most years. When combined, aboveground and belowground annual NPP measurements were 15% higher than annual NEE values and did not confirm a loss of carbon at any site in any year. Despite differences in mean site carbon balance, year-to-year changes in cumulative annual NEE and NPP were similar at all sites with years 2010 and 2013 being favorable for carbon uptake and 2011 and 2012 being unfavorable at all sites. Modeled NEPm data for a number of nearby grid cells reproduced only a fraction of the observed range in carbon uptake and its interannual variability. These three sites are highly similar in location and climate and multiple carbon flux measurements confirm the high interannual variability in carbon flux. The exact magnitude of these fluxes, however, remains difficult to discern.

  17. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar/Radiometer Measurements Within the GPM Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM mission centers upon the deployment of a Core Observatory in a 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for intersatellite calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles needed for improving precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1

  18. Suspended sediment assessment by combining sound attenuation and backscatter measurements - analytical method and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2018-03-01

    The use of acoustic techniques has become common for estimating suspended sediment in water environments. An emitted beam propagates into water producing backscatter and attenuation, which depend on scattering particles concentration and size distribution. Unfortunately, the actual particles size distribution (PSD) may largely affect the accuracy of concentration quantification through the unknown coefficients of backscattering strength, ks2, and normalized attenuation, ζs. This issue was partially solved by applying the multi-frequency approach. Despite this possibility, a relevant scientific and practical question remains regarding the possibility of using acoustic methods to investigate poorly sorted sediment in the spectrum ranging from clay to fine sand. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of combining the measurement of sound attenuation and backscatter to determine ζs for the suspended particles and the corresponding concentration. The proposed method is moderately dependent from actual PSD, thus relaxing the need of frequent calibrations to account for changes in ks2 and ζs coefficients. Laboratory tests were conducted under controlled conditions to validate this measurement technique. With respect to existing approaches, the developed method more accurately estimates the concentration of suspended particles ranging from clay to fine sand and, at the same time, gives an indication on their actual PSD.

  19. Estimating temperature reactivity coefficients by experimental procedures combined with isothermal temperature coefficient measurements and dynamic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masashi; Aoki, Yukinori; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Yamasaki, Masatoshi; Hanayama, Yasushi

    2006-01-01

    A method to evaluate the moderator coefficient (MTC) and the Doppler coefficient through experimental procedures performed during reactor physics tests of PWR power plants is proposed. This method combines isothermal temperature coefficient (ITC) measurement experiments and reactor power transient experiments at low power conditions for dynamic identification. In the dynamic identification, either one of temperature coefficients can be determined in such a way that frequency response characteristics of the reactivity change observed by a digital reactivity meter is reproduced from measured data of neutron count rate and the average coolant temperature. The other unknown coefficient can also be determined by subtracting the coefficient obtained from the dynamic identification from ITC. As the proposed method can directly estimate the Doppler coefficient, the applicability of the conventional core design codes to predict the Doppler coefficient can be verified for new types of fuels such as mixed oxide fuels. The digital simulation study was carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The numerical analysis showed that the MTC and the Doppler coefficient can be estimated accurately and even if there are uncertainties in the parameters of the reactor kinetics model, the accuracies of the estimated values are not seriously impaired. (author)

  20. Elasticity maps of living neurons measured by combined fluorescence and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedden, Elise; White, James D; Naumova, Elena N; Kaplan, David L; Staii, Cristian

    2012-09-05

    Detailed knowledge of mechanical parameters such as cell elasticity, stiffness of the growth substrate, or traction stresses generated during axonal extensions is essential for understanding the mechanisms that control neuronal growth. Here, we combine atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to produce systematic, high-resolution elasticity maps for three different types of live neuronal cells: cortical (embryonic rat), embryonic chick dorsal root ganglion, and P-19 (mouse embryonic carcinoma stem cells) neurons. We measure how the stiffness of neurons changes both during neurite outgrowth and upon disruption of microtubules of the cell. We find reversible local stiffening of the cell during growth, and show that the increase in local elastic modulus is primarily due to the formation of microtubules. We also report that cortical and P-19 neurons have similar elasticity maps, with elastic moduli in the range 0.1-2 kPa, with typical average values of 0.4 kPa (P-19) and 0.2 kPa (cortical). In contrast, dorsal root ganglion neurons are stiffer than P-19 and cortical cells, yielding elastic moduli in the range 0.1-8 kPa, with typical average values of 0.9 kPa. Finally, we report no measurable influence of substrate protein coating on cell body elasticity for the three types of neurons. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  2. Combining Lead Exposure Measurements and Experts' Judgment Through a Bayesian Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Park, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Choi, Sangjun; Jung, Hyejung; Park, Dong-Uk

    2017-11-10

    CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) is a carcinogen-surveillance system employed in many countries. To develop Korean CAREX, the intensity of exposure to lead, as an example, was estimated across industries. Airborne-lead measurement records were extracted from the work-environment measurement database (WEMD), which is a nationwide workplace-monitoring database. Lead measurements were log-transformed; then, the log-transformed geometric means (LGMs) and log-transformed geometric standard deviations (LGSDs) were calculated for each industry. However, the data of many industries was limited. To address this shortcoming, experts' judgments of the lead exposure levels across industries were elicited. Experts provided their estimates of lead exposure levels as the boundary of the 5th and 95th percentiles, and it is assumed that these estimates are based on the log-normal distributions of exposure levels. Estimates of LGM and LGSD were extracted from each expert's response and then combined to quantify the experts' prior distribution. Then, the experts' prior distributions for each industry were updated with the corresponding LGMs and LGSDs calculated from the WEMD data through a Bayesian framework, yielding posterior distributions of the LGM and LGSD. The WEMD contains 83035 airborne-lead measurements that were collected between 2002 and 2007. A total of 17 occupational-hygiene professionals with >20 years of experience provided lead exposure estimates. In industries where measurement data were abundant, the measurement data dominated the posterior exposure estimates. For example, for one industry, 'Manufacture of Accumulator, Primary Cells, and Primary Batteries,' 1152 lead measurements [with a geometric mean (GM) of 14.42 µg m-3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.31] were available and 15 experts' responses (with a GM of 7.06 µg m-3 and a GSD of 4.15) were collected, resulting in a posterior exposure estimate of 14.41µg m-3 as the GM with a GSD of 3.31. For

  3. An investigation of ozone and planetary boundary layer dynamics over the complex topography of Grenoble combining measurements and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Couach , O.; Balin , I.; Jiménez , R.; Ristori , P.; Perego , S.; Kirchner , F.; Simeonov , V.; Calpini , B.; Van Den Bergh , H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns an evaluation of ozone (O3) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics over the complex topography of the Grenoble region through a combination of measurements and mesoscale model (METPHOMOD) predictions for three days, during July 1999. The measurements of O3 and PBL structure were obtained with a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, situated 20 km south of Grenoble at Vif (310 m ASL). The combined lidar observations ...

  4. Neighborhood Disparities in the Restaurant Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Espino, Jennifer Valdivia; Meinen, Amy; Escaron, Anne L; Roubal, Anne; Nieto, Javier; Malecki, Kristen

    2016-11-01

    Restaurant meals account for a significant portion of the American diet. Investigating disparities in the restaurant food environment can inform targeted interventions to increase opportunities for healthy eating among those who need them most. To examine neighborhood disparities in restaurant density and the nutrition environment within restaurants among a statewide sample of Wisconsin households. Households (N = 259) were selected from the 2009-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based survey of Wisconsin adults. Restaurants in the household neighborhood were enumerated and audited using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Neighborhoods were defined as a 2- and 5-mile street-distance buffer around households in urban and non-urban areas, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models identified independent associations between sociodemographic household characteristics and neighborhood restaurant density and nutrition environment scores. On average, each neighborhood contained approximately 26 restaurants. On average, restaurants obtained 36.1% of the total nutrition environment points. After adjusting for household characteristics, higher restaurant density was associated with both younger and older household average age (P restaurant food environment in Wisconsin neighborhoods varies by age, race, and urbanicity, but offers ample room for improvement across socioeconomic groups and urbanicity levels. Future research must identify policy and environmental interventions to promote healthy eating in all restaurants, especially in young and/or rural neighborhoods in Wisconsin.

  5. Disparity refinement process based on RANSAC plane fitting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more accurate than normal flow state-of-the-art stereo matching algorithms. The performance evaluations are based on standard image quality metrics i.e. structural similarity index measure, peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. Keywords: computer vision; disparity refinement; image segmentation; RANSAC; ...

  6. Disparities in children's oral health and access to dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J

    Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.

  7. Applications of synergistic combination of remote sensing and in-situ measurements on urban monitoring of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Dominguez, Victor; Campmier, Mark; Wu, Yonghua; Arend, Mark; Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2017-08-01

    In this study, multiple remote sensing and in-situ measurements are combined in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol distribution in New York City. Measurement of the horizontal distribution of aerosols is performed using a scanning eye-safe elastic-backscatter micro-pulse lidar. Vertical distribution of aerosols is measured with a co-located ceilometer. Furthermore, our analysis also includes in-situ measurements of particulate matter and wind speed and direction. These observations combined show boundary layer dynamics as well as transport and inhomogeneous spatial distribution of aerosols, which are of importance for air quality monitoring.

  8. Joint reconstruction of the initial pressure and speed of sound distributions from combined photoacoustic and ultrasound tomography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-12-01

    The initial pressure and speed of sound (SOS) distributions cannot both be stably recovered from photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) measurements alone. Adjunct ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) measurements can be employed to estimate the SOS distribution. Under the conventional image reconstruction approach for combined PACT/USCT systems, the SOS is estimated from the USCT measurements alone and the initial pressure is estimated from the PACT measurements by use of the previously estimated SOS. This approach ignores the acoustic information in the PACT measurements and may require many USCT measurements to accurately reconstruct the SOS. In this work, a joint reconstruction method where the SOS and initial pressure distributions are simultaneously estimated from combined PACT/USCT measurements is proposed. This approach allows accurate estimation of both the initial pressure distribution and the SOS distribution while requiring few USCT measurements.

  9. Study of Material Moisture Measurement Method and Instrument by the Combination of Fast Neutron Absorption and γ Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Chaoqin; Gong Yalin; Zhang Wei; Shang Qingmin; Li Yanfeng; Gou Qiangyuan; Yin Deyou

    2010-01-01

    To solve the problem of on-line sinter moisture measurement in the iron making plant, we developed material moisture measurement method and instrument by the combination of fast neutron absorption and y-absorption. It overcomes the present existed problems of other moisture meters for the sinter. Compare with microwave moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by conductance and magnetism of material; to infrared moisture meter, the measurement result dose not influenced by colour and light-reflect performance of material surface, dose not influenced by changes of material kind; to slow neutron scatter moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by density of material and thickness of hopper wall; to the moisture measurement meter which combined by slow neutron penetrate through and y-absorption, there are definite math model and good linear relation between the measurement values, and the measurement dose not affected by material thickness, changes of material form and component. (authors)

  10. Combined measurement of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 among children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cserti-Gazdewich Christine M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 is a cytoadhesion molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Elevated levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 have previously been reported with increased malaria disease severity. However, studies have not yet examined both sICAM-1 concentrations and monocyte ICAM-1 expression in the same cohort of patients. To better understand the relationship of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 measurements in malaria, both monocyte ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 concentration were measured in children with P. falciparum infection exhibiting a spectrum of clinical severity. Methods Samples were analysed from 160 children, aged 0.5 to 10.8 years, with documented P. falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda. The patients belonged to one of three pre-study defined groups: uncomplicated malaria (UM, severe non-fatal malaria (SM-s, and fatal malaria (SM-f. Subset analysis was done on those with cerebral malaria (CM or severe malaria anaemia (SMA. Monocyte ICAM-1 was measured by flow cytometry. sICAM-1 was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results Both sICAM-1 and monocyte cell-surface ICAM-1 followed a log-normal distribution. Median sICAM-1 concentrations increased with greater severity-of-illness: 279 ng/mL (UM, 462 ng/mL (SM-s, and 586 ng/mL (SM-f, p Conclusion In this cohort of children with P. falciparum malaria, sICAM-1 levels were associated with severity-of-illness. Patients with UM had higher monocyte ICAM-1 expression consistent with a role for monocyte ICAM-1 in immune clearance during non-severe malaria. Among the subsets of patients with either SMA or CM, monocyte ICAM-1 levels were higher in CM, consistent with the role of ICAM-1 as a marker of cytoadhesion. Categories of disease in pediatric malaria may exhibit specific combinations of soluble and cellular ICAM-1 expression.

  11. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  12. Interpretation of non destructive combined nuclear measurements for the characterization of radioactive wastes and waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoux, Anne-Cecile

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces radioactive waste and is faced with the problem of their management, especially for those which have a long radioactive decay time. In view to be able to define the best storage solution, alpha bearing solid waste are identified by different specific parameters (alpha, beta activities,... ). Then, the storage and cost optimizations are essential stakes. The quantification of these parameters can be obtained by the implementation of non destructive nuclear measurement methods generally associated with information from the manufacturing process of the waste. The works presented in this report are dedicated to two complementary aspects of the nuclear waste management issue. On the one hand, an experimental study concerning the possibilities of the prompt and delayed neutron counting with only one measurement result from neutron interrogation is presented. On the other hand, an interpretation method allowing the determination of the waste package specific parameters and their uncertainties has been developed. It is based on random trials which allow to describe the parameters as statistical distributions (Monte Carlo method). It was resulting in the realization of a software called RECITAL (information combination and solving process by random trials). This software was applied to the isotopic quantification of "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu from prompt and delayed signals of neutron interrogation. It was also used to demonstrate the complementarity of photofission interrogation with neutron interrogation in view to correct "2"3"8U interference on the delayed fission signal, especially when "2"3"8U contribution is similar to "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu ones. (author) [fr

  13. Combining color chart, colorimetric measurement and chemical compounds for postharvest quality of white wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, Marco; Baccelloni, Simone; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2018-01-03

    This paper provides data for the potential use of a color chart to establish the best quality of white wine grapes destined for postharvest processing. Grechetto, Vermentino and Muscat of Alexandria white wine grape varieties were tested by sampling berries at different dates during their quality attribute evolution. A color chart and reflectance spectrocolorimeter were used in combination with analyses of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in all three varieties and of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Grechetto alone. Total carotenoids decreased from 0.85 to 0.76 µg g -1 in Grechetto berries and from 0.70 to 0.46 µg g -1 in Vermentino berries while increased from 0.70 to 0.80 µg g -1 in Muscat berries during ripening. Total chlorophylls decreased in all varieties, and a strict correlation was found between hue angle (measured by color chart or spectrocolorimeter) and chlorophyll disappearance, with R 2 ranging from 0.81 to 0.95 depending on the variety. VOCs were only measured in Grechetto grapes, and a significant increase in glycosylation was found with ripening. The concentration of different classes of VOCs exhibited a clear decrease during ripening, except for terpenoids and esters which showed a peak at the beginning. The benzenoid class reached the highest concentration, which was almost 50% of the total. Cluster analysis using Ward's method enabled the best grape quality to be identified. This experimental work highlights that a color chart is cheap and easy to use to define the right quality stage for white wine grapes. The color chart enabled the enochemical features to be matched with the VOC results for the aromatic maturity of Grechetto. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. An analysis of combined standard uncertainty for radiochemical measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, A.

    1996-01-01

    It is anticipated that future data acquisitions intended for use in radiological risk assessments will require the incorporation of uncertainty analysis. Often, only one aliquot of the sample is taken and a single determination is made. Under these circumstances, the total uncertainty is calculated using the open-quotes propagation of errorsclose quotes approach. However, there is no agreement in the radioanalytical community as to the exact equations to use. The Quality Assurance/Metrology Division of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory has developed a systematic process to compute uncertainties in constituent components of the analytical procedure, as well as the combined standard uncertainty (CSU). The equations for computation are presented here, with examples of their use. They have also been incorporated into a code for use in the spreadsheet application, QuattroPro trademark. Using the spreadsheet with appropriate inputs permits an analysis of the variations in the CSU as a function of several different variables. The relative importance of the open-quotes counting uncertaintyclose quotes can also be ascertained

  15. Assessment of annual pollutant loads in combined sewers from continuous turbidity measurements: sensitivity to calibration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Chebbo, G

    2009-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for assessing annual wet weather Suspended Solids (SS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads in combined sewers, along with the associated uncertainties from continuous turbidity measurements. The proposed method is applied to data from various urban catchments in the cities of Paris and Nantes. The focus here concerns the impact of the number of rain events sampled for calibration (i.e. through establishing linear SS/turbidity or COD/turbidity relationships) on the uncertainty of annual pollutant load assessments. Two calculation methods are investigated, both of which rely on Monte Carlo simulations: random assignment of event-specific calibration relationships to each individual rain event, and the use of an overall relationship built from the entire available data set. Since results indicate a fairly low inter-event variability for calibration relationship parameters, an accurate assessment of pollutant loads can be derived, even when fewer than 10 events are sampled for calibration purposes. For operational applications, these results suggest that turbidity could provide a more precise evaluation of pollutant loads at lower cost than typical sampling methods.

  16. Combining Satellite Measurements and Numerical Flood Prediction Models to Save Lives and Property from Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, F.; Garambois, P. A.; Biancamaria, S.

    2017-12-01

    Floods are considered the major natural threats to human societies across all continents. Consequences of floods in highly populated areas are more dramatic with losses of human lives and substantial property damage. This risk is projected to increase with the effects of climate change, particularly sea-level rise, increasing storm frequencies and intensities and increasing population and economic assets in such urban watersheds. Despite the advances in computational resources and modeling techniques, significant gaps exist in predicting complex processes and accurately representing the initial state of the system. Improving flood prediction models and data assimilation chains through satellite has become an absolute priority to produce accurate flood forecasts with sufficient lead times. The overarching goal of this work is to assess the benefits of the Surface Water Ocean Topography SWOT satellite data from a flood prediction perspective. The near real time methodology is based on combining satellite data from a simulator that mimics the future SWOT data, numerical models, high resolution elevation data and real-time local measurement in the New York/New Jersey area.

  17. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  18. Area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health service use among children involved in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseop; Garcia, Antonio R; Yang, Shuyan; Jung, Nahri

    2018-06-01

    Relying on data from a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system (CWS) in 1999-2000 (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, Cohort 1) and 2008-2009 (Cohort 2), this study implemented a diverse set of disparity indicators to estimate area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health (MH) services use and changes in area-socioeconomic disparities between the two cohorts. Our study found that there are area-socioeconomic disparities in MH service use, indicating that the rates of MH service use among youth referred to the CWS differ by area-socioeconomic positions defined by county-level poverty rates. We also found that area-socioeconomic disparities increased over time. However, the magnitude of the increase varied widely across disparity measures, suggesting that there are different conclusions about the trend and magnitude of area-socioeconomic disparities, depending upon which disparity measures are implemented. A greater understanding of the methodological differences among disparity measures is warranted, which will in turn impact how interventions are designed to reduce socioeconomic disparities among children in the CWS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  20. Combining quantitative and qualitative breast density measures to assess breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Scott, Christopher G; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir P; Jensen, Matthew R; Sprague, Brian L; Henderson, Louise M; Pankratz, V Shane; Cummings, Steven R; Miglioretti, Diana L; Vachon, Celine M; Shepherd, John A

    2017-08-22

    -quartile dense breast volume had a BCSC 5-year risk of 2.5%, whereas women with dense breasts and first-quartile dense breast volume had a 5-year risk ≤ 1.8%. Risk models with automated dense breast volume combined with BI-RADS breast density may better identify women with dense breasts at high breast cancer risk than risk models with either measure alone.

  1. Musculoskeletal networks reveal topological disparity in mammalian neck evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-12-13

    The increase in locomotor and metabolic performance during mammalian evolution was accompanied by the limitation of the number of cervical vertebrae to only seven. In turn, nuchal muscles underwent a reorganization while forelimb muscles expanded into the neck region. As variation in the cervical spine is low, the variation in the arrangement of the neck muscles and their attachment sites (i.e., the variability of the neck's musculoskeletal organization) is thus proposed to be an important source of neck disparity across mammals. Anatomical network analysis provides a novel framework to study the organization of the anatomical arrangement, or connectivity pattern, of the bones and muscles that constitute the mammalian neck in an evolutionary context. Neck organization in mammals is characterized by a combination of conserved and highly variable network properties. We uncovered a conserved regionalization of the musculoskeletal organization of the neck into upper, mid and lower cervical modules. In contrast, there is a varying degree of complexity or specialization and of the integration of the pectoral elements. The musculoskeletal organization of the monotreme neck is distinctively different from that of therian mammals. Our findings reveal that the limited number of vertebrae in the mammalian neck does not result in a low musculoskeletal disparity when examined in an evolutionary context. However, this disparity evolved late in mammalian history in parallel with the radiation of certain lineages (e.g., cetartiodactyls, xenarthrans). Disparity is further facilitated by the enhanced incorporation of forelimb muscles into the neck and their variability in attachment sites.

  2. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...

  3. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  4. Selected preconception health indicators and birth weight disparities in a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutz, Kelly L; Richardson, Liana J; Hussey, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explored the effect of timing, sequencing, and change in preconception health across adolescence and young adulthood on racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight in a diverse national cohort of young adult women. Data came from Waves I (1994-1995), III (2001-2002), and IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Eligibility was restricted to all singleton live births to female non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-origin Latina, or Asian/Pacific Islander participants (n = 3,014) occurring between the Wave III (ages 18-26 years) and IV (ages 24-32 years) interviews. Birth weight was categorized into low (4,000 g). Preconception health indicators were cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, overweight or obesity, and inadequate physical activity, measured in adolescence (Wave I, ages 11-19 years) and early adulthood (Wave III) and combined into four-category variables to capture the timing and sequencing of exposure. Measures of preconception health did not explain the Black-White disparity in low birth weight, which increased after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.53) and effect modification by overweight/obesity (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.65-7.78). A positive association between adult-onset overweight/obesity and macrosomia was modified by race (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.02-14.36 for Black women). This longitudinal analysis provides new evidence on preconception health and racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight. Specifically, it indicates that interventions focused on prevention of overweight/obesity and maintenance of healthy weight during the transition to adulthood, especially among Black females, may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  6. Effect of Medicaid Managed Care on racial disparities in health care access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) on racial disparities in access to care consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparity, which excludes differences stemming from health status but includes socioeconomic status (SES)-mediated differences. Secondary data from the Adult Samples of the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey, metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization (MHMO) market share from the 1997 to 2001 InterStudy MSA Trend Dataset, and MSA characteristics from the 1997 to 2001 Area Resource File. I estimate multivariate regression models to compare racial disparities in doctor visits, emergency room (ER) use, and having a usual source of care between enrollees in MMC and Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans. To contend with potential selection bias, I use a difference-in-difference analytical strategy and assess the impact of greater MHMO market share at the MSA level on Medicaid enrollees' access measures. To implement the IOM definition of racial disparity, I adjust for health status but not SES factors using a novel method to transform the distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white health status distribution. MMC enrollment is associated with lowered disparities in having any doctor visit in the last year for blacks, and in having any usual source of care for both blacks and Hispanics. Increasing Medicaid HMO market share lowered disparities in having any doctor visits in the last year for both blacks and Hispanics. Although disparities in most other measures were not much affected, black-white ER use disparities exist among MMC enrollees and in areas of high MHMO market share. MMC programs' reduction of some disparities suggests that recent shifts in Medicaid policy toward managed care plans have benefited minority enrollees. Future research should investigate whether black-white disparities in ER use within MMC groups

  7. Hyperfine structure of 147,149Sm measured using saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunmin; Lee, Miran; Rhee, Yongjoo

    2003-01-01

    The hyperfine structures of four levels of the Sm isotopes have been measured by means of diode-laser-based Doppler-free saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with a diode-laser-initiated resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that combining the two spectroscopic methods was very effective for the identification and accurate measurement of the spectral lines of atoms with several isotopes, such as the rare-earth elements. From the obtained spectra, the hyperfine constants A and B for the odd-mass isotopes 147 Sm and 149 Sm were determined for four upper levels of the studied transitions.

  8. A hybrid structured-light measurement using a laser projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiayu; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Dong; Wang, Chao; Fei, Zixuan; Li, Huanhuan

    2017-06-01

    The Fringe Projection System (FPS) and the Laser Stripe Projection System (LSPS) both have the limitations in 3D measurements. For a shiny and diffusive surface with complex shape, neither of the systems could manage it individually at a low cost. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a method combining these two ways of projections together using a laser projector, which could project fringe patterns and scanning-laser-stripes both. In this method, we obtain two disparity maps and two quality maps by FPS and LSPS, respectively. Then combine two disparity maps together by quality maps and reconstruct the surface of the object with the combined disparity map. Real experiments are carried out to verify the proposed method and to evaluate the system performance. The plain, the colored and the metal plastic mixed objects are all reconstructed successfully in the proposed method.

  9. Can universal coverage eliminate health disparities? Reversal of disparate injury outcomes in elderly insured minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michelle; Chang, David C; Rogers, Selwyn O; Yu, Peter T; Easterlin, Molly; Coimbra, Raul; Kobayashi, Leslie

    2013-06-15

    Health outcome disparities in racial minorities are well documented. However, it is unknown whether such disparities exist among elderly injured patients. We hypothesized that such disparities might be reduced in the elderly owing to insurance coverage under Medicare. We investigated this issue by comparing the trauma outcomes in young and elderly patients in California. A retrospective analysis of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital discharge database was performed for all publicly available years from 1995 to 2008. Trauma admissions were identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, primary diagnosis codes from 800 to 959, with certain exclusions. Multivariate analysis examined the adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality in young (<65 y) and elderly (≥65 y) patients, controlling for age, gender, injury severity as measured by the survival risk ratio, Charlson comorbidity index, insurance status, calendar year, and teaching hospital status. A total of 1,577,323 trauma patients were identified. Among the young patients, the adjusted odds ratio of death relative to non-Hispanic whites for blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans/others was 1.2, 1.2, 0.90, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding adjusted odds ratios of death for elderly patients were 0.78, 0.87, 0.92, and 0.61. Young black and Hispanic trauma patients had greater mortality risks relative to non-Hispanic white patients. Interestingly, elderly black and Hispanic patients had lower mortality risks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and

  11. Why the WTA - WTP disparity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Thomas C.; Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) has been demonstrated repeatedly. Because using WTP estimates of value where a WTA estimate is appropriate tends to undervalue environmental assets, this issue is important to environmental managers. We summarize reasons for the disparity and then discuss some of the...

  12. Development of indirect measures of conscientiousness : combining a facets approach and network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, G.; Richetin, J.; Borsboom, D.; Fried, E.I.; Rhemtulla, M.; Perugini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Because indirect measures of personality self-concepts such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT) allow tapping into automatic processes, they can offer advantages over self-report measures. However, prior investigations have led to mixed results regarding the validity of indirect measures of

  13. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation Industry Team (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  14. Improving mass measurement accuracy in mass spectrometry based proteomics by combining open source tools for chromatographic alignment and internal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Dalebout, Hans; Derks, Rico J E; Schoenmaker, Bart; Deelder, André M

    2009-05-02

    Accurate mass determination enhances peptide identification in mass spectrometry based proteomics. We here describe the combination of two previously published open source software tools to improve mass measurement accuracy in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The first program, msalign, aligns one MS/MS dataset with one FTICRMS dataset. The second software, recal2, uses peptides identified from the MS/MS data for automated internal calibration of the FTICR spectra, resulting in sub-ppm mass measurement errors.

  15. Measuring workload using a combination of electroencephalography and near infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, E.B.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2012-01-01

    The ability to continuously monitor workload in a real-world environment would have important implications for the offline design of human machine interfaces as well as the real-time online improvement of interaction between humans and machines. The present study explored the usefulness of combining

  16. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2001-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 2000 summer conferences. Averages from Z0 resonance results are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic f...

  17. Using the combination CsI(Tl) + photodiode for identification and energy measurement of light particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinet, D.; Chambon, B.; Cheynis, B.; Demeyer, A.; Drain, D.; Hu, X.C.; Pastor, C.; Vagneron, L.; Zaid, K.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Lleres, A.; Viano, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of discriminating light charged particles in charge and mass using the CsI(Tl) + photodiode combination is demonstrated. Experiment layout and results for a test using a beam of 30 MeV/nucleon α particles impinging on self-supporting gold and aluminium targets are shown

  18. Measurements on a solar greenhouse combining cooling and electrical energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Tuijl; Piet Sonneveld; H. Janssen; J. van Campen; G. Bot; Gert-Jan Swinkels

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  19. Combined Voltammetric-Potentiometric Sensor with the Silver Solid Amalgam Link for Electroanalytical Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 24 (2002), s. 1739-1741 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : combined voltammetric-potentiometric sensors * solid amalgam Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.783, year: 2002

  20. Background for a new standard on pass-by measurement of combined roughness, track decay rate and vibroacoustic transfer functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Létourneaux, F.; Dupuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    A measurement method for combined roughness, track decay rates and transfer functions derived from rail vibration during a train pass-by was initially developed in the late nineties [1]. This method has been then later implemented in software tools [2] and applied in several countries for various

  1. Combined heat and power and thermally insulating measures in residential housing stock; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und Daemmmassnahmen im Wohngebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buller, Michael [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the economic, ecologic and primary energetic potential of micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) in the residential housing stock under consideration of possible correlations between CHP and thermally insulating measures.

  2. Efficient and reliable 3D dose quality assurance for IMRT by combining independent dose calculations with measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Wauben, D. J. L.; de Groot, M.; Godart, J.; Langendijk, J. A.; van t Veld, Aart A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy treatments require appropriate quality assurance (QA) to verify 3D dose distributions. Moreover, increase in patient numbers demand efficient QA-methods. In this study, a time efficient method that combines model-based QA and measurement-based QA was developed; i.e.,

  3. Toulouse dykes: reducing failure hazard combining structural reinforcement works and organization measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatier Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Temporary mitigation measures have already been included in the flood management plan, and consist in preventive evacuation of exposed population for flood levels lower than the 1875 reference flood level, as long as the reinforcement works are not completed. Several additional mitigation measures have been proposed such as: structural reinforcement of a few dykes section, a vegetation management plan, and improvement measures of the flood management plan and the need to continue regular training emergency exercises.

  4. Measurements of combined neutron and photon fluxes for the accurate characterization of the future Jules Horowitz irradiation reactor experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmentel, D.

    2013-01-01

    A new Material Testing Reactor (MTR), the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), is under construction at the CEA Cadarache (French Alternatives Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). From 2016 this new MTR will be a new facility for the nuclear research on materials and fuels. The quality of the experiments to be conducted in this reactor is largely linked to the good knowledge of the irradiation conditions. Since 2009, a new research program called IN-CORE1 'Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry Online in Reactor' is under progress between CEA and Aix-Marseille University in the framework of a joint laboratory LIMMEX2. This program aims to improve knowledge of the neutron and photon fluxes in the RJH core, with one hand, an innovative instrumentation performing mapping of experimental locations, and on the other hand by coupling neutron flux, photon flux and thermal measurements. Neutron flux expected in the JHR core is about 10 15 n.cm -2 .s -1 and nuclear heating up to 20 W.g -1 for a nominal power of 100 MWth. One of the challenges is to identify sensors able to measure such fluxes in JHR experimental conditions and to determine how to analyse the signals delivered by these sensors with the most appropriate methods. The thesis is part of this ambitious program and aims to study the potential and the interest of the combination of radiation measurements in the prospect of a better assessment of the levels of neutron flux, gamma radiation and nuclear heating in the JHR experimental locations. The first step of IN-CORE program is to develop and operate an instrumented device called CARMEN-1 adapted to the mapping of the OSIRIS reactor, then to develop a second version called CARMEN-2 dedicated to experiments in the JHR core, especially for its start-up. This experiment was the opportunity to test all the radiation sensors which could meet the needs of JHR, including recently developed sensors. Reference neutron measurements are performed by activation

  5. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The combined bowling rate as a measure of bowling performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single measure that can be used to assess the performance of bowlers in cricket is defined. This study shows how it can be used to rank bowlers. The performance of bowlers is generally measured by using three different criteria, i.e. the average number of runs conceded per wicket taken (A), the economy rate (E), which ...

  7. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the US. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks aged 50 years and older from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: 1) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); and 2) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and 3) a combination of both. The racial disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results Differences in screening account for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. 36% of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little over 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. PMID:22514249

  8. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  9. Measurement of the B$^{0}_{s}$ lifetime and production rate with D$^{-}_{s}$ l$^{+}$ combinations in Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    The lifetime of the \\bs meson is measured in approximately 3 million hadronic Z decays accumulated using the ALEPH detector at LEP from 1991 to 1994. Seven different \\ds decay modes were reconstructed and combined with an opposite sign lepton as evidence of semileptonic \\bs decays. Two hundred and eight \\dsl candidates satisfy selection criteria designed to ensure precise proper time reconstruction and yield a measured \\bs lifetime of \\mbox{\\result .} Using a larger, less constrained sample of events, the product branching ratio is measured to be \\mbox{\\pbrresult .

  10. Combined full field stress and strain measurement methods for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broere W.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper re-introduces the photoelastic measurement method in experimental geomechanics. A full-field phase stepping polariscope suitable for geomechanical model tests has been developed. Additional constraints on the measurement and mechanical setup arising from geomechanical test conditions are outlined as well as the opportunity to measure the displacement fields in the sample with digital image correlation. The capability of the current setup in retrieving the stress and strain field in a granular material is demonstrated.

  11. A combination of clinical balance measures and FRAX? to improve identification of high-risk fallers

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, David A.; Dahlberg, Leif E.; Hansson, Eva Ekvall

    2016-01-01

    Background The FRAX? algorithm quantifies a patient?s 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture without taking an individual?s balance into account. Balance measures assess the functional ability of an individual and the FRAX? algorithm is a model that integrates the individual patients clinical risk factors [not balance] and bone mineral density. Thus, clinical balance measures capture aspects that the FRAX? algorithm does not, and vice versa. It is therefore possible that ...

  12. Health disparities through a psychological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E

    2009-11-01

    There is growing concern in the United States about avoidable, unjust differences in health associated with sociodemographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. This concern has sparked research to identify how disparities develop and how they can be reduced. Studies showing that disparities occur at all levels of socioeconomic status, not simply at the very bottom, suggest that psychosocial factors play an important role. The author discusses both content and process issues in psychological research on disparities. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  13. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  14. Global measures of ionospheric electrodynamic activity inferred from combined incoherent scatter radar and ground magnetometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, A.D.; Kamide, Y.; Akasofu, S.I.; Alcayde, D.; Blanc, M.; De LaBeaujardiere, O.; Evans, D.S.; Foster, J.C.; Holt, J.M.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Pellinen, R.J.; Senior, C.; Zaitzev, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of several global measures of high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamic activity is undertakn on the basis of results obtained from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure applied to incoherent scatter radar and ground magnetometer observatons for January 18-19, 1984. Different global measures of electric potentials, currents, resistances, and energy transfer from the magnetosphere show temporal variations that are generally well correlated. The authors present parameterizations of thees quantities in terms of the AE index and the hemispheric power index of precipitating auroral particles. It is shown how error estimates of the mapped electric fields can be used to correct the estimation of Joule heating. Global measures of potential drop, field-aligned current, and Joule heating as obtained by the AMIE procedure are compared with similar measures presented in previous studies. Agreement is found to within the uncertainties inherent in each study. The mean potential drop through which field-aligned currents flow in closing through the ionosphere is approximately 28% of the total polar cap potential drop under all conditions during these 2 days. They note that order-of-magnitude differences can appear when comparing different global measures of total electric current flow and of effective resistances of the global circuit, so that care must be exercised in choosing characteristic values of these parameters for circuit-analogy studies of ionosphere-magnetosphere electrodynamic coupling

  15. Disparity Map Generation from Illumination Variant Stereo Images Using Efficient Hierarchical Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral H. Borisagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hierarchical stereo matching algorithm is presented which gives disparity map as output from illumination variant stereo pair. Illumination difference between two stereo images can lead to undesirable output. Stereo image pair often experience illumination variations due to many factors like real and practical situation, spatially and temporally separated camera positions, environmental illumination fluctuation, and the change in the strength or position of the light sources. Window matching and dynamic programming techniques are employed for disparity map estimation. Good quality disparity map is obtained with the optimized path. Homomorphic filtering is used as a preprocessing step to lessen illumination variation between the stereo images. Anisotropic diffusion is used to refine disparity map to give high quality disparity map as a final output. The robust performance of the proposed approach is suitable for real life circumstances where there will be always illumination variation between the images. The matching is carried out in a sequence of images representing the same scene, however in different resolutions. The hierarchical approach adopted decreases the computation time of the stereo matching problem. This algorithm can be helpful in applications like robot navigation, extraction of information from aerial surveys, 3D scene reconstruction, and military and security applications. Similarity measure SAD is often sensitive to illumination variation. It produces unacceptable disparity map results for illumination variant left and right images. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm produces quality disparity maps for both wide range of illumination variant and invariant stereo image pair.

  16. Comparing and Combining Measurement-Based and Driven-Dissipative Entanglement Stabilization*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate and contrast two approaches to the stabilization of qubit entanglement by feedback. Our demonstration is built on a feedback platform consisting of two superconducting qubits coupled to a cavity, which are measured by a nearly quantum-limited measurement chain and controlled by high-speed classical logic circuits. This platform is used to stabilize entanglement by two nominally distinct schemes: a “passive” reservoir engineering method and an “active” correction based on conditional parity measurements. In view of the instrumental roles that these two feedback paradigms play in quantum error correction and quantum control, we directly compare them on the same experimental setup. Furthermore, we show that a second layer of feedback can be added to each of these schemes, which heralds the presence of a high-fidelity entangled state in real time. This “nested” feedback brings about a marked entanglement fidelity improvement without sacrificing success probability.

  17. Combining Space-Based and In-Situ Measurements to Track Flooding in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Chitradon, Royal; Boonya-aaroonnet, Surajate; Thanapakpawin, Porranee; Khunboa, Chatchai; Leelapatra, Watis; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe efforts to integrate in-situ sensing, space-borne sensing, hydrological modeling, active control of sensing, and automatic data product generation to enhance monitoring and management of flooding. In our approach, broad coverage sensors and missions such as MODIS, TRMM, and weather satellite information and in-situ weather and river gauging information are all inputs to track flooding via river basin and sub-basin hydrological models. While these inputs can provide significant information as to the major flooding, targetable space measurements can provide better spatial resolution measurements of flooding extent. In order to leverage such assets we automatically task observations in response to automated analysis indications of major flooding. These new measurements are automatically processed and assimilated with the other flooding data. We describe our ongoing efforts to deploy this system to track major flooding events in Thailand.

  18. Combined measurement and QCD analysis of the inclusive e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross sections at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute, Muenchen (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-10-15

    A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised e{sup {+-}}p scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic uncertainties into account, resulting in an improved accuracy. The combined data are the sole input in a NLO QCD analysis which determines a new set of parton distributions HERAPDF1.0 with small experimental uncertainties. This set includes an estimate of the model and parametrisation uncertainties of the fit result. (orig.)

  19. Disparity, motion, and color information improve gloss constancy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Gunnar; Faul, Franz; Ekroll, Vebjørn; Mausfeld, Rainer

    2010-09-01

    S. Nishida and M. Shinya (1998) found that observers have only a limited ability to recover surface-reflectance properties under changes in surface shape. Our aim in the present study was to investigate how the degree of surface-reflectance constancy depends on the availability of information that may help to infer the reflectance and shape properties of surfaces. To this end, we manipulated the availability of (i) motion-induced information (static vs. dynamic presentation), (ii) disparity information (with the levels "monocular," "surface disparity," and "surface + highlight disparity"), and (iii) color information (grayscale stimuli vs. hue differences between diffuse and specular reflections). The task of the subjects was to match the perceived lightness and glossiness between two surfaces with different spatial frequency and amplitude by manipulating the diffuse component and the exponent of the Phong lighting model in one of the surfaces. Our results indicate that all three types of information improve the constancy of glossiness matches--both in isolation and in combination. The lightness matching data only revealed an influence of motion and color information. Our results indicate, somewhat counterintuitively, that motion information has a detrimental effect on lightness constancy.

  20. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  1. On-line measurement of ski-jumper trajectory: combining stereo vision and shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner, T.; Sidla, O.; Paar, G.; Nauschnegg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Ski jumping has continuously raised major public interest since the early 70s of the last century, mainly in Europe and Japan. The sport undergoes high-level analysis and development, among others, based on biodynamic measurements during the take-off and flight phase of the jumper. We report on a vision-based solution for such measurements that provides a full 3D trajectory of unique points on the jumper's shape. During the jump synchronized stereo images are taken by a calibrated camera system in video rate. Using methods stemming from video surveillance, the jumper is detected and localized in the individual stereo images, and learning-based deformable shape analysis identifies the jumper's silhouette. The 3D reconstruction of the trajectory takes place on standard stereo forward intersection of distinct shape points, such as helmet top or heel. In the reported study, the measurements are being verified by an independent GPS measurement mounted on top of the Jumper's helmet, synchronized to the timing of camera exposures. Preliminary estimations report an accuracy of +/-20 cm in 30 Hz imaging frequency within 40m trajectory. The system is ready for fully-automatic on-line application on ski-jumping sites that allow stereo camera views with an approximate base-distance ratio of 1:3 within the entire area of investigation.

  2. The combined bowling rate as a measure of bowling performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This classification is however not very accurate as it does for example not take into account how many overs have been bowled. Two bowlers might have the same average but one may be more economical than the other. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a single measure that takes the full performance of a bowler ...

  3. Measuring RF circuits exhibiting nonlinear responses combined with short and long term memory effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.J.G.; Milosevic, D.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    All RF circuits that incorporate active devices exhibit nonlinear behavior. Nonlinearities result in signal distortion, and therefore state the upper limit of the dynamic range of the circuits. A measure for linearity used quite commonly in RF is the P1dB and/or IP3 point. These quantities are

  4. A Dual Pathway of Student Motivation: Combining an Implicit and Explicit Measure of Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Lisette; Kamsteeg, Antoinette; Pot, Sara; Verheij, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    Abundant research in social psychology shows human behaviour is guided by beliefs through two pathways, a deliberate and automatic pathway. Research on student motivation has thus far focused mostly on the deliberate pathway and consequently almost exclusively relied on explicit measures (i.e. self-reports of motivation) to assess student…

  5. Combining Clinical Information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, D.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the use of clinical information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for patient evaluation in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. In the first part, we showed that the Dutch version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a valid and reliable

  6. Calcium isotope measurement by combined HR-MC-ICPMS and TIMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Martin; Paton, Chad; Bizzarro, Martin

    2012-01-01

    studies demonstrate that it is possible to measure the mass-dependent Ca isotope composition of terrestrial materials using HR-MC-ICPMS with an external reproducibility comparable to that typically obtained with double spike TIMS techniques. The resolution of the mass-independent 43Ca, 46Ca and 48Ca data...

  7. Combining measures of dispersal to identify conservation strategies in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the way in which habitat fragmentation disrupts animal dispersal is key to identifying effective and efficient conservation strategies. To differentiate the potential effectiveness of 2 frequently used strategies for increasing the connectivity of populations in fragmented landscapes-corridors and stepping stones-we combined 3 complimentary methods: behavioral studies at habitat edges, mark-recapture, and genetic analyses. Each of these methods addresses different steps in the dispersal process that a single intensive study could not address. We applied the 3 methods to the case study of Atrytonopsis new species 1, a rare butterfly endemic to a partially urbanized stretch of barrier islands in North Carolina (U.S.A.). Results of behavioral analyses showed the butterfly flew into urban and forested areas, but not over open beach; mark-recapture showed that the butterfly dispersed successfully through short stretches of urban areas (5 km) were a dispersal barrier, but shorter stretches of urban areas (≤5 km) were not. Although results from all 3 methods indicated natural features in the landscape, not urbanization, were barriers to dispersal, when we combined the results we could determine where barriers might arise: forests restricted dispersal for the butterfly only when there were long stretches with no habitat. Therefore, urban areas have the potential to become a dispersal barrier if their extent increases, a finding that may have gone unnoticed if we had used a single approach. Protection of stepping stones should be sufficient to maintain connectivity for Atrytonopsis new species 1 at current levels of urbanization. Our research highlights how the use of complementary approaches for studying animal dispersal in fragmented landscapes can help identify conservation strategies. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Benjamin J.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2015-01-01

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions

  10. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Benjamin J; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2015-06-01

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  11. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Benjamin J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, 920 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); El-Naggar, Mohamed Y., E-mail: mnaggar@usc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, 920 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Molecular and Computational Biology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  12. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  13. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  14. Energy price disparity and public welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templet, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The differences in the price of energy to economic sectors are linked to a number of system parameters and to public welfare. There are large disparities in energy prices within states when comparing residential and industrial prices although neoclassical economics predicts one price in markets. The large disparities between the two sectors across states negatively affects the efficiency of resource allocation, creates subsidies for those getting the cheap energy and results in unequal access to energy. These in turn lead to inefficient partitioning of energy between products and waste, higher pollution, leakage of wealth and poorer energy use efficiency, i.e. high energy intensity. States with large energy price disparities between sectors have statistically higher poverty, lower incomes, more pollution and use more energy but with less efficiency. Higher energy price disparities also result in higher throughput per unit of output thus reducing the chances for sustainability and lower public welfare. 31 refs

  15. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality commissioned the Institute of Medicine establish a committee to provide guidance on the National Healthcare Disparities Report is of access to health care...

  16. Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Bizot, J.C.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E.G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bold, T.; Brummer, N.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bussey, P.J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C.D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R.K.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; De Pasquale, S.; De Wolf, E.A.; del Peso, J.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dolinska, G.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drugakov, V.; Dubak, A.; Durkin, L.S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P.F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Gottlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Huttmann, A.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J.C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T.W.; Jonsson, L.; Jungst, M.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I.I.; Kaur, P.; Kaur, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L.A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J.Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kostka, P.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T.Y.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K.R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J.F.; Martyn, H.U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Idris, F.Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Morris, J.D.; Mujkic, K.; Muller, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikitin, D.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R.J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P.G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Plucinski, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D.D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y.D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salek, D.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A.A.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schonberg, V.; Schoning, A.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Slominski, W.; Sloan, T.; Smith, W.H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, J.; Szuba, D.; Tapper, A.D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Trusov, V.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vazquez, M.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N.N.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J.J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wunsch, E.; Yagues-Molina, A.G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zabiegalov, O.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhokin, A.; Zichichi, A.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D.S.; Zarnecki, A.F.

    2012-10-10

    A combination of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA is presented. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering data at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 318 GeV where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account, resulting in an improved precision of the cross section measurement which reaches 6% for the most precise points. The combined data cover the range 2.5 < Q2 < 200 GeV2 in photon virtuality, 0.00035 < xIP < 0.09 in proton fractional momentum loss, 0.09 < |t| < 0.55 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 0.0018 < beta < 0.816 in beta = x/xIP, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable.

  17. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1999-01-01

    and women, 2) to investigate the association between ALC and life satisfaction and 3) to describe how ALC is determined by socio-demographic, psycho-social, and health factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population survey. SETTING: Eleven municipalities in the Western part of Copenhagen County in 1989......: For both men and women an active life (measured by ALC) was significantly associated with life satisfaction. For men only good self-rated health was related to ALC in the multivariate analysis. Among women high income, many social contacts, good self-rated health, good memory and lack of chronic diseases...... for both sexes, and 3) it gives more information than the two concepts used as separate outcome measures....

  18. Global Distribution of Mercury's Neutrals from MESSENGER Measurements Combined with a Tomographic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; McClintock, Bill; Vervack, Ron, Jr.; Killen, Rosemary; Merkel, Aimee; Slavin, James; Solomon, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) onboard this spacecraft has been observing Mercury's collisionless exosphere. We present measurements by MESSENGER UVVS of the sodium, calcium, and magnesium distributions that were obtained during multiple passes through the tail over a period of one month. Global maps of the exosphere were constructed daily from such measurements using a recently developed tomographic technique. During this period, Mercury moved towards the Sun from being about 0.44 astronomical units (AU) to approximately 0.32 AU from the Sun. Hence, our reconstructions provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the exosphere, the source processes for these species, and their dependence with orbital distance during the entire in-leg of Mercury's orbit.

  19. Combination of optical coherence tomography and reflectometry technique for eye measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.

    2013-03-01

    A spectral domain optical coherence tomography system is integrated with an optical reflectometer to provide dualfunctional eye measurement. The system is capable of performing anterior segment imaging and tear film thickness evaluation at the same time. The axial resolution of the anterior segment imaging is 6μm while for tear film thickness measurement the resolution is about 21 nm. We use the integrated device to examine a model eye with artificial tear film. Structures such as the cornea, the ciliary muscle, and the front boundary of the crystalline lens are clearly visible. Artificial tear film thickness is determined simultaneously with anterior segment imaging. The integrated device is also flexible for separated anterior segment imaging or tear thickness evaluation.

  20. Measurement of Effective Renal Plasma Flow: Evaluation of Clinical Uses in Combination with Renography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadev, V. [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1971-02-15

    A comparison of techniques for measuring the renal clearance of Hippuran using a single injection of {sup 131}I sodium orthoiodohippurate in 30 normal subjects and 49 patients showed that a simplified technique using limited samples of blood gave comparable results to more complicated blood and external monitoring techniques without significant loss of accuracy. The clearance value in normal subjects was 645 ml/1.73 m{sup 2} ({+-} 108 ml) and is comparable with results obtained elsewhere. Together with a renogram examination this measurement enables more information to be obtained and helps to distinguish vascular and parenchymal disorders from purely obstructive lesions. It may be useful in the problem of renal tuberculosis and in distinguishing benign kidney lesions from malignant. (author)

  1. Gender Disparity in Education Enrollment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Quayes; Richard David Ramsey

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of school enrollment in Pakistan. The likelihood of school enrollment is estimated using separate logistic regression models for three different age groups. The empirical results indicate severe gender disparity in school enrollment across all age groups, particularly among the older age groups. Although the rate of school enrollment is positively associated with household income, the gender disparity actually deteriorates with an increase in household inco...

  2. REGIONAL DISPARITIES – HISTORICAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the issue of regional disparities has become a highly debated topic, knowledge regarding regional disparities being a matter of political priority as their persistence hinders the appropriate integration process. On the other hand, emphasis was put on integration through the process of EU enlargement, thus highlighting other issues related to the nature and size of disparities. Regional disparities regarding development and the living standards of the population have long been the concern of all Member States. In the case of Romania, recently admitted into the European structures, registering large backlogs to economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, represents a clear necessity. The "European Union" (EU project is of an unprecedented complexity and scale because it involves a plurality of states, which are culturally and economically heterogeneous. Moreover, these economic and cultural differences exist even within the states. Hence, there is also the central idea of the Union, regarding unity in diversity. In Romania the local, regional communities have a strong identity, but still evolving. Taking into account Romania's objective of successfully integrating into European structures, and the principles of democratic decision-making requires that regional development should aim at reducing economic and social disparities based on a notable involvement of the local, regional communities. Based on these facts, the paper aims to present the current regional (and intra-regional disparities in Romania with regard to a number of synthetic indicators of capital, of labor and of outcomes. The persistence in time of these economic disparities can be explained by considering the cultural legacies – represented by norms, values, institutions, that impact on how people interact, communicate

  3. Evaluating the accuracy of tooth color measurement by combining the Munsell color system and dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiun-Yao; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Ta-Ko; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Fu, Po-Sung; Chen, Jeng-Huey; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    As we pay increasing attention to dental aesthetics, tooth color matching has become an important part of daily dental practice. This aim of this study was to develop a method to enhance the accuracy of a tooth color matching machine. The Munsell color tabs in the range of natural human teeth were measured using a tooth color measuring machine (ShadeEye NCC). The machine's accuracy was analyzed using an analysis of variance test and a Tukey post-hoc test. When matching the Munsell color tabs with the ShadeEye NCC colorimeter, settings of Chroma greater than 6 and Value less than 4 showed unacceptable clinical results. When the CIELAB mode was used, the a* value (which represents the red-green axis in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color space) made no significant difference (p=0.84), the L* value (which represents the lightness) resulted in a negative correlation, and the b* value (which represents the yellow-blue axis) resulted in a positive correlation with ΔE. When the Munsell color tabs and the Vitapan were measured in the same mode and compared, the inaccuracies showed that the Vitapan was not a proper tool for evaluating the stability and accuracy of ShadeEye NCC. By knowing the limitations of the machine, we evaluated the data using the Munsell color tabs; shade beyond the acceptable range should be reevaluated using a visual shade matching method, or if measured by another machine, this shade range should be covered to obtain more accurate results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Automatic sleep scoring: a search for an optimal combination of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakovská, Anna; Mezeiová, Kristína

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study is to find the best set of characteristics of polysomnographic signals for the automatic classification of sleep stages. A selection was made from 74 measures, including linear spectral measures, interdependency measures, and nonlinear measures of complexity that were computed for the all-night polysomnographic recordings of 20 healthy subjects. The adopted multidimensional analysis involved quadratic discriminant analysis, forward selection procedure, and selection by the best subset procedure. Two situations were considered: the use of four polysomnographic signals (EEG, EMG, EOG, and ECG) and the use of the EEG alone. For the given database, the best automatic sleep classifier achieved approximately an 81% agreement with the hypnograms of experts. The classifier was based on the next 14 features of polysomnographic signals: the ratio of powers in the beta and delta frequency range (EEG, channel C3), the fractal exponent (EMG), the variance (EOG), the absolute power in the sigma 1 band (EEG, C3), the relative power in the delta 2 band (EEG, O2), theta/gamma (EEG, C3), theta/alpha (EEG, O1), sigma/gamma (EEG, C4), the coherence in the delta 1 band (EEG, O1-O2), the entropy (EMG), the absolute theta 2 (EEG, Fp1), theta/alpha (EEG, Fp1), the sigma 2 coherence (EEG, O1-C3), and the zero-crossing rate (ECG); however, even with only four features, we could perform sleep scoring with a 74% accuracy, which is comparable to the inter-rater agreement between two independent specialists. We have shown that 4-14 carefully selected polysomnographic features were sufficient for successful sleep scoring. The efficiency of the corresponding automatic classifiers was verified and conclusively demonstrated on all-night recordings from healthy adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer in tehran using combined lidar remote sensing and ground base measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Hossein; Khalesifard, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    The vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has been studied by use of a depolarized LiDAR over Tehran, Iran. The boundary layer height (BLH) remains under 1km, and its retrieval from LiDAR have been compared with sonding measurements and meteorological model outputs. It is also shown that the wind speed and direction as well as topography lead to the persistence of air pollution in Tehran. The situation aggravate in fall and winter due to temperature inversion.

  6. Scaling issues in multi-criteria evaluation of combinations of measures for integrated river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    In integrated river basin management, measures for reaching the environmental objectives can be evaluated at different scales, and according to multiple criteria of different nature (e.g. ecological, economic, social). Decision makers, including responsible authorities and stakeholders, follow different interests regarding criteria and scales. With a bottom up approach, the multi criteria assessment could produce a different outcome than with a top down approach. The first assigns more power to the local community, which is a common principle of IWRM. On the other hand, the development of an overall catchment strategy could potentially make use of synergetic effects of the measures, which fulfils the cost efficiency requirement at the basin scale but compromises local interests. Within a joint research project for the 5500 km2 Werra river basin in central Germany, measures have been planned to reach environmental objectives of the European Water Framework directive (WFD) regarding ecological continuity and nutrient loads. The main criteria for the evaluation of the measures were costs of implementation, reduction of nutrients, ecological benefit and social acceptance. The multi-criteria evaluation of the catchment strategies showed compensation between positive and negative performance of criteria within the catchment, which in the end reduced the discriminative power of the different strategies. Furthermore, benefit criteria are partially computed for the whole basin only. Both ecological continuity and nutrient load show upstream-downstream effects in opposite direction. The principles of "polluter pays" and "overall cost efficiency" can be followed for the reduction of nutrient losses when financial compensations between upstream and downstream users are made, similar to concepts of emission trading.

  7. Combination of the top-quark mass measurements from the Tevatron collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), "092003-1"-"092003-30" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : measured * CDF * DZERO * anti-p p * dilepton * (n)jet lepto Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012

  8. Density and Viscosity Measurement of Diesel Fuels at Combined High Pressure and Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schaschke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the measurement of the viscosity and density of various diesel fuels, obtained from British refineries, at elevated pressures up to 500 MPa and temperatures in the range 298 K to 373 K. The measurement and prediction procedures of fluid properties under high pressure conditions is of increasing interest in many processes and systems including enhanced oil recovery, automotive engine fuel injection, braking, and hydraulic systems. Accurate data and understanding of the fluid characteristic in terms of pressure, volume and temperature is required particularly where the fluid is composed of a complex mixture or blend of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, high pressure viscosity data was obtained using a thermostatically-controlled falling sinker-type high pressure viscometer to provide reproducible and reliable viscosity data based on terminal velocity sinker fall times. This was supported with density measurements using a micro-pVT device. Both high-pressure devices were additionally capable of illustrating the freezing points of the hydrocarbon mixtures. This work has, thus, provided data that can extend the application of mixtures of commercially available fuels and to test the validity of available predictive density and viscosity models. This included a Tait-style equation for fluid compressibility prediction. For complex diesel fuel compositions, which have many unidentified components, the approach illustrates the need to apply appropriate correlations, which require accurate knowledge or prediction of thermodynamic properties.

  9. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  10. Comparison of Simulations and Offshore Measurement Data of a Combined Floating Wind and Wave Energy Demonstration Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special...... external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software WAMIT. The main focus of the comparison is on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads, and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions. Finally, challenges...

  11. EXAFS measurements under high pressure conditions using a combination of a diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueno, Shigeho; Nakai, Izumi; Imafuku, Masayuki; Morikawa, Hideki; Kimata, Mitsuyoshi; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Nomura, Masaharu; Shimomura, Osamu.

    1986-01-01

    EXAFS spectra for Fe, Co, Ni K-edges were successfully measured under high pressure conditions using a combination of a set of normal 1/8 carat diamond anvils, synchrotron radiation and a scintillation counter. A newly developed motor controlled goniometer stage was used for adjusting the position of a miniature diamond anvil cell. On the measurement of Cr and Mn spectra, specially designed thinner diamond anvil was necessary. EXAFS analysis of bis(dimethylglyoximato)nickel(II) at pressures from 1 atm to 5.6 GPa was made. (author)

  12. Combined Time-Dependent CP Violation Measurements by the B factory experiments BaBar and Belle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    During the 2000s, the BaBar experiment at SLAC in Stanford/USA and the Belle experiment at KEK in Tsukuba/Japan performed a very successful flavor physics program. In particular, BaBar and Belle discovered CP violation in the neutral and charged B meson system. In this talk, we present the results of two measurements from a novel analysis campaign by the former 'friendly competitors'. The novel approach combines the integrated luminosity of about 1.1 inverse attobarn collected by both experiments in single physics analyses. The first combined measurement presented is a time-dependent CP violation measurement of $B^{0} \\to D^{(*)}_{CP} h^{0}$ decays, where the light neutral hadron $h^{0}$ is a $\\pi^{0}$, $\\eta$ or $\\omega$ meson, and the neutral $D$ meson is reconstructed in decays to the two-body CP eigenstates $K^{+}K^{-}$, $K_{S}^{0}\\pi^{0}$ or $K_{S}^{0}\\omega$. A first observation of CP violation governed by mixing-induced CP violation according to $\\sin{2\\beta}$ is reported. The second combined measurem...

  13. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  14. Field testing of a fenbendazole treatment combined with hygienic and management measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2006-12-20

    The need of a combination of animal treatment and environmental measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves between the age of 1 and 6 months was emphasized and evaluated. Ten commercial farms with a total of 94 calves suffering from chronic diarrhea, ill thriving and impaired growth, were included in two subsequent studies. The first study indicated that treatment of all animals with fenbendazole at 15 mg/kg during 3 consecutive days combined with environmental measures on the final day of treatment, which were either removal of bedding, thorough cleaning and ammonia 10% disinfection or relocation of the treated animals to a Giardia free environment, resulted in a total reduction in cyst excretion for at least 2 weeks. In the second study, the immunofluorescence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia; Meridian Diagnostics Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) was used quantitatively and confirmed that the combination of treatment and environmental measures resulted in a total reduction of cyst excretion during 2 weeks and in a significant (Por=98.0%) reduction of the cyst excretion until at least 4 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, there was a noticeable improvement of the clinical symptoms in all animals towards day 28 after treatment and 4 months after treatment health in all calves was normal.

  15. An investigation of ozone and planetary boundary layer dynamics over the complex topography of Grenoble combining measurements and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Couach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns an evaluation of ozone (O3 and planetary boundary layer (PBL dynamics over the complex topography of the Grenoble region through a combination of measurements and mesoscale model (METPHOMOD predictions for three days, during July 1999. The measurements of O3 and PBL structure were obtained with a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL system, situated 20 km south of Grenoble at Vif (310 m ASL. The combined lidar observations and model calculations are in good agreement with atmospheric measurements obtained with an instrumented aircraft (METAIR. Ozone fluxes were calculated using lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles concentrations and the horizontal wind speeds measured with a Radar Doppler wind profiler (DEGREANE. The ozone flux patterns indicate that the diurnal cycle of ozone production is controlled by local thermal winds. The convective PBL maximum height was some 2700 m above the land surface while the nighttime residual ozone layer was generally found between 1200 and 2200 m. Finally we evaluate the magnitude of the ozone processes at different altitudes in order to estimate the photochemical ozone production due to the primary pollutants emissions of Grenoble city and the regional network of automobile traffic.

  16. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  17. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  18. Malnutrition risk questionnaire combined with body composition measurement in malnutrition screening in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, Ágnes Anna; Molnár, Andrea; Piri, Zsolt; Pálfi, Erzsébet; Miheller, Pál

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of malnutrition screening is to predict the probability of a worse outcome due to nutritional factors. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) can be used for screening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it does not provide details about body composition. Our aim was to assess the body composition and combine this with the MUST method to screen risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia. A total of 173 IBD outpatients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The MUST scale indicated 21.4% of IBD patients to be at risk of malnutrition. A risk of sarcopenia was detected in 27.7%. However, one third of these patients were not considered to be at risk by their MUST score. Furthermore, Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a strongly unfavorable fat-free mass index (FFMI) value compared to ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and these differences were significant among men (FFMI: 18.62 ± 2.16 vs 19.85 ± 2.22, p = 0.02, in CD and UC males, respectively). As sarcopenia is a relevant prognostic factor, the MUST method should be expanded to include body composition analysis to detect more IBD patients at risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia in order to start their nutritional therapy immediately.

  19. Accuracy improvement of irradiation data by combining ground and satellite measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betcke, J. [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg (Germany); Beyer, H.G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Applied Science (F.H.) Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Accurate and site-specific irradiation data are essential input for optimal planning, monitoring and operation of solar energy technologies. A concrete example is the performance check of grid connected PV systems with the PVSAT-2 procedure. This procedure detects system faults in an early stage by a daily comparison of an individual reference yield with the actual yield. Calculation of the reference yield requires hourly irradiation data with a known accuracy. A field test of the predecessing PVSAT-1 procedure showed that the accuracy of the irradiation input is the determining factor for the overall accuracy of the yield calculation. In this paper we will investigate if it is possible to improve the accuracy of sitespeci.c irradiation data by combining accurate localised pyranometer data with semi-continuous satellite data.We will therefore introduce the ''Kriging of Differences'' data fusion method. Kriging of Differences also offers the possibility to estimate it's own accuracy. The obtainable accuracy gain and the effectiveness of the accuracy prediction will be investigated by validation on monthly and daily irradiation datasets. Results will be compared with the Heliosat method and interpolation of ground data. (orig.)

  20. Combined Langmuir-magnetic probe measurements of type-I ELMy filaments in the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingquan, YANG; Fangchuan, ZHONG; Guosheng, XU; Ning, YAN; Liang, CHEN; Xiang, LIU; Yong, LIU; Liang, WANG; Zhendong, YANG; Yifeng, WANG; Yang, YE; Heng, ZHANG; Xiaoliang, Li

    2018-06-01

    Detailed investigations on the filamentary structures associated with the type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) should be helpful for protecting the materials of a plasma-facing wall on a future large device. Related experiments have been carefully conducted in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) using combined Langmuir-magnetic probes. The experimental results indicate that the radially outward velocity of type-I ELMy filaments can be up to 1.7 km s‑1 in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) region. It is remarkable that the electron temperature of these filaments is detected to be ∼50 eV, corresponding to a fraction of 1/6 to the temperature near the pedestal top, while the density (∼ 3× {10}19 {{{m}}}-3) of these filaments could be approximate to the line-averaged density. In addition, associated magnetic fluctuations have been clearly observed at the same time, which show good agreement with the density perturbations. A localized current on the order of ∼100 kA could be estimated within the filaments.

  1. Cloud cover detection combining high dynamic range sky images and ceilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R.; Cazorla, A.; Toledano, C.; Olmo, F. J.; Cachorro, V. E.; de Frutos, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for cloud detection based on high dynamic range images from a sky camera and ceilometer measurements. The algorithm is also able to detect the obstruction of the sun. This algorithm, called CPC (Camera Plus Ceilometer), is based on the assumption that under cloud-free conditions the sky field must show symmetry. The symmetry criteria are applied depending on ceilometer measurements of the cloud base height. CPC algorithm is applied in two Spanish locations (Granada and Valladolid). The performance of CPC retrieving the sun conditions (obstructed or unobstructed) is analyzed in detail using as reference pyranometer measurements at Granada. CPC retrievals are in agreement with those derived from the reference pyranometer in 85% of the cases (it seems that this agreement does not depend on aerosol size or optical depth). The agreement percentage goes down to only 48% when another algorithm, based on Red-Blue Ratio (RBR), is applied to the sky camera images. The retrieved cloud cover at Granada and Valladolid is compared with that registered by trained meteorological observers. CPC cloud cover is in agreement with the reference showing a slight overestimation and a mean absolute error around 1 okta. A major advantage of the CPC algorithm with respect to the RBR method is that the determined cloud cover is independent of aerosol properties. The RBR algorithm overestimates cloud cover for coarse aerosols and high loads. Cloud cover obtained only from ceilometer shows similar results than CPC algorithm; but the horizontal distribution cannot be obtained. In addition, it has been observed that under quick and strong changes on cloud cover ceilometers retrieve a cloud cover fitting worse with the real cloud cover.

  2. Combined fluorescence, reflectance, and ground measurements of a stressed Norway spruce forest for forest damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banninger, C.

    1991-01-01

    The detection and monitoring of stress and damage in forested areas is of utmost importance to forest managers for planning purposes. Remote sensing are the most suitable means to obtain this information. This requires that remote sensing data employed in a forest survey be properly chosen and utilized for their ability to measure canopy spectral features directly related to key tree and canopy properties that are indicators of forest health and vitality. Plant reflectance in the visible to short wave IR regions (400 to 2500 nm) provides information on its biochemical, biophysical, and morphological make up, whereas plant fluorescence in the 400 to 750 nm region is more indicative of the capacity and functioning of its photosynthetic apparatus. A measure of both these spectral properties can be used to provide an accurate assessment of stress and damage within the forest canopy. Foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen are essential biochemical constituents required for the proper functioning and maintenance of a plant's biological processes. Chlorophyll-a is the prime reactive center for photosynthesis, by which a plant converts CO2 and H2O into necessary plant products. Nitrogen forms an important component of the amino-acids, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic compounds that make up a plant, including its pigments. Both chlorophyll and nitrogen have characteristic absorption features in the visible to short wave IR region. By measuring the wavelength position and depth of these features and the fluorescence response of the foliage, the health and vitality of a canopy can be ascertained. Examples for a stressed Norway spruce forest in south-eastern Austria are presented.

  3. Prenatal and Postpartum Care Disparities in a Large Medicaid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Jarlenski, Marian; Kelley, David

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Pennsylvania's maternal mortality, infant mortality, and preterm birth rates rank 24th, 35th, and 25th in the country, and are higher among racial and ethnic minorities. Provision of prenatal and postpartum care represents one way to improve these outcomes. We assessed the extent of disparities in the provision and timeliness of prenatal and postpartum care for women enrolled in Pennsylvania Medicaid. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of representative samples of women who delivered live births from November 2011 to 2015. Our outcomes were three binary effectiveness-of-care measures: prenatal care timeliness, frequency of prenatal care, and postpartum care timeliness. Pennsylvania's Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to submit these outcomes to the state after reviewing administrative and medical records through a standardized, validated sampling process. We assessed for differences in outcomes by race, ethnicity, region, year, and MCO using logistic regression. Results We analyzed data for 12,228 women who were 49% White, 31% Black/African American, 4% Asian, and 15% Hispanic/Latina. Compared to Black/African American women, white and Asian women had higher odds of prenatal and postpartum care. Hispanic/Latina women had higher frequency of prenatal care than non-Hispanic women. Pennsylvania's Southeast had lower prenatal care and Northwest had lower postpartum care than other regions. Prenatal care significantly decreased in 2014 and increased in 2015. We observed differences between MCOs, and as MCO performance diminished, racial disparities within each plan widened. We explored hypotheses for observed disparities in secondary analyses. Conclusions for Practice Our data demonstrate that interventions should address disparities by race, region, and MCO in equity-promoting measures.

  4. Study of radon dispersion in typical dwelling using CFD modeling combined with passive-active measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2017-10-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence the indoor radon concentration. This study focuses on investigating both numerically and experimentally the influence of environmental conditions on the indoor radon concentration and spatial distribution. The numerical results showed that ventilation rate, temperature and humidity have significant impacts on both radon content and distribution. The variations of radon concentration with the ventilation, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. The measurement results show the diurnal variations of the indoor radon concentration are found to exhibit a positive correlation with relative humidity and negatively correlate with the air temperature. The analytic solution is used to validate the numeric results. The comparison amongst analytical, numerical and measurement results shows close agreement.

  5. Combined spacecraft orbit and attitude control through extended Kalman filtering of magnetometer, gyro, and GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to establish spacecraft orbit and attitude control algorithms based on extended Kalman filter which provides estimates of spacecraft orbital and attitude states. The control and estimation algorithms must be capable of dealing with the spacecraft conditions during the detumbling and attitude acquisition modes of operation. These conditions are characterized by nonlinearities represented by large initial attitude angles, large initial angular velocities, large initial attitude estimation error, and large initial position estimation error. All of the developed estimation and control algorithms are suitable for application to the next Egyptian scientific satellite, EGYPTSAT-2. The parameters of the case-study spacecraft are similar but not identical to the former Egyptian satellite EGYPTSAT-1. This is done because the parameters of EGYPTSAT-2 satellite have not been consolidated yet. The sensors utilized are gyro, magnetometer, and GPS. Gyro and magnetometer are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft attitude state vector where as magnetometer and GPS are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft orbital state vector.

  6. Slow and steady: the evolution of cranial disparity in fossil and recent turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Joyce, Walter G

    2016-11-30

    Turtles (Testudinata) are a diverse group of amniotes that have a rich fossil record that extends back to the Late Triassic, but little is known about global patterns of disparity through time. We here investigate the cranial disparity of 172 representatives of the turtle lineage and their ancestors grouped into 20 time bins ranging from the Late Triassic until the Recent using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Three evolutionary phases are apparent in all three anatomical views investigated. In the first phase, disparity increases gradually from the Late Triassic to the Palaeogene with only a minor perturbation at the K/T extinct event. Although global warming may have influenced this increase, we find the Mesozoic fragmentation of Pangaea to be a more plausible factor. Following its maximum, disparity decreases strongly towards the Miocene, only to recover partially towards the Recent. The marked collapse in disparity is likely a result of habitat destruction caused by global drying, combined with the homogenization of global turtle faunas that resulted from increased transcontinental dispersal in the Tertiary. The disparity minimum in the Miocene is likely an artefact of poor sampling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining virtual observatory and equivalent source dipole approaches to describe the geomagnetic field with Swarm measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Amit, Hagay; Civet, François; Mandea, Mioara; Beucler, Éric

    2018-03-01

    A detailed description of the main geomagnetic field and of its temporal variations (i.e., the secular variation or SV) is crucial to understanding the geodynamo. Although the SV is known with high accuracy at ground magnetic observatory locations, the globally uneven distribution of the observatories hampers the determination of a detailed global pattern of the SV. Over the past two decades, satellites have provided global surveys of the geomagnetic field which have been used to derive global spherical harmonic (SH) models through some strict data selection schemes to minimise external field contributions. However, discrepancies remain between ground measurements and field predictions by these models; indeed the global models do not reproduce small spatial scales of the field temporal variations. To overcome this problem we propose to directly extract time series of the field and its temporal variation from satellite measurements as it is done at observatory locations. We follow a Virtual Observatory (VO) approach and define a global mesh of VOs at satellite altitude. For each VO and each given time interval we apply an Equivalent Source Dipole (ESD) technique to reduce all measurements to a unique location. Synthetic data are first used to validate the new VO-ESD approach. Then, we apply our scheme to data from the first two years of the Swarm mission. For the first time, a 2.5° resolution global mesh of VO time series is built. The VO-ESD derived time series are locally compared to ground observations as well as to satellite-based model predictions. Our approach is able to describe detailed temporal variations of the field at local scales. The VO-ESD time series are then used to derive global spherical harmonic models. For a simple SH parametrization the model describes well the secular trend of the magnetic field both at satellite altitude and at the surface. As more data will be made available, longer VO-ESD time series can be derived and consequently used to

  10. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Boxun; Chen Yue; Gan Xilun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E 2 )-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P 2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  11. The combined measurement of uranium by alpha spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvan, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of thesis was to found the dependence between radiometric method - alpha spectrometry and surface sensitive method - Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Uranium or naturally occurring uranium isotopes were studied. Samples (high polished stainless steel discs) with uranium isotopes were prepared by electrodeposition. Samples were measured by alpha spectrometry after electrodeposition and treatment. It gives surface activities. Weights, as well as surface's weights of uranium isotopes were calculated from their activities, After alpha spectrometry samples were analyzed by TOF-SIMS IV instrument in International Laser Centre in Bratislava. By the SIMS analysis intensities of uranium-238 were obtained. The interpretation of SIMS intensities vs. surface activity, or surface's weights of uranium isotopes indicates the possibility to use SIMS in quantitative analysis of surface contamination by uranium isotopes, especially 238 U. (author)

  12. Combined measurement of surface, grain boundary and lattice diffusion coefficients on olivine bi-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA

  13. Three-dimensional sensing methodology combining stereo vision and phase-measuring profilometry based on dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunki; Kim, Min Young; Moon, Jeon Il

    2017-12-01

    Phase measuring profilometry and moiré methodology have been widely applied to the three-dimensional shape measurement of target objects, because of their high measuring speed and accuracy. However, these methods suffer from inherent limitations called a correspondence problem, or 2π-ambiguity problem. Although a kind of sensing method to combine well-known stereo vision and phase measuring profilometry (PMP) technique simultaneously has been developed to overcome this problem, it still requires definite improvement for sensing speed and measurement accuracy. We propose a dynamic programming-based stereo PMP method to acquire more reliable depth information and in a relatively small time period. The proposed method efficiently fuses information from two stereo sensors in terms of phase and intensity simultaneously based on a newly defined cost function of dynamic programming. In addition, the important parameters are analyzed at the view point of the 2π-ambiguity problem and measurement accuracy. To analyze the influence of important hardware and software parameters related to the measurement performance and to verify its efficiency, accuracy, and sensing speed, a series of experimental tests were performed with various objects and sensor configurations.

  14. Combination and QCD analysis of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: H1 and ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-10-15

    Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections {sigma}{sup c} {sup anti} {sup c}{sub red} for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5 {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 2000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken scaling variable 3.10{sup -5}{<=}x{<=}5.10{sup -2}. The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deepinelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W{sup {+-}} and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.

  15. Performance of a combined three-hole conductivity probe for void fraction and velocity measurement in air-water flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Joao Eduardo [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, Nuno H.C. [EST Setubal, Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Setubal (Portugal); Matos, Jorge [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lisbon (Portugal); Frizell, Kathleen H. [U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The development of a three-hole pressure probe with back-flushing combined with a conductivity probe, used for measuring simultaneously the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector in complex air-water flows, is described in this paper. The air-water flows envisaged in the current work are typically those occurring around the rotors of impulse hydraulic turbines (like the Pelton and Cross-Flow turbines), where the flow direction is not known prior to the data acquisition. The calibration of both the conductivity and three-hole pressure components of the combined probe in a rig built for the purpose, where the probe was placed in a position similar to that adopted for the flow measurements, will be reported. After concluding the calibration procedure, the probe was utilized in the outside region of a Cross-Flow turbine rotor. The experimental results obtained in the present study illustrate the satisfactory performance of the combined probe, and are encouraging toward its use for characterizing the velocity field of other complex air-water flows. (orig.)

  16. Performance of a combined three-hole conductivity probe for void fraction and velocity measurement in air-water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Eduardo; Pereira, Nuno H. C.; Matos, Jorge; Frizell, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a three-hole pressure probe with back-flushing combined with a conductivity probe, used for measuring simultaneously the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector in complex air-water flows, is described in this paper. The air-water flows envisaged in the current work are typically those occurring around the rotors of impulse hydraulic turbines (like the Pelton and Cross-Flow turbines), where the flow direction is not known prior to the data acquisition. The calibration of both the conductivity and three-hole pressure components of the combined probe in a rig built for the purpose, where the probe was placed in a position similar to that adopted for the flow measurements, will be reported. After concluding the calibration procedure, the probe was utilized in the outside region of a Cross-Flow turbine rotor. The experimental results obtained in the present study illustrate the satisfactory performance of the combined probe, and are encouraging toward its use for characterizing the velocity field of other complex air-water flows.

  17. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from a combination of $B^{\\pm} \\to Dh^{\\pm}$ analyses

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    A combination of three LHCb measurements of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ is presented. The decays $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\to D\\pi^\\pm$ are used, where $D$ denotes an admixture of $D^0$ and $\\overline{D^0}$ mesons, decaying into $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp \\pi^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K_S\\pi^+\\pi^-$, or $K_S K^+K^-$ final states. All measurements use a dataset corresponding to 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of data. Combining results from $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ decays alone a best-fit value of $\\gamma = 72.0^\\circ$ is found, and confidence intervals are set \\begin{align*} \\gamma \\in [56.4,86.7]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 68\\%\\,CL}\\,,\\\\ \\gamma \\in [42.6,99.6]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 95\\%\\,CL}\\,. \\end{align*} The best-fit value of $\\gamma$ found from a combination of results from $B^\\pm\\to D\\pi^\\pm$ decays alone, is $\\gamma = 18.9^\\circ$, and the confidence intervals \\begin{align*} \\gamma \\in [7.4,99.2]^\\circ \\quad \\cup \\quad [167.9,176.4]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 68\\%\\,CL}\\, \\end{align*} are set, without constrai...

  18. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical...... activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...... for ≥3 days, ≥10 hours day. Data was standardized to allow comparisons between different monitors. Total physical activity was assessed as counts per minute (cpm), with time spent above moderate activity (MVPA) >2,000 counts and time spent sedentary (...

  19. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined Characterization of the Time Response of Impression Materials via Traditional and FTIR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Derchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil and one polyether (Impregum. The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques with strong physical-chemical background for the assessment of temporal response. Traditional characterization was carried out by shark fin test device and durometer at both ambient and body temperature. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was performed at room temperature. From shark fin height and Shore hardness versus time the working time and the setting time of the materials were evaluated, respectively. These were in reasonable agreement with the nominal values, except for Impregum, which showed longer working time. Spectroscopy confirmed the different character of the two types of materials, and provided for Imprint 4 and Aquasil an independent evaluation of both evolution times, consistent with the results of the other techniques. Shark fin test and durometer measurements showed deviations in setting time, low sensitivity to temperature for Flexitime, and longer working time at higher temperature for Impregum. Deviations of working time appear in operating conditions from what specified by the manufacturers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy can provide insight in the correlation between material properties and their composition and structure.

  1. Fusion Power Measurement Using a Combined Neutron Spectrometer-Camera System at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, Henrik; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.

    2008-01-01

    A central task for fusion plasma diagnostics is to measure the 2.5 and 14 MeV neutron emission rate in order to determine the fusion power. A new method for determining the neutron yield has been developed at JET. It makes use of the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer and a neutron camera and provides the neutron yield with small systematic errors. At ITER a similar system could operate if a high-resolution, high-performance neutron spectrometer similar to the MPR was installed. In this paper, we present how such system could be implemented and how well it would perform under different assumption of plasma scenarios and diagnostic capabilities. It is found that the systematic uncertainty for using such a system as an absolute calibration reference is as low as 3% and hence it would be an excellent candidate for the calibration of neutron monitors such as fission chambers. It is also shown that the system could provide a 1 ms time resolved estimation of the neutron rate with a total uncertainty of 5%

  2. Combining fMRI and behavioral measures to examine the process of human learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Emberson, Lauren L; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-03-01

    Prior to the advent of fMRI, the primary means of examining the mechanisms underlying learning were restricted to studying human behavior and non-human neural systems. However, recent advances in neuroimaging technology have enabled the concurrent study of human behavior and neural activity. We propose that the integration of behavioral response with brain activity provides a powerful method of investigating the process through which internal representations are formed or changed. Nevertheless, a review of the literature reveals that many fMRI studies of learning either (1) focus on outcome rather than process or (2) are built on the untested assumption that learning unfolds uniformly over time. We discuss here various challenges faced by the field and highlight studies that have begun to address them. In doing so, we aim to encourage more research that examines the process of learning by considering the interrelation of behavioral measures and fMRI recording during learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-12-23

    The evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic was a pivotal event in the Earth's history but is poorly understood, as previous studies have focused on vague driving mechanisms and have not untangled different macroevolutionary components (origination, diversity, abundance and disparity). We calculate the morphological disparity (morphospace occupation) of dinosaurs throughout the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and present new measures of taxonomic diversity. Crurotarsan archosaurs, the primary dinosaur 'competitors', were significantly more disparate than dinosaurs throughout the Triassic, but underwent a devastating extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. However, dinosaur disparity showed only a slight non-significant increase after this event, arguing against the hypothesis of ecological release-driven morphospace expansion in the Early Jurassic. Instead, the main jump in dinosaur disparity occurred between the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic. Conversely, dinosaur diversity shows a steady increase over this time, and measures of diversification and faunal abundance indicate that the Early Jurassic was a key episode in dinosaur evolution. Thus, different aspects of the dinosaur radiation (diversity, disparity and abundance) were decoupled, and the overall macroevolutionary pattern of the first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution is more complex than often considered.

  4. Disparate stakeholder management: the case of elk and bison feeding in southern Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana; DeLong, Don

    2012-01-01

    For resource decisions to make the most possible progress toward achieving agency mandates, managers must work with stakeholders and may need to at least partially accommodate some of their key underlying interests. To accommodate stakeholder interests, while also substantively working toward fulfilling legal mandates, managers must understand the sociopolitical factors that influence the decision-making process. We coin the phrase disparate stakeholder management (DSM) to describe situations with disparate stakeholders and disparate management solutions. A DSM approach (DSMA) requires decision makers to combine concepts from many sciences, thus releasing them from disciplinary bonds that often constrain innovation and effectiveness. We combined three distinct approaches to develop a DSMA that assisted in developing a comprehensive range of elk and bison management alternatives in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Area. The DSMA illustrated the extent of compromise between meeting legal agency mandates and accommodating the preferences of certain stakeholder groups.

  5. A method for the combined measurement of volatile and condensable organic AMC in semiconductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles M.; Zaloga, Emily C.; Lobert, Jürgen M.

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring airborne molecular contamination (AMC) at the parts per trillion (ppt) level in cleanroom environments, scanner applications and compressed gas lines is essential for processes, equipment and yield-control. For the operation of EUV tools, in particular, volatile organic contamination is known to have as much impact as condensable organic compounds, which requires a suitable sampling and measurement methodology. Some of the current industry standards use sample traps comprised of porous 2,6-diphenylene-oxide polymer resin, such as Tenax®, for measuring volatile organic (6 C atoms, about toluene and higher) AMC. Inherent problems associated with these traps are a number of artifacts and chemical reactions that reduce accuracy of reported organic AMC concentrations. The break-down of the polymeric material forms false positive artifacts when used in the presence of reactive gases, such as nitrous acid and ozone, which attack and degrade the polymer to form detectable AMC. Most importantly, these traps have poor capture efficiency for volatile organic compounds (VOC). To address the disadvantages of polymer-based sample traps, we developed a method based on carbonaceous, multi-layered adsorbent traps to replace the 2,6-diphenylene-oxide polymer resin sample trap type. Along with the new trap's ability to retain volatile organics, the trap was found to provide artifact-free results. With industry trends towards detecting more contaminants while continuously reducing required reporting limits for those compounds, artifact-free and accurate detection of AMC is needed at the parts per quadrillion (ppq) level. The proposed, multi-layered trap substantially increases laboratory productivity and reduces cost by eliminating the need to analyze condensable and volatile organic compounds in two separate methods. In our studies, even some organic compounds with six C-atoms, that are part of exposure tool OEM requirements, were not effectively retained by polymeric

  6. Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. IV. Measurement of intracellular protector concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.J.; Stobbe, C.C.; Hettiaratchi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitization of hypoxic V79 Chinese hamster cells by 0.5 mM misonidazole at approximately 0-4 degrees C is substantially enhanced by pretreating the cells overnight with 0.1 mM buthionine sulfoximine, which lowers the cellular glutathione content to 5% of control values (from 4 mM to approximately 0.2 mM). The enhanced sensitization is reversed by concentrations of exogenous cysteine that are much lower (0.02 mM) than the original glutathione content. Reduced Co-enzyme A affords reversal of the enhancing effect at concentrations of about 1 mM. Sodium ascorbate gives no protection at all even at concentrations of 2 mM. The intracellular concentration of the reducing agents was measured using a spin-through oil technique. There was no diffusion of Co-A (MW greater than 750) or ascorbate (excluded by charge) into the cells. In contrast, cysteine was rapidly concentrated by factors of 4-10, even at the low temperatures used. Extracellular ascorbate's inability to radioprotect argues against electron transfer across the cell membrane as a mechanism for radioprotection. This mechanism could have explained the ability of exogenous thiols to radioprotect in former studies using glutathione, and in the present studies using Co-A. The potential of cysteine to be concentrated by cells poses a problem in the interpretation of exogenous protection by non-diffusing thiols, since trace contamination by cysteine could lead to the actual protection observed. Cysteine could also be formed by exchange reactions of exogenous thiols with the disulfide of cysteine, present in all media formulations

  7. A novel technique for phase synchrony measurement from the complex motor imaginary potential of combined body and limb action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhong-xing; Wan, Bai-kun; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hong-zhi

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we proposed and evaluated the use of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique combined with phase synchronization analysis to investigate the human brain synchrony of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor area (M1) during complex motor imagination of combined body and limb action. We separated the EEG data of the SMA and M1 into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the EMD method and determined the characteristic IMFs by power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Thereafter, the instantaneous phases of the characteristic IMFs were obtained by the Hilbert transformation, and the single-trial phase-locking value (PLV) features for brain synchrony measurement between the SMA and M1 were investigated separately. The classification performance suggests that the proposed approach is effective for phase synchronization analysis and is promising for the application of a brain-computer interface in motor nerve reconstruction of the lower limbs.

  8. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D

    2015-03-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.

  9. Experiences with using a concept of organ-dose combination as a basis for practical measures in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernli, C.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of organ-dose combination is presented and its practical consequences for working-place and personnel monitoring and for the improvement of working methods are shown. Two years of practical experience have demonstrated the applicability and usefullness of the concept and have resulted in a better concentration and economization of the monitoring and protection efforts. The values for external total body dose and skin dose, in special cases also those for hand dose and internal contamination, are combined to form a criterion for the total radiation detriment which is easy to use and interpret: each measured external or internal exposure is registered as a fraction of the appropriate maximum permissible annual limit (expressed as dose for external exposures and as activity for incorporations). This fraction is called 'exposure index'. Over one year the sum of all registered 'exposure index' values for an employee must not exceed one. This 'total exposure index' values can also be expressed as an 'effective dose' if its value is multiplied by five rem. While the external body exposures clearly dominate in most departments of EIR, the 'effective doses' in the isotope production department are combinations of different organ doses. 'Low' and 'high risk' groups of employee differ by the relative importance of the four 'effective dose' components: 'low risk group' (effective dose 2 rem): (hand dose, total body dose, incorporation, skin dose). The total value of the 'effective dose' and the relative importance of its components determine the practical radiation protection measures and the appropriate combination and frequency of personnel monitoring for each employee

  10. On the combination of delayed neutron and delayed gamma techniques for fission rate measurement in nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G.; Jordan, K. A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Novel techniques to measure newly induced fissions in spent fuel after re-irradiation at low power have been developed and tested at the Proteus zero-power research reactor. The two techniques are based on the detection of high energy gamma-rays emitted by short-lived fission products and delayed neutrons. The two techniques relate the measured signals to the total fission rate, the isotopic composition of the fuel, and nuclear data. They can be combined to derive better estimates on each of these parameters. This has potential for improvement in many areas. Spent fuel characterisation and safeguard applications can benefit from these techniques for non-destructive assay of plutonium content. Another application of choice is the reduction of uncertainties on nuclear data. As a first application of the combination of the delayed neutron and gamma measurement techniques, this paper shows how to reduce the uncertainties on the relative abundances of the longest delayed neutron group for thermal fissions in {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and fast fissions in {sup 238}U. The proposed experiments are easily achievable in zero-power research reactors using fresh UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel and do not require fast extraction systems. The relative uncertainties (1{sigma}) on the relative abundances are expected to be reduced from 13% to 4%, 16% to 5%, and 38% to 12% for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. (authors)

  11. O2 atmospheric band measurements with WINDII: Performance of a narrow band filter/wide angle Michelson combination in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.E.; Hersom, C.H.; Tai, C.C.; Gault, W.A.; Shepherd, G.G.; Solheim, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    Among the emissions viewed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are selected lines in the (0-0) transition of the O2 atmospheric band. These lines are viewed simultaneously using a narrow band filter/wide-angle Michelson interferometer combination. The narrow band filter is used to separate the lines on the CCD (spectral-spatial scanning) and the Michelson used to modulate the emissions so that winds and rotational temperatures may be measured from the Doppler shifts and relative intensities of the lines. In this report this technique will be outlined and the on-orbit behavior since launch summarized

  12. Measuring the success of combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide and triamcinolone for treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni-Kane, Adam; Botros, Sylvia M; Du, Hongyan; Sand, Robert I; Sand, Peter K

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate change in bladder capacity as a measure of response to combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and triamcinolone instillations for the treatment of newly diagnosed bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). 141 newly diagnosed women were identified retrospectively. 79 were treated with weekly DMSO/triamcinolone instillations. Change in bladder capacity with bladder retrofill, daytime urinary frequency, nocturia episodes per night, and Likert scale symptom scores were reviewed. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Spearman's rank correlations, COX regression analysis, and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed. Significant changes (median (25(th)-percentile to 75(th)-percentile) were noted for bladder capacity (75 mL (25 to 130 mL), p measure of response to intravesical DMSO/triamcinolone for newly diagnosed BPS/IC. Clinical outcomes do not differ based upon presence of DO.

  13. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines....... The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software, WAMIT. The model also includes models for the dynamic mooring lines as well...... as the turbines non-linear yaw and teeter motion behavior. The main focus on the comparison will be on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions such as increasing wind speed, wave height and wind...

  14. Impact of beauty and charm H1-ZEUS combined measurements on PDFs and determination of the strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vafaee, A. [National Foundation of Elites, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorramian, A. [Semnan University, Faculty of Physics, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    In this QCD analysis, we investigate the impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavor charm and beauty cross sections data sets on the simultaneous determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the strong coupling, α{sub s}(M{sup 2}{sub Z}). We perform three different fits based on Variable-Flavour Number Scheme (VFNS) at the Leading Order (LO) and Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) and choose the full HERA run I and II combined data as a new measurement of inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross sections for our base data set. We show that including charm and beauty cross sections data reduces the uncertainty of gluon distribution and improves the fit quality up to 4.1% from leading order to next-to-leading order and up to 1.7% for only NLO without and with beauty and charm data contributions. (orig.)

  15. Combined Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects at Very High Fluences in Silicon Detectors: Measurements and TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Moscatelli, F; Morozzi, A; Mendicino, R; Dalla Betta, G F; Bilei, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new combined TCAD radiation damage modelling scheme, featuring both bulk and surface radiation damage effects, for the analysis of silicon detectors aimed at the High Luminosity LHC. In particular, a surface damage model has been developed by introducing the relevant parameters (NOX, NIT) extracted from experimental measurements carried out on p-type substrate test structures after gamma irradiations at doses in the range 10-500 Mrad(Si). An extended bulk model, by considering impact ionization and deep-level cross-sections variation, was included as well. The model has been validated through the comparison of the simulation findings with experimental measurements carried out at very high fluences (2×1016 1 MeV equivalent n/cm2) thus fostering the application of this TCAD approach for the design and optimization of the new generation of silicon detectors to be used in future HEP experiments.

  16. Social support and depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Cao, Qi; Shi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Weixia; Jiang, Haixia; Hou, Yucheng

    2018-09-01

    Depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults is an important public health issue in China. Social support is considered as an effective way to alleviate depression of older adults. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which social support could explain the depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults in China. This study used data drawn from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with 6,772 observations. Multiple data analysis strategies were adopted, including descriptive analyses, bivariate analyses, regression analyses and decomposition analyses. There were significant depressive symptom disparities between urban and rural older adults in China. Social support had significant association with depressive symptom of older adults while adjusting for covariates. About 25%-28% of the depressive symptom disparities could be attributed to urban-rural gaps in social support, in which community support contributed 21%-25%. Educational level and physical health status also contributed to the disparities. This study only established correlations between social support and depressive symptom disparity rather than casual relationships; and the self-reported measurement of depressive symptom and the unobservable cultural factors might cause limitations. The urban-rural gap in social support, especially community support was a prime explanation for depressive symptom disparities between urban and rural older adults in China. To reduce the depressive symptom disparities, effective community construction in rural China should be put into place, including improving the infrastructure construction, strengthening the role of social organizations, and encouraging community interpersonal interactions for older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Disparities in dietary habits and physical activity in Denmark and trends from 1995 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Landvad, Niels; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2014-11-01

    To examine social disparities in dietary-, alcohol- and leisure-time physical activity habits in Danish adults from 1995 to 2008 and to test the hypothesis of widening disparities. Four cross-sectional surveys of representative samples of the Danish population aged 20-75 years were analysed, a total of 7900 respondents. Dietary and alcohol habits were measured by a 7-day pre-coded food diary and physical activity and education by a face-to-face interview. Multivariate analyses were used to test associations between explanatory variables and response variables and the hypothesis of widening disparities. In all analyses, both diet quality and physical inactivity differed systematically with educational group and with healthier habits for the group with long education. Only for alcohol habits was an opposite social gradient seen. Disparities persisted over all time periods. The analyses using "The Concentration Index" did not change any of the conclusions. Gender also influenced diet quality. Men had dietary and alcohol habits furthest away from the guidelines. A trend of healthier habits was also found over the time period. Social disparities in diet quality and leisure-time physical activity were seen for all examined time periods and with no significant change therefore, there is no support to the hypothesis of widening social disparities in all educational groups some improvement of dietary habits was found, especially for those foods where comprehensive initiatives had taken place however, social disparities still exist there is an ongoing need to address these disparities in order to reduce social inequality in health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Objective quality assessment of stereoscopic images with vertical disparity using EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Avarvand, Forooz; Bosse, Sebastian; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schäfer, Ralf; Nolte, Guido; Wiegand, Thomas; Curio, Gabriel; Samek, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neurophysiological correlates of vertical disparity in 3D images are studied in an objective approach using EEG technique. These disparities are known to negatively affect the quality of experience and to cause visual discomfort in stereoscopic visualizations. Approach. We have presented four conditions to subjects: one in 2D and three conditions in 3D, one without vertical disparity and two with different vertical disparity levels. Event related potentials (ERPs) are measured for each condition and the differences between ERP components are studied. Analysis is also performed on the induced potentials in the time frequency domain. Main results. Results show that there is a significant increase in the amplitude of P1 components in 3D conditions in comparison to 2D. These results are consistent with previous studies which have shown that P1 amplitude increases due to the depth perception in 3D compared to 2D. However the amplitude is significantly smaller for maximum vertical disparity (3D-3) in comparison to 3D with no vertical disparity. Our results therefore suggest that the vertical disparity in 3D-3 condition decreases the perception of depth compared to other 3D conditions and the amplitude of P1 component can be used as a discriminative feature. Significance. The results show that the P1 component increases in amplitude due to the depth perception in the 3D stimuli compared to the 2D stimulus. On the other hand the vertical disparity in the stereoscopic images is studied here. We suggest that the amplitude of P1 component is modulated with this parameter and decreases due to the decrease in the perception of depth.

  19. Understanding social disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control: the role of neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S; Hansen, Ben B; Williams, David R; Kaplan, George A; Hunte, Haslyn E

    2007-11-01

    The spatial segregation of the US population by socioeconomic position and especially race/ethnicity suggests that the social contexts or "neighborhoods" in which people live may substantially contribute to social disparities in hypertension. The Chicago Community Adult Health Study did face-to-face interviews, including direct measurement of blood pressure, with a representative probability sample of adults in Chicago. These data were used to estimate socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to analyze how these disparities are related to the areas in which people live. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with neighborhood affluence/gentrification, and adjustments for context eliminated the highly significant disparity between blacks/African-Americans and whites, and reduced the significant educational disparity by 10-15% to borderline statistical significance. Awareness of hypertension was significantly higher in more disadvantaged neighborhoods and in places with higher concentrations of blacks (and lower concentrations of Hispanics and immigrants). Adjustment for context completely eliminated blacks' greater awareness, but slightly accentuated the lesser awareness of Hispanics and the greater levels of awareness among the less educated. There was no consistent evidence of either social disparities in or contextual associations with treatment of hypertension, given awareness. Among those on medication, blacks were only 40-50% as likely as whites to have their hypertension controlled, but context played little or no role in either the level of or disparities in control of hypertension. In sum, residential contexts potentially play a large role in accounting for racial/ethnic and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic disparities in hypertension prevalence and, in a different way, awareness, but not in treatment or control of diagnosed hypertension.

  20. Development of a measure of hypodontia patients' expectations of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic and restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassem, Afnan Ben; Foxton, Richard; Bister, Dirk; Newton, Tim

    2016-12-01

    To devise and assess the psychometric properties of a measure that investigates hypodontia patients' expectations of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic/restorative treatment. Specialised secondary care facility for individuals with hypodontia. Mixed research design with three phases: (a) Thematic analysis of data from individual interviews with 25 hypodontia patients/16 parents to generate the questionnaire items. (b) Questionnaire design, assessment of readability and face/content validity with 10 patients. (c) Survey of 32 new hypodontia patients to determine the internal consistency of the measure. Three main themes related to the treatment process emerged from the qualitative data: 'hypodontia clinic', 'orthodontic treatment' and 'restorative treatment'. Three main themes were also revealed relating to treatment outcome: 'changes in appearance', 'psychosocial changes' and 'functional changes'. A 28 item questionnaire was constructed using a mix of visual analogue scale (VAS) and categorical response format. The Flesch reading ease score of the measure was 78, equivalent to a reading age of 9-10 years. Face and content validity were good. The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 while for the treatment process and treatment outcome subscales it was 0.71 and 0.88 respectively. A patient-based measure of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic/restorative treatment for hypodontia patients has been developed which has good face and construct validity and satisfactory internal consistency. Patient expectations of treatment are important in determining not only their satisfaction with treatment outcomes but also their engagement with the clinical process. This questionnaire is a first step in operationalising the expectations of hypodontia patients through assessment tools that can then determine whether pre-treatment counselling is required and aid the consent and treatment planning process, thus improving the quality of treatment provided by

  1. New, rapid method to measure dissolved silver concentration in silver nanoparticle suspensions by aggregation combined with centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Feng; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are exclusively mediated by the release of silver ions (Ag"+) or, instead, are due to combined nanoparticle and silver ion effects. Therefore, it is essential to quantify dissolved Ag in nanosilver suspensions for investigations of nanoparticle toxicity. We developed a method to measure dissolved Ag in Ag"+/AgNPs mixtures by combining aggregation of AgNPs with centrifugation. We also describe the reproducible synthesis of stable, uncoated AgNPs. Uncoated AgNPs were quickly aggregated by 2 mM Ca"2"+, forming large clusters that could be sedimented in a low-speed centrifuge. At 20,100g, the sedimentation time of AgNPs was markedly reduced to 30 min due to Ca"2"+-mediated aggregation, confirmed by the measurements of Ag content in supernatants with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. No AgNPs were detected in the supernatant by UV–Vis absorption spectra after centrifuging the aggregates. Our approach provides a convenient and inexpensive way to separate dissolved Ag from AgNPs, avoiding long ultracentrifugation times or Ag"+ adsorption to ultrafiltration membranes.

  2. New, rapid method to measure dissolved silver concentration in silver nanoparticle suspensions by aggregation combined with centrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Feng, E-mail: fengdongub@gmail.com [University of Birmingham, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences (United Kingdom); Valsami-Jones, Eugenia [University of Birmingham, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom); Kreft, Jan-Ulrich [University of Birmingham, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    It is unclear whether the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are exclusively mediated by the release of silver ions (Ag{sup +}) or, instead, are due to combined nanoparticle and silver ion effects. Therefore, it is essential to quantify dissolved Ag in nanosilver suspensions for investigations of nanoparticle toxicity. We developed a method to measure dissolved Ag in Ag{sup +}/AgNPs mixtures by combining aggregation of AgNPs with centrifugation. We also describe the reproducible synthesis of stable, uncoated AgNPs. Uncoated AgNPs were quickly aggregated by 2 mM Ca{sup 2+}, forming large clusters that could be sedimented in a low-speed centrifuge. At 20,100g, the sedimentation time of AgNPs was markedly reduced to 30 min due to Ca{sup 2+}-mediated aggregation, confirmed by the measurements of Ag content in supernatants with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. No AgNPs were detected in the supernatant by UV–Vis absorption spectra after centrifuging the aggregates. Our approach provides a convenient and inexpensive way to separate dissolved Ag from AgNPs, avoiding long ultracentrifugation times or Ag{sup +} adsorption to ultrafiltration membranes.

  3. A novel device for head gesture measurement system in combination with eye-controlled human machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Ho, Chien-Wa; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Hung, San-Shan; Shei, Hung-Jung; Yeh, Mau-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the design and combination of an eye-controlled and a head-controlled human-machine interface system. This system is a highly effective human-machine interface, detecting head movement by changing positions and numbers of light sources on the head. When the users utilize the head-mounted display to browse a computer screen, the system will catch the images of the user's eyes with CCD cameras, which can also measure the angle and position of the light sources. In the eye-tracking system, the program in the computer will locate each center point of the pupils in the images, and record the information on moving traces and pupil diameters. In the head gesture measurement system, the user wears a double-source eyeglass frame, so the system catches images of the user's head by using a CCD camera in front of the user. The computer program will locate the center point of the head, transferring it to the screen coordinates, and then the user can control the cursor by head motions. We combine the eye-controlled and head-controlled human-machine interface system for the virtual reality applications.

  4. Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with foreward proton spectrometers in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (DE)] (and others)

    2012-07-15

    A combination of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA is presented. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering data at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account, resulting in an improved precision of the cross section measurement which reaches 6% for the most precise points. The combined data cover the range 2.5

  5. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: a combined measurement and modelling case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J; Gill, L W; McNabola, A

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement and interpretation of moments of the combined hadronic mass and energy spectrum in inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, V.

    2007-11-29

    This thesis presents first measurements of moments of the hadronic n{sub X}{sup 2} distribution measured in inclusive semileptonic decays of B mesons to final states containing a charm quark, B{yields}X{sub c}l{sub {nu}}. The variable n{sub X}{sup 2} is a combination of the invariant mass of the charmed meson m{sub X}, its energy in the B-meson rest-frame E{sub X,BRF}, and a constant {lambda}=0.65 GeV, n{sub X}{sup 2}=m{sub X}{sup 2}c{sup 4}-2{lambda}E{sub X,BRF}+{lambda}{sup 2}. The moments left angle n{sub X}{sup k} right angle with k=2,4,6 are measured as proposed by theory to constrain assumptions made in the theoretical description of inclusive observables in semileptonic B-meson decays. This description uses Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), an effective QCD combined with an Operator Product Expansion. The measurement is based on a sample of 231.6 million e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {upsilon}(4S) {yields} B anti B events recorded with the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -}-storage rings at SLAC. We reconstruct the semileptonic decay by identifying a charged lepton in events tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of the second B meson. Correction procedures are derived from Monte Carlo simulations to ensure an unbiased measurement of the moments of the n{sub X}{sup 2} distribution. All moments are measured requiring minimum lepton momenta between 0.8 GeV/c and 1.9 GeV/c in the rest frame of the B meson. Performing a simultaneous fit to the measured moments left angle n{sub X}{sup k} right angle up to order k = 6 combined with other measurements of moments of the lepton-energy spectrum in decays B{yields}X{sub c}l{sub {nu}} and moments of the photon-energy spectrum in decays B{yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, we determine the quark-mixing parameter vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, the bottom and charm quark masses, the semileptonic branching fraction B(B{yields}X{sub c}l{sub {nu}}), and four non-perturbative heavy quark parameters. Using HQE

  7. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments of the Combined Hadronic Mass and Energy Spectrum in Inclusive Semileptonic B-Meson Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, Verena [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2011-08-12

    This thesis presents first measurements of moments of the hadronic nX2 distribution measured in inclusive semileptonic decays of B mesons to final states containing a charm quark, B → Xcℓν. The variable nX2 is a combination of the invariant mass of the charmed meson mX, its energy in the B-meson rest-frame EX;BRF, and a constant ~Λ = 0.65 GeV, nX2 = mX2c4-2~ΛEX,BRF + ~Λ2. The moments Xk> with k = 2,4,6 are measured as proposed by theory to constrain assumptions made in the theoretical description of inclusive observables in semileptonic B-meson decays. This description uses Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), an effective QCD combined with an Operator Product Expansion. The measurement is based on a sample of 231.6 million e+e- → Υ(4S) {yields} B$\\bar{B}$ events recorded with the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+e--storage rings at SLAC. We reconstruct the semileptonic decay by identifying a charged lepton in events tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of the second B meson. Correction procedures are derived from Monte Carlo simulations to ensure an unbiased measurement of the moments of the nX2 distribution. All moments are measured requiring minimum lepton momenta between 0.8 GeV/c and 1.9 GeV/c in the rest frame of the B meson. Performing a simultaneous fit to the measured moments Xk> up to order k = 6 combined with other measurements of moments of the lepton-energy spectrum in decays B → Xcℓν and moments of the photon-energy spectrum in decays B → Xsγ, we determine the quark-mixing parameter |Vcb|, the bottom and charm quark masses, the semileptonic branching fraction β(B → Xcℓν), and four non-perturbative heavy quark

  8. Combining 137Cs and topographic surveys for measuring soil erosion/deposition patterns in a rapidly accreting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Narrow, stiff grass hedges are biological barriers designed to slow runoff and capture soils carried in runoff water. This study was designed to measure quantitatively the deposition of soil up slope of a narrow, stiff grass hedge using topographic and 137 Cs surveys. Topographic surveys made in 1991, 1995, and 1998 measured 1 to 2 cm yr -1 of recent sediment deposited up slope of the grass hedge. 137 Cs analyses of soil samples were used to determine the medium-term (45 years) soil redistribution patterns. Erosion rates and patterns determined using 137 Cs measured medium-term erosion near the hedge do not reflect the recent deposition patterns near the grass hedge measured by topographic surveys. Using the combination of topographic and 137 Cs surveys allows a better understanding of the role of grass hedges as barriers for capturing eroding soils and suggest that the recent deposition is associated with the grass hedge but that there is still a net loss of soil near the hedge position over the past 45 years. (author)

  9. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  10. Measurement of residual stress fields in FHPP welding: a comparison between DSPI combined with hole-drilling and neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Armando; Staron, Peter; Pisa, Marcelo

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows a portable device to measure mainly residual stress fields outside the optical bench. This system combines the traditional hole drilling technique with Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry. The novel feature of this device is the high degree of compaction since only one base supports simultaneously the measurement module and the hole-drilling device. The portable device allows the measurement of non-uniform residual stresses in accordance with the ASTM standard. In oil and gas offshore industries, alternative welding procedures among them, the friction hydro pillar processing (FHPP) is highlighted and nowadays is an important maintenance tool since it has the capability to produce structure repairs without risk of explosions. In this process a hole is drilled and filled with a consumable rod of the same material. The rod, which could be cylindrical or conical, is rotated and pressed against the hole, leading to frictional heating. In order to assess features about the residual stress distribution generated by the weld into the rod as well as into the base material around the rod, welded samples were evaluated by neutron diffraction and by the hole drilling technique having a comparison between them. For the hole drilling technique some layers were removed by using electrical discharge machining (EDM) after diffraction measurements in order to assess the bulk stress distribution. Results have shown a good agreement between techniques.

  11. Automated detection and measurement of isolated retinal arterioles by a combination of edge enhancement and cost analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Fernández

    Full Text Available Pressure myography studies have played a crucial role in our understanding of vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Such studies depend upon the reliable measurement of changes in the diameter of isolated vessel segments over time. Although several software packages are available to carry out such measurements on small arteries and veins, no such software exists to study smaller vessels (<50 µm in diameter. We provide here a new, freely available open-source algorithm, MyoTracker, to measure and track changes in the diameter of small isolated retinal arterioles. The program has been developed as an ImageJ plug-in and uses a combination of cost analysis and edge enhancement to detect the vessel walls. In tests performed on a dataset of 102 images, automatic measurements were found to be comparable to those of manual ones. The program was also able to track both fast and slow constrictions and dilations during intraluminal pressure changes and following application of several drugs. Variability in automated measurements during analysis of videos and processing times were also investigated and are reported. MyoTracker is a new software to assist during pressure myography experiments on small isolated retinal arterioles. It provides fast and accurate measurements with low levels of noise and works with both individual images and videos. Although the program was developed to work with small arterioles, it is also capable of tracking the walls of other types of microvessels, including venules and capillaries. It also works well with larger arteries, and therefore may provide an alternative to other packages developed for larger vessels when its features are considered advantageous.

  12. Application of combined TLD and CR-39 PNTD method for measurement of total dose and dose equivalent on ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.

    2006-01-01

    To date, no single passive detector has been found that measures dose equivalent from ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit. We have developed the I.S.S. Passive Dosimetry System (P.D.S.), utilizing a combination of TLD in the form of the self-contained Pille TLD system and stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (P.N.T.D.) oriented in three mutually orthogonal directions, to measure total dose and dose equivalent aboard the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille TLD system, consisting on an on board reader and a large number of Ca 2 SO 4 :Dy TLD cells, is used to measure absorbed dose. The Pille TLD cells are read out and annealed by the I.S.S. crew on orbit, such that dose information for any time period or condition, e.g. for E.V.A. or following a solar particle event, is immediately available. Near-tissue equivalent CR-39 P.N.T.D. provides Let spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O ≥ 10 keV/μm, including the secondaries produced in interactions with high-energy neutrons. Dose information from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is used to correct the absorbed dose component ≥ 10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose. Dose equivalent from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is combined with the dose component <10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose equivalent. Dose rates ranging from 165 to 250 μGy/day and dose equivalent rates ranging from 340 to 450 μSv/day were measured aboard I.S.S. during the Expedition 2 mission in 2001. Results from the P.D.S. are consistent with those from other passive detectors tested as part of the ground-based I.C.C.H.I.B.A.N. intercomparison of space radiation dosimeters. (authors)

  13. Measurement of the CKM angle γ from a combination of B{sup ±}→Dh{sup ±} analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Abellan Beteta, C. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Adrover, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Albrecht, J. [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Alessio, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Alexander, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ali, S. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Gatchina (Russian Federation); Alvarez Cartelle, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves, A.A. [Sezione INFN di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Amato, S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amerio, S. [Sezione INFN di Padova, Padova (Italy); Amhis, Y. [LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Anderlini, L. [Sezione INFN di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Anderson, J. [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Andreassen, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); and others

    2013-10-07

    A combination of three LHCb measurements of the CKM angle γ is presented. The decays B{sup ±}→DK{sup ±} and B{sup ±}→Dπ{sup ±} are used, where D denotes an admixture of D{sup 0} and D{sup ¯0} mesons, decaying into K{sup +}K{sup −}, π{sup +}π{sup −}, K{sup ±}π{sup ∓}, K{sup ±}π{sup ∓}π{sup ±}π{sup ∓}, K{sub S}{sup 0}π{sup +}π{sup −}, or K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}K{sup −} final states. All measurements use a dataset corresponding to 1.0 fb{sup −1} of integrated luminosity. Combining results from B{sup ±}→DK{sup ±} decays alone a best-fit value of γ=72.0° is found, and confidence intervals are set γ∈[56.4,86.7]°at 68% CL, γ∈[42.6,99.6]°at 95% CL. The best-fit value of γ found from a combination of results from B{sup ±}→Dπ{sup ±} decays alone, is γ=18.9°, and the confidence intervals γ∈[7.4,99.2]°∪[167.9,176.4]°at 68% CL are set, without constraint at 95% CL. The combination of results from B{sup ±}→DK{sup ±} and B{sup ±}→Dπ{sup ±} decays gives a best-fit value of γ=72.6° and the confidence intervals γ∈[55.4,82.3]°at 68% CL, γ∈[40.2,92.7]°at 95% CL are set. All values are expressed modulo 180°, and are obtained taking into account the effect of D{sup 0}–D{sup ¯0} mixing.

  14. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: A combined measurement and modelling case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.; Gill, L.W.; McNabola, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. - Highlights: • Parked cars and LBWs were assessed as passive controls in an urban street canyon. • The calibrated model combined CFD

  15. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: A combined measurement and modelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, J., E-mail: j.gallagher@bangor.ac.uk [School of Energy, Natural Resources and Geography, Bangor University (United Kingdom); Gill, L.W.; McNabola, A. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. - Highlights: • Parked cars and LBWs were assessed as passive controls in an urban street canyon. • The calibrated model combined CFD

  16. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  17. Health disparities in liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, C Wendy; Sonderup, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Disparities in health reflect the differences in the incidence, prevalence, burden of disease and access to care determined by socio-economic and environmental factors. With liver disease, these disparities are exacerbated by a combination of limited awareness and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in addition to the diagnostic and management costs. Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 11% of the world's population, disproportionately has 24% of the global disease burden, yet allocates health. It has 3% of the global healthcare workforce with a mean of 0.8 healthcare workers per 1000 population. Barriers to healthcare access are many and compounded by limited civil registration data, socio-economic inequalities, discrepancies in private and public healthcare services and geopolitical strife. The UN 2014 report on the Millennium Development Goals suggest that sub-Saharan Africa will probably not meet several goals, however with HIV/AIDS and Malaria (goal 6), many successes have been achieved. A 2010 Global Burden of Disease study demonstrated that cirrhosis mortality in sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 1980 and 2010. Aetiologies included hepatitis B (34%), hepatitis C (17%), alcohol (18%) and unknown in 31%. Hepatitis B, C and alcohol accounted for 47, 23 and 20% of hepatocellular carcinoma respectively. In 10%, the underlying aetiology was not known. Liver disease reflects the broader disparities in healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many of these challenges are not insurmountable as vaccines and new therapies could comprehensively deal with the burden of viral hepatitis. Access to and affordability of therapeutics remains the major barrier. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Efficient and reliable 3D dose quality assurance for IMRT by combining independent dose calculations with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, R.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Godart, J.; Langendijk, J. A.; Veld, A. A. van't; Korevaar, E. W.; Groot, M. de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy treatments require appropriate quality assurance (QA) to verify 3D dose distributions. Moreover, increase in patient numbers demand efficient QA-methods. In this study, a time efficient method that combines model-based QA and measurement-based QA was developed; i.e., the hybrid-QA. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the model-based QA and to evaluate time efficiency of the hybrid-QA method. Methods: Accuracy of the model-based QA was determined by comparison of COMPASS calculated dose with Monte Carlo calculations for heterogeneous media. In total, 330 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were evaluated based on the mean gamma index (GI) with criteria of 3%/3mm and classification of PASS (GI ≤ 0.4), EVAL (0.4 0.6), and FAIL (GI ≥ 0.6). Agreement between model-based QA and measurement-based QA was determined for 48 treatment plans, and linac stability was verified for 15 months. Finally, time efficiency improvement of the hybrid-QA was quantified for four representative treatment plans. Results: COMPASS calculated dose was in agreement with Monte Carlo dose, with a maximum error of 3.2% in heterogeneous media with high density (2.4 g/cm 3 ). Hybrid-QA results for IMRT treatment plans showed an excellent PASS rate of 98% for all cases. Model-based QA was in agreement with measurement-based QA, as shown by a minimal difference in GI of 0.03 ± 0.08. Linac stability was high with an average GI of 0.28 ± 0.04. The hybrid-QA method resulted in a time efficiency improvement of 15 min per treatment plan QA compared to measurement-based QA. Conclusions: The hybrid-QA method is adequate for efficient and accurate 3D dose verification. It combines time efficiency of model-based QA with reliability of measurement-based QA and is suitable for implementation within any radiotherapy department.

  19. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  20. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  1. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... upon members of a race, sex, or ethnic group where other employees, applicants, or members have not been subjected to that standard. Disparate treatment occurs where members of a race, sex, or ethnic... standards are required by business necessity. This section does not prohibit a user who has not previously...

  2. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  3. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile. The results do not provide support for a uniformly extension of pension age for all....

  4. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  5. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  6. Birth outcome racial disparities: A result of intersecting social and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Heather H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-10-01

    Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low-birth weight, and infant mortality continue to disproportionately affect black and poor infants in the United States. Improvements in healthcare quality and access have not eliminated these disparities. The objective of this review was to consider societal factors, including suboptimal education, income inequality, and residential segregation, that together lead to toxic environmental exposures and psychosocial stress. Many toxic chemicals, as well as psychosocial stress, contribute to the risk of adverse birth outcomes and black women often are more highly exposed than white women. The extent to which environmental exposures combine with stress and culminate in racial disparities in birth outcomes has not been quantified but is likely substantial. Primary prevention of adverse birth outcomes and elimination of disparities will require a societal approach to improve education quality, income equity, and neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying Organizational Change to Promote Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Inclusion and Reduce Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R

    2017-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations face numerous barriers when accessing and receiving healthcare, which amplify specific LGBT health disparities. An effective strategic approach is necessary for academic health centers to meet the growing needs of LGBT populations. Although effective organizational change models have been proposed for other minority populations, the authors are not aware of any organizational change models that specifically promote LGBT inclusion and mitigate access barriers to reduce LGBT health disparities. With decades of combined experience, we identify elements and processes necessary to accelerate LGBT organizational change and reduce LGBT health disparities. This framework may assist health organizations in initiating and sustaining meaningful organizational change to improve the health and healthcare of the LGBT communities.

  8. Racial/ethnic disparity in obesity among US youth, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2015-11-04

    One fundamental goal in the Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity and eliminate disparities. To examine the annual trends in racial/ethnic disparity in obesity among US youth from 1999 to 2013. Nationally representative sample of 108,811 students in grades 9th-12th from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 1999-2013 surveys. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported height and weight. Obesity in youth is defined as BMI at or above 95th sex- and age-specific percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the annual prevalence of obesity by race/ethnicity, adjusted for gender and age group and accounted for the YRBSS survey design. Between-group variance (BGV) was used to measure absolute racial/ethnic disparity in obesity, and the mean log deviation (MLD) and the Theil Index (T) were used to measure relative racial/ethnic disparity in obesity, weighted by corresponding racial/ethnic population size. The obesity prevalence among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic African Americans, non-Hispanic other race or multi-race, and Hispanic increased from 10.05%, 12.31%, 10.25%, and 13.24% in 1999 to 13.14%, 15.76%, 10.87%, and 15.20% in 2013, respectively. Both absolute and relative racial/ethnic disparity in obesity increased initially since 1999 but then steadily declined starting from mid-2000s back to around its original level by 2013. The obesity epidemic in youth is marked by salient and persistent disparity pertaining to race/ethnicity. No improvement on racial/ethnic disparity in obesity among American youth was observed during 1999-2013.

  9. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  10. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Andreas Hogervorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90% (SD 4%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 minute segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% (SD 5% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz.

  11. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Health Literacy Health Equity CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2011 Report More Information CDC Releases Second Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 CDC and its ...

  12. Identification of E6-generated Z' from combined CHARM II, LEP 1, SLC high-precision measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, B.W.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1988-01-01

    We show that a combined analysis of three specific longitudinal polarization asymmetries in electron-positron annihilation on Z 0 resonance, of the mass ratio M w /M z and of the neutrino-electron neutral cross-section ratio, which could be measured in the near future at SLC, LEP, ACOL and CHARM II, would lead to a well-defined identification of a single new E 6 -generated Z'. In particular, it might be possible to disentangle a superstring-inspired model from other currently considered possibilities down to values of the mixing angle vertical strokeθ η vertical stroke = 0.02 and, at the same time, to fix the mass ratio ε = M Z 2 /Msub(Z') 2 with known accuracy. (orig.)

  13. A continuous on-line method for fission yield measurements with the combined GJTR-SISAK technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of a method for fission yield measurements with the combined GJRT-SISAK techniques are outlined. Only the simple case where parent effects can be neglected is considered in detail. The article includes derivation of a relation between the production rate and the counting rate of a nuclide. The expression contains various efficiency parameters and the system dependent delay probability function p(t). The way to experimentally determine these parameters and the delay probability curve, as well as the fitting of an analytical function to the curve are shown. The method is general in the sense that the main principles are independent upon the nuclide under study, fissile target material and bombarding particle used. (orig.)

  14. A new algorithm combining geostatistics with the surrogate data approach to increase the accuracy of comparisons of point radiation measurements with cloud measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Lindau, R.; Varnai, T.; Simmer, C.

    2009-04-01

    Two main groups of statistical methods used in the Earth sciences are geostatistics and stochastic modelling. Geostatistical methods, such as various kriging algorithms, aim at estimating the mean value for every point as well as possible. In case of sparse measurements, such fields have less variability at small scales and a narrower distribution as the true field. This can lead to biases if a nonlinear process is simulated on such a kriged field. Stochastic modelling aims at reproducing the structure of the data. One of the stochastic modelling methods, the so-called surrogate data approach, replicates the value distribution and power spectrum of a certain data set. However, while stochastic methods reproduce the statistical properties of the data, the location of the measurement is not considered. Because radiative transfer through clouds is a highly nonlinear process it is essential to model the distribution (e.g. of optical depth, extinction, liquid water content or liquid water path) accurately as well as the correlations in the cloud field because of horizontal photon transport. This explains the success of surrogate cloud fields for use in 3D radiative transfer studies. However, up to now we could only achieve good results for the radiative properties averaged over the field, but not for a radiation measurement located at a certain position. Therefore we have developed a new algorithm that combines the accuracy of stochastic (surrogate) modelling with the positioning capabilities of kriging. In this way, we can automatically profit from the large geostatistical literature and software. The algorithm is tested on cloud fields from large eddy simulations (LES). On these clouds a measurement is simulated. From the pseudo-measurement we estimated the distribution and power spectrum. Furthermore, the pseudo-measurement is kriged to a field the size of the final surrogate cloud. The distribution, spectrum and the kriged field are the inputs to the algorithm. This

  15. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  16. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  17. Visiting Black Patients: Racial Disparities in Security Standby Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carmen R; McCullough, Wayne R; Hawley, Jamie D

    2018-02-01

    Structural inequalities exist within healthcare. Racial disparities in hospital security standby requests (SSRs) have not been previously explored. We speculated hospital SSRs varied based upon race with black patients and their visitors negatively impacted. An 8-year retrospective study of hospital security dispatch information was performed. Data were analyzed to determine demographic information, and service location patterns for SSRs involving patients and their visitors. The race of the patient's visitors was imputed using the patient's race. The observed and expected (using hospital census data) number of patients impacted by SSRs was compared. Descriptive statistics were computed. Categorical data were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher exact test statistic. A p patients who were white (N = 642; 63%), female (56%), or patient's race. Although Black patients represent 12% of the hospital population, they and their visitors were more than twice as likely (p patients (N = 106; 10%) combined (p patients and their visitors. It also introduces the concept of "security intervention errors in healthcare environments." New metrics and continuous quality improvement initiatives are needed to understand and eliminate racial/ethnic based disparities in SSRs. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The value of a combined word recognition and knowledge measure to understand characteristics of our patients' oral health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn A; Macek, Mark D; Markovic, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the analysis was to examine the association between sociodemographic and dental understanding and utilization characteristics and lower oral health literacy (HL) and knowledge. The cross-sectional Multicenter Oral Health Literacy Research Study (MOHLRS) recruited and interviewed 923 English-speaking, initial care-seeking adults. The questionnaire included participant sociodemographic characteristics, measures of the participant's understanding and utilization of dentistry, and two oral HL measures, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALM-D) and the Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK), which were combined into a new composite HL and knowledge measure, the MOHLR-K. In adjusted multivariable analysis, persons who reported more understanding of dentist instructions had higher mean scores for all HL measures. Subjects reporting the highest level of understanding had greater scores by an average of 1.6 points for the MOHLR-K (95% CI: 0.85-2.40, Pdental understanding and utilization factors. Persons who reported history of tooth decay had higher MOHLR-K scores by an average of about 0.77 points (95% CI: 0.49-1.04, Ptooth decay history after controlling for the other factors. Persons who had support all of the time for travel to the dentist had higher scores by an average of about 0.5 points for the MOHLR-K (95% CI: 0.04-0.96, P=.03) and about 0.89 points for the REALMD-20 (95% CI: 0-1.79, P=.05) as compared to subjects with no support after controlling for other factors. Report of periodontal history, financial challenges to delay a dental visit and dental utilization were not significantly associated with any of the HL measures once the other factors were adjusted for in the model. The analysis confirmed that pronunciation of medical and dental terms may not fully reflect comprehension and revealed that understanding both patients' sociodemographic and dental understanding and utilization factors, such as

  19. Determination of ice water path in ice-over-water cloud systems using combined MODIS and AMSR-E measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Fan, T.-F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    To provide more accurate ice cloud microphysical properties, the multi-layered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is used to retrieve ice water path (IWP) in ice-over-water cloud systems globally over oceans using combined instrument data from Aqua. The liquid water path (LWP) of lower-layer water clouds is estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. The properties of the upper-level ice clouds are then derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements by matching simulated radiances from a two-cloud-layer radiative transfer model. The results show that the MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and reduce the over-estimation of optical depth and IWP retrievals for ice-over-water cloud systems. The mean daytime ice cloud optical depth and IWP for overlapped ice-over-water clouds over oceans from Aqua are 7.6 and 146.4 gm-2, respectively, down from the initial single-layer retrievals of 17.3 and 322.3 gm-2. The mean IWP for actual single-layer clouds is 128.2 gm-2.

  20. Ranking of Performance Assessment Measures at Tehran Hotel by Combining DEMATEL, ANP, and SERVQUAL Models under Fuzzy Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Kargari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid model has been proposed by combining ANP, SERVQUAL, and DEMATEL techniques. This model aims to meet different purposes of the hotels and diverse needs of customers at different stages, that is, reservation, reception, accommodation, catering, and check-out. High quality services are ensured when customer expectations have been provided at the expectation level of the customers or beyond that. SERVQUAL model is used to assess the performance of the organizations in terms of five dimensions: responsiveness, empathy, reliability, assurance, and tangibles. Super matrix calculations and pair comparisons required in ANP model have been carried out using DEMATEL model in order to measure the influence of performance assessment measures on each other. In this paper, SERVQUAL model parameters have been considered as the expectations of the hotel clients. Then these customer expectations have been analyzed using DEMATEL model and finally have been ranked using ANP model. Parameters of SERVQUAL model are comprised of verbal and vague criteria in terms of the responses provided by the organizations and customers. This has led to fuzzy conditions in this research. The hybrid model provided better results compared with each individual model, in terms of meeting customer satisfaction and the organization’s objectives.

  1. Developmental changes in the balance of disparity, blur and looming/proximity cues to drive ocular alignment and focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate co-ordination of accommodation and convergence is necessary to view near objects and develop fine motor co-ordination. We used a remote haploscopic videorefraction paradigm to measure longitudinal changes in simultaneous ocular accommodation and vergence to targets at different depths, and to all combinations of blur, binocular disparity, and change-in-size (“proximity”) cues. Infants were followed longitudinally and compared to older children and young adults, with the prediction that sensitivity to different cues would change during development. Mean infant responses to the most naturalistic condition were similar to those of adults from 6-7 weeks (accommodation) and 8-9 weeks (vergence). Proximity cues influenced responses most in infants less than 14 weeks of age, but sensitivity declined thereafter. Between 12-28 weeks of age infants were equally responsive to all three cues, while in older children and adults manipulation of disparity resulted in the greatest changes in response. Despite rapid development of visual acuity (thus increasing availability of blur cues), responses to blur were stable throughout development. Our results suggest that during much of infancy, vergence and accommodation responses are not dependent on the development of specific depth cues, but make use of any cues available to drive appropriate changes in response. PMID:24344547

  2. Constraining the Dynamics of Periodic Behavior at Mt. Semeru, Indonesia, Combining Numerical Modeling and Field Measurements of Gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, J.; Clarke, A. B.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Moore, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Semeru is one of the most active explosive volcanoes on the island of Java in Indonesia. The current eruption style consists of small but frequent explosions and/or gas releases (several times a day) accompanied by continuous lava effusion that sporadically produces block-and-ash flows down the SE flank of the volcano. Semeru presents a unique opportunity to investigate the magma ascent conditions that produce this kind of persistent periodic behavior and the coexistence of explosive and effusive eruptions. In this work we use DOMEFLOW, a 1.5D transient isothermal numerical model, to investigate the dynamics of lava extrusion at Semeru. Petrologic observations from tephra and ballistic samples collected at the summit help us constrain the initial conditions of the system. Preliminary model runs produced periodic lava extrusion and pulses of gas release at the vent, with a cycle period on the order of hours, even though a steady magma supply rate was prescribed at the bottom of the conduit. Enhanced shallow permeability implemented in the model appears to create a dense plug in the shallow subsurface, which in turn plays a critical role in creating and controlling the observed periodic behavior. We measured SO2 fluxes just above the vent, using a custom UV imaging system. The device consists of two high-sensitivity CCD cameras with narrow UV filters centered at 310 and 330 nm, and a USB2000+ spectrometer for calibration and distance correction. The method produces high-frequency flux series with an accurate determination of the wind speed and plume geometry. The model results, when combined with gas measurements, and measurements of sulfur in both the groundmass and melt inclusions in eruptive products, could be used to create a volatile budget of the system. Furthermore, a well-calibrated model of the system will ultimately allow the characteristic periodicity and corresponding gas flux to be used as a proxy for magma supply rate.

  3. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement

  4. Explaining regional disparities in traffic mortality by decomposing conditional probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gregory P; Clark, David E; Travis, Lori L; Haskins, Amy E

    2011-04-01

    In the USA, the mortality rate from traffic injury is higher in rural and in southern regions, for reasons that are not well understood. For 1754 (56%) of the 3142 US counties, we obtained data allowing for separation of the deaths/population rate into deaths/injury, injuries/crash, crashes/exposure and exposure/population, with exposure measured as vehicle miles travelled. A 'decomposition method' proposed by Li and Baker was extended to study how the contributions of these components were affected by three measures of rural location, as well as southern location. The method of Li and Baker extended without difficulty to include non-binary effects and multiple exposures. Deaths/injury was by far the most important determinant in the county-to-county variation in deaths/population, and accounted for the greatest portion of the rural/urban disparity. After controlling for the rural effect, injuries/crash accounted for most of the southern/northern disparity. The increased mortality rate from traffic injury in rural areas can be attributed to the increased probability of death given that a person has been injured, possibly due to challenges faced by emergency medical response systems. In southern areas, there is an increased probability of injury given that a person has crashed, possibly due to differences in vehicle, road, or driving conditions.

  5. Combining a nanosensor and ELISA for measurement of tyrosyl-dna phosphodiesterase 1 (tdp1) activity and protein amount in cell and tissue extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine; Stougaard, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    be combined with ELISA measurement into one assay facilitating measurement of both the enzymatic activity and the protein amount of TDP1. We show that the combined assay can be used for measurements both in cell line-based studies and for measurement in clinical tissue samples. Due to all measurements being...... performed in the exact same aliquot of cell or tissue extract, the combined assay allows the use of minimal amount of cells or tissue and without additional incubation steps compared to the normal ELISA procedure. Measuring protein amount and activity within the same portion of extract also minimizes...... the risk of variation being introduced when comparing amount to activity. Since the assay only uses small amounts of extract, it requires no advanced equipment besides a plate reader, and can work in whole-cell or tissue extract. We expect that it could be useful for analysis of posttranslational...

  6. Social disparities in diabetes care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. Design: A cross-sectional population study. Setting: The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. Subjects: We studied 907...... patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. Main outcome measures: The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated...... with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. Methods: We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect...

  7. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of land use change resulting in an increased number of slope protection constructions and with respect to effects associated with climate change like extremes in temperatures and temperature variations or increased frequency of heavy precipitation, adaptation strategies for sustainable erosion protection systems are needed which meet ecological compatibility and economical requirements. Therefore a wide range of different technical solutions respectively geotextiles and geotextile-related products (blankets, nettings, grids etc.) are available on the market differing considerably in function, material, durability and pricing. Manufacturers usually provide product-specific information pertaining to application field, functional range or (technical) installation features whereas vegetational aspects are frequently neglected while vegetation can contribute substantially to increased near-surface erosion protection respectively slope stability. Though, the success of sustainable erosion control is directly dependent on several vegetational aspects. Adequate development of a functional vegetation layer in combination with geotextiles is closely associated to application aspects such as seeding technique, sowing date and intensity, seed-soil contact or maintenance measures as well as to qualitative aspects like seed quality, germination rates, area of origin, production method or certification. As a general guideline, erosion control within an initial phase is directly related to restoration techniques whereas vegetation specifics with regard to species richness or species composition play a key role in medium to long-term development and slope protection. In this context one of the fundamental objectives of our study is the identification and subsequently the determination of the main interaction processes between technical and biological components of combined slope protection systems. The influence of different geotextile characteristics on specific

  8. Tropospheric profiles of wet refractivity and humidity from the combination of remote sensing data sets and measurements on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hurter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We reconstruct atmospheric wet refractivity profiles for the western part of Switzerland with a least-squares collocation approach from data sets of (a zenith path delays that are a byproduct of the GPS (global positioning system processing, (b ground meteorological measurements, (c wet refractivity profiles from radio occultations whose tangent points lie within the study area, and (d radiosonde measurements. Wet refractivity is a parameter partly describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves and depends on the atmospheric parameters temperature and water vapour pressure. In addition, we have measurements of a lower V-band microwave radiometer at Payerne. It delivers temperature profiles at high temporal resolution, especially in the range from ground to 3000 m a.g.l., though vertical information content decreases with height. The temperature profiles together with the collocated wet refractivity profiles provide near-continuous dew point temperature or relative humidity profiles at Payerne for the study period from 2009 to 2011. In the validation of the humidity profiles, we adopt a two-step procedure. We first investigate the reconstruction quality of the wet refractivity profiles at the location of Payerne by comparing them to wet refractivity profiles computed from radiosonde profiles available for that location. We also assess the individual contributions of the data sets to the reconstruction quality and demonstrate a clear benefit from the data combination. Secondly, the accuracy of the conversion from wet refractivity to dew point temperature and relative humidity profiles with the radiometer temperature profiles is examined, comparing them also to radiosonde profiles. For the least-squares collocation solution combining GPS and ground meteorological measurements, we achieve the following error figures with respect to the radiosonde reference: maximum median offset of relative refractivity error is −16% and quartiles are 5% to

  9. Combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on children with cerebral palsy Gross motor function measure comparison In 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiong Wu; Haibo Yu; Yongfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of acupuncture has received recognition to effectively treat cerebral palsy. Moreover, music therapy can be used to modify treatment of cerebral palsy. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of combined treatment using acupuncture and music therapy on gross motor function measure (GMFM) of children with cerebral palsy, compared with acupuncture treatment alone. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, clinical study. The experiment was conducted in Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between January 2007 and September 2007. PARTICIPANTS: All children with cerebral palsy in the trial were from the outpatient department of Shenzhen Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The children were randomly divided into two groups: 30 children in Group B received acupuncture and music therapy, while 30 children in Group A received only acupuncture therapy. METHODS: Subjects in Groups A and B received acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation. The main acupoints were necessary for all participants. At first, flash needling was applied to the acupoints. For the remaining acupoints, the technique of transverse needling was applied to the head acupoints, and perpendicular needling was used for the other points. The inserted needles were twirled and then maintained for 30 minutes. The needle was twirled for one second every other 10 minutes, without reinforcing-reducing techniques. The therapy was performed every other day. The trial consisted of three periods each, and lasted for 84 days. Subjects in Group B received music therapy. They listened to music that they preferred while acupuncture was being performed. Following acupuncture, they were allowed to perform musical activities, such as percussion, singing, and dancing. The music therapy was scheduled for one hour, including listening to music for 30 minutes and music activities for 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The comprehensive functional evaluation scale of cerebral palsy and

  10. The human face of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  11. Racial disparities: disruptive genes in prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Plaga, Alexis; Shukla, Girish C

    2017-06-01

    Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MRS1 ), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality. Concerted efforts are needed to identify race specific prognostic markers and treatment regimen for a better management of the disease.

  12. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  13. [Health disparities: local realities and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, P; Green, A R

    2012-11-28

    Since 1887, the Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU) has brought care to vulnerable populations who are at risk of poor physical, mental and social health. These include marginalised Swiss natives and immigrant communities (asylum seekers, undocumented immigrants). These patients are at risk of health disparities given their poor access to the health care system and lack of adapted quality care. Clinical approach must address these potential disparities, reinforced by a research describing them in order to explain their cause, and propose possible solutions, and a medical training addressing these topics from the undergraduate to the attending level. Through those holistic clinical approach, robust research and improved medical training, health providers will contribute to give quality care to all citizens, without exception!

  14. The energy implications of Chinese regional disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuanxi; Todd, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Chinese regional disparities are readily apparent, with well-being seen the highest at the coast and declining steadily inland. Their mitigation will clearly be hostage to improvement in economic development, since the unevenness of that development created them in the first place. Integral to development is structural change, and the key to effecting that change is improved energy efficiency. Indeed, this paper explores energy usage and regional development from 1952 to the present, establishing that they both conform to an inverted-U pattern. Eastern China, the leader in industrialization, has moved beyond the apogee of the curve, but Central and Western China have failed to follow suit, being held back by poor industrial structures and adverse patterns of energy consumption. Remedying this laggardly performance preoccupies China's Government, for rendering the country energy-efficient and containing regional disparities, both rest on pushing the Central and Western regions down the curve in the wake of the prosperous coast.

  15. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  16. Disparities in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronzio Cynthia R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.

  17. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  18. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  19. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  20. Effect of Visual Angle on the Head Movement Caused by Changing Binocular Disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Maekawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that vertical binocular disparity has no or little effect on the perception of visual direction (Banks et al., 2002. On the other hand, our previous study has reported that a continuous change of vertical disparity causes an involuntary sway of the head (Maekawa et al., 2009. We predict that the difference between those results attributes to the dissociation between the processes for perception and action in the brain. The aim of this study is to investigate in more details the condition that influences the process of disparity information. The present experiment particularly varied the visual angle of stimulus presentation and measured the head movement and body sway caused by changing vertical disparity. Results showed that the head movement was greater as the visual angle of the stimulus was smaller. It has been reported that stimulus of only small visual angle affect depth perception (Erklens et al., 1995. Thus, our result suggests that perception and action produced by vertical disparity are consistent as far as the effect of the stimulus size is concerned.

  1. Organizational Change Management For Health Equity: Perspectives From The Disparities Leadership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; Kenst, Karey S; Phan, Thuy Hoai; Lopez, Lenny

    2017-06-01

    Leaders of health care organizations need to be prepared to improve quality and achieve equity in today's health care environment characterized by a focus on achieving value and addressing disparities in a diverse population. To help address this need, the Disparities Solutions Center at Massachusetts General Hospital launched the Disparities Leadership Program in 2007. The leadership program is an ongoing, year-long, executive education initiative that trains leaders from hospitals, health plans, and health centers to improve quality and eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Feedback from participating organizations demonstrates that health care leaders seem to possess knowledge about what disparities are and about what should be done to eliminate them. Data collection, performance measurement, and multifaceted interventions remain the tools of the trade. However, the barriers to success are lack of leadership buy-in, organizational prioritization, energy, and execution, which can be addressed through organizational change management strategies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  3. Combined fluorescence-Raman spectroscopy measurements with an optical fiber probe for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Alessandro; Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossari, Susanna; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2012-02-01

    We have designed and developed an optical fiber-probe for spectroscopic measurements on human tissues. The experimental setup combines fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in a multidimensional approach. Concerning fluorescence spectroscopy, the excitation is provided by two laser diodes, one emitting in the UV (378 nm) and the other emitting in the visible (445 nm). These two lasers are used to selectively excite fluorescence from NADH and FAD, which are among the brightest endogenous fluorophores in human tissues. For Raman and NIR spectroscopy, the excitation is provided by a third laser diode with 785 nm excitation wavelength. Laser light is delivered to the tissue through the central optical fiber of a fiber bundle. The surrounding 48 fibers of the bundle are used for collecting fluorescence and Raman and for delivering light to the spectrograph. Fluorescence and Raman spectra are acquired on a cooled CCD camera. The instrument has been tested on fresh human skin biopsies clinically diagnosed as malignant melanoma, melanocytic nevus, or healthy skin, finding an optimal correlation with the subsequent histological exam. In some cases our examination was not in agreement with the clinical observation, but it was with the histological exam, demonstrating that the system can potentially contribute to improve clinical diagnostic capabilities and hence reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  4. A simulation model approach to analysis of the business case for eliminating health care disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunceli Kaan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. Methods To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers and indirect (absenteeism, productivity effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. Results The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. Conclusions For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates.

  5. Disparity changes in 370 Ma Devonian fossils: the signature of ecological dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Catherine; Renaud, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Early periods in Earth's history have seen a progressive increase in complexity of the ecosystems, but also dramatic crises decimating the biosphere. Such patterns are usually considered as large-scale changes among supra-specific groups, including morphological novelties, radiation, and extinctions. Nevertheless, in the same time, each species evolved by the way of micro-evolutionary processes, extended over millions of years into the evolution of lineages. How these two evolutionary scales interacted is a challenging issue because this requires bridging a gap between scales of observation and processes. The present study aims at transferring a typical macro-evolutionary approach, namely disparity analysis, to the study of fine-scale evolutionary variations in order to decipher what processes actually drove the dynamics of diversity at a micro-evolutionary level. The Late Frasnian to Late Famennian period was selected because it is punctuated by two major macro-evolutionary crises, as well as a progressive diversification of marine ecosystem. Disparity was estimated through this period on conodonts, tooth-like fossil remains of small eel-like predators that were part of the nektonic fauna. The study was focused on the emblematic genus of the period, Palmatolepis. Strikingly, both crises affected an already impoverished Palmatolepis disparity, increasing risks of random extinction. The major disparity signal rather emerged as a cycle of increase and decrease in disparity during the inter-crises period. The diversification shortly followed the first crisis and might correspond to an opportunistic occupation of empty ecological niche. The subsequent oriented shrinking in the morphospace occupation suggests that the ecological space available to Palmatolepis decreased through time, due to a combination of factors: deteriorating climate, expansion of competitors and predators. Disparity changes of Palmatolepis thus reflect changes in the structure of the ecological

  6. A simulation model approach to analysis of the business case for eliminating health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerenz, David R; Liu, Yung-wen; Williams, Keoki L; Tunceli, Kaan; Zeng, Huiwen

    2011-03-19

    Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers) and indirect (absenteeism, productivity) effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity) combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates. © 2011 Nerenz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Disparity changes in 370 Ma Devonian fossils: the signature of ecological dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Girard

    Full Text Available Early periods in Earth's history have seen a progressive increase in complexity of the ecosystems, but also dramatic crises decimating the biosphere. Such patterns are usually considered as large-scale changes among supra-specific groups, including morphological novelties, radiation, and extinctions. Nevertheless, in the same time, each species evolved by the way of micro-evolutionary processes, extended over millions of years into the evolution of lineages. How these two evolutionary scales interacted is a challenging issue because this requires bridging a gap between scales of observation and processes. The present study aims at transferring a typical macro-evolutionary approach, namely disparity analysis, to the study of fine-scale evolutionary variations in order to decipher what processes actually drove the dynamics of diversity at a micro-evolutionary level. The Late Frasnian to Late Famennian period was selected because it is punctuated by two major macro-evolutionary crises, as well as a progressive diversification of marine ecosystem. Disparity was estimated through this period on conodonts, tooth-like fossil remains of small eel-like predators that were part of the nektonic fauna. The study was focused on the emblematic genus of the period, Palmatolepis. Strikingly, both crises affected an already impoverished Palmatolepis disparity, increasing risks of random extinction. The major disparity signal rather emerged as a cycle of increase and decrease in disparity during the inter-crises period. The diversification shortly followed the first crisis and might correspond to an opportunistic occupation of empty ecological niche. The subsequent oriented shrinking in the morphospace occupation suggests that the ecological space available to Palmatolepis decreased through time, due to a combination of factors: deteriorating climate, expansion of competitors and predators. Disparity changes of Palmatolepis thus reflect changes in the structure

  8. Regional income disparities in Canada: exploring the geographical dimensions of an old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Breau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature on convergence in Canada largely ignores the underlying geographical dimensions of regional disparities. By using income measures developed from census micro-data files to analyze patterns of convergence across census divisions, we show that regional disparities are increasingly clustered across the Canadian space-economy along (1 East–West and (2 urban–rural gradients. Rural census divisions in the Eastern provinces, in particular, are showing increased signs of distress in terms of differences in levels and growth rates of incomes with other regions in the country. Such findings have important policy implications which are briefly discussed.

  9. Religion and disparities: considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-12-01

    Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.

  10. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  11. Trends in Longevity in the Americas: Disparities in Life Expectancy in Women and Men, 1965-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Hambleton

    Full Text Available We describe trends in life expectancy at birth (LE and between-country LE disparities since 1965, in Latin America and the Caribbean.LE trends since 1965 are described for three geographical sub-regions: the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. LE disparities are explored using a suite of absolute and relative disparity metrics, with measurement consensus providing confidence to observed differences. LE has increased throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Compared to the Caribbean, LE has increased by an additional 6.6 years in Central America and 4.1 years in South America. Since 1965, average reductions in between-country LE disparities were 14% (absolute disparity and 23% (relative disparity in the Caribbean, 55% and 51% in Central America, 55% and 52% in South America.LE in Latin America and the Caribbean is exceeding 'minimum standard' international targets, and is improving relative to the world region with the highest human longevity. The Caribbean, which had the highest LE and the lowest between-country LE disparities in Latin America and the Caribbean in 1965-70, had the lowest LE and the highest LE disparities by 2005-10. Caribbean Governments have championed a collaborative solution to the growing burden of non-communicable disease, with 15 territories signing on to the Declaration of Port of Spain, signalling regional commitment to a coordinated public-health response. The persistent LE inequity between Caribbean countries suggests that public health interventions should be tailored to individual countries to be most effective. Between- and within-country disparity monitoring for a range of health metrics should be a priority, first to guide country-level policy initiatives, then to contribute to the assessment of policy success.

  12. The role that graduate medical education must play in ensuring health equity and eliminating health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Maria E; Fried, Ethan D; DuBose, Thomas D; Nelson, Consuelo; Breida, Margaret

    2014-05-01

    Despite the 2002 Institute of Medicine report that described the moral and financial impact of health care disparities and the need to address them, it is evident that health care disparities persist. Recommendations for addressing disparities include collecting and reporting data on patient race and ethnicity, supporting language interpretation services, increasing awareness of health care disparities through education, requiring cultural competency training for all health care professionals, and increasing diversity among those delivering health care. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education places strong emphasis on graduate medical education's role in eliminating health care disparities by asking medical educators to objectively evaluate and report on their trainees' ability to practice patient-centered, culturally competent care. Moreover, one of the objectives of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review visits as part of the Next Accreditation System is to identify how sponsoring institutions engage residents and fellows in the use of data to improve systems of care, reduce health care disparities, and improve patient outcomes. Residency and fellowship programs should ensure the delivery of meaningful curricula on cultural competency and health care disparities, for which there are numerous resources, and ensure resident assessment of culturally competent care. Moreover, training programs and institutional leadership need to collaborate on ensuring data collection on patient satisfaction, outcomes, and quality measures that are broken down by patient race, cultural identification, and language. A diverse physician workforce is another strategy for mitigating health care disparities, and using strategies to enhance faculty diversity should also be a priority of graduate medical education. Transparent data about institutional diversity efforts should be provided to interested medical students

  13. Tracking Biocultural Pathways to Health Disparities: The Value of Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M.; Costello, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Cultural factors and biomarkers are emerging emphases in social epidemiology that readily ally with human biology and anthropology. Persistent health challenges and disparities have established biocultural roots, and environment plays an integral role in physical development and function that form the bases of population health. Biomarkers have proven to be valuable tools for investigating biocultural bases of health disparities. Aims We apply recent insights from biology to consider how culture gets under the skin and evaluate the construct of embodiment. We analyze contrasting biomarker models and applications, and propose an integrated model for biomarkers. Three examples from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) illustrate these points. Subjects and methods The longitudinal developmental epidemiological GSMS comprises a population-based sample of 1420 children with repeated measures including mental and physical health, life events, household conditions, and biomarkers for pubertal development and allostatic load. Results Analyses using biomarkers resolved competing explanations for links between puberty and depression, identified gender differences in stress at puberty, and revealed interactive effects of birthweight and postnatal adversity on risk for depression at puberty in girls. Conclusion An integrated biomarker model can both enrich epidemiology and illuminate biocultural pathways in population health. PMID:19381986

  14. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  15. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  16. Teleportation of a two-qubit arbitrary unknown state using a four-qubit genuine entangled state with the combination of bell-state measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiuxiaomingdl@126.com [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China); Ren, Yuan-Peng [Bohai University, Higher Professional Technical Institute (China); Gao, Ya-Jun [Bohai University, College of Mathematics and Physics (China); Yi, X. X. [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)

    2013-01-15

    We propose a protocol transferring an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state using the quantum channel of a four-qubit genuine entangled state. Simplifying the four-qubit joint measurement to the combination of Bell-state measurements, it can be realized more easily with currently available technologies.

  17. The intersection of disability and healthcare disparities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access to and quality of healthcare and can be viewed as the inability of the healthcare system to adequately address the needs of specific population groups. This article uses a narrative method to identify and critique the main conceptual frameworks that have been used in analyzing disparities in healthcare access and quality, and evaluating those frameworks in the context of healthcare for individuals with disabilities. Specific models that are examined include the Aday and Anderson Model, the Grossman Utility Model, the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s models of Access to Healthcare Services and Healthcare Disparities, and the Cultural Competency model. While existing frameworks advance understandings of disparities in healthcare access and quality, they fall short when applied to individuals with disabilities. Specific deficits include a lack of attention to cultural and contextual factors (Aday and Andersen framework), unrealistic assumptions regarding equal access to resources (Grossman's utility model), lack of recognition or inclusion of concepts of structural accessibility (IOM model of Healthcare Disparities) and exclusive emphasis on supply side of the healthcare equation to improve healthcare disparities (Cultural Competency model). In response to identified gaps in the literature and short-comings of current conceptualizations, an integrated model of disability and healthcare disparities is put forth. We analyzed models of access to care and disparities in healthcare to be able to have an integrated and cohesive conceptual framework that could potentially address issues related to access to

  18. Combined Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerio, B C; Cerny, K; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chang, P; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, L; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; 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Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Christian, A; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Friis, E; Gomber, B; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2015-05-15

    A measurement of the Higgs boson mass is presented based on the combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN LHC in the H→γγ and H→ZZ→4ℓ decay channels. The results are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the reconstructed invariant mass peaks in the two channels and for the two experiments. The measured masses from the individual channels and the two experiments are found to be consistent among themselves. The combined measured mass of the Higgs boson is m_{H}=125.09±0.21 (stat)±0.11 (syst) GeV.

  19. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  20. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. The mechanical properties of stored red blood cells measured by a convenient microfluidic approach combining with mathematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; You, Guoxing; Chen, Peipei; Li, Jianjun; Chen, Gan; Wang, Bo; Li, Penglong; Han, Dong; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Lian

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical properties of red blood cells (RBCs) are critical to the rheological and hemodynamic behavior of blood. Although measurements of the mechanical properties of RBCs have been studied for many years, the existing methods, such as ektacytometry, micropipette aspiration, and microfluidic approaches, still have limitations. Mechanical changes to RBCs during storage play an important role in transfusions, and so need to be evaluated pre-transfusion, which demands a convenient and rapid detection method. We present a microfluidic approach that focuses on the mechanical properties of single cell under physiological shear flow and does not require any high-end equipment, like a high-speed camera. Using this method, the images of stretched RBCs under physical shear can be obtained. The subsequent analysis, combined with mathematic models, gives the deformability distribution, the morphology distribution, the normalized curvature, and the Young's modulus (E) of the stored RBCs. The deformability index and the morphology distribution show that the deformability of RBCs decreases significantly with storage time. The normalized curvature, which is defined as the curvature of the cell tail during stretching in flow, suggests that the surface charge of the stored RBCs decreases significantly. According to the mathematic model, which derives from the relation between shear stress and the adherent cells' extension ratio, the Young's moduli of the stored RBCs are also calculated and show significant increase with storage. Therefore, the present method is capable of representing the mechanical properties and can distinguish the mechanical changes of the RBCs during storage. The advantages of this method are the small sample needed, high-throughput, and easy-use, which make it promising for the quality monitoring of RBCs.

  2. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy Assessment in Determining the Location of Corners of Building Structures Using a Combination of Various Measurement Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert; Przewięźlikowska, Anna

    2017-12-01

    When surveys of corners of building structures are carried out, surveyors frequently use a compilation of two surveying methods. The first one involves the determination of several corners with reference to a geodetic control using classical methods of surveying field details. The second method relates to the remaining corner points of a structure, which are determined in sequence from distance-distance intersection, using control linear values of the wall faces of the building, the so-called tie distances. This paper assesses the accuracy of coordinates of corner points of a building structure, determined using the method of distance-distance intersection, based on the corners which had previously been determined by the conducted surveys tied to a geodetic control. It should be noted, however, that such a method of surveying the corners of building structures from linear measures is based on the details of the first-order accuracy, while the regulations explicitly allow such measurement only for the details of the second- and third-order accuracy. Therefore, a question arises whether this legal provision is unfounded, or whether surveyors are acting not only against the applicable standards but also without due diligence while performing surveys? This study provides answers to the formulated problem. The main purpose of the study was to verify whether the actual method which is used in practice for surveying building structures allows to obtain the required accuracy of coordinates of the points being determined, or whether it should be strictly forbidden. The results of the conducted studies clearly demonstrate that the problem is definitely more complex. Eventually, however, it might be assumed that assessment of the accuracy in determining a location of corners of a building using a combination of two different surveying methods will meet the requirements of the regulation [MIA, 2011), subject to compliance with relevant baseline criteria, which have been

  4. Commentary: getting real on addressing health care disparities and other systems problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madara, James L

    2012-06-01

    Physician membership organizations vary in the extent of their engagement in activities to address health disparities. Increasing engagement of those organizations not already highly active in this critical area is, thus, an opportunity. Studies that provide definitional contours of key issues, like disparities, are necessary and must be iteratively refined. However, parallel activities of intervention with measured outcomes to assess the effects of these interventions are necessary to truly address major problems in the health care system. To date, work in the problem definition category exceeds work toward intervention in and mitigation of these problems with measured outcomes. Many problems in health care, including disparities, are now sufficiently understood that it is time to shift focus toward bold intervention with measured outcomes. Optimal approaches that yield superior outcomes generally require collaboration across the provider-payer spectrum and the private sectors, including physicians, hospitals, insurers, etc. Stakeholders are now free to act in such coordinated fashion; it only requires social capital that permits cooperation and compromise. Interventions for problems such as health care disparities can be developed in the private sector and mirrored by government payers if physicians and organizations can get real about collaborating to implement outcomes-based initiatives to improve the health of all patients.

  5. Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Measurements with Code Multipath and Geometry-Free Ionosphere-Free Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Zhizhao; Hu, Zhigang; Dai, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-01-20

    Using GNSS observable from some stations in the Asia-Pacific area, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and multipath combinations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), as well as their variations with time and/or elevation were investigated and compared with those of GPS and Galileo. Provided the same elevation, the CNR of B1 observables is the lowest among the three BDS frequencies, while B3 is the highest. The code multipath combinations of BDS inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites are remarkably correlated with elevation, and the systematic "V" shape trends could be eliminated through between-station-differencing or modeling correction. Daily periodicity was found in the geometry-free ionosphere-free (GFIF) combinations of both BDS geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and IGSO satellites. The variation range of carrier phase GFIF combinations of GEO satellites is -2.0 to 2.0 cm. The periodicity of carrier phase GFIF combination could be significantly mitigated through between-station differencing. Carrier phase GFIF combinations of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites might also contain delays related to satellites. Cross-correlation suggests that the GFIF combinations' time series of some GEO satellites might vary according to their relative geometries with the sun.

  6. Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Khurshid, K; Sanelli, P C; Jalal, S; Chahal, T; Norbash, A; Nicolaou, S; Castillo, M; Khosa, F

    2018-01-01

    There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. After excluding programs that did not fulfill our selection criteria, we generated a short list of 85 US and 8 Canadian programs. We found 465 faculty members who met the inclusion criteria for our study. We used Elsevier's SCOPUS for gathering the data pertaining to the publications, H-index, citations, and tenure of the productivity of each faculty member. Gender disparity was insignificant when analyzing academic ranks. There are more men working in neuroimaging relative to women (χ 2 = 0.46; P = .79). However, gender disparity was highly significant for leadership positions in neuroradiology (χ 2 = 6.76; P = .009). The median H-index was higher among male faculty members (17.5) versus female faculty members (9). Female faculty members have odds of 0.84 compared with male faculty members of having a higher H-index, adjusting for publications, citations, academic ranks, leadership ranks, and interaction between gender and publications and gender and citations (9). Neuroradiology faculty members follow the same male predominance seen in many other specialties of medicine. In this study, issues such as mentoring, role models, opportunities to engage in leadership/research activities, funding opportunities, and mindfulness regarding research productivity are explored. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  8. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan F Benjamin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005. Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR and absolute (RD statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-economic status measured by the percentage of habitants living below the poverty level. Results African-American and Hispanic women generally experience higher mortality than White non-Hispanics, and these differences are especially significant in the southeast metropolitan areas and southwest border of Texas. The proportion and location of significant racial disparities however changed depending on the type of statistic (RR versus RD and the geographic level. The largest proportion of significant results was observed for the RD statistic and census tract data. Geographic regions with significant racial disparities for African-Americans and Hispanics frequently had a poverty rate above 10.00%. Conclusions This study investigates both relative and absolute racial disparities in breast cancer mortality between White non-Hispanic and African-American/Hispanic women at the census tract, zip code and county levels. Analysis at the census tract level generally led to a larger proportion of geographical units experiencing significantly higher mortality rates for minority groups, although results varied depending on the use of the relative versus absolute statistics. Additional research is needed before general conclusions can be formulated regarding the choice of optimal geographic regions for the detection of racial disparities.

  9. Disparity modifications and the emotional effects of stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Atsuta, Daiki; Tomiyama, Yuya; Kim, Sanghyun; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Reiko; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition, 3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.

  10. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  11. Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-L-fucosidase and ferritin levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Chai Xiaohong; Jin Ying; Dong Xuemei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and ferritin (SF) levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods: Serum AFP, AFU (with RIA) and SF (with biochemical method) were determined in 52 patients with primary liver cancer and 40 controls. Results: The positive rates of AFP, AFU and SF in patient with liver cancer were 82.7%, 86.6% and 76.9%, respectively. Positive rates with combined measurement of AFP plus AFU, AFP plus SF, and AFP plus AFU, SF were 94.2%, 90.4% and 98.1% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of AFP, AFU and SF can significantly increase the positive rate in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. (authors)

  12. Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Measurements with Code Multipath and Geometry-Free Ionosphere-Free Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qile Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using GNSS observable from some stations in the Asia-Pacific area, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR and multipath combinations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, as well as their variations with time and/or elevation were investigated and compared with those of GPS and Galileo. Provided the same elevation, the CNR of B1 observables is the lowest among the three BDS frequencies, while B3 is the highest. The code multipath combinations of BDS inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO and medium Earth orbit (MEO satellites are remarkably correlated with elevation, and the systematic “V” shape trends could be eliminated through between-station-differencing or modeling correction. Daily periodicity was found in the geometry-free ionosphere-free (GFIF combinations of both BDS geostationary Earth orbit (GEO and IGSO satellites. The variation range of carrier phase GFIF combinations of GEO satellites is −2.0 to 2.0 cm. The periodicity of carrier phase GFIF combination could be significantly mitigated through between-station differencing. Carrier phase GFIF combinations of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites might also contain delays related to satellites. Cross-correlation suggests that the GFIF combinations’ time series of some GEO satellites might vary according to their relative geometries with the sun.

  13. Cancer mortality disparities among New York City's Upper Manhattan neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall; Lucchini, Roberto; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    The East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES) neighborhoods of New York City are geographically contiguous to tertiary medical care, but are characterized by cancer mortality rate disparities. This ecological study aims to disentangle the effects of race and neighborhood on cancer deaths. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were determined using neighborhood-specific data from the New York State Cancer Registry and Vital Records Office (2007-2011). Ecological data on modifiable cancer risk factors from the New York City Community Health Survey (2002-2006) were stratified by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood and modeled against stratified mortality rates to disentangle race/ethnicity and neighborhood using logistic regression. Significant gaps in mortality rates were observed between the UES and both CH and EH across all cancers, favoring UES. Mortality-to-incidence ratios of both CH and EH were similarly elevated in the range of 0.41-0.44 compared with UES (0.26-0.30). After covariate and multivariable adjustment, black race (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-1.93) and EH residence (odds ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.35) remained significant risk factors in all cancers' combined mortality. Mortality disparities remain among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Both neighborhood and race are significantly associated with cancer mortality, independent of each other. Multivariable adjusted models that include Community Health Survey risk factors show that this mortality gap may be avoidable through community-based public health interventions.

  14. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  15. Numerical Study of Heat Transfer during Artificial Ground Freezing Combined with Groundwater Flow based on in-situ Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Liu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    For civil engineering projects, especially in the subsurface with groundwater, the artificial ground freezing (AGF) method has been widely used. Commonly, a refrigerant is circulated through a pre-buried pipe network to form a freezing wall to support the construction. In many cases, the temperature change is merely considered as a result of simple heat conduction. However, the influence of the water-ice phase change on the flow properties should not be neglected, if large amount of groundwater with high flow velocities is present. In this work, we perform a 2D modelling (software: Comsol Multiphysics) of an AFG project of a metro tunnel in Southern China, taking groundwater flow into account. The model is validated based on in-situ measurement of groundwater flow and temperature. We choose a cross section of this horizontal AGF project and set up a model with horizontal groundwater flow normal to the axial of the tunnel. The Darcy velocity is a coupling variable and related to the temperature field. During the phase change of the pore water and the decrement of permeability in freezing zone, we introduce a variable of effective hydraulic conductivity which is described by a function of temperature change. The energy conservation problem is solved by apparent heat capacity method and the related parameter change is described by a step function (McKenzie, et. al. 2007). The results of temperature contour maps combined with groundwater flow velocity at different times indicate that the freezing wall appears in an asymmetrical shape along the groundwater flow direction. It forms slowly and on the upstream side the thickness of the freezing wall is thinner than that on the downstream side. The closure time of the freezing wall increases at the middle of the both up and downstream sides. The average thickness of the freezing wall on the upstream side is mostly affected by the groundwater flow velocity. With the successful validation of this model, this numerical

  16. Use of novel sensors combining local positioning and acceleration to measure feeding behavior differences associated with lameness in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Z E; Vázquez Diosdado, J A; Codling, E A; Bell, N J; Hodges, H R; Croft, D P; Amory, J R

    2018-04-25

    Time constraints for dairy farmers are an important factor contributing to the under-detection of lameness, resulting in delayed or missed treatment of lame cows within many commercial dairy herds. Hence, a need exists for flexible and affordable cow-based sensor systems capable of monitoring behaviors such as time spent feeding, which may be affected by the onset of lameness. In this study a novel neck-mounted mobile sensor system that combines local positioning and activity (acceleration) was tested and validated on a commercial UK dairy farm. Position and activity data were collected over 5 consecutive days for 19 high-yield dairy cows (10 lame, 9 nonlame) that formed a subset of a larger (120 cow) management group housed in a freestall barn. A decision tree algorithm that included sensor-recorded position and accelerometer data was developed to classify a cow as doing 1 of 3 categories of behavior: (1) feeding, (2) not feeding, and (3) out of pen for milking. For each classified behavior the mean number of bouts, the mean bout duration, and the mean total duration across all bouts was determined on a daily basis, and also separately for the time periods in between milking (morning = 0630-1300 h; afternoon = 1430-2100 h; night = 2230-0500 h). A comparative analysis of the classified cow behaviors was undertaken using a Welch t-test with Benjamini-Hochberg post-hoc correction under the null hypothesis of no differences in the number or duration of behavioral bouts between the 2 test groups of lame and nonlame cows. Analysis showed that mean total daily feeding duration was significantly lower for lame cows compared with non-lame cows. Behavior was also affected by time of day with significantly lower mean total duration of feeding and higher total duration of nonfeeding in the afternoons for lame cows compared with nonlame cows. The results demonstrate how sensors that measure both position and acceleration are capable of detecting differences in feeding behavior

  17. Rural Urban Disparity in and around Surabaya Region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vely Kukinul Siswanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A shift in development towards the outskirts of urban areas changes the characteristics of the region and can ultimately lead to urban disparities in economic and social terms. The current study has tried to divide the study area covers the areas of surrounding Surabaya as urban, peri urban and rural areas with reference to three time periods (2008, 2009 and 2010 and shows that the typology in the study area changes each year. Furthermore, based on the theil index analysis, using a number of pre-prosperous household for social disparity and per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product for economic disparity shows that urban and peri urban areas have medium and high level of social and economic disparity compare with rural area which have low levels of disparity. Through multivariate correlation analysis can be seen that the health center distance, electricity and water users effecting the social disparity. Moreover, the financial, industrial, electricity, trade, construction, transportation, agriculture, and mining sector's productivity have a significant relationship with the economic disparity. Health facilities, water and electricity improvement strategies to be followed for reducing the social disparity. Electricity improvement, water, services sector, transportation infrastructure, and industrial development to reduce the economic disparity.