WorldWideScience

Sample records for combined tool approach

  1. Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ritou , Mathieu; Garnier , Sébastien; Furet , Benoît; Hascoët , Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a new complete approach for Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) in milling. The aim is the early detection of small damages so that catastrophic tool failures are prevented. A versatile in-process monitoring system is introduced for reliability concerns. The tool condition is determined by estimates of the radial eccentricity of the teeth. An adequate criterion is proposed combining mechanical model of milling and angular approach. Then, a new solution i...

  2. Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritou, M.; Garnier, S.; Furet, B.; Hascoet, J. Y.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents a new complete approach for Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) in milling. The aim is the early detection of small damages so that catastrophic tool failures are prevented. A versatile in-process monitoring system is introduced for reliability concerns. The tool condition is determined by estimates of the radial eccentricity of the teeth. An adequate criterion is proposed combining mechanical model of milling and angular approach.Then, a new solution is proposed for the estimate of cutting force using eddy current sensors implemented close to spindle nose. Signals are analysed in the angular domain, notably by synchronous averaging technique. Phase shifts induced by changes of machining direction are compensated. Results are compared with cutting forces measured with a dynamometer table.The proposed method is implemented in an industrial case of pocket machining operation. One of the cutting edges has been slightly damaged during the machining, as shown by a direct measurement of the tool. A control chart is established with the estimates of cutter eccentricity obtained during the machining from the eddy current sensors signals. Efficiency and reliability of the method is demonstrated by a successful detection of the damage.

  3. Combined tool approach is 100% successful for emergency football face mask removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Aaron J; Decoster, Laura C; Swartz, Erik E; Gattie, Eric R; Gale, Stephanie D

    2007-11-01

    To compare effectiveness of two techniques for removing football face masks: cutting loop straps [cutting tool: FMXtractor (FMX)] or removing screws with a cordless screwdriver and using the FMXtractor as needed for failed removals [combined tool (CT)]. Null hypotheses: no differences in face mask removal success, removal time or difficulty between techniques or helmet characteristics. Retrospective, cross-sectional. NOCSAE-certified helmet reconditioning plants. 600 used high school helmets. Face mask removal attempted with two techniques. Success, removal time, rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Both techniques were effective [CT 100% (300/300); FMX 99.4% (298/300)]. Use of the backup FMXtractor in CT trials was required in 19% of trials. There was significantly (Pfootball player's helmet.

  4. Managing and monitoring tuberculosis using web-based tools in combination with traditional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ann Ln; Darton, Thomas C; Foster, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health emergency. Ongoing challenges include the coordination of national and international control programs, high levels of drug resistance in many parts of the world, and availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. The increasing availability and reliability of Internet access throughout both affluent and resource-limited countries brings new opportunities to improve TB management and control through the integration of web-based technologies with traditional approaches. In this review, we explore current and potential future use of web-based tools in the areas of TB diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, service monitoring, and teaching and training.

  5. Managing and monitoring tuberculosis using web-based tools in combination with traditional approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ann LN Chapman,1 Thomas C Darton,2 Rachel A Foster11Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, 2Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a global health emergency. Ongoing challenges include the coordination of national and international control programs, high levels of drug resistance in many parts of the world, and availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. The increasing availability and reliability of Internet access throughout both affluent and resource-limited countries brings new opportunities to improve TB management and control through the integration of web-based technologies with traditional approaches. In this review, we explore current and potential future use of web-based tools in the areas of TB diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, service monitoring, and teaching and training.Keywords: tuberculosis, information communication technology, Internet

  6. An Approach to Flooding Inundation Combining the Streamflow Prediction Tool (SPT) and Downscaled Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Follum, M. L.; Pradhan, N. R.; Niemann, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding impacts numerous aspects of society, from localized flash floods to continental-scale flood events. Many numerical flood models focus solely on riverine flooding, with some capable of capturing both localized and continental-scale flood events. However, these models neglect flooding away from channels that are related to excessive ponding, typically found in areas with flat terrain and poorly draining soils. In order to obtain a holistic view of flooding, we combine flood results from the Streamflow Prediction Tool (SPT), a riverine flood model, with soil moisture downscaling techniques to determine if a better representation of flooding is obtained. This allows for a more holistic understanding of potential flood prone areas, increasing the opportunity for more accurate warnings and evacuations during flooding conditions. Thirty-five years of near-global historical streamflow is reconstructed with continental-scale flow routing of runoff from global land surface models. Elevation data was also obtained worldwide, to establish a relationship between topographic attributes and soil moisture patterns. Derived soil moisture data is validated against observed soil moisture, increasing confidence in the ability to accurately capture soil moisture patterns. Potential flooding situations can be examined worldwide, with this study focusing on the United States, Central America, and the Philippines.

  7. PAH plant uptake prediction: Evaluation of combined availability tools and modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; DUPUY, Joan; Leglize, Pierre; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Transfer to plant is one of the main human exposure pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from contaminated soils. However existing models implemented in risk assessment tools mostly rely on i) total contaminant concentration and ii) plant uptake models based on hydroponics experiments established with pesticides (Briggs et al., 1982, 1983). Total concentrations of soil contaminants are useful to indicate pollution, however they do not necessarily indicate risk. Me...

  8. A combined reaction class approach with integrated molecular orbital+molecular orbital (IMOMO) methodology: A practical tool for kinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Thanh N.; Maity, Dilip K.; Truong, Thanh-Thai T.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new practical computational methodology for predicting thermal rate constants of reactions involving large molecules or a large number of elementary reactions in the same class. This methodology combines the integrated molecular orbital+molecular orbital (IMOMO) approach with our recently proposed reaction class models for tunneling. With the new methodology, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the computational cost by several orders of magnitude while compromising the accuracy in the predicted rate constants by less than 40% over a wide range of temperatures. Another important result is that the computational cost increases only slightly as the system size increases. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Modeling of Principal Flank Wear: An Empirical Approach Combining the Effect of Tool, Environment and Workpiece Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Mozammel; Al Bashir, Mahmood; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Hard turning is increasingly employed in machining, lately, to replace time-consuming conventional turning followed by grinding process. An excessive amount of tool wear in hard turning is one of the main hurdles to be overcome. Many researchers have developed tool wear model, but most of them developed it for a particular work-tool-environment combination. No aggregate model is developed that can be used to predict the amount of principal flank wear for specific machining time. An empirical model of principal flank wear (VB) has been developed for the different hardness of workpiece (HRC40, HRC48 and HRC56) while turning by coated carbide insert with different configurations (SNMM and SNMG) under both dry and high pressure coolant conditions. Unlike other developed model, this model includes the use of dummy variables along with the base empirical equation to entail the effect of any changes in the input conditions on the response. The base empirical equation for principal flank wear is formulated adopting the Exponential Associate Function using the experimental results. The coefficient of dummy variable reflects the shifting of the response from one set of machining condition to another set of machining condition which is determined by simple linear regression. The independent cutting parameters (speed, rate, depth of cut) are kept constant while formulating and analyzing this model. The developed model is validated with different sets of machining responses in turning hardened medium carbon steel by coated carbide inserts. For any particular set, the model can be used to predict the amount of principal flank wear for specific machining time. Since the predicted results exhibit good resemblance with experimental data and the average percentage error is <10 %, this model can be used to predict the principal flank wear for stated conditions.

  10. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues. Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2 opinion.

  11. Combined approach for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2(nd) opinion.

  12. Combining new tools to assess renal function and morphology: a holistic approach to study the effects of aging and a congenital nephron deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Stefania; Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Schad, Lothar R; Sticht, Carsten; Puelles, Victor G; Bertram, John F; Gretz, Norbert

    2017-09-01

    Recently, new methods for assessing renal function in conscious mice (transcutaneous assessment) and for counting and sizing all glomeruli in whole kidneys (MRI) have been described. In the present study, these methods were used to assess renal structure and function in aging mice, and in mice born with a congenital low-nephron endowment. Age-related nephron loss was analyzed in adult C57BL/6 mice (10-50 wk of age), and congenital nephron deficit was assessed in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous (GDNF HET)-null mutant mice. Renal function was measured through the transcutaneous quantitation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin half-life ( t 1/2 ) in conscious mice. MRI was used to image, count, and size cationic-ferritin labeled glomeruli in whole kidneys ex vivo. Design-based stereology was used to validate the MRI measurements of glomerular number and mean volume. In adult C57BL/6 mice, older age was associated with fewer and larger glomeruli, and a rightward shift in the glomerular size distribution. These changes coincided with a decrease in renal function. GNDF HET mice had a congenital nephron deficit that was associated with glomerular hypertrophy and exacerbated by aging. These findings suggest that glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration are compensatory processes that can occur in conjunction with both age-related nephron loss and congenital nephron deficiency. The combination of measurement of renal function in conscious animals and quantitation of glomerular number, volume, and volume distribution provides a powerful new tool for investigating aspects of renal aging and functional changes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Human in vitro 3D co-culture model to engineer vascularized bone-mimicking tissues combining computational tools and statistical experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Arrigoni, Chiara; Talò, Giuseppe; Zamai, Moreno; Zagra, Luigi; Caiolfa, Valeria; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The generation of functional, vascularized tissues is a key challenge for both tissue engineering applications and the development of advanced in vitro models analyzing interactions among circulating cells, endothelium and organ-specific microenvironments. Since vascularization is a complex process guided by multiple synergic factors, it is critical to analyze the specific role that different experimental parameters play in the generation of physiological tissues. Our goals were to design a novel meso-scale model bridging the gap between microfluidic and macro-scale studies, and high-throughput screen the effects of multiple variables on the vascularization of bone-mimicking tissues. We investigated the influence of endothelial cell (EC) density (3-5 Mcells/ml), cell ratio among ECs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteo-differentiated MSCs (1:1:0, 10:1:0, 10:1:1), culture medium (endothelial, endothelial + angiopoietin-1, 1:1 endothelial/osteo), hydrogel type (100%fibrin, 60%fibrin+40%collagen), tissue geometry (2 × 2 × 2, 2 × 2 × 5 mm(3)). We optimized the geometry and oxygen gradient inside hydrogels through computational simulations and we analyzed microvascular network features including total network length/area and vascular branch number/length. Particularly, we employed the "Design of Experiment" statistical approach to identify key differences among experimental conditions. We combined the generation of 3D functional tissue units with the fine control over the local microenvironment (e.g. oxygen gradients), and developed an effective strategy to enable the high-throughput screening of multiple experimental parameters. Our approach allowed to identify synergic correlations among critical parameters driving microvascular network development within a bone-mimicking environment and could be translated to any vascularized tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. INDUSTRIAL APPROBATION OF COMBINED COUNTERSINK-TAP TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulla M. Vagabov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Based on a critical analysis of the results of complex studies, we set out to demonstrate the advantages, as compared with existing technologies, of a developed technology that uses a new cutting scheme with a combined countersink-tap tool. Methods One way to improve the processing capacity, tool life and quality of a cut thread is to reduce the torque and strain hardening of the processed material by employing a new cutting approach to completely eliminate the friction of the lateral sides of the tooth on the surface of the cut thread. It was necessary for this technology to be checked in real production conditions. Results The conducted production tests of a combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme developed by the inventors have shown that, as a result of a significant reduction in the torque and a decrease in the strain hardening of the processed material, it is possible to increase the cutting speed and increase labour productivity by more than 2 times as compared with the thread cutting processes using taps with staggered teeth, 1.2 times as compared to taps with a corrected structure, and more than 6 times as compared to standard taps. At the same time, the stability of the tool is increased 3-5 times and the number of breakages is also sharply reduced. Conclusion It has been established that the accuracy of the geometric parameters as well as the strength and quality of the thread surface cut by the combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme in hard-to-work materials is much higher than the same thread parameters obtained by processing with standard and other known taps. The studies also indicated its high reliability, operability and expediency of application for processing the above-mentioned materials. The advantages of the combined tool also include a reduction in thread cutting time as compared to a separate machining of the threaded hole (countersinking with a standard

  15. Setup Analysis: Combining SMED with Other Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadnicka Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose the methodology for the setup analysis, which can be implemented mainly in small and medium enterprises which are not convinced to implement the setups development. The methodology was developed after the research which determined the problem. Companies still have difficulties with a long setup time. Many of them do nothing to decrease this time. A long setup is not a sufficient reason for companies to undertake any actions towards the setup time reduction. To encourage companies to implement SMED it is essential to make some analyses of changeovers in order to discover problems. The methodology proposed can really encourage the management to take a decision about the SMED implementation, and that was verified in a production company. The setup analysis methodology is made up of seven steps. Four of them concern a setups analysis in a chosen area of a company, such as a work stand which is a bottleneck with many setups. The goal is to convince the management to begin actions concerning the setups improvement. The last three steps are related to a certain setup and, there, the goal is to reduce a setup time and the risk of problems which can appear during the setup. In this paper, the tools such as SMED, Pareto analysis, statistical analysis, FMEA and other were used.

  16. A combined scanning tunneling microscope-atomic layer deposition tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, James F; Van Stockum, Philip B; Iwadate, Hitoshi; Prinz, Fritz B

    2011-12-01

    We have built a combined scanning tunneling microscope-atomic layer deposition (STM-ALD) tool that performs in situ imaging of deposition. It operates from room temperature up to 200 °C, and at pressures from 1 × 10(-6) Torr to 1 × 10(-2) Torr. The STM-ALD system has a complete passive vibration isolation system that counteracts both seismic and acoustic excitations. The instrument can be used as an observation tool to monitor the initial growth phases of ALD in situ, as well as a nanofabrication tool by applying an electric field with the tip to laterally pattern deposition. In this paper, we describe the design of the tool and demonstrate its capability for atomic resolution STM imaging, atomic layer deposition, and the combination of the two techniques for in situ characterization of deposition.

  17. Combining accounting approaches to practice valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzben, D; Finkler, S A

    1998-06-01

    Healthcare organizations that wish to acquire physician or ambulatory care practices can choose from a variety of practice valuation approaches. Basic accounting methods assess the value of a physician practice on the basis of a historical, balance-sheet description of tangible assets. Yet these methods alone are inadequate to determine the true financial value of a practice. By using a combination of accounting approaches to practice valuation that consider factors such as fair market value, opportunity cost, and discounted cash flow over a defined time period, organizations can more accurately assess a practice's actual value.

  18. The Planets Approach to Migration Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; van Wijk, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    claim is that the market will cover the required tools for commonly used formats. The second claim is that in the long term less tools will be required due to growing use of archiving standard formats. The Planets view on the current situation, the scope of tool development and the claims stated are...

  19. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; De Sanctis, Gianluca; Kohler, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Two general approaches may be followed for the development of a fire risk model: statistical models based on observed fire losses can support simple cost-benefit studies but are usually not detailed enough for engineering decision-making. Engineering models, on the other hand, require many assump...... to the calibration of a generic fire risk model for single family houses to Swiss insurance data. The example demonstrates that the bias in the risk estimation can be strongly reduced by model calibration.......Two general approaches may be followed for the development of a fire risk model: statistical models based on observed fire losses can support simple cost-benefit studies but are usually not detailed enough for engineering decision-making. Engineering models, on the other hand, require many...... assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment. In two related papers we show how engineering and data-driven modelling can be combined by developing generic risk models that are calibrated to statistical data on observed fire events. The focus of the present paper is on the calibration procedure...

  20. XQCAT eXtra Quark Combined Analysis Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Barducci, D; Buchkremer, M; Marrouche, J; Moretti, S; Panizzi, L

    2015-01-01

    XQCAT (eXtra Quark Combined Analysis Tool) is a tool aimed to determine exclusion Confidence Levels (eCLs) for scenarios of new physics characterised by the presence of one or multiple heavy extra quarks (XQ) which interact through Yukawa couplings with any of the Standard Model (SM) quarks. The code uses a database of efficiencies for pre-simulated processes of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) pair production and on-shell decays of extra quarks. In the version 1.0 of XQCAT the efficiencies have been computed for a set of seven publicly available search results by the CMS experiment, and the package is subject to future updates to include further searches by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The input for the code is a text file in which masses, branching ratios (BRs) and dominant chirality of the couplings of the new quarks are provided. The output of the code is the eCL of the test point for each implemented experimental analysis considered individually and, when possible, in statistical combination.

  1. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  2. Design of Friction Stir Spot Welding Tools by Using a Novel Thermal-Mechanical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng-Ming; Qiu, Qi-Hong; Lin, Pai-Chen

    2016-08-09

    A simple thermal-mechanical model for friction stir spot welding (FSSW) was developed to obtain similar weld performance for different weld tools. Use of the thermal-mechanical model and a combined approach enabled the design of weld tools for various sizes but similar qualities. Three weld tools for weld radii of 4, 5, and 6 mm were made to join 6061-T6 aluminum sheets. Performance evaluations of the three weld tools compared fracture behavior, microstructure, micro-hardness distribution, and welding temperature of welds in lap-shear specimens. For welds made by the three weld tools under identical processing conditions, failure loads were approximately proportional to tool size. Failure modes, microstructures, and micro-hardness distributions were similar. Welding temperatures correlated with frictional heat generation rate densities. Because the three weld tools sufficiently met all design objectives, the proposed approach is considered a simple and feasible guideline for preliminary tool design.

  3. Combining medical informatics and bioinformatics toward tools for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarachan, B D; Simmons, M K; Subramanian, P; Temkin, J M

    2003-01-01

    Key bioinformatics and medical informatics research areas need to be identified to advance knowledge and understanding of disease risk factors and molecular disease pathology in the 21 st century toward new diagnoses, prognoses, and treatments. Three high-impact informatics areas are identified: predictive medicine (to identify significant correlations within clinical data using statistical and artificial intelligence methods), along with pathway informatics and cellular simulations (that combine biological knowledge with advanced informatics to elucidate molecular disease pathology). Initial predictive models have been developed for a pilot study in Huntington's disease. An initial bioinformatics platform has been developed for the reconstruction and analysis of pathways, and work has begun on pathway simulation. A bioinformatics research program has been established at GE Global Research Center as an important technology toward next generation medical diagnostics. We anticipate that 21 st century medical research will be a combination of informatics tools with traditional biology wet lab research, and that this will translate to increased use of informatics techniques in the clinic.

  4. Prioritizing the refactoring need for critical component using combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Sehgal

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising strategies that will smooth out the maintainability issues of the software is refactoring. Due to lack of proper design approach, the code often inherits some bad smells which may lead to improper functioning of the code, especially when it is subject to change and requires some maintenance. A lot of studies have been performed to optimize the refactoring strategy which is also a very expensive process. In this paper, a component based system is considered, and a Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making (FMCDM model is proposed by combining subjective and objective weights to rank the components as per their urgency of refactoring. Jdeodorant tool is used to detect the code smells from the individual components of a software system. The objective method uses the Entropy approach to rank the component having the code smell. The subjective method uses the Fuzzy TOPSIS approach based on decision makers’ judgement, to identify the critically and dependency of these code smells on the overall software. The suggested approach is implemented on component-based software having 15 components. The constitute components are ranked based on refactoring requirements.

  5. On Combining Language Models: Oracle Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacioglu, Kadri; Ward, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we address the of combining several language models (LMs). We find that simple interpolation methods, like log-linear and linear interpolation, improve the performance but fall short of the performance of an oracle...

  6. Combining genomic and proteomic approaches for epigenetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yumiao; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that do not change the DNA sequence. In this review, current methods, both genomic and proteomic, associated with epigenetics research are discussed. Among them, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing and other ChIP-based techniques are powerful techniques for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone post-translational modifications or nucleosome positions. However, mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in functional biological studies and has proved to be an indispensable tool to characterize histone modifications, as well as DNA–protein and protein–protein interactions. With the development of genomic and proteomic approaches, combination of ChIP and mass spectrometry has the potential to expand our knowledge of epigenetics research to a higher level. PMID:23895656

  7. A combined rheology and time domain NMR approach for determining water distributions in protein blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Birgit L.; Kort, de Daan W.; Grabowska, Katarzyna J.; Tian, Bei; As, Van Henk; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined time domain NMR and rheology approach to quantify the water distribution in a phase separated protein blend. The approach forms the basis for a new tool to assess the microstructural properties of phase separated biopolymer blends, making it highly relevant for many food and

  8. Setting research priorities by applying the combined approach matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul

    2009-04-01

    Priority setting in health research is a dynamic process. Different organizations and institutes have been working in the field of research priority setting for many years. In 1999 the Global Forum for Health Research presented a research priority setting tool called the Combined Approach Matrix or CAM. Since its development, the CAM has been successfully applied to set research priorities for diseases, conditions and programmes at global, regional and national levels. This paper briefly explains the CAM methodology and how it could be applied in different settings, giving examples and describing challenges encountered in the process of setting research priorities and providing recommendations for further work in this field. The construct and design of the CAM is explained along with different steps needed, including planning and organization of a priority-setting exercise and how it could be applied in different settings. The application of the CAM are described by using three examples. The first concerns setting research priorities for a global programme, the second describes application at the country level and the third setting research priorities for diseases. Effective application of the CAM in different and diverse environments proves its utility as a tool for setting research priorities. Potential challenges encountered in the process of research priority setting are discussed and some recommendations for further work in this field are provided.

  9. Technology Combination Analysis Tool (TCAT) for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, B.; Richard, M.; Salmon, T.; Pisseloup, A.; Cougnet, C.; Axthelm, R.; Saunder, C.; Dupont, C.; Lequette, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper present the work of the Swiss Space Center EPFL within the CNES-funded OTV-2 study. In order to find the most performant Active Debris Removal (ADR) mission architectures and technologies, a tool was developed in order to design and compare ADR spacecraft, and to plan ADR campaigns to remove large debris. Two types of architectures are considered to be efficient: the Chaser (single-debris spacecraft), the Mothership/ Kits (multiple-debris spacecraft). Both are able to perform controlled re-entry. The tool includes modules to optimise the launch dates and the order of capture, to design missions and spacecraft, and to select launch vehicles. The propulsion, power and structure subsystems are sized by the tool thanks to high-level parametric models whilst the other ones are defined by their mass and power consumption. Final results are still under investigation by the consortium but two concrete examples of the tool's outputs are presented in the paper.

  10. A Web-based Tool Combining Different Type Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    of both, and they can be goal-dependent or goal-independent. We describe a prototype tool that can be accessed from a web browser, allowing various type analyses to be run. The first goal of the tool is to allow the analysis results to be examined conveniently by clicking on points in the original program...... the minimal "domain model" of the program with respect to the corresponding pre-interpretation, which can give more precise information than the original descriptive type....

  11. MAGIC: A Tool for Combining, Interpolating, and Processing Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Transients in the solar coronal magnetic field are ultimately the source of space weather. Models which seek to track the evolution of the coronal field require magnetogram images to be used as boundary conditions. These magnetograms are obtained by numerous instruments with different cadences and resolutions. A tool is required which allows modelers to fmd all available data and use them to craft accurate and physically consistent boundary conditions for their models. We have developed a software tool, MAGIC (MAGnetogram Interpolation and Composition), to perform exactly this function. MAGIC can manage the acquisition of magneto gram data, cast it into a source-independent format, and then perform the necessary spatial and temporal interpolation to provide magnetic field values as requested onto model-defined grids. MAGIC has the ability to patch magneto grams from different sources together providing a more complete picture of the Sun's field than is possible from single magneto grams. In doing this, care must be taken so as not to introduce nonphysical current densities along the seam between magnetograms. We have designed a method which minimizes these spurious current densities. MAGIC also includes a number of post-processing tools which can provide additional information to models. For example, MAGIC includes an interface to the DA VE4VM tool which derives surface flow velocities from the time evolution of surface magnetic field. MAGIC has been developed as an application of the KAMELEON data formatting toolkit which has been developed by the CCMC.

  12. MaLT - Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra

    2017-03-23

    presented as graphs plotted from patient game data. Performance indicators include reaction time, accuracy, number of incorrect responses and hand use. The resultant games have also been tested by the PPI with a positive response and further suggestions for future modifications made. MaLT provides a tool that innovatively combines motor and language therapy for high dosage rehabilitation in the home. It has demonstrated that motion sensor technology can be successfully combined with a language therapy task to target both upper limb and linguistic impairment in patients following brain injury. The initial studies on stroke survivors have demonstrated that the combined therapy approach is viable and the outputs of this study will inform planned larger scale future trials.

  13. Working with text tools, techniques and approaches for text mining

    CERN Document Server

    Tourte, Gregory J L

    2016-01-01

    Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...

  14. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  15. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  16. Antiviral Combination Approach as a Perspective to Combat Enterovirus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galabov, Angel S; Nikolova, Ivanka; Vassileva-Pencheva, Ralitsa; Stoyanova, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections. At present, clinically effective antivirals for use in the treatment of enteroviral infection do not exist, in spite of the large amount of work carried out in this field. The main reason for this is the development of drug resistance. We studied the process of development of resistance to the strongest inhibitors of enteroviruses, WIN compounds (VP1 protein hydrophobic pocket blockers), especially in the models in vivo, Coxsackievirus B (CV-B) infections in mice. We introduced the tracing of a panel of phenotypic markers (MIC50 value, plaque shape and size, stability at 50℃, pathogenicity in mice) for characterization of the drug-mutants (resistant and dependent) as a very important stage in the study of enterovirus inhibitors. Moreover, as a result of VP1 RNA sequence analysis performed on the model of disoxaril mutants of CVB1, we determined the molecular basis of the drug-resistance. The monotherapy courses were the only approach used till now. For the first time in the research for anti-enterovirus antivirals our team introduced the testing of combination effect of the selective inhibitors of enterovirus replication with different mode of action. This study resulted in the selection of a number of very effective in vitro double combinations with synergistic effect and a broad spectrum of sensitive

  17. Combination could be another tool for bowel preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Jae Seung; Kim, Kyung-Jo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal bowel preparation increases the cecal intubation rate and detection of neoplastic lesions while decreasing the procedural time and procedural-related complications. Although high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution is the most frequently used preparation for bowel cleansing, patients are often unwilling to take PEG solution due to its large volume, poor palatability, and high incidence of adverse events, such as abdominal bloating and nausea. Other purgatives include osmotic agents (e.g., sodium phosphate, magnesium citrate, and sodium sulfate), stimulant agents (e.g., senna, bisacodyl, and sodium picosulfate), and prokinetic agents (e.g., cisapride, mosapride, and itopride). A combination of PEG with an osmotic, stimulant, or prokinetic agent could effectively reduce the PEG solution volume and increase patients’ adherence. Some such solutions have been found in several published studies to not be inferior to PEG alone in terms of bowel cleansing quality. Although combination methods showed similar efficacy and safety, the value of these studies is limited by shortcomings in study design. New effective and well-tolerated combination preparations are required, in addition to rigorous new validated studies. PMID:26973388

  18. Rectal duplication cyst: a combined abdominal and endoanal operative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare M; Woodward, Mark; Grier, David; Cusick, Eleri

    2007-04-01

    Rectal duplication cysts are rare, comprising duplications. Early excision is the treatment of choice and a number of surgical approaches have been described. We present a 3-week-old infant with a 3 cm cyst that was excised using a previously unreported combined abdominal and endoanal approach.

  19. Safe manning of merchant ships: an approach and computer tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Kozin, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In the shipping industry, staffing expenses have become a vital competition parameter. In this paper, an approach and a software tool are presented to support decisions on the staffing of merchant ships. The tool is implemented in the form of a Web user interface that makes use of discrete......-event simulation and allows estimation of the workload and of whether different scenarios are successfully performed taking account of the number of crewmembers, watch schedules, distribution of competencies, and others. The software library ‘SimManning’ at the core of the project is provided as open source...

  20. Combined Interhemispheric and Transsylvian Approach for Resection of Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Ono, Hideaki; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu

    2018-04-01

    We present a 37-year-old male case of cystic suprasellar huge craniopharyngioma, who presented with significant memory disturbance due to obstructive hydrocephalus. Combined interhemispheric and pterional approach was chosen to resect huge suprasellar tumor. Interhemispheric trans-lamina terminalis approach was quite effective to resect third ventricular tumor, while pterional approach was useful to dissect tumor out of basilar perforators and stalk. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/BoYIPa96kdo .

  1. APPROACHES AND TOOLS FOR QUALITY EXAMINATION OF E-LEARNING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the scientific and methodological approaches to quality examination of e-learning tools for general education. There are considered terms of the research, described the essence of the main components and stages of the examination. A methodology for quality estimation tools elaboration is described that should be based on identifying criteria and parameters of evaluation. Complex of psycho-pedagogical and ergonomic requirements that should be used in organizing expertise is justified and the most expedient ways of their implementation are examined.

  2. Lightweight approach to model traceability in a CASE tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vileiniskis, Tomas; Skersys, Tomas; Pavalkis, Saulius; Butleris, Rimantas; Butkiene, Rita

    2017-07-01

    A term "model-driven" is not at all a new buzzword within the ranks of system development community. Nevertheless, the ever increasing complexity of model-driven approaches keeps fueling all kinds of discussions around this paradigm and pushes researchers forward to research and develop new and more effective ways to system development. With the increasing complexity, model traceability, and model management as a whole, becomes indispensable activities of model-driven system development process. The main goal of this paper is to present a conceptual design and implementation of a practical lightweight approach to model traceability in a CASE tool.

  3. Factors that affect micro-tooling features created by direct printing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhani, Mayur N.

    Current market required faster pace production of smaller, better, and improved products in shorter amount of time. Traditional high-rate manufacturing process such as hot embossing, injection molding, compression molding, etc. use tooling to replicate feature on a products. Miniaturization of many product in the field of biomedical, electronics, optical, and microfluidic is occurring on a daily bases. There is a constant need to produce cheaper, and faster tooling, which can be utilize by existing manufacturing processes. Traditionally, in order to manufacture micron size tooling features processes such as micro-machining, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), etc. are utilized. Due to a higher difficulty to produce smaller size features, and longer production cycle time, various additive manufacturing approaches are proposed, e.g. selective laser sintering (SLS), inkjet printing (3DP), fused deposition modeling (FDM), etc. were proposed. Most of these approaches can produce net shaped products from different materials such as metal, ceramic, or polymers. Several attempts were made to produce tooling features using additive manufacturing approaches. Most of these produced tooling were not cost effective, and the life cycle of these tooling was reported short. In this research, a method to produce tooling features using direct printing approach, where highly filled feedstock was dispensed on a substrate. This research evaluated different natural binders, such as guar gum, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and their combinations were evaluated. The best binder combination was then use to evaluate effect of different metal (316L stainless steel (3 mum), 316 stainless steel (45 mum), and 304 stainless steel (45 mum)) particle size on feature quality. Finally, the effect of direct printing process variables such as dispensing tip internal diameter (500 mum, and 333 mum) at different printing speeds were evaluated.

  4. Prediction of a service demand using combined forecasting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting facilitates cutting down operational and management costs while ensuring service level for a logistics service provider. Our case study here is to investigate how to forecast short-term logistic demand for a LTL carrier. Combined approach depends on several forecasting methods simultaneously, instead of a single method. It can offset the weakness of a forecasting method with the strength of another, which could improve the precision performance of prediction. Main issues of combined forecast modeling are how to select methods for combination, and how to find out weight coefficients among methods. The principles of method selection include that each method should apply to the problem of forecasting itself, also methods should differ in categorical feature as much as possible. Based on these principles, exponential smoothing, ARIMA and Neural Network are chosen to form the combined approach. Besides, least square technique is employed to settle the optimal weight coefficients among forecasting methods. Simulation results show the advantage of combined approach over the three single methods. The work done in the paper helps manager to select prediction method in practice.

  5. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  6. Combined SAFE/SNAP approach to safeguards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Grant, F.H.; Polito, J.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of a safeguards evaluation model can efficiently address one of two issues: (1) global safeguards effectiveness or (2) vulnerability analysis for individual scenarios. The Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) focuses on the first issue, while the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) is directed towards the second. A combined SAFE/SNAP approach to the problem of safeguards evaluation is described and illustrated through an example. 4 refs

  7. Combined endoscopic approach in the management of suprasellar craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Karmarkar, Vikram S; Shah, Nishit; Vashu, Ravindran; Patil, Rahul; Mohanty, Chandan; Shaikh, Salman

    2018-05-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are dysontogenic tumors with benign histology but aggressive behavior. The surgical challenges posed by the tumor are well recognized. Neuroendoscopy has recently contributed to its surgical management. This study focuses on our experience in managing craniopharyngiomas in recent years, highlighting the role of combined endoscopic trans-ventricular and endonasal approach. Ninety-two patients have been treated for craniopharyngioma from 2000 to 2016 by the senior author. A total of 125 procedures, microsurgical (58) and endoscopic (67), were undertaken. Combined endoscopic approach was carried out in 18 of these patients, 16 children and 2 young adults. All of these patients presented with a large cystic suprasellar mass associated with hydrocephalus. In the first instance, they were treated with a transventricular endoscopic procedure to decompress the cystic component. This was followed by an endonasal transsphenoidal procedure for excision within the next 2 to 6 days. All these patients improved after the initial cyst decompression with relief of hydrocephalus while awaiting remaining tumor removal in a more elective setting. Gross total resection could be done in 84% of these patients. Diabetes insipidus was the most common postsurgical complication seen in 61% patients in the immediate period but was persistent in only two patients at 1-year follow-up. None of the children in this group developed morbid obesity. There was one case of CSF leak requiring repair after initial surgery. Peri-operative mortality was seen in one patient secondary to ventriculitis. The patients who benefit most from the combined approach are those who present with raised intracranial pressure secondary to a large tumor with cyst causing hydrocephalus. Intraventricular endoscopic cyst drainage allows resolution of hydrocephalus with restoration of normal intracranial pressure, gives time for proper preoperative work up, and has reduced incidence of CSF leak after

  8. An approach for investigation of secure access processes at a combined e-learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romansky, Radi; Noninska, Irina

    2017-12-01

    The article discuses an approach to investigate processes for regulation the security and privacy control at a heterogenous e-learning environment realized as a combination of traditional and cloud means and tools. Authors' proposal for combined architecture of e-learning system is presented and main subsystems and procedures are discussed. A formalization of the processes for using different types resources (public, private internal and private external) is proposed. The apparatus of Markovian chains (MC) is used for modeling and analytical investigation of the secure access to the resources is used and some assessments are presented.

  9. Combined endoscopic approaches to the cardiac sphincter achalasia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Klimenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess combined endoscopic approaches to the cardiac sphincter achalasia treatment. Results. There are preliminary results of treatment and methods of carrying out of combined endoscopic pneumocardiodilatation and injections of botulotoxin type A ‘Disport’ at achalasia cardia are described in the article. Aethio-pathogenetic aspects in the development of achalasia cardia, action of botulotoxin type A and balloon pneumocardiodilatation of the esophagus, were described. And modern roentgen-endoscopic classification of achalasia cardia was given. Prognostic estimation scale of possibility to implement further combined endoscopic or surgical treatment is defined and is being in subsequent working out. Conclusion. Described clinical cases most brightly demonstrate variety of clinical achalasia cardia manifestations and also determine of the earlier display of surgical treatment.

  10. Combining SLBL routine with landslide-generated tsunami model for a quick hazard assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Martin; Rudaz, Benjamin; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Podladchikov, Yury

    2016-04-01

    Regions with steep topography are potentially subject to landslide-induced tsunami, because of the proximity between lakes, rivers, sea shores and potential instabilities. The concentration of the population and infrastructures on the water body shores and downstream valleys could lead to catastrophic consequences. In order to assess comprehensively this phenomenon together with the induced risks, we have developed a tool which allows the construction of the landslide geometry, and which is able to simulate its propagation, the generation and the propagation of the wave and eventually the spread on the shores or the associated downstream flow. The tool is developed in the Matlab© environment, with a graphical user interface (GUI) to select the parameters in a user-friendly manner. The whole process is done in three steps implying different methods. Firstly, the geometry of the sliding mass is constructed using the Sloping Local Base Level (SLBL) concept. Secondly, the propagation of this volume is performed using a model based on viscous flow equations. Finally, the wave generation and its propagation are simulated using the shallow water equations stabilized by the Lax-Friedrichs scheme. The transition between wet and dry bed is performed by the combination of the two latter sets of equations. The intensity map is based on the criterion of flooding in Switzerland provided by the OFEG and results from the multiplication of the velocity and the depth obtained during the simulation. The tool can be used for hazard assessment in the case of well-known landslides, where the SLBL routine can be constrained and checked for realistic construction of the geometrical model. In less-known cases, various failure plane geometries can be automatically built between given range and thus a multi-scenario approach is used. In any case, less-known parameters such as the landslide velocity, its run-out distance, etc. can also be set to vary within given ranges, leading to multi

  11. Thinkering through Experiments: Nurturing Transdisciplinary Approaches to the Design of Testing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn B. Francis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess and understand human behavior, traditional approaches to experimental design incorporate testing tools that are often artificial and devoid of corporeal features. Whilst these offer experimental control in situations in which, methodologically, real behaviors cannot be examined, there is increasing evidence that responses given in these contextually deprived experiments fail to trigger genuine responses. This may result from a lack of consideration regarding the material makeup and associations connected with the fabric of experimental tools. In a two-year collaboration, we began to experiment with the physicality of testing tools using the domain of moral psychology as a case study. This collaboration involved thinkering and prototyping methods that included direct contact and consideration of the materials involved in experimentation. Having explored the embodied nature of morality, we combined approaches from experimental psychology, moral philosophy, design thinking, and computer science to create a new testing tool for simulated moral behavior. Although the testing tool itself generated fruitful results, this paper considers the collaborative methodology through which it was produced as a route to highlight material questions within psychological research.

  12. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies......, integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  13. Approaches to modernize the combination drug development paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Day

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in genomic sequencing and omics-based capabilities are uncovering tremendous therapeutic opportunities and rapidly transforming the field of cancer medicine. Molecularly targeted agents aim to exploit key tumor-specific vulnerabilities such as oncogenic or non-oncogenic addiction and synthetic lethality. Additionally, immunotherapies targeting the host immune system are proving to be another promising and complementary approach. Owing to substantial tumor genomic and immunologic complexities, combination strategies are likely to be required to adequately disrupt intricate molecular interactions and provide meaningful long-term benefit to patients. To optimize the therapeutic success and application of combination therapies, systematic scientific discovery will need to be coupled with novel and efficient clinical trial approaches. Indeed, a paradigm shift is required to drive precision medicine forward, from the traditional “drug-centric” model of clinical development in pursuit of small incremental benefits in large heterogeneous groups of patients, to a “strategy-centric” model to provide customized transformative treatments in molecularly stratified subsets of patients or even in individual patients. Crucially, to combat the numerous challenges facing combination drug development—including our growing but incomplete understanding of tumor biology, technical and informatics limitations, and escalating financial costs—aligned goals and multidisciplinary collaboration are imperative to collectively harness knowledge and fuel continual innovation.

  14. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b......) the least-regret scenario forms a compromise between the desired and the expected scenarios, (c) the least-regret scenario can lead to higher user benefits in the short term and lower user benefits in the long term, (d) the utility-based, the regret-based, and the combined utility- and regret...

  15. Combination approaches with immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Swart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, immune checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune checkpoint blockade, aimed at increasing response-rates to the single treatments.

  16. Adapting the capacities and vulnerabilities approach: a gender analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Lauren; Powell, Christopher; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Gender analysis methodology is increasingly being considered as essential to health research because 'women's social, economic and political status undermine their ability to protect and promote their own physical, emotional and mental health, including their effective use of health information and services' {World Health Organization [Gender Analysis in Health: a review of selected tools. 2003; www.who.int/gender/documents/en/Gender. pdf (20 February 2008, date last accessed)]}. By examining gendered roles, responsibilities and norms through the lens of gender analysis, we can develop an in-depth understanding of social power differentials, and be better able to address gender inequalities and inequities within institutions and between men and women. When conducting gender analysis, tools and frameworks may help to aid community engagement and to provide a framework to ensure that relevant gendered nuances are assessed. The capacities and vulnerabilities approach (CVA) is one such gender analysis framework that critically considers gender and its associated roles, responsibilities and power dynamics in a particular community and seeks to meet a social need of that particular community. Although the original intent of the CVA was to guide humanitarian intervention and disaster preparedness, we adapted this framework to a different context, which focuses on identifying and addressing emerging problems and social issues in a particular community or area that affect their specific needs, such as an infectious disease outbreak or difficulty accessing health information and resources. We provide an example of our CVA adaptation, which served to facilitate a better understanding of how health-related disparities affect Maasai women in a remote, resource-poor setting in Northern Tanzania. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Transbasal versus endoscopic endonasal versus combined approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas: importance of approach selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James K; Silva, Nicole A; Sevak, Ilesha A; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE There has been much debate regarding the optimal surgical approach for resecting olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). In this paper, the authors analyzed the factors involved in approach selection and reviewed the surgical outcomes in a series of OGMs. METHODS A retrospective review of 28 consecutive OGMs from a prospective database was conducted. Each tumor was treated via one of 3 approaches: transbasal approach (n = 15), pure endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA; n = 5), and combined (endoscope-assisted) transbasal-EEA (n = 8). RESULTS The mean tumor volume was greatest in the transbasal (92.02 cm 3 ) and combined (101.15 cm 3 ) groups. Both groups had significant lateral dural extension over the orbits (transbasal 73.3%, p 95%) was achieved in 20% of transbasal and 37.5% of combined cases, all due to tumor adherence to the critical neurovascular structures. The rate of CSF leakage was 0% in the transbasal and combined groups, and there was 1 leak in the EEA group (20%), resulting in an overall CSF leakage rate of 3.6%. Olfaction was preserved in 66.7% in the transbasal group. There was no significant difference in length of stay or 30-day readmission rate between the 3 groups. The mean modified Rankin Scale score was 0.79 after the transbasal approach, 2.0 after EEA, and 2.4 after the combined approach (p = 0.0604). The mean follow-up was 14.5 months (range 1-76 months). CONCLUSIONS The transbasal approach provided the best clinical outcomes with the lowest rate of complications for large tumors (> 40 mm) and for smaller tumors (OGMs invading the sinonasal cavity. Careful patient selection using an individualized, tailored strategy is important to optimize surgical outcomes.

  18. Dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, Shunsuke; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Taku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Detailed descriptions of stepwise dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach are presented. Following maximum bone work, the first dural incision was made along the undersurface of the temporal lobe parallel to the superior petrosal sinus. Posterior extension of the dural incision was made in a curved fashion, keeping away from the transverse-sigmoid junction and taking care to preserve the vein of Labbé. A second incision was made perpendicular to the first incision. After sectioning the superior petrosal sinus around the porus trigeminus, the incision was extended toward the posterior fossa dura in the middle fossa region. The tentorium was incised toward the incisura at a point just posterior to the entrance of the trochlear nerve. A third incision was made longitudinally between the superior petrosal sinus and the jugular bulb. A final incision was initiated perpendicular to the third incision in the presigmoid region and extended parallel to the superior petrosal sinus connecting the second incision. The dural complex consisting of the temporal lobe dura, the posterior fossa dura, and the freed tentorium could then be removed. In addition to extensive bone resection, our strategic cranial base dural opening/removal can yield true advantages for the combined petrosal approach.

  19. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21(st) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-06-01

    Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001-2014. A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion ("consultation process") but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face-to-face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed-indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well-defined structure - such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix - it is likely that the Delphi method and non-replicable consultation processes will gradually be replaced by these emerging tools, which offer more

  20. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. Methods To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001–2014. Results A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion (“consultation process”) but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face–to–face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. Conclusion The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed–indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well–defined structure – such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix – it is likely that the Delphi method and non–replicable consultation processes will gradually be

  1. Combined SAFE/SNAP approach to safeguards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Grant, F.H.; Polito, J.

    1980-01-01

    Generally, the scope of a safeguards evaluation model can efficiently address one of two issues, (1) global safeguards effectiveness, or (2) vulnerability analysis for individual scenarios. The Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) focuses on (1) while the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) is directed at (2). SAFE addresses (1) in that it considers the entire facility, i.e., the composite system of hardware and human components, in one global analysis. SNAP addresses (2) by providing a safeguards modeling symbology sufficiently flexible to represent quite complex scenarios from the standpoint of hardware interfaces while also accounting for a rich variety of human decision making. A combined SAFE/SNAP approach to the problem of safeguards evaluation is described and illustrated through an example

  2. Minimization of the LCA impact of thermodynamic cycles using a combined simulation-optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Robert; Cortés, Daniel; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Boer, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: ► Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. ► Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. ► Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. ► Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.

  3. Minimization of the LCA impact of thermodynamic cycles using a combined simulation-optimization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Robert; Cortes, Daniel [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Guillen-Gosalbez, Gonzalo [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Jimenez, Laureano [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Boer, Dieter [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.

  4. Obtaining Global Picture From Single Point Observations by Combining Data Assimilation and Machine Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Y.; Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Kellerman, A. C.; Spasojevic, M.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Ghil, M.; Aseev, N.; Castillo Tibocha, A. M.; Cervantes Villa, J. S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing volume of satellite measurements requires deployment of new tools that can utilize such vast amount of data. Satellite measurements are usually limited to a single location in space, which complicates the data analysis geared towards reproducing the global state of the space environment. In this study we show how measurements can be combined by means of data assimilation and how machine learning can help analyze large amounts of data and can help develop global models that are trained on single point measurement. Data Assimilation: Manual analysis of the satellite measurements is a challenging task, while automated analysis is complicated by the fact that measurements are given at various locations in space, have different instrumental errors, and often vary by orders of magnitude. We show results of the long term reanalysis of radiation belt measurements along with fully operational real-time predictions using data assimilative VERB code. Machine Learning: We present application of the machine learning tools for the analysis of NASA Van Allen Probes upper-hybrid frequency measurements. Using the obtained data set we train a new global predictive neural network. The results for the Van Allen Probes based neural network are compared with historical IMAGE satellite observations. We also show examples of predictions of geomagnetic indices using neural networks. Combination of machine learning and data assimilation: We discuss how data assimilation tools and machine learning tools can be combine so that physics-based insight into the dynamics of the particular system can be combined with empirical knowledge of it's non-linear behavior.

  5. Tools for voltage stability analysis, including a probabilistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X; Martins, N; Bianco, A; Pinto, H J.C.P. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, P; Santos, M.G. dos [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews some voltage stability analysis tools that are being used or envisioned for expansion and operational planning studies in the Brazilian system, as well as, their applications. The paper also shows that deterministic tools can be linked together in a probabilistic framework, so as to provide complementary help to the analyst in choosing the most adequate operation strategies, or the best planning solutions for a given system. (author) 43 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. A method and tool for combining differential or inclusive measurements obtained with simultaneously constrained uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieseler, Jan

    2017-11-01

    A method is discussed that allows combining sets of differential or inclusive measurements. It is assumed that at least one measurement was obtained with simultaneously fitting a set of nuisance parameters, representing sources of systematic uncertainties. As a result of beneficial constraints from the data all such fitted parameters are correlated among each other. The best approach for a combination of these measurements would be the maximization of a combined likelihood, for which the full fit model of each measurement and the original data are required. However, only in rare cases this information is publicly available. In absence of this information most commonly used combination methods are not able to account for these correlations between uncertainties, which can lead to severe biases as shown in this article. The method discussed here provides a solution for this problem. It relies on the public result and its covariance or Hessian, only, and is validated against the combined-likelihood approach. A dedicated software package implementing this method is also presented. It provides a text-based user interface alongside a C++ interface. The latter also interfaces to ROOT classes for simple combination of binned measurements such as differential cross sections.

  7. A method and tool for combining differential or inclusive measurements obtained with simultaneously constrained uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieseler, Jan [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    A method is discussed that allows combining sets of differential or inclusive measurements. It is assumed that at least one measurement was obtained with simultaneously fitting a set of nuisance parameters, representing sources of systematic uncertainties. As a result of beneficial constraints from the data all such fitted parameters are correlated among each other. The best approach for a combination of these measurements would be the maximization of a combined likelihood, for which the full fit model of each measurement and the original data are required. However, only in rare cases this information is publicly available. In absence of this information most commonly used combination methods are not able to account for these correlations between uncertainties, which can lead to severe biases as shown in this article. The method discussed here provides a solution for this problem. It relies on the public result and its covariance or Hessian, only, and is validated against the combined-likelihood approach. A dedicated software package implementing this method is also presented. It provides a text-based user interface alongside a C++ interface. The latter also interfaces to ROOT classes for simple combination of binned measurements such as differential cross sections. (orig.)

  8. Alternative approaches to postgraduate supervision: A planning tool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased demands on academics due to the changing work and higher educational environments challenge traditional approaches to postgraduate supervision. Supervisors often tend to follow the apprenticeship approach uncritically. Supervisors therefore need to be aware of alternative approaches to supervision and of ...

  9. Ensemble approach combining multiple methods improves human transcription start site prediction

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background The computational prediction of transcription start sites is an important unsolved problem. Some recent progress has been made, but many promoters, particularly those not associated with CpG islands, are still difficult to locate using current methods. These methods use different features and training sets, along with a variety of machine learning techniques and result in different prediction sets. Results We demonstrate the heterogeneity of current prediction sets, and take advantage of this heterogeneity to construct a two-level classifier (\\'Profisi Ensemble\\') using predictions from 7 programs, along with 2 other data sources. Support vector machines using \\'full\\' and \\'reduced\\' data sets are combined in an either\\/or approach. We achieve a 14% increase in performance over the current state-of-the-art, as benchmarked by a third-party tool. Conclusions Supervised learning methods are a useful way to combine predictions from diverse sources.

  10. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mazzoleni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.

  11. Natural training tools of informatics in conditions of embodied and mental approach realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A. Barkhatova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern processes of globalization and informatization of human activity cause the necessity of change of the educational paradigm in the field of information training of a person, focused on the formation of the strong fundamental knowledge and abilities, which are necessary for person’s information activities and self-education during all life.In connection with these requirements, it is necessary to pay attention to new approaches in education, based on achievements of cognitive science and modern pedagogic. One of such approaches is embodied and mental approach. The paper is devoted to the description of a way of realization of embodied and mental approach in training of informatics through application of the natural tools, providing the fullest and deep understanding of the educational material, and development of cognitive abilities of students.In the paper the theoretical analysis of psychology-pedagogical and methodical literature on a research subject is carried out, results are generalized, natural tools are modeled and results of their partial approbation are described. Achievement of necessary quality of education is offered due to the use of modern techniques, focused on the development of cognitive abilities and improvement of quality of the knowledge. In the conditions of information education, the combination of embodied and mental approaches will allow to acquaint students with the essence of the studied subject due to activation of motor area of the memory and the kinesthetic and visual perception channels. The instrument of realization of this idea is offered to use natural tools in informatics, what is actualized by age features of cognitive abilities of students and individual requirements to ways of perception and mastering of the material, matched according to the level of their knowledge.The research results describe the models of natural tools, developed by students and lecturers of the basic Department of Informatics

  12. Promoting a combination approach to paediatric HIV psychosocial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J; Phelps, B Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    is still limited evidence demonstrating which interventions have positive effects on the well being of HIV-infected children. Interventions that improve the psychosocial well being of children living with HIV must be replicable in resource-limited settings, avoiding dependence on specialized staff for implementation.This paper advocates for combination approaches that strengthen the capacity of service providers, expand the availability of age appropriate and family-centred support and equip schools to be more protective and supportive of children living with HIV. The coordination of care with other community-based interventions is also needed to foster more supportive and less stigmatizing environments. To ensure effective, feasible, and scalable interventions, improving the evidence base to document improved outcomes and longer term impact as well as implementation of operational studies to document delivery approaches are needed.

  13. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-10-15

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures or neuronal activity patterns for a given brain function. It is nowadays feasible to combine NTBS, either consecutively or concurrently, with a variety of neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques. Here we discuss what kind of information can be gained from combined approaches, which often are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation and "offline" NTBS effects outlasting plasticity-inducing NTBS protocols can be assessed. Finally, both strategies can be combined to close the loop between measuring and modulating brain activity by means of closed-loop brain state-dependent NTBS. In this paper, we will provide a conceptual framework, emphasizing principal strategies and highlighting promising future directions to exploit the benefits of combining NTBS with neuroimaging or electrophysiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell manipulation tool with combined microwell array and optical tweezers for cell isolation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Gou, Xue; Chen, Shuxun; Yan, Xiao; Sun, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Isolation from rare cells and deposition of sorted cells with high accuracy for further study are critical to a wide range of biomedical applications. In the current paper, we report an automated cell manipulation tool with combined optical tweezers and a uniquely designed microwell array, which functions for recognition, isolation, assembly, transportation and deposition of the interesting cells. The microwell array allows the passive hydrodynamic docking of cells, while offering the opportunity to inspect the interesting cell phenotypes with high spatio-temporal resolution based on the flexible image processing technique. In addition, dynamic and parallel cell manipulation in three dimensions can realize the target cell levitation from microwell and pattern assembly with multiple optical traps. Integrated with the programmed motorized stage, the optically levitated and assembled cells can be transported and deposited to the predefined microenvironment, so the tool can facilitate the integration of other on-chip functionalities for further study without removing these isolated cells from the chip. Experiments on human embryonic stem cells and yeast cells are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cell manipulation tool. Besides the application to cell isolation and deposition, three other biological applications with this tool are also presented. (paper)

  15. Improvement of tool support of the spatial approach to regional planning: problems, specifics, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Gennadievna Yushkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging imperatives of innovation economic development in Russia determine the content of conceptual and institutional constraints to the development of regional economic systems (RES. They consider the regional planning system as a leading priority in its inseparable unity with modern public administration tasks. However, the practice of development of long-term plans in the RF subjects proves that the innovation challenges of economic policy are not reflected properly in them or they are significantly distorted. The following reasons reduce the effectiveness of modernization processes in the RF subjects and hamper the appropriate reaction of RES on their impact: the lack of coordination between socio-economic and spatial regional plans, the imbalance of interaction between state authorities engaged in long-term planning, the lack of real prerequisites for the implementation of innovation initiatives in the regions. Systematization and analysis of long-term plans make it possible to substantiate the consistency of the spatial approach to regional planning expressed in the dominance of the transformational function that synchronizes the configuration and parameters of RES, and to establish ways to integrate spatial components in the system of regional planning through optimization of its tool support. The change in the content of the instrumentation support is based on the synthesis of the predominant basic characteristics of the existing tools used in isolated subsystems of regional planning of socio-economic and territorial development. The study has established a system of tool support for regional planning that adapts to the changes in both internal and external factors in the development of RES. Three main groups of tools: organizing, regulating, and coordinating are defined by their typing in accordance with the groups of management functions. The article proposes the modeling of combinations of tools that are subordinated to the

  16. Treatment of premature ejaculation: a new combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kurkar

    2015-01-01

    Causes of PE differ considerably. In this paper, we compared the outcomes of two single treatment lines together with a combination of both. The combination therapy was more effective than either line alone.

  17. SMARTE: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REVITALIZATION TOOLS-ELECTRONIC (BELFAST, IRELAND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Redevelopment Tools (SMART). In the U.S., the SMART compilation is housed in a web-based, decision support tool called SMARTe. All tools within SMARTe that are developed specifically for...

  18. A Combined Approach to Measure Micropollutant Behaviour during Riverbank Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Derx, Julia; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as natural treatment process. The advantages of RBF over surface water abstraction are the elimination of for example suspended solids, biodegradable compounds (like specific micropollutants), bacteria and viruses (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). However, in contrast to its importance, remarkably less is known on the respective external (e.g. industrial or municipal sewage) and the internal (e.g. wildlife and agricultural influence) sources of contaminants, the environmental availability and fate of the various hazardous substances, and its potential transport during soil and aquifer passage. The goal of this study is to get an insight in the behaviour of various micropollutants and microbial indicators during riverbank filtration. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling approaches. The study area comprises an alluvial backwater and floodplain area downstream of Vienna. The river is highly dynamic, with discharges ranging from 900 m3/s during low flow to 11000 m3/s during flood events. Samples were taken in several monitoring wells along a transect extending from the river towards a backwater river in the floodplain. Three of the piezometers were situated in the first 20 meters away from the river in order to obtain information about micropollutant behaviour close to the river. A total of 9 different micropollutants were analysed in grab samples taken under different river flow conditions (n=33). Following enrichment using SPE, analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Faecal indicators (E. coli and enterococci) and bacterial spores were enumerated in sample volumes of 1 L each using cultivation based methods (ISO 16649-1, ISO 7899-2:2000 and ISO 6222). The analysis showed that some compounds, e.g. ibuprofen and diclofenac, were only found in the river. These compounds were already degraded in the first ten meters away from the river. Analysis of

  19. Developing a New Biophysical Tool to Combine Magneto-Optical Tweezers with Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaokun Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel experimental setup in which magnetic and optical tweezers are combined for torque and force transduction onto single filamentous molecules in a transverse configuration to allow simultaneous mechanical measurement and manipulation. Previously we have developed a super-resolution imaging module which, in conjunction with advanced imaging techniques such as Blinking assisted Localisation Microscopy (BaLM, achieves localisation precision of single fluorescent dye molecules bound to DNA of ~30 nm along the contour of the molecule; our work here describes developments in producing a system which combines tweezing and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument also features an acousto-optic deflector that temporally divides the laser beam to form multiple traps for high throughput statistics collection. Our motivation for developing the new tool is to enable direct observation of detailed molecular topological transformation and protein binding event localisation in a stretching/twisting mechanical assay that previously could hitherto only be deduced indirectly from the end-to-end length variation of DNA. Our approach is simple and robust enough for reproduction in the lab without the requirement of precise hardware engineering, yet is capable of unveiling the elastic and dynamic properties of filamentous molecules that have been hidden using traditional tools.

  20. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  1. A Combinational Digital Logic Design Tool for Practice and Assessment in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Morsi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As technology advances, computers are being used almost everywhere. In a 2013 US Census report (File and Ryan, 2014, 83.8% (up from 78.9% in 2012 of U.S. households reported owning a computer with 74.4% reporting internet use (73.4% high speed internet. In recent years, the shift in educational technologies has been moving towards gaming, more specifically serious gaming. Although this is an important trend, there is still much to be said about e-learning through a step-by-step interactive process using an online practice tool. This paper presents a detailed description of the Combinational Logic Design Tool (CLDT (Morsi and Russell (2007. CLDT was designed and developed under the CCLI project, #0737242, funded by the National Science Foundation, which aimed to develop and disseminate a novel online practice tool for on demand review and assessment in Electrical and Computer Engineering education. The paper also reports on a formal assessment conducted in a Digital Logic Design Classroom and presents the results of this assessment.

  2. Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites March 19, 2015 SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series (#11) SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series Welcome and...Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites Ms. Carmen Lebrón, Independent Consultant (20 minutes + Q&A) Dr...ESTCP Webinar Series Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated

  3. Experimental and analytical combined thermal approach for local tribological understanding in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artozoul, Julien; Lescalier, Christophe; Dudzinski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Metal cutting is a highly complex thermo-mechanical process. The knowledge of temperature in the chip forming zone is essential to understand it. Conventional experimental methods such as thermocouples only provide global information which is incompatible with the high stress and temperature gradients met in the chip forming zone. Field measurements are essential to understand the localized thermo-mechanical problem. An experimental protocol has been developed using advanced infrared imaging in order to measure temperature distribution in both the tool and the chip during an orthogonal or oblique cutting operation. It also provides several information on the chip formation process such as some geometrical characteristics (tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, primary shear angle) and thermo-mechanical information (heat flux dissipated in deformation zone, local interface heat partition ratio). A study is carried out on the effects of cutting conditions i.e. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the temperature distribution along the contact zone for an elementary operation. An analytical thermal model has been developed to process experimental data and access more information i.e. local stress or heat flux distribution. - Highlights: • A thermal analytical model is proposed for orthogonal cutting process. • IR thermography is used during cutting tests. • Combined experimental and modeling approaches are applied. • Heat flux and stress distribution at the tool-chip interface are determined. • The decomposition into sticking and sliding zones is defined.

  4. Combining Results from Distinct MicroRNA Target Prediction Tools Enhances the Performance of Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur C. Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Target prediction is generally the first step toward recognition of bona fide microRNA (miRNA-target interactions in living cells. Several target prediction tools are now available, which use distinct criteria and stringency to provide the best set of candidate targets for a single miRNA or a subset of miRNAs. However, there are many false-negative predictions, and consensus about the optimum strategy to select and use the output information provided by the target prediction tools is lacking. We compared the performance of four tools cited in literature—TargetScan (TS, miRanda-mirSVR (MR, Pita, and RNA22 (R22, and we determined the most effective approach for analyzing target prediction data (individual, union, or intersection. For this purpose, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and correlation of these approaches using 10 miRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-145-5p, and miR-155-5p and 1,400 genes (700 validated and 700 non-validated as targets of these miRNAs. The four tools provided a subset of high-quality predictions and returned few false-positive predictions; however, they could not identify several known true targets. We demonstrate that union of TS/MR and TS/MR/R22 enhanced the quality of in silico prediction analysis of miRNA targets. We conclude that the union rather than the intersection of the aforementioned tools is the best strategy for maximizing performance while minimizing the loss of time and resources in subsequent in vivo and in vitro experiments for functional validation of miRNA-target interactions.

  5. MediPlEx - a tool to combine in silico & experimental gene expression profiles of the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutz Leonhard J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are in general used to gain a first insight into gene activities from a species of interest. Subsequently, and typically based on a combination of EST and genome sequences, microarray-based expression analyses are performed for a variety of conditions. In some cases, a multitude of EST and microarray experiments are conducted for one species, covering different tissues, cell states, and cell types. Under these circumstances, the challenge arises to combine results derived from the different expression profiling strategies, with the goal to uncover novel information on the basis of the integrated datasets. Findings Using our new analysis tool, MediPlEx (MEDIcago truncatula multiPLe EXpression analysis, expression data from EST experiments, oligonucleotide microarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips® can be combined and analyzed, leading to a novel approach to integrated transcriptome analysis. We have validated our tool via the identification of a set of well-characterized AM-specific and AM-induced marker genes, identified by MediPlEx on the basis of in silico and experimental gene expression profiles from roots colonized with AM fungi. Conclusions MediPlEx offers an integrated analysis pipeline for different sets of expression data generated for the model legume Medicago truncatula. As expected, in silico and experimental gene expression data that cover the same biological condition correlate well. The collection of differentially expressed genes identified via MediPlEx provides a starting point for functional studies in plant mutants. MediPlEx can freely be used at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/mediplex.

  6. Association analysis of multiple traits by an approach of combining ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lili Chen

    diseases. Joint analysis of multiple traits can increase statistical power of association analysis and uncover the underlying genetic ... genthaler and Thilly 2007), the combined multivariate and ... Because of using reverse regression model, our.

  7. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  8. Combining formal and functional approaches to topic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellers, M.; Post, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this

  9. Combining Formal and Functional Approaches to Topic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellers, Margaret; Post, Brechtje

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this kind of variation. We argue that it is fruitful to…

  10. Combining multi-criteria decision analysis and mini-health technology assessment: A funding decision-support tool for medical devices in a university hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Nicolas; Hansen, Paul; van den Brink, Hélène; Boudard, Aurélie; Cordonnier, Anne-Laure; Devaux, Capucine; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Borget, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    At the hospital level, decisions about purchasing new and oftentimes expensive medical devices must take into account multiple criteria simultaneously. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is increasingly used for health technology assessment (HTA). One of the most successful hospital-based HTA approaches is mini-HTA, of which a notable example is the Matrix4value model. To develop a funding decision-support tool combining MCDA and mini-HTA, based on Matrix4value, suitable for medical devices for individual patient use in French university hospitals - known as the IDA tool, short for 'innovative device assessment'. Criteria for assessing medical devices were identified from a literature review and a survey of 18 French university hospitals. Weights for the criteria, representing their relative importance, were derived from a survey of 25 members of a medical devices committee using an elicitation technique involving pairwise comparisons. As a test of its usefulness, the IDA tool was applied to two new drug-eluting beads (DEBs) for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The IDA tool comprises five criteria and weights for each of two over-arching categories: risk and value. The tool revealed that the two new DEBs conferred no additional value relative to DEBs currently available. Feedback from participating decision-makers about the IDA tool was very positive. The tool could help to promote a more structured and transparent approach to HTA decision-making in French university hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanel Jourabchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  12. Novel approaches and tools to reduce environmental impacts in agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    The world population is estimated to increase until about 9 billion of people in 2050. The contemporary limitation and increased degradation of land areas for agricultural uses have been posing serious problems to the management of food production. In the last century, an excessive use of agrochemicals (fertilisers and pesticides) in intensive agrosystems to improve crop yields and match human nutritional needs have caused great impact on the soil ecosystems (properties and biodiversity) and people's health. Consequently, more ecofriendly solutions (e.g. integrated crop and pest management - ICPM - and organic farming) have started to be pursued by scientists, public opinion and governments. In nature, several strategies and mechanisms have been evolved to provide nutrients to plants and defend them from pest and pathogen attacks. They consist in modifications of the environment surrounding plants (e.g. acidification), or the production of compounds for plant protection (e.g. biopesticides). As a consequence, farmers have often adopted practices to modify soil properties according to the crop needs for nutrients to facilitate their mobilisation and uptake by plants. Other more sophisticated natural strategies involve interactions between plant, soil and microorganisms, so that plants attract beneficial organisms that assist them: i) to mobilise and collect nutrients upon symbiotic or non-symbiotic relationships; ii) to suppress pests and pathogens by predation or the secretion of biocidal compounds; iii) to stimulate plant growth (regulators). In recent studies, we have created nanomaterial-based tools to: i) support plant growth; ii) detecting soil metabolic activities and quality; iii) degrading pollutants in environments; iv) detecting and monitoring pollutants in environments. Such nanostructured tools have been generated employing a nanotechnology capable of producing nanofibres under an electric field, called electrospinning. By electrospinning, it is

  13. Clinical Performance of a Combined Approach for the Esthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... leads to mild to severe esthetic problems requiring esthetic ... esthetic management of dental fluorosis, ranging from bleaching ... approaches such involving the use of composite or ceramic .... smoking or poor dental health.

  14. A Combined Approach for Component-based Software Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Quartel, Dick; Baldoni, R.

    2001-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling binary units of production, distribution and deployment, the so-called software components. Several approaches addressing component-based development have been proposed recently. Most of these

  15. The Prodrug Approach: A Successful Tool for Improving Drug Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hartmann Jornada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prodrug design is a widely known molecular modification strategy that aims to optimize the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of drugs to improve their solubility and pharmacokinetic features and decrease their toxicity. A lack of solubility is one of the main obstacles to drug development. This review aims to describe recent advances in the improvement of solubility via the prodrug approach. The main chemical carriers and examples of successful strategies will be discussed, highlighting the advances of this field in the last ten years.

  16. Heterogeneity in consumer preference data: A combined approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Brockhoff, Per M. B.; Erichsen, Lars

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the problem of heterogeneity in consumer data and various ways of coping with it analytically. It will present a new model that combines latent class regression analysis with randon coefficient regression mod together with principal components regression. Fi...

  17. Management of Combined Natural Risks - A New Approach: Keynote Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Jörg

    A new attempt is made to illustrate and to quantify the relationships of individual natural hazards, their combinations and the human vulnerability to natural hazards. During many catastrophic events, combinations of different natural events aggravate their occurrence substantially. Earthquakes are frequently associated with heavy landsliding (El Salvador 2001) and heavy rainstorms are able to trigger fast running debris flows and not only floods (like during the Mitch disaster in Central America in 1998). That signifies that natural hazard maps should show the combinations of different hazards and their genetic relationships. To put into effect this, first, the individual hazards have to be assessed and presented in hazard zones (0 to 3). Then these hazards zones will be overlain using GIS techniques. In this way, e.g., an earthquake-prone area which coincides with an area susceptible to landslides (ranking 0 to 3 as well) can show hazard concentrations of up to a value of 6, simply adding the individual hazard zones. To get the result of the corresponding risk zones, the vulnerability maps of human settlements and infra-structure have to be overlain on the maps of these combinations of natural hazards.

  18. Mechanics and energetics in tool manufacture and use: a synthetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyu; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity and the animal users' own energy. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, manufactured tools are extended phenotypes of the genes of the animal and exhibit phenotypic plasticity. This incurs energetic cost of manufacture as compared to the case with a fixed tool. This paper studies mechanics and energetics aspects of tool manufacture and use in non-human beings. Firstly, it investigates possible mechanical mechanisms of the use of passive manufactured tools. Secondly, it formulates the energetic cost of manufacture and analyses when phenotypic plasticity benefits an animal tool maker and user. We take a synthetic approach and use a controlled physical model, i.e. a robot arm. The robot is capable of additively manufacturing scoop and gripper structures from thermoplastic adhesives to pick and place fluid and solid objects, mimicking primates and birds manufacturing tools for a similar function. We evaluate the effectiveness of tool use in pick-and-place and explain the mechanism for gripper tools picking up solid objects with a solid-mechanics model. We propose a way to formulate the energetic cost of tool manufacture that includes modes of addition and reshaping, and use it to analyse the case of scoop tools. Experiment results show that with a single motor trajectory, the robot was able to effectively pick and place water, rice grains, a pebble and a plastic box with a scoop tool or gripper tools that were manufactured by itself. They also show that by changing the dimension of scoop tools, the energetic cost of tool manufacture and use could be reduced. The work should also be interesting for engineers to design adaptive machines. PMID:25209405

  19. Combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches in understanding pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    1996-01-01

    findings. Furthermore, with specific scientific assumptions, combining methods can aid in estimating minimum sample size required for theoretical generalizations from even a qualitative sample. This is based on measures of how accurately subjects describe a given social phenomenon and degree of agreement......There are many research issues about validity and especially reliability in regards to qualitative research results. Generalizability is brought into question to any population base from which a relatively small number of informants are drawn. Sensitivity to new discoveries is an advantage...... of qualitative research while the advantage of quantified survey data is their reliability. This paper argues for combining qualitative and quantitative methods to improve concurrent validity of results by triangulating interviews, observations or focus group data with short surveys for validation of main...

  20. Negative pressure dressing combined with a traditional approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Deep burns of the calvarium due to high-voltage electrical current present serious therapeutic challenges in the healing. In this study, as an alternative approach to the treatment of burned skull, negative pressure dressing is used to facilitate separation of the necrotic bones from healthy margins of the ...

  1. A Signal Detection Approach in a Multiple Cohort Study: Different Admission Tools Uniquely Select Different Successful Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda van Ooijen-van der Linden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using multiple admission tools in university admission procedures is common practice. This is particularly useful if different admission tools uniquely select different subgroups of students who will be successful in university programs. A signal-detection approach was used to investigate the accuracy of Secondary School grade point average (SSGPA, an admission test score (ACS, and a non-cognitive score (NCS in uniquely selecting successful students. This was done for three consecutive first year cohorts of a broad psychology program. Each applicant's score on SSGPA, ACS, or NCS alone—and on seven combinations of these scores, all considered separate “admission tools”—was compared at two different (medium and high cut-off scores (criterion levels. Each of the tools selected successful students who were not selected by any of the other tools. Both sensitivity and specificity were enhanced by implementing multiple tools. The signal-detection approach distinctively provided useful information for decisions on admission instruments and cut-off scores.

  2. Combined Modality Approaches in the Management of Adult Glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Haider A.; Grimm, Sean; Raizer, Jeffrey; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, management of newly diagnosed glioblastoma has undergone significant evolution. While surgery has long been a mainstay of management for this disease, and while radiotherapy has a proven survival role, initial efforts at radiotherapy dose escalation, use of radiosurgery, brachytherapy, and altered fractionation did not improve patient survival. Recently, multiple modality therapy integrating maximal safe resection, postoperative radiation, and new systemic therapies have resulted in improved patient outcomes compared with older regimens utilizing surgery and postoperative radiation alone. Numerous trials are currently underway investigating the combination of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy with targeted agents to find ways to further improve outcomes for adults with glioblastoma.

  3. Combined Modality Approaches in the Management of Adult Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, Haider A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Grimm, Sean; Raizer, Jeffrey [Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Mehta, Minesh P., E-mail: mmehta@nmff.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Over the past two decades, management of newly diagnosed glioblastoma has undergone significant evolution. While surgery has long been a mainstay of management for this disease, and while radiotherapy has a proven survival role, initial efforts at radiotherapy dose escalation, use of radiosurgery, brachytherapy, and altered fractionation did not improve patient survival. Recently, multiple modality therapy integrating maximal safe resection, postoperative radiation, and new systemic therapies have resulted in improved patient outcomes compared with older regimens utilizing surgery and postoperative radiation alone. Numerous trials are currently underway investigating the combination of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy with targeted agents to find ways to further improve outcomes for adults with glioblastoma.

  4. Multicomponent Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: A Novel Approach for Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Zeeshan; Srivastava, Dipti; Kaur, Chanchal Deep

    2018-03-05

    Cocrystallization is a technique for modifying the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) embodying the concept of supramolecular synthon. Most of the examples cited in the literature are of cocrystals formed between an API and a coformer chosen from the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance list, however, few examples exist where a cocrystal consists of two or more APIs. These cocrystals are commonly known as multi API, multi drug or drug- drug cocrystals. The formation of such cocrystals is feasible by virtue of non covalent interactions between the APIs, which help them in retaining their biologic activity. In addition, drug- drug cocrystals also offer the potential solution to the limitations such as solubility, stability differences and chemical interaction between the APIs which is often faced during the traditional combination therapy. Cocrystallization of two or more APIs can be employed for delivery of combination drugs for the better and efficacious management of many complex disorders where existing monotherapies do not furnish the desired therapeutic effect. This review on the existing drug-drug cocrystals is to gain insight for better designing of multi API cocrystals with improved physicochemical and pharmacokinetic profile and its application in multiple target therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Combined approach to reduced duration integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Even though primary reactor containment allowable leakage rates are expressed in weight percent per day of contained air, engineers have been attempting to define acceptable methods to test in < 24 h as long as these tests have been performed. The reasons to reduce testing duration are obvious, because time not generating electricity is time not generating revenue for the utilities. The latest proposed revision to 10CFR50 Appendix J, concerning integrated leakage rate testing (ILRTs), was supplemented with a draft regulatory guide proposing yet another method. This paper proposes a method that includes elements of currently accepted concepts for short duration testing with a standard statistical check for criteria acceptance. Following presentation of the method, several cases are presented showing the results of these combined criteria

  6. Combination radioimmunotherapy approaches and quantification of immuno-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which play a prominent role in cancer therapy, can interact with specific antigens on cancer cells, thereby enhancing the patient' immune response via various mechanisms, or mAbs can act against cell growth factors and, thereby, arrest the proliferation of tumor cells. Radionuclide-labeled mAbs, which are used in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), are effective for cancer treatment because tumor associated-mAbs linked to cytotoxic radionuclides can selectively bind to tumor antigens and release targeted cytotoxic radiation. Immunological positron emission tomography (immuno-PET), which is the combination of PET with mAb, is an attractive option for improving tumor detection and mAb quantification. However, RIT remains a challenge because of the limited delivery of mAb into tumors. The transport and uptake of mAb into tumors is slow and heterogeneous. The tumor microenvironment contributed to the limited delivery of the mAb. During the delivery process of mAb to tumor, mechanical drug resistance such as collagen distribution or physiological drug resistance such as high intestinal pressure or absence of lymphatic vessel would be the limited factor of mAb delivery to the tumor at a potentially lethal mAb concentration. When α-emitter-labeled mAbs were used, deeper penetration of α-emitter-labeled mAb inside tumors was more important because of the short range of the α emitter. Therefore, combination therapy strategies aimed at improving mAb tumor penetration and accumulation would be beneficial for maximizing their therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors.

  7. Refurbishment of damaged tools using the combination of GTAW and laser beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of two welding processes for the refurbishment of damaged industrial tools. In the first part the problem is presented followed by the comparison of GTAW and laser welding in terms of repair welding of damaged tools. The macrosections of the welds show the difference between both welding processes in repairing of damaged tools. At the conclusion the main findings are presented. In many cases it is useful to use both welding processes in order to achieve better weld quality and to make welding more economical. The order of the technology used depends on the tool material, the use of the tool and the tool damage.

  8. IPeak: An open source tool to combine results from multiple MS/MS search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Du, Chaoqin; Li, Guilin; Ghali, Fawaz; Jones, Andrew R; Käll, Lukas; Xu, Shaohang; Zhou, Ruo; Ren, Zhe; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an important technique for detecting peptides in proteomics studies. Here, we present an open source software tool, termed IPeak, a peptide identification pipeline that is designed to combine the Percolator post-processing algorithm and multi-search strategy to enhance the sensitivity of peptide identifications without compromising accuracy. IPeak provides a graphical user interface (GUI) as well as a command-line interface, which is implemented in JAVA and can work on all three major operating system platforms: Windows, Linux/Unix and OS X. IPeak has been designed to work with the mzIdentML standard from the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) as an input and output, and also been fully integrated into the associated mzidLibrary project, providing access to the overall pipeline, as well as modules for calling Percolator on individual search engine result files. The integration thus enables IPeak (and Percolator) to be used in conjunction with any software packages implementing the mzIdentML data standard. IPeak is freely available and can be downloaded under an Apache 2.0 license at https://code.google.com/p/mzidentml-lib/. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Combining qualitative with quantitative approaches to study contraceptive pill use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Yu, M Y; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, X L; Chen, W H; Yao, L

    1999-03-01

    According to large-scale studies, oral contraceptive users become pregnant at rates that exceed ideal use failure rates. It is thought that a major cause is missed pills, but current research on consistent contraceptive pill taking is characterized by inadequate measures and a failure to investigate women's thinking about their own patterns of use. The purpose of this study was to gain some understanding about women's interpretations of consistency in their own pill taking through combining qualitative with quantitative data. The study was conducted in China, where contraception is free and widely available. Five urban and five rural oral contraceptive users were followed for up to three pill-taking cycles during 1996 for a total of 759 person-days. Consistency of pill taking was measured with electronic data obtained from a new blister package made by Anderson Clinical Technologies (Elmhurst, IL). Data from these devices were reviewed and interpreted by the study participants during in-depth private interviews. The users' reasons for missing pills included disruptions in their daily routines, their husband's absence, spotting, and trouble implementing the family planning program's instructions to take one pill per day for 22 days and start the next cycle on the fifth day of menses. One user gave these reasons for two cycles but denied missing numerous pills in her third cycle. Data from a series of four questionnaires showed that most demographic, psychosocial, and service system characteristics were not related to missed pills. However, results suggested that the daily routines of rural living may make consistent use more likely and that instructions for taking the pill may be associated with prolonged pill-free intervals and skipping pills during episodes of spotting. Three of the 10 women were at increased risk of pregnancy during the study period because of their pill-taking pattern. We concluded that the combination of qualitative with quantitative data

  10. A combined PLC and CPU approach to multiprocessor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.J.; Broesch, J.D.; Coon, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    A sophisticated multiprocessor control system has been developed for use in the E-Power Supply System Integrated Control (EPSSIC) on the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC provides control and interlocks for the ohmic heating coil power supply and its associated systems. Of particular interest is the architecture of this system: both a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and a Central Processor Unit (CPU) have been combined on a standard VME bus. The PLC and CPU input and output signals are routed through signal conditioning modules, which provide the necessary voltage and ground isolation. Additionally these modules adapt the signal levels to that of the VME I/O boards. One set of I/O signals is shared between the two processors. The resulting multiprocessor system provides a number of advantages: redundant operation for mission critical situations, flexible communications using conventional TCP/IP protocols, the simplicity of ladder logic programming for the majority of the control code, and an easily maintained and expandable non-proprietary system

  11. A combined ANP-delphi approach to evaluate sustainable tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.es [INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.es [Depto. Proyectos Ingenieria, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unime.edu.ve [Universidad Metropolitana de Caracas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The evaluation of sustainable tourism strategies promoted by National Parks (NP) related stakeholders is a key concern for NP managers. To help them in their strategic evaluation procedures, in this paper we propose a methodology based on the Analytic Network Process and a Delphi-type judgment-ensuring procedure. The approach aims at involving stakeholders in a participatory and consensus-building process. The methodology was applied to Los Roques NP in Venezuela. The problem included three sustainable tourism strategies defined by the stakeholders: eco-efficient resorts, eco-friendly leisure activities and ecological transportation systems. Representatives of eight stakeholders participated in the methodology. 13 sustainability criteria were selected. Results provide some important insights into the overall philosophy and underlying participants' conception of what sustainable development of Los Roques NP means. This conception is broadly shared by stakeholders as they coincided in the weights of most of the criteria, which were assigned individually through the questionnaire. It is particularly noteworthy that tourists and environmentalists almost fully match in their assessments of criteria but not of the alternatives. Moreover, there is a great agreement in the final assessment. This suggests that the regular contact among the different stakeholders, i.e. tourists with inhabitants, authorities with environmentalists, tour operators with representatives of the ministry, etc. has led to a common understanding of the opportunities and threats for the NP. They all agreed that the procedure enhances participation and transparency and it is a necessary source of information and support for their decisions.

  12. EPR design: A combined approach on safety and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griedl, R.; Sturm, J.; Degrave, C.; Kappler, F.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting in 1991, the French and German cooperation led to common work based on the experience of the two designers FRAMATOME and SIEMENS KWU with all their know how, the most important utilities in France and Germany operating NPP and the technical supports of the Licensing Authorities GRS and IPSN. The conclusion of that work was the issue in November 1997 and February 1999 respectively of two Basic Design reports for a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) with a power of 4250 MWth and 4900 MWth. The Basic Design approach was led under two key items: Enhancement of the overall safety level by implementation of design measures to: make the plant less dependant to common cause failures; practically eliminate all high pressure core melt sequences which could lead to important radioactive releases to the environment; implement specific systems to face severe accident situation with low-pressure core melt. Use of the many years of experiences in two different nuclear designs is to reach an overall availability figure over 91%, partly due to design improvements on the safety level. With such an objective, demonstrated by feedback of experience on already operating plants, the EPR project can be proposed as a competitive alternative to the most recent fossil plants. (author)

  13. A combined ANP-delphi approach to evaluate sustainable tourism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Melón, Mónica; Gómez-Navarro, Tomás; Acuña-Dutra, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of sustainable tourism strategies promoted by National Parks (NP) related stakeholders is a key concern for NP managers. To help them in their strategic evaluation procedures, in this paper we propose a methodology based on the Analytic Network Process and a Delphi-type judgment-ensuring procedure. The approach aims at involving stakeholders in a participatory and consensus-building process. The methodology was applied to Los Roques NP in Venezuela. The problem included three sustainable tourism strategies defined by the stakeholders: eco-efficient resorts, eco-friendly leisure activities and ecological transportation systems. Representatives of eight stakeholders participated in the methodology. 13 sustainability criteria were selected. Results provide some important insights into the overall philosophy and underlying participants' conception of what sustainable development of Los Roques NP means. This conception is broadly shared by stakeholders as they coincided in the weights of most of the criteria, which were assigned individually through the questionnaire. It is particularly noteworthy that tourists and environmentalists almost fully match in their assessments of criteria but not of the alternatives. Moreover, there is a great agreement in the final assessment. This suggests that the regular contact among the different stakeholders, i.e. tourists with inhabitants, authorities with environmentalists, tour operators with representatives of the ministry, etc. has led to a common understanding of the opportunities and threats for the NP. They all agreed that the procedure enhances participation and transparency and it is a necessary source of information and support for their decisions.

  14. A combined modeling approach for wind power feed-in and electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Genoese, Massimo; Möst, Dominik; Ortlieb, Sebastian; Fichtner, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Wind power generation and its impacts on electricity prices has strongly increased in the EU. Therefore, appropriate mark-to-market evaluation of new investments in wind power and energy storage plants should consider the fluctuant generation of wind power and uncertain electricity prices, which are affected by wind power feed-in (WPF). To gain the input data for WPF and electricity prices, simulation models, such as econometric models, can serve as a data basis. This paper describes a combined modeling approach for the simulation of WPF series and electricity prices considering the impacts of WPF on prices based on an autoregressive approach. Thereby WPF series are firstly simulated for each hour of the year and integrated in the electricity price model to generate an hourly resolved price series for a year. The model results demonstrate that the WPF model delivers satisfying WPF series and that the extended electricity price model considering WPF leads to a significant improvement of the electricity price simulation compared to a model version without WPF effects. As the simulated series of WPF and electricity prices also contain the correlation between both series, market evaluation of wind power technologies can be accurately done based on these series. - Highlights: • Wind power feed-in can be directly simulated with stochastic processes. • Non-linear relationship between wind power feed-in and electricity prices. • Price reduction effect of wind power feed-in depends on the actual load. • Considering wind power feed-in effects improves the electricity price simulation. • Combined modeling of both parameters delivers a data basis for evaluation tools

  15. Engineering nanomaterials with a combined electrochemical and molecular biomimetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haixia

    Biocomposite materials, such as bones, teeth, and shells, are created using mild aqueous solution-based processes near room temperature. Proteins add flexibility to these processes by facilitating the nucleation, growth, and ordering of specific inorganic materials into hierarchical structures. We aim to develop a biomimetic strategy for engineering technologically relevant inorganic materials with controlled compositions and structures, as Nature does, using proteins to orchestrate material formation and assembly. This approach involves three basic steps: (i) preparation of inorganic substrates compatible with combinatorial polypeptide screening; (ii) identification of inorganic-binding polypeptides and their engineering into inorganic-binding proteins; and (iii) protein-mediated inorganic nucleation and organization. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a p-type semiconductor, has been used to demonstrate all three steps. Zinc oxide (ZnO), an n-type semiconductor, has been used to show the generality of selected steps. Step (i), preparation of high quality inorganic substrates to select inorganic-binding polypeptides, was accomplished using electrochemical microfabrication to grow and pattern Cu2O and ZnO. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to verify phase purity and compositional stability of these surfaces during polypeptide screening. Step (ii), accomplished in collaboration with personnel in Prof Baneyx' lab at the University of Washington, involved incubating the inorganic substrates with the FliTrx(TM) random peptide library to identify cysteine-constrained dodecapeptides that bind the targeted inorganic. Insertion of a Cu2O-binding dodecapeptide into the DNA-binding protein TraI endowed the engineered TraI with strong affinity for Cu2O (Kd ≈ 10 -8 M). Finally, step (iii) involved nonequilibrium synthesis and organization of Cu2O nanoparticles, taking advantage of the inorganic and DNA recognition properties of the engineered TraI. The

  16. Surgical treatment of traumatic cervical facet dislocation: anterior, posterior or combined approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina C. Lins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Surgical treatment is well accepted for patients with traumatic cervical facet joint dislocations (CFD, but there is uncertainty over which approach is better: anterior, posterior or combined. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the indications for anterior and posterior approaches in the management of CFD. Anterior approaches can restore cervical lordosis, and cause less postoperative pain and less wound problems. Posterior approaches are useful for direct reduction of locked facet joints and provide stronger fixation from a biomechanical point of view. Combined approaches can be used in more complex cases. Although both anterior and posterior approaches can be used interchangeably, there are some patients who may benefit from one of them over the other, as discussed in this review. Surgeons who treat cervical spine trauma should be able to perform both procedures as well as combined approaches to adequately manage CFD and improve patients’ final outcomes.

  17. Development and testing of new candidate psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires combining optimal questions from existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; Walsh, Jessica; Haroon, Muhammad; FitzGerald, Oliver; Aslam, Tariq; Al Balushi, Farida; Burden, A D; Burden-Teh, Esther; Caperon, Anna R; Cerio, Rino; Chattopadhyay, Chandrabhusan; Chinoy, Hector; Goodfield, Mark J D; Kay, Lesley; Kelly, Stephen; Kirkham, Bruce W; Lovell, Christopher R; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; McHugh, Neil; Murphy, Ruth; Reynolds, Nick J; Smith, Catherine H; Stewart, Elizabeth J C; Warren, Richard B; Waxman, Robin; Wilson, Hilary E; Helliwell, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    Several questionnaires have been developed to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but head-to-head studies have found limitations. This study aimed to develop new questionnaires encompassing the most discriminative questions from existing instruments. Data from the CONTEST study, a head-to-head comparison of 3 existing questionnaires, were used to identify items with a Youden index score of ≥0.1. These were combined using 4 approaches: CONTEST (simple additions of questions), CONTESTw (weighting using logistic regression), CONTESTjt (addition of a joint manikin), and CONTESTtree (additional questions identified by classification and regression tree [CART] analysis). These candidate questionnaires were tested in independent data sets. Twelve individual questions with a Youden index score of ≥0.1 were identified, but 4 of these were excluded due to duplication and redundancy. Weighting for 2 of these questions was included in CONTESTw. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that involvement in 6 joint areas on the manikin was predictive of PsA for inclusion in CONTESTjt. CART analysis identified a further 5 questions for inclusion in CONTESTtree. CONTESTtree was not significant on ROC curve analysis and discarded. The other 3 questionnaires were significant in all data sets, although CONTESTw was slightly inferior to the others in the validation data sets. Potential cut points for referral were also discussed. Of 4 candidate questionnaires combining existing discriminatory items to identify PsA in people with psoriasis, 3 were found to be significant on ROC curve analysis. Testing in independent data sets identified 2 questionnaires (CONTEST and CONTESTjt) that should be pursued for further prospective testing. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Mechanics and energetics in tool manufacture and use: a synthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyu; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-11-06

    Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity and the animal users' own energy. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, manufactured tools are extended phenotypes of the genes of the animal and exhibit phenotypic plasticity. This incurs energetic cost of manufacture as compared to the case with a fixed tool. This paper studies mechanics and energetics aspects of tool manufacture and use in non-human beings. Firstly, it investigates possible mechanical mechanisms of the use of passive manufactured tools. Secondly, it formulates the energetic cost of manufacture and analyses when phenotypic plasticity benefits an animal tool maker and user. We take a synthetic approach and use a controlled physical model, i.e. a robot arm. The robot is capable of additively manufacturing scoop and gripper structures from thermoplastic adhesives to pick and place fluid and solid objects, mimicking primates and birds manufacturing tools for a similar function. We evaluate the effectiveness of tool use in pick-and-place and explain the mechanism for gripper tools picking up solid objects with a solid-mechanics model. We propose a way to formulate the energetic cost of tool manufacture that includes modes of addition and reshaping, and use it to analyse the case of scoop tools. Experiment results show that with a single motor trajectory, the robot was able to effectively pick and place water, rice grains, a pebble and a plastic box with a scoop tool or gripper tools that were manufactured by itself. They also show that by changing the dimension of scoop tools, the energetic cost of tool manufacture and use could be reduced. The work should also be interesting for engineers to design adaptive machines. © 2014 The Author

  19. A Holistic Approach to Interdisciplinary Innovation Supported by a Simple Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Innovation is recognised as a strategy to achieve competitive businesses and products. Managing innovation at all levels requires integration of knowledge and interdisciplinary cooperation. Different understandings and approaches to innovation between professions often result in communication...... problems. To overcome this barrier a common ground is needed. This paper describes a holistic approach to innovation and presents a simple tool for facilitating cooperation on a diversity of innovation matters. It describes the development and use of the tool and demonstrates its capacity to support...

  20. When one model is not enough: combining epistemic tools in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sara

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, the philosophical focus of the modeling literature has shifted from descriptions of general properties of models to an interest in different model functions. It has been argued that the diversity of models and their correspondingly different epistemic goals are important for developing intelligible scientific theories (Leonelli, 2007; Levins, 2006). However, more knowledge is needed on how a combination of different epistemic means can generate and stabilize new entities in science. This paper will draw on Rheinberger's practice-oriented account of knowledge production. The conceptual repertoire of Rheinberger's historical epistemology offers important insights for an analysis of the modelling practice. I illustrate this with a case study on network modeling in systems biology where engineering approaches are applied to the study of biological systems. I shall argue that the use of multiple representational means is an essential part of the dynamic of knowledge generation. It is because of-rather than in spite of-the diversity of constraints of different models that the interlocking use of different epistemic means creates a potential for knowledge production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named

  2. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Saber A; Hettne, Kristina M; van der Horst, Eelke; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named entity recognition, outperforming

  3. Pesticides in the Lake Kinneret basin: a combined approach towards mircopollutant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaßmann, M.; Friedler, E.; Dubwoski, Y.; Dinerman, E.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Kinneret is the only large surface waterbody in Israel, supplying about 27% of the country's freshwater. Water quality in Lake Kinneret is of major concern and improving the ecological status of this large water body is now a national priority. While many studies in the past focused on nutrients inflows and phytoplankton dynamics, less research has been done on assessing the fate and pathways of micropollutants at semi-arid environments in common and Lake Kinneret in particular. Since the watershed area of Lake Kinneret is used primarily for agriculture, it is important to evaluate the fate and dynamic transfer of organic micropollutants such as pesticides and herbicides in the watershed streams and in the lake itself. This study introduces a combined concept of extensive measurements and modelling tools to observe and simulate the pesticide release chain (i) application - (ii) diffuse release to rivers - (iii) transport in the river - (iv) accumulation in the lake. The available information regarding identification of application zones (i) and the amounts of used pesticides is based on stakeholders interviews, a survey of the different crop types and orchards and a comparison to sold amounts of the target pesticides (Melman and Bar-Ilan 2008). In the current research, a single field mass balance of pesticides is carried out to determine the field release to rivers (ii) by an extensive measurement campaign on the different compartments (soil, vegetation, atmosphere) and phases (water, air, solids) of a single field. The mass balance results in a release pattern of pesticide, which will be overtaken into the modelling approach. Transport of pesticides in rivers (iii) is modelled on the base of a recently developed stream network model for ephemeral streams (MOHID River), introducing important instream fate processes of pesticides and supported by six instream measurement stations of hydrological as well as pesticide data in the basin. To determine the final

  4. Quantifying the Metabolome of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120: Evaluation of Hot and Cold Combined Quenching/Extraction Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wordofa, Gossa Garedew; Kristensen, Mette; Schrübbers, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Absolute quantification of free intracellular metabolites is a valuable tool in both pathway discovery and metabolic engineering. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive examination of different hot and cold combined quenching/extraction approaches to extract and quantify intracellular...... (such as cold methanol/acetonitrile/water, hot water, and boiling ethanol/water, as well as cold ethanol/water) were tested and evaluated for P. taiwanensis VLB120 metabolome analysis. In total 94 out of 107 detected intracellular metabolites were quantified using an isotope-ratio-based approach....... The quantified metabolites include amino acids, nucleotides, central carbon metabolism intermediates, redox cofactors, and others. The acquired data demonstrate that the pressure driven fast filtration approach followed by boiling ethanol quenching/extraction is the most adequate technique for P. taiwanensis VLB...

  5. Quality assurance tool for organ at risk delineation in radiation therapy using a parametric statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cheukkai B; Nourzadeh, Hamidreza; Watkins, William T; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Alonso, Clayton E; Dutta, Sunil W; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2018-02-26

    To develop a quality assurance (QA) tool that identifies inaccurate organ at risk (OAR) delineations. The QA tool computed volumetric features from prior OAR delineation data from 73 thoracic patients to construct a reference database. All volumetric features of the OAR delineation are computed in three-dimensional space. Volumetric features of a new OAR are compared with respect to those in the reference database to discern delineation outliers. A multicriteria outlier detection system warns users of specific delineation outliers based on combinations of deviant features. Fifteen independent experimental sets including automatic, propagated, and clinically approved manual delineation sets were used for verification. The verification OARs included manipulations to mimic common errors. Three experts reviewed the experimental sets to identify and classify errors, first without; and then 1 week after with the QA tool. In the cohort of manual delineations with manual manipulations, the QA tool detected 94% of the mimicked errors. Overall, it detected 37% of the minor and 85% of the major errors. The QA tool improved reviewer error detection sensitivity from 61% to 68% for minor errors (P = 0.17), and from 78% to 87% for major errors (P = 0.02). The QA tool assists users to detect potential delineation errors. QA tool integration into clinical procedures may reduce the frequency of inaccurate OAR delineation, and potentially improve safety and quality of radiation treatment planning. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Predicting prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand using combined approach emphasizing on data pre-processing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a combined approach emphasizing on data pre-processing technique is developed to forecast prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand. The future prices play significant role in decision making to cultivate crops in next year. The proposed model takes ability of MODWT to decompose original time series data into more stable and explicit subseries, and SVR model to formulate complex function of forecasting. The experimental results indicated that the proposed model outperforms traditional forecasting models based on MAE and MAPE criteria. Furthermore, the proposed model reveals that it is able to be a useful forecasting tool for prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand

  7. Comet Methy-sens and DNMTs transcriptional analysis as a combined approach in epigenotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Perotti

    2015-05-01

    In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Comet Methy-sens, in combination with the analysis of transcriptional levels of DNA methyl transferases, represents a simple and multifunctional approach to implement biomonitoring studies on epigenotoxicological effects of known and unknown xenobiotics.

  8. Combining web-based tools for transparent evaluation of data for risk assessment: developmental effects of bisphenol A on the mammary gland as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Linda; Hanberg, Annika; Rudén, Christina; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Different tools have been developed that facilitate systematic and transparent evaluation and handling of toxicity data in the risk assessment process. The present paper sets out to explore the combined use of two web-based tools for study evaluation and identification of reliable data relevant to health risk assessment. For this purpose, a case study was performed using in vivo toxicity studies investigating low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development. The reliability of the mammary gland studies was evaluated using the Science in Risk Assessment and Policy (SciRAP) criteria for toxicity studies. The Health Assessment Workspace Collaborative (HAWC) was used for characterizing and visualizing the mammary gland data in terms of type of effects investigated and reported, and the distribution of these effects within the dose interval. It was then investigated whether there was any relationship between study reliability and the type of effects reported and/or their distribution in the dose interval. The combination of the SciRAP and HAWC tools allowed for transparent evaluation and visualization of the studies investigating developmental effects of BPA on the mammary gland. The use of these tools showed that there were no apparent differences in the type of effects and their distribution in the dose interval between the five studies assessed as most reliable and the whole data set. Combining the SciRAP and HAWC tools was found to be a useful approach for evaluating in vivo toxicity studies and identifying reliable and sensitive information relevant to regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Approach and tool for computer animation of fields in electrical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltchev, Radoslav; Yatchev, Ivan S.; Ritchie, Ewen

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a technical approach and post-processing tool for creating and displaying computer animation. The approach enables handling of two- and three-dimensional physical field phenomena results obtained from finite element software or to display movement processes in electrical apparatus simulations. The main goal of this work is to extend auxiliary features built in general-purpose CAD software working in the Windows environment. Different storage techniques were examined and the one employing image capturing was chosen. The developed tool provides benefits of independent visualisation, creating scenarios and facilities for exporting animations in common file fon-nats for distribution on different computer platforms. It also provides a valuable educational tool.(Author)

  10. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  11. Mediated Authentic Video: A Flexible Tool Supporting a Developmental Approach to Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutchbury, Kris; Woodward, Clare

    2017-01-01

    YouTube now has more searches than Google, indicating that video is a motivating and, potentially, powerful learning tool. This paper investigates how we can embrace video to support improvements in teacher education. It will draw on innovative approaches to teacher education, developed by the Open University UK, in order to explore in more depth…

  12. Integration of distributed system simulation tools for a holistic approach to integrated building and system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radosevic, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wijsman, A.J.T.M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced architectural developments require an integrated approach to design where simulation tools available today deal. only with a small subset of the overall problem. The aim of this study is to enable run time exchange of necessary data at suitable frequency between different simulation

  13. A Systematic Approach to Food Variety Classification as a Tool in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Systematic Approach to Food Variety Classification as a Tool in Dietary ... and food variety (count of all dietary items consumed during the recall period up to the ... This paper presents a pilot study carried out with an aim of demonstrating the ...

  14. An Approach for the Development and Implementation of an Assessment Tool for Interprofessional Education Learning Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Salvati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards 2016 state that colleges of pharmacy must assess student achievement and readiness to contribute as a member of an interprofessional collaborative patient care team. There are a limited number of assessment tools available to achieve this part of the Standards. The purpose of this Case Study Report is to describe the process that one college of pharmacy took to develop an interprofessional education (IPE assessment tool to be used for their longitudinal assessment approach for IPE in the didactic portion of the curriculum. Strategies for the development of an assessment tool are provided through three themes: continuous refinement, collaboration and streamlining. Next steps for the implementation of the assessment tool, as well as evaluating its validity and reliability, are discussed.   Type: Case Study

  15. Management of interstitial ectopic pregnancies with a combined intra-amniotic and systemic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Morgan L; Harken, Tabetha R; Porto, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 2% of all pregnancies are ectopic; of these, 4% are interstitial or cervical. There exists no clear consensus as to whether surgical or medical management is superior. We present three cases of advanced nonfallopian tube ectopic pregnancies from 6 to 8 weeks of gestation. Our first two cases were managed with a combined intrafetal, intra-amniotic and systemic approach using methotrexate and potassium chloride, whereas our third case was managed with an intra-amniotic approach alone. Our combined approach cases were successful, with resolution of human chorionic gonadotropin in 50 and 34 days, whereas our single approach case re-presented with bleeding requiring uterine artery embolization and operative removal of products of conception. Patients presenting with advanced interstitial or cervical pregnancies who are clinically stable can be offered medical management with a combined approach.

  16. arXiv A method and tool for combining differential or inclusive measurements obtained with simultaneously constrained uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Kieseler, Jan

    2017-11-22

    A method is discussed that allows combining sets of differential or inclusive measurements. It is assumed that at least one measurement was obtained with simultaneously fitting a set of nuisance parameters, representing sources of systematic uncertainties. As a result of beneficial constraints from the data all such fitted parameters are correlated among each other. The best approach for a combination of these measurements would be the maximization of a combined likelihood, for which the full fit model of each measurement and the original data are required. However, only in rare cases this information is publicly available. In absence of this information most commonly used combination methods are not able to account for these correlations between uncertainties, which can lead to severe biases as shown in this article. The method discussed here provides a solution for this problem. It relies on the public result and its covariance or Hessian, only, and is validated against the combined-likelihood approach. A d...

  17. Combining Digital Archives Content with Serious Game Approach to Create a Gamified Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.-T. Shih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interdisciplinary to develop content-aware application that combines game with learning on specific categories of digital archives. The employment of content-oriented game enhances the gamification and efficacy of learning in culture education on architectures and history of Hsinchu County, Taiwan. The gamified form of the application is used as a backbone to support and provide a strong stimulation to engage users in learning art and culture, therefore this research is implementing under the goal of “The Digital ARt/ARchitecture Project”. The purpose of the abovementioned project is to develop interactive serious game approaches and applications for Hsinchu County historical archives and architectures. Therefore, we present two applications, “3D AR for Hukou Old ” and “Hsinchu County History Museum AR Tour” which are in form of augmented reality (AR. By using AR imaging techniques to blend real object and virtual content, the users can immerse in virtual exhibitions of Hukou Old Street and Hsinchu County History Museum, and to learn in ubiquitous computing environment. This paper proposes a content system that includes tools and materials used to create representations of digitized cultural archives including historical artifacts, documents, customs, religion, and architectures. The Digital ARt / ARchitecture Project is based on the concept of serious game and consists of three aspects: content creation, target management, and AR presentation. The project focuses on developing a proper approach to serve as an interactive game, and to offer a learning opportunity for appreciating historic architectures by playing AR cards. Furthermore, the card game aims to provide multi-faceted understanding and learning experience to help user learning through 3D objects, hyperlinked web data, and the manipulation of learning mode, and then effectively developing their learning levels on cultural and historical archives in

  18. Combining Digital Archives Content with Serious Game Approach to Create a Gamified Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, D.-T.; Lin, C. L.; Tseng, C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an interdisciplinary to develop content-aware application that combines game with learning on specific categories of digital archives. The employment of content-oriented game enhances the gamification and efficacy of learning in culture education on architectures and history of Hsinchu County, Taiwan. The gamified form of the application is used as a backbone to support and provide a strong stimulation to engage users in learning art and culture, therefore this research is implementing under the goal of "The Digital ARt/ARchitecture Project". The purpose of the abovementioned project is to develop interactive serious game approaches and applications for Hsinchu County historical archives and architectures. Therefore, we present two applications, "3D AR for Hukou Old " and "Hsinchu County History Museum AR Tour" which are in form of augmented reality (AR). By using AR imaging techniques to blend real object and virtual content, the users can immerse in virtual exhibitions of Hukou Old Street and Hsinchu County History Museum, and to learn in ubiquitous computing environment. This paper proposes a content system that includes tools and materials used to create representations of digitized cultural archives including historical artifacts, documents, customs, religion, and architectures. The Digital ARt / ARchitecture Project is based on the concept of serious game and consists of three aspects: content creation, target management, and AR presentation. The project focuses on developing a proper approach to serve as an interactive game, and to offer a learning opportunity for appreciating historic architectures by playing AR cards. Furthermore, the card game aims to provide multi-faceted understanding and learning experience to help user learning through 3D objects, hyperlinked web data, and the manipulation of learning mode, and then effectively developing their learning levels on cultural and historical archives in Hsinchu County.

  19. An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gilio, A.; Gennaro, G. de; Dambruoso, P.; Ventrella, G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st–20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM 2.5 and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive framework

  20. An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gilio, A. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gennaro, G. de, E-mail: gianluigi.degennaro@uniba.it [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dambruoso, P. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Ventrella, G. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st–20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM{sub 2.5} and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive

  1. An applied artificial intelligence approach towards assessing building performance simulation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezioro, Abraham [Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion IIT (Israel); Dong, Bing [Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University (United States); Leite, Fernanda [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University (United States)

    2008-07-01

    With the development of modern computer technology, a large amount of building energy simulation tools is available in the market. When choosing which simulation tool to use in a project, the user must consider the tool's accuracy and reliability, considering the building information they have at hand, which will serve as input for the tool. This paper presents an approach towards assessing building performance simulation results to actual measurements, using artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting building energy performance. Training and testing of the ANN were carried out with energy consumption data acquired for 1 week in the case building called the Solar House. The predicted results show a good fitness with the mathematical model with a mean absolute error of 0.9%. Moreover, four building simulation tools were selected in this study in order to compare their results with the ANN predicted energy consumption: Energy{sub 1}0, Green Building Studio web tool, eQuest and EnergyPlus. The results showed that the more detailed simulation tools have the best simulation performance in terms of heating and cooling electricity consumption within 3% of mean absolute error. (author)

  2. Modifiable Combining Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Paul; Shafer, Glenn; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Modifiable combining functions are a synthesis of two common approaches to combining evidence. They offer many of the advantages of these approaches and avoid some disadvantages. Because they facilitate the acquisition, representation, explanation, and modification of knowledge about combinations of evidence, they are proposed as a tool for knowledge engineers who build systems that reason under uncertainty, not as a normative theory of evidence.

  3. Combining Statistical Methodologies in Water Quality Monitoring in a Hydrological Basin - Space and Time Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Marco; A. Manuela Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    In this work are discussed some statistical approaches that combine multivariate statistical techniques and time series analysis in order to describe and model spatial patterns and temporal evolution by observing hydrological series of water quality variables recorded in time and space. These approaches are illustrated with a data set collected in the River Ave hydrological basin located in the Northwest region of Portugal.

  4. A combined stochastic programming and optimal control approach to personal finance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Pisinger, David; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a model that combines a dynamic programming (stochastic optimal control) approach and a multi-stage stochastic linear programming approach (SLP), integrated into one SLP formulation. Stochastic optimal control produces an optimal policy that is easy to understand and implement....

  5. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let...... this research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements...

  6. Combined time-varying forecast based on the proper scoring approach for wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xingying; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with traditional point forecasts, combined forecast have been proposed as an effective method to provide more accurate forecasts than individual model. However, the literature and research focus on wind-power combined forecasts are relatively limited. Here, based on forecasting error...... distribution, a proper scoring approach is applied to combine plausible models to form an overall time-varying model for the next day forecasts, rather than weights-based combination. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, real data of 3 years were used for testing. Simulation results...... demonstrate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of overall forecasts, even compared with a numerical weather prediction....

  7. Management of advanced intracranial intradural juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: combined single-stage rhinosurgical and neurosurgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Saberi, Hooshang; Mirmohseni, Atefeh Sadat; Nikdad, Mohammad Sadegh; Afarideh, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    Although intracranial extension of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) occurs commonly, intradural penetration is extremely rare. Management of such tumors is a challenging issue in skull-base surgery, necessitating their removal via combined approaches. In this work, we share our experience in management of extensive intradural JNA. In a university hospital-based setting of 2 tertiary care academic centers, retrospective chart of 6 male patients (5 between 15 and 19 years old) was reviewed. Patients presented chiefly with nasal obstruction, epistaxis, and proptosis. One of them was an aggressive recurrent tumor in a 32-year-old patient. All cases underwent combined transnasal, transmaxillary, and craniotomy approaches assisted by the use of image-guided endoscopic surgery, with craniotomy preceding the rhinosurgical approach in 3 cases. Adding a transcranial approach to the transnasal and transmaxillary endoscopic approaches provided 2-sided exposure and appreciated access to the huge intradural JNAs. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and 1 postoperative recurrence at the site of infratemporal fossa were treated successfully. Otherwise, the course was uneventful in the remaining cases. Management of intracranial intradural JNA requires a multidisciplinary approach of combined open and endoscopic-assisted rhinosurgery and neurosurgery, because of greater risk for complications during the dissection. Carotid rupture and brain damage remain 2 catastrophic complications that should always be kept in mind. A combined rhinosurgical and neurosurgical approach also has the advantage of very modest cosmetic complications. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. New Approaches for the Use of the Classical Tools of Scenario Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Balieiro Fischer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The future is to be built – is multiple and uncertain. Within the social sciences, scenarios can be defined as a description of a future situation and a course of events that allow move from a primary position toward this future situation. Currently, there is a multiplicity of methods and tools available for building scenarios, including methods of an essentially rationalist approach, as Michel Godet’s method. The purpose of this work is to use the hypothetical-deductive method to reduce, starting from Michel Godet’s Scenario Method and its tools, the complexity of the scenario-building process while maintaining the robustness of the findings. For this purpose, it is proposed two different approaches: (1 to integrate, in one step, the structural analysis and the cross-impact matrix so the first one derives automatically while filling the last one; (2 to use the concept of Bayesian networks as a method to integrate the cross-impact matrix and the morphological analysis. Both approaches aim to reduce the amount of information needed to feed the tools and improve the feedback criteria, resulting in greater flexibility during the process and better holistic view of the system. Scientifically, these approaches open a new field of studies in scenario planning as it appropriates the concept of Bayesian networks, widely used in other areas of knowledge (artificial intelligence, geological studies, medical diagnostics, pattern classification, etc., and bring it to the field of social sciences.

  9. Indexing Combined with Statistical Deflation as a Tool for Analysis of Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Judith A.

    Indexing is a tool that can be used with longitudinal, quantitative data for analysis of relative changes and for comparisons of changes among items. For greater accuracy, raw financial data should be deflated into constant dollars prior to indexing. This paper demonstrates the procedures for indexing, statistical deflation, and the use of…

  10. Novel combined patient instruction and discharge summary tool improves timeliness of documentation and outpatient provider satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Gilliam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incomplete or delayed access to discharge information by outpatient providers and patients contributes to discontinuity of care and poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new electronic discharge summary tool on the timeliness of documentation and communication with outpatient providers. Methods: In June 2012, we implemented an electronic discharge summary tool at our 145-bed university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. The tool facilitates completion of a comprehensive discharge summary note that is available for patients and outpatient medical providers at the time of hospital discharge. Discharge summary note availability, outpatient provider satisfaction, and time between the decision to discharge a patient and discharge note completion were all evaluated before and after implementation of the tool. Results: The percentage of discharge summary notes completed by the time of first post-discharge clinical contact improved from 43% in February 2012 to 100% in September 2012 and was maintained at 100% in 2014. A survey of 22 outpatient providers showed that 90% preferred the new summary and 86% found it comprehensive. Despite increasing required documentation, the time required to discharge a patient, from physician decision to discharge note completion, improved from 5.6 h in 2010 to 4.1 h in 2012 (p = 0.04, and to 2.8 h in 2015 (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The implementation of a novel discharge summary tool improved the timeliness and comprehensiveness of discharge information as needed for the delivery of appropriate, high-quality follow-up care, without adversely affecting the efficiency of the discharge process.

  11. Interactive and Approachable Web-Based Tools for Exploring Global Geophysical Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, M. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Merrifield, M. A.; Thompson, P. R.; Loomis, B. D.; Wiese, D. N.; Zlotnicki, V.; Larson, J.; Talpe, M.; Hardy, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Making global and regional data accessible and understandable for non-experts can be both challenging and hazardous. While data products are often developed with end users in mind, the ease of use of these data can vary greatly. Scientists must take care to provide detailed guides for how to use data products to ensure users are not incorrectly applying data to their problem. For example, terrestrial water storage data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is notoriously difficult for non-experts to access and correctly use. However, allowing these data to be easily accessible to scientists outside the GRACE community is desirable because this would allow that data to see much wider-spread use. We have developed a web-based interactive mapping and plotting tool that provides easy access to geophysical data. This work presents an intuitive method for making such data widely accessible to experts and non-experts alike, making the data approachable and ensuring proper use of the data. This tool has proven helpful to experts by providing fast and detailed access to the data. Simultaneously, the tool allows non-experts to gain familiarity with the information contained in the data and access to that information for both scientific studies and public use. In this presentation, we discuss the development of this tool and application to both GRACE and ocean altimetry satellite missions, and demonstrate the capabilities of the tool. Focusing on the data visualization aspects of the tool, we showcase our integrations of the Mapbox API and the D3.js data-driven web document framework. We then explore the potential of these tools in other web-based visualization projects, and how incorporation of such tools into science can improve the presentation of research results. We demonstrate how the development of an interactive and exploratory resource can enable further layers of exploratory and scientific discovery.

  12. Improving mass measurement accuracy in mass spectrometry based proteomics by combining open source tools for chromatographic alignment and internal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Dalebout, Hans; Derks, Rico J E; Schoenmaker, Bart; Deelder, André M

    2009-05-02

    Accurate mass determination enhances peptide identification in mass spectrometry based proteomics. We here describe the combination of two previously published open source software tools to improve mass measurement accuracy in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The first program, msalign, aligns one MS/MS dataset with one FTICRMS dataset. The second software, recal2, uses peptides identified from the MS/MS data for automated internal calibration of the FTICR spectra, resulting in sub-ppm mass measurement errors.

  13. 3D measurement using combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach is a commonly used 3D measurement technique. In this technique, an error that equals integer multiples of the phase-shifted fringe period, i.e. period jump error, often exists in the absolute analog code, which can lead to gross measurement errors. To overcome this problem, the present paper proposes 3D measurement using a combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach. Based on 3D measurement using the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, one set of low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns with an odd-numbered multiple of the original phase-shifted fringe period is added. Thus, the absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, and the low-frequency absolute analog code measured value can also be obtained by adding low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns. Then, the corrected absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by correcting the former by the latter, and the period jump errors can be eliminated, resulting in reliable analog code unwrapping. For the proposed approach, we established its measurement model, analyzed its measurement principle, expounded the mechanism of eliminating period jump errors by error analysis, and determined its applicable conditions. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively eliminate period jump errors, reliably perform analog code unwrapping, and improve the measurement accuracy.

  14. Surveying and optical tooling technologies combined to align a skewed beamline at the LAMPF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.; Clark, D.A.; Trujillo, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results

  15. Integrating uncertainties to the combined environmental and economic assessment of algal biorefineries: A Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Montazeri, Mahdokht; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    The economic and environmental performance of microalgal processes has been widely analyzed in recent years. However, few studies propose an integrated process-based approach to evaluate economic and environmental indicators simultaneously. Biodiesel is usually the single product and the effect of environmental benefits of co-products obtained in the process is rarely discussed. In addition, there is wide variation of the results due to inherent variability of some parameters as well as different assumptions in the models and limited knowledge about the processes. In this study, two standardized models were combined to provide an integrated simulation tool allowing the simultaneous estimation of economic and environmental indicators from a unique set of input parameters. First, a harmonized scenario was assessed to validate the joint environmental and techno-economic model. The findings were consistent with previous assessments. In a second stage, a Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the influence of variable and uncertain parameters in the model output, as well as the correlations between the different outputs. The simulation showed a high probability of achieving favorable environmental performance for the evaluated categories and a minimum selling price ranging from $11gal -1 to $106gal -1 . Greenhouse gas emissions and minimum selling price were found to have the strongest positive linear relationship, whereas eutrophication showed weak correlations with the other indicators (namely greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand and minimum selling price). Process parameters (especially biomass productivity and lipid content) were the main source of variation, whereas uncertainties linked to the characterization methods and economic parameters had limited effect on the results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  17. Combined In Situ Illumination-NMR-UV/Vis Spectroscopy: A New Mechanistic Tool in Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegerer, Andreas; Nitschke, Philipp; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2018-06-18

    Synthetic applications in photochemistry are booming. Despite great progress in the development of new reactions, mechanistic investigations are still challenging. Therefore, we present a fully automated in situ combination of NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and illumination to allow simultaneous and time-resolved detection of paramagnetic and diamagnetic species. This optical fiber-based setup enables the first acquisition of combined UV/Vis and NMR spectra in photocatalysis, as demonstrated on a conPET process. Furthermore, the broad applicability of combined UVNMR spectroscopy for light-induced processes is demonstrated on a structural and quantitative analysis of a photoswitch, including rate modulation and stabilization of transient species by temperature variation. Owing to the flexibility regarding the NMR hardware, temperature, and light sources, we expect wide-ranging applications of this setup in various research fields. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. The need for combining IEA and IE tools. The potential effects of a global ban on PVC on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, Rene; Van der Voet, Ester; Udo de Haes, Helias A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades the concepts of Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) and Industrial Ecology (IE), both claiming to provide analyses and solutions for sustainability issues, have been developed separately as they emerged in response to questions from different policy-fields. In both fields, specific tools are used to support national and international environmental policy. The focus of IEA and IE tools, however, is different. IEA tools focus on one or a limited number of specific environmental issues. They often model the chain environmental processes with high spatial (and temporal) resolution, but have a low resolution for the material structure of the economy and only partly take into account indirect effects that occur via physical and socio-economic linkages. IE tools take into account all environmental issues related to a specific substance or product. They have a high resolution for the material structure of the economy and take into account indirect effects that occur via physical linkages, however, their environmental modelling is very limited. Both IE and IEA tools have proven to be very useful and neither is superior to the other. However, a combination of both can provide additional information that can be used for more effective policy making. We use the case of a hypothetical world-wide ban on PVC to show that a measure that is not directly related to climate change could still have significant climate effects. This indirect effect is a result of the linkages of material flows in society. We show that IEA tools are not well suited to include these types of effects and that IE tools can fill this gap partially. What is really needed is a broader systems perspective that takes into account the full range of possible side-effects of environmental policy measures. (author)

  19. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Tho Nguyen

    Full Text Available Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment.

  20. Liquid-phase microextraction approaches combined with atomic detection: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) displays unique characteristics such as excellent preconcentration capability, simplicity, low cost, sample cleanup and integration of steps. Even though LPME approaches have the potential to be combined with almost every analytical technique, their use in combination with atomic detection techniques has not been exploited until recently. A comprehensive review dealing with the applications of liquid-phase microextraction combined with atomic detection techniques is presented. Theoretical features, possible strategies for these combinations as well as the effect of key experimental parameters influencing method development are addressed. Finally, a critical comparison of the different LPME approaches in terms of enrichment factors achieved, extraction efficiency, precision, selectivity and simplicity of operation is provided.

  1. Nanotechnology-based combinational drug delivery: an emerging approach for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Priyambada; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Combination therapy for the treatment of cancer is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, reduces individual drug-related toxicity and suppresses multi-drug resistance through different mechanisms of action. In recent years, nanotechnology-based combination drug delivery to tumor tissues has emerged as an effective strategy by overcoming many biological, biophysical and biomedical barriers that the body stages against successful delivery of anticancer drugs. The sustained, controlled and targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in a combination approach enhanced therapeutic anticancer effects with reduced drug-associated side effects. In this article, we have reviewed the scope of various nanotechnology-based combination drug delivery approaches and also summarized the current perspective and challenges facing the successful treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Image-Based Airborne Sensors: A Combined Approach for Spectral Signatures Classification through Deterministic Simulated Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo; Herrera, P. Javier

    2009-01-01

    The increasing technology of high-resolution image airborne sensors, including those on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, demands automatic solutions for processing, either on-line or off-line, the huge amountds of image data sensed during the flights. The classification of natural spectral signatures in images is one potential application. The actual tendency in classification is oriented towards the combination of simple classifiers. In this paper we propose a combined strategy based on the Deterministic Simulated Annealing (DSA) framework. The simple classifiers used are the well tested supervised parametric Bayesian estimator and the Fuzzy Clustering. The DSA is an optimization approach, which minimizes an energy function. The main contribution of DSA is its ability to avoid local minima during the optimization process thanks to the annealing scheme. It outperforms simple classifiers used for the combination and some combined strategies, including a scheme based on the fuzzy cognitive maps and an optimization approach based on the Hopfield neural network paradigm. PMID:22399989

  3. RELAP5 simulation of surge line break accident using combined and best estimate plus uncertainty approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Marian; Kliment, Tomas; Petruzzi, Alessandro; Lipka, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Licensing calculations in a majority of countries worldwide still rely on the application of combined approach using best estimate computer code without evaluation of the code models uncertainty and conservative assumptions on initial and boundary, availability of systems and components and additional conservative assumptions. However best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) approach representing the state-of-the-art in the area of safety analysis has a clear potential to replace currently used combined approach. There are several applications of BEPU approach in the area of licensing calculations, but some questions are discussed, namely from the regulatory point of view. In order to find a proper solution to these questions and to support the BEPU approach to become a standard approach for licensing calculations, a broad comparison of both approaches for various transients is necessary. Results of one of such comparisons on the example of the VVER-440/213 NPP pressurizer surge line break event are described in this paper. A Kv-scaled simulation based on PH4-SLB experiment from PMK-2 integral test facility applying its volume and power scaling factor is performed for qualitative assessment of the RELAP5 computer code calculation using the VVER-440/213 plant model. Existing hardware differences are identified and explained. The CIAU method is adopted for performing the uncertainty evaluation. Results using combined and BEPU approaches are in agreement with the experimental values in PMK-2 facility. Only minimal difference between combined and BEPU approached has been observed in the evaluation of the safety margins for the peak cladding temperature. Benefits of the CIAU uncertainty method are highlighted.

  4. Comparing a phased combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method with other simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    A phased combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method (PARISM) has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse reflections with angle-dependent and complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. It is of great interest to model both specular...

  5. Combined radiolysis/GLC as a tool for the investigation of stabilizing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.; Eckert, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Combined radiolysis/GLC was used to prove the chemical incorporation of lauric acid from cadmium laurate into polyvinyl chloride. The samples were exposed for 10 days to x-rays at a dose rate of 0.345 Mrad/hr

  6. A Combined Structural and Electromechanical FE Approach for Industrial Ultrasonic Devices Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorderet, Alain; Prenleloup, Alain; Colla, Enrico

    2011-05-01

    Ultrasonic assistance is widely used in manufacturing, both for conventional (e.g. grinding, drilling) and non-conventional (e.g. EDM) processes. Ultrasonic machining is also used as a stand alone process for instance for micro-drilling. Industrial application of these processes requires increasingly efficient and accurate development tools to predict the performance of the ultrasonic device: the so-called sonotrode and the piezo-transducer. This electromechanical system consists of a structural part and of a piezo-electrical part (actuator). In this paper, we show how to combine two simulation softwares—for stuctures and electromechanical devices—to perform a complete design analysis and optimization of a sonotrode for ultrasonic drilling applications. The usual design criteria are the eigenfrequencies of the desired vibrational modes. In addition, during the optimization phase, one also needs to consider the maximum achievable displacement for a given applied voltage. Therefore, one must be able to predict the electromechanical behavior of the integrated piezo-structure system, in order to define, adapt and optimize the electric power supply as well as the control strategy (search, tracking of the eigenfrequency). In this procedure, numerical modelling follows a two-step approach, by means of a solid mechanics FE code (ABAQUS) and of an electromechanical simulation software (ATILA). The example presented illustrates the approach and describes the obtained results for the development of an industrial sonotrode system dedicated to ultrasonic micro-drilling of ceramics. The 3D model of the sonotrode serves as input for generating the FE mesh in ABAQUS and this mesh is then translated into an input file for ATILA. ABAQUS results are used to perform the first optimization step in order to obtain a sonotrode design leading to the requested modal behaviour—eigen-frequency and corresponding dynamic amplification. The second step aims at evaluating the dynamic

  7. A combined MOIP-MCDA approach to building and screening atmospheric pollution control strategies in urban regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrotas, George; Ziomas, Ioannis C; Diakouaki, Danae

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a methodological approach for the formulation of control strategies capable of reducing atmospheric pollution at the standards set by European legislation. The approach was implemented in the greater area of Thessaloniki and was part of a project aiming at the compliance with air quality standards in five major cities in Greece. The methodological approach comprises two stages: in the first stage, the availability of several measures contributing to a certain extent to reducing atmospheric pollution indicates a combinatorial problem and favors the use of Integer Programming. More specifically, Multiple Objective Integer Programming is used in order to generate alternative efficient combinations of the available policy measures on the basis of two conflicting objectives: public expenditure minimization and social acceptance maximization. In the second stage, these combinations of control measures (i.e., the control strategies) are then comparatively evaluated with respect to a wider set of criteria, using tools from Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, namely, the well-known PROMETHEE method. The whole procedure is based on the active involvement of local and central authorities in order to incorporate their concerns and preferences, as well as to secure the adoption and implementation of the resulting solution.

  8. A Combined MOIP-MCDA Approach to Building and Screening Atmospheric Pollution Control Strategies in Urban Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrotas, George; Ziomas, Ioannis C.; Diakouaki, Danae

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a methodological approach for the formulation of control strategies capable of reducing atmospheric pollution at the standards set by European legislation. The approach was implemented in the greater area of Thessaloniki and was part of a project aiming at the compliance with air quality standards in five major cities in Greece. The methodological approach comprises two stages: in the first stage, the availability of several measures contributing to a certain extent to reducing atmospheric pollution indicates a combinatorial problem and favors the use of Integer Programming. More specifically, Multiple Objective Integer Programming is used in order to generate alternative efficient combinations of the available policy measures on the basis of two conflicting objectives: public expenditure minimization and social acceptance maximization. In the second stage, these combinations of control measures (i.e., the control strategies) are then comparatively evaluated with respect to a wider set of criteria, using tools from Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, namely, the well-known PROMETHEE method. The whole procedure is based on the active involvement of local and central authorities in order to incorporate their concerns and preferences, as well as to secure the adoption and implementation of the resulting solution.

  9. An approach to combining heuristic and qualitative reasoning in an expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Si; Han, Chia Yung; Tsai, Lian Cheng; Wee, William G.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to combining the heuristic reasoning from shallow knowledge and the qualitative reasoning from deep knowledge is described. The shallow knowledge is represented in production rules and under the direct control of the inference engine. The deep knowledge is represented in frames, which may be put in a relational DataBase Management System. This approach takes advantage of both reasoning schemes and results in improved efficiency as well as expanded problem solving ability.

  10. Tools for probing local circuits: high-density silicon probes combined with optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, György; Stark, Eran; Berényi, Antal; Khodagholy, Dion; Kipke, Daryl R.; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall

    2015-01-01

    To understand how function arises from the interactions between neurons, it is necessary to use methods that allow the monitoring of brain activity at the single-neuron, single-spike level and the targeted manipulation of the diverse neuron types selectively in a closed-loop manner. Large-scale recordings of neuronal spiking combined with optogenetic perturbation of identified individual neurons has emerged as a suitable method for such tasks in behaving animals. To fully exploit the potential power of these methods, multiple steps of technical innovation are needed. We highlight the current state-of-the-art in electrophysiological recording methods, combined with optogenetics, and discuss directions for progress. In addition, we point to areas where rapid development is in progress and discuss topics where near-term improvements are possible and needed. PMID:25856489

  11. When one model is not enough: Combining epistemic tools in systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2013-01-01

    . The conceptual repertoire of Rheinberger’s historical epistemology offers important insights for an analysis of the modelling practice. I illustrate this with a case study on network modeling in systems biology where engineering approaches are applied to the study of biological systems. I shall argue...

  12. Combining epidemiologic and biostatistical tools to enhance variable selection in HIV cohort analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rentsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variable selection is an important step in building a multivariate regression model for which several methods and statistical packages are available. A comprehensive approach for variable selection in complex multivariate regression analyses within HIV cohorts is explored by utilizing both epidemiological and biostatistical procedures. METHODS: Three different methods for variable selection were illustrated in a study comparing survival time between subjects in the Department of Defense's National History Study and the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center's HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study. The first two methods were stepwise selection procedures, based either on significance tests (Score test, or on information theory (Akaike Information Criterion, while the third method employed a Bayesian argument (Bayesian Model Averaging. RESULTS: All three methods resulted in a similar parsimonious survival model. Three of the covariates previously used in the multivariate model were not included in the final model suggested by the three approaches. When comparing the parsimonious model to the previously published model, there was evidence of less variance in the main survival estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The variable selection approaches considered in this study allowed building a model based on significance tests, on an information criterion, and on averaging models using their posterior probabilities. A parsimonious model that balanced these three approaches was found to provide a better fit than the previously reported model.

  13. A Novel Teaching Tool Combined With Active-Learning to Teach Antimicrobial Spectrum Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Conan

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To design instructional methods that would promote long-term retention of knowledge of antimicrobial pharmacology, particularly the spectrum of activity for antimicrobial agents, in pharmacy students. Design. An active-learning approach was used to teach selected sessions in a required antimicrobial pharmacology course. Students were expected to review key concepts from the course reader prior to the in-class sessions. During class, brief concept reviews were followed by active-learning exercises, including a novel schematic method for learning antimicrobial spectrum of activity ("flower diagrams"). Assessment. At the beginning of the next quarter (approximately 10 weeks after the in-class sessions), 360 students (three yearly cohorts) completed a low-stakes multiple-choice examination on the concepts in antimicrobial spectrum of activity. When data for students was pooled across years, the mean number of correct items was 75.3% for the items that tested content delivered with the active-learning method vs 70.4% for items that tested content delivered via traditional lecture (mean difference 4.9%). Instructor ratings on student evaluations of the active-learning approach were high (mean scores 4.5-4.8 on a 5-point scale) and student comments were positive about the active-learning approach and flower diagrams. Conclusion. An active-learning approach led to modestly higher scores in a test of long-term retention of pharmacology knowledge and was well-received by students.

  14. Combined transoral and endoscopic approach for total maxillectomy: a pioneering report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Yu, Huapeng; Wang, Dehui; Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Xicai; Liu, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Total maxillectomy is sometimes necessary especially for malignant tumors originating from the maxillary sinus. Here we describe a combined transoral and endoscopic approach for total maxillectomy for the treatment of malignant maxillary sinus tumors and evaluate its short-term outcome. This approach was evaluated in terms of the physiological function, aesthetic outcome, and complications. Six patients underwent the above-mentioned approach for resection of malignant maxillary sinus tumors from May 2010 to June 2011. This combined transoral and endoscopic approach includes five basic steps: total sphenoethmoidectomy, sublabial incision, incision of the frontal process of the maxilla, incision of the zygomaticomaxillary fissure, and hard palate osteotomy. All patients with malignant maxillary sinus tumors successfully underwent the planned total endoscopic maxillectomy without the need for facial incision or transfixion of the nasal septum; there were no significant complications. Five patients received preoperative radiation therapy. All patients were well and had no recurrence at follow-up from 13 to 27 months. The combined approach is feasible and can be performed in carefully selected patients. The benefit of the absence of facial incisions or transfixion of the nasal septum, potential improvement in hemostasis, and visual magnification may help to decrease the morbidity of traditional open approaches.

  15. COMPARISONS BETWEEN AND COMBINATIONS OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO ACCELERATE ENGINEERING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steyn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this article, traditional project management methods such as PERT and CPM, as well as fast-tracking and systems approaches, viz. concurrent engineering and critical chain, are reviewed with specific reference to their contribution to reducing the duration of the execution phase of engineering projects. Each of these techniques has some role to play in the acceleration of project execution. Combinations of approaches are evaluated by considering the potential of sets consisting of two different approaches each. While PERT and CPM approaches have been combined for many years in a technique called PERT/CPM, new combinations of approaches are discussed. Certain assumptions inherent to PERT and often wrong are not made by the critical chain approach.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie artikel word tradisionele projekbestuurbenaderings soos PERT en CPM asook projekversnelling en stelselbenaderings, naamlik gelyktydige ingenieurswese, en kritiekeketting-ondersoek met betrekking tot die bydrae wat elk tot die versnelling van die uitvoeringsfase van ingenieursprojekte kan lewer. Elk van hierdie benaderings kan ‘n spesifieke bydrae tot die versnelling van projekte lewer. Kombinasies, elk bestaande uit twee verskillende benaderings, word geëvalueer. Terwyl PERT en CPM reeds baie jare lank in kombinasie gebruik word, word nuwe kombinasies ook hier bespreek. Sekere aannames inherent aan die PERT-benadering is dikwels foutief. Hierdie aannames word nie deur die kritieke-ketting-benadering gemaak nie.

  16. A Combined Raindrop Aggregate Destruction Test-Settling Tube (RADT-ST Approach to Identify the Settling Velocity of Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangang Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sediment settling velocity based on mineral grain size distribution in erosion models ignores the effects of aggregation on settling velocity. The alternative approach, wet-sieved aggregate size distribution, on the other hand, cannot represent all destructive processes that eroded soils may experience under impacting raindrops. Therefore, without considering raindrop impact, both methods may lead to biased predictions of the redistribution of sediment and associated substances across landscapes. Rainfall simulation is an effective way to simulate natural raindrop impact under controlled laboratory conditions. However, very few methods have been developed to integrate rainfall simulation with the settling velocity of eroded sediment. This study aims to develop a new proxy, based on rainfall simulation, in order to identify the actual settling velocity distribution of aggregated sediment. A combined Raindrop Aggregate Destruction Test-Settling Tube (RADT-ST approach was developed to (1 simulate aggregate destruction under a series of simulated rainfalls; and (2 measure the actual settling velocity distribution of destroyed aggregates. Mean Weight Settling Velocity (MWSV of aggregates was used to investigate settling behaviors of different soils as rainfall kinetic energy increased. The results show the settling velocity of silt-rich raindrop impacted aggregates is likely to be underestimated by at least six times if based on mineral grain size distribution. The RADT-ST designed in this study effectively captures the effects of aggregation on settling behavior. The settling velocity distribution should be regarded as an evolving, rather than steady state parameter during erosion events. The combined RADT-ST approach is able to generate the quasi-natural sediment under controlled simulated rainfall conditions and is adequately sensitive to measure actual settling velocities of differently aggregated soils. This combined approach provides

  17. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART: an integrated approach for analyzing single molecule data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Greenfeld

    Full Text Available Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data.

  18. The function of prehistoric lithic tools: a combined study of use-wear analysis and FTIR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Lemorini, Cristina

    2012-02-01

    The application of combined use-wear analysis and FTIR micro spectroscopy for the investigation of the flint and obsidian tools from the archaeological sites of Masseria Candelaro (Foggia, Italy) and Sant'Anna di Oria (Brindisi, Italy) aiming to clarify their functional use is described. The tools excavated in the former site showed in a very high percentage spectroscopically detectable residues on their working edges. The identification of micro deposits is based on comparison with a great number of replicas studied in the same experimental conditions. FTIR data confirmed in almost all cases the use-wear analysis suggestions and added details about the material processed and about the working procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is Combining Child Labour and School Education the Right Approach? Investigating the Cambodian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…

  20. A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come...

  1. Global Practical Stabilization and Tracking for an Underactuated Ship - A Combined Averaging and Backstepping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We solve both the global practical stabilization and tracking problem for an underactuated ship, using a combined integrator backstepping and averaging approach. Exponential convergence to an arbitrarily small neighbourhood of the origin and of the reference trajectory, respectively, is proved. Simulation results are included.

  2. "Combining equity and utilitarianism"-additional insights into a novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen-Gerdessen, van Joke; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, Frits

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a novel approach (to be referred to as CEU) was introduced for the frequently arising problem of combining the conflicting criteria of equity and utilitarianism. This paper provides additional insights into CEU and assesses its added value for practice by comparing it with a commonly used

  3. A simple network agreement-based approach for combining evidences in a heterogeneous sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Eusebio-Grande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we investigate how the evidences provided by both static and mobile nodes that are part of a heterogenous sensor network can be combined to have trustworthy results. A solution relying on a network agreement-based approach was implemented and tested.

  4. Multirule Based Diagnostic Approach for the Fog Predictions Using WRF Modelling Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Payra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of fog onset remains difficult despite the progress in numerical weather prediction. It is a complex process and requires adequate representation of the local perturbations in weather prediction models. It mainly depends upon microphysical and mesoscale processes that act within the boundary layer. This study utilizes a multirule based diagnostic (MRD approach using postprocessing of the model simulations for fog predictions. The empiricism involved in this approach is mainly to bridge the gap between mesoscale and microscale variables, which are related to mechanism of the fog formation. Fog occurrence is a common phenomenon during winter season over Delhi, India, with the passage of the western disturbances across northwestern part of the country accompanied with significant amount of moisture. This study implements the above cited approach for the prediction of occurrences of fog and its onset time over Delhi. For this purpose, a high resolution weather research and forecasting (WRF model is used for fog simulations. The study involves depiction of model validation and postprocessing of the model simulations for MRD approach and its subsequent application to fog predictions. Through this approach model identified foggy and nonfoggy days successfully 94% of the time. Further, the onset of fog events is well captured within an accuracy of 30–90 minutes. This study demonstrates that the multirule based postprocessing approach is a useful and highly promising tool in improving the fog predictions.

  5. Tools to identify linear combination of prognostic factors which maximizes area under receiver operator curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Nicolae; Todor, Irina; Săplăcan, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    The linear combination of variables is an attractive method in many medical analyses targeting a score to classify patients. In the case of ROC curves the most popular problem is to identify the linear combination which maximizes area under curve (AUC). This problem is complete closed when normality assumptions are met. With no assumption of normality search algorithm are avoided because it is accepted that we have to evaluate AUC n(d) times where n is the number of distinct observation and d is the number of variables. For d = 2, using particularities of AUC formula, we described an algorithm which lowered the number of evaluations of AUC from n(2) to n(n-1) + 1. For d > 2 our proposed solution is an approximate method by considering equidistant points on the unit sphere in R(d) where we evaluate AUC. The algorithms were applied to data from our lab to predict response of treatment by a set of molecular markers in cervical cancers patients. In order to evaluate the strength of our algorithms a simulation was added. In the case of no normality presented algorithms are feasible. For many variables computation time could be increased but acceptable.

  6. Constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network and heuristics combined approaches for generalized job-shop scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Wang, D

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network, together with several heuristics, to solve the generalized job-shop scheduling problem, one of NP-complete constraint satisfaction problems. The proposed neural network can be easily constructed and can adaptively adjust its weights of connections and biases of units based on the sequence and resource constraints of the job-shop scheduling problem during its processing. Several heuristics that can be combined with the neural network are also presented. In the combined approaches, the neural network is used to obtain feasible solutions, the heuristic algorithms are used to improve the performance of the neural network and the quality of the obtained solutions. Simulations have shown that the proposed neural network and its combined approaches are efficient with respect to the quality of solutions and the solving speed.

  7. Combination of Evidence with Different Weighting Factors: A Novel Probabilistic-Based Dissimilarity Measure Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the invalidation problem of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DS with high conflict in multisensor data fusion, this paper presents a novel combination approach of conflict evidence with different weighting factors using a new probabilistic dissimilarity measure. Firstly, an improved probabilistic transformation function is proposed to map basic belief assignments (BBAs to probabilities. Then, a new dissimilarity measure integrating fuzzy nearness and introduced correlation coefficient is proposed to characterize not only the difference between basic belief functions (BBAs but also the divergence degree of the hypothesis that two BBAs support. Finally, the weighting factors used to reassign conflicts on BBAs are developed and Dempster’s rule is chosen to combine the discounted sources. Simple numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the merit of the proposed method. Through analysis and comparison of the results, the new combination approach can effectively solve the problem of conflict management with better convergence performance and robustness.

  8. Combined Tensor Fitting and TV Regularization in Diffusion Tensor Imaging Based on a Riemannian Manifold Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baust, Maximilian; Weinmann, Andreas; Wieczorek, Matthias; Lasser, Tobias; Storath, Martin; Navab, Nassir

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we consider combined TV denoising and diffusion tensor fitting in DTI using the affine-invariant Riemannian metric on the space of diffusion tensors. Instead of first fitting the diffusion tensors, and then denoising them, we define a suitable TV type energy functional which incorporates the measured DWIs (using an inverse problem setup) and which measures the nearness of neighboring tensors in the manifold. To approach this functional, we propose generalized forward- backward splitting algorithms which combine an explicit and several implicit steps performed on a decomposition of the functional. We validate the performance of the derived algorithms on synthetic and real DTI data. In particular, we work on real 3D data. To our knowledge, the present paper describes the first approach to TV regularization in a combined manifold and inverse problem setup.

  9. The DPSIR approach applied to marine eutrophication in LCIA as a learning tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Olsen, Stig Irving

    assessment and response design ultimately benefit from spatial differentiation in the results. DPSIR based on LCIA seems a useful tool to improve communication and learning, as it bridges science and management while promoting the basic elements of sustainable development in a practical educational...... eutrophication. The goal is to promote an educational example of environmental impacts assessment through science-based tools to predict the impacts, communicate knowledge and support decisions. The example builds on the (D) high demand for fixation of reactive nitrogen that supports several socio......: environmentally sustainable, technologically feasible, economically viable, socially desirable, legally permissible, and administratively achievable. Specific LCIA indicators may provide preliminary information to support a precautionary approach to act earlier on D-P and contribute to sustainability. Impacts...

  10. Life cycle tools combined with multi-criteria and participatory methods for agricultural sustainability: Insights from a systematic and critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Irene; Iofrida, Nathalie; Leskinen, Pekka; Stillitano, Teodora; Falcone, Giacomo; Strano, Alfio; Gulisano, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Life cycle (LC) methodologies have attracted a great interest in agricultural sustainability assessments, even if, at the same time, they have sometimes been criticized for making unrealistic assumptions and subjective choices. To cope with these weaknesses, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and/or participatory methods can be used to balance and integrate different sustainability dimensions. The purpose of this study is to highlight how life cycle approaches were combined with MCDA and participatory methods to address agricultural sustainability in the published scientific literature. A systematic and critical review was developed, highlighting the following features: which multi-criterial and/or participatory methods have been associated with LC tools; how they have been integrated or complemented (methodological relationships); the intensity of the involvement of stakeholders (degree of participation); and which synergies have been achieved by combining the methods. The main typology of integration was represented by multi-criterial frameworks integrating LC evaluations. LC tools can provide MCDA studies with local and global information on how to reduce negative impacts and avoid burden shifts, while MCDA methods can help LC practitioners deal with subjective assumptions in an objective way, to take into consideration actors' values and to overcome trade-offs among the different dimensions of sustainability. Considerations concerning the further development of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) have been identified as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined Hydrologic (AGWA-KINEROS2) and Hydraulic (HEC2) Modeling for Post-Fire Runoff and Inundation Risk Assessment through a Set of Python Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Goodrich, D. C.; Guertin, D. P.; Burns, I. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires in the Western United States can alter landscapes by removing vegetation and changing soil properties. These altered landscapes produce more runoff than pre-fire landscapes which can lead to post-fire flooding that can damage infrastructure and impair natural resources. Resources, structures, historical artifacts and others that could be impacted by increased runoff are considered values at risk. .The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) allows users to quickly set up and execute the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion model (KINEROS2 or K2) in the ESRI ArcMap environment. The AGWA-K2 workflow leverages the visualization capabilities of GIS to facilitate evaluation of rapid watershed assessments for post-fire planning efforts. High relative change in peak discharge, as simulated by K2, provides a visual and numeric indicator to investigate those channels in the watershed that should be evaluated for more detailed analysis, especially if values at risk are within or near that channel. Modeling inundation extent along a channel would provide more specific guidance about risk along a channel. HEC-2 and HEC-RAS can be used for hydraulic modeling efforts at the reach and river system scale. These models have been used to address flood boundaries and, accordingly, flood risk. However, data collection and organization for hydraulic models can be time consuming and therefore a combined hydrologic-hydraulic modeling approach is not often employed for rapid assessments. A simplified approach could streamline this process and provide managers with a simple workflow and tool to perform a quick risk assessment for a single reach. By focusing on a single reach highlighted by large relative change in peak discharge, data collection efforts can be minimized and the hydraulic computations can be performed to supplement risk analysis. The incorporation of hydraulic analysis through a suite of Python tools (as outlined by HEC-2) with AGWA-K2 will allow more rapid

  12. Combining On-Line Characterization Tools with Modern Software Environments for Optimal Operation of Polymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ghadipasha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial steps towards the formulation and implementation of a generic and flexible model centric framework for integrated simulation, estimation, optimization and feedback control of polymerization processes. For the first time it combines the powerful capabilities of the automatic continuous on-line monitoring of polymerization system (ACOMP, with a modern simulation, estimation and optimization software environment towards an integrated scheme for the optimal operation of polymeric processes. An initial validation of the framework was performed for modelling and optimization using literature data, illustrating the flexibility of the method to apply under different systems and conditions. Subsequently, off-line capabilities of the system were fully tested experimentally for model validations, parameter estimation and process optimization using ACOMP data. Experimental results are provided for free radical solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

  13. Multiport Combined Endoscopic Approach to Nonembolized Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma with Parapharyngeal Extension: An Emerging Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruchy Narayanan Janakiram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Surgical approaches to the parapharyngeal space (PPS are challenging by virtue of deep location and neurovascular content. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA is a formidable hypervascular tumor that involves multiple compartments with increase in size. In tumors with extension to parapharyngeal space, the endonasal approach was observed to be inadequate. Combined Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches and Endoscopic Transoral Surgery (EEA-ETOS approach has provided a customized alternative of multicorridor approach to access JNA for its safe and efficient resection. Methods. The study demonstrates a case series of patients of JNA with prestyloid parapharyngeal space extension operated by endoscopic endonasal and endoscopic transoral approach for tumor excision. Results. The multiport EEA-ETOS approach was used to provide wide exposure to access JNA in parapharyngeal space. No major complications were observed. No conversion to external approach was required. Postoperative morbidity was low and postoperative scans showed no residual tumor. A one-year follow-up was maintained and there was no evidence of disease recurrence. Conclusion. Although preliminary, our experience demonstrates safety and efficacy of multiport approach in providing access to multiple compartments, facilitating total excision of JNA in selected cases.

  14. A goal-based approach for qualification of new technologies: Foundations, tool support, and industrial validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad; Falessi, Davide; Briand, Lionel; Di Alesio, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    New technologies typically involve innovative aspects that are not addressed by the existing normative standards and hence are not assessable through common certification procedures. To ensure that new technologies can be implemented in a safe and reliable manner, a specific kind of assessment is performed, which in many industries, e.g., the energy sector, is known as Technology Qualification (TQ). TQ aims at demonstrating with an acceptable level of confidence that a new technology will function within specified limits. Expert opinion plays an important role in TQ, both to identify the safety and reliability evidence that needs to be developed and to interpret the evidence provided. Since there are often multiple experts involved in TQ, it is crucial to apply a structured process for eliciting expert opinions, and to use this information systematically when analyzing the satisfaction of the technology's safety and reliability objectives. In this paper, we present a goal-based approach for TQ. Our approach enables analysts to quantitatively reason about the satisfaction of the technology's overall goals and further to identify the aspects that must be improved to increase goal satisfaction. The approach is founded on three main components: goal models, expert elicitation, and probabilistic simulation. We describe a tool, named Modus, that we have developed in support of our approach. We provide an extensive empirical validation of our approach through two industrial case studies and a survey

  15. System approach as a tool for optimization of the dismantling technological process of NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bylkin, B.K.; Shpitser, V.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of NPP unit decommissioning has been considered. Special attention was paid to the stage of dismantling of NPP unit equipment. Employment of systematic approach as a tool for optimization of dismantling processes permits formalizing manipulations with certified indices of quality and it permits an objective assessment of the dismantling technology level attained during designing as compared with the basic one. It seems appropriate to develop a basic project of NPP unit decommissioning as a technical means of planning, predicting and evaluating ecological and social aftereffects

  16. Why do fearful facial expressions elicit behavioral approach? Evidence from a combined approach-avoidance implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jennifer L; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-04-01

    Despite communicating a "negative" emotion, fearful facial expressions predominantly elicit behavioral approach from perceivers. It has been hypothesized that this seemingly paradoxical effect may occur due to fearful expressions' resemblance to vulnerable, infantile faces. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We used a combined approach-avoidance/implicit association test (IAT) to test this hypothesis. Participants completed an approach-avoidance lever task during which they responded to fearful and angry facial expressions as well as neutral infant and adult faces presented in an IAT format. Results demonstrated an implicit association between fearful facial expressions and infant faces and showed that both fearful expressions and infant faces primarily elicit behavioral approach. The dominance of approach responses to both fearful expressions and infant faces decreased as a function of psychopathic personality traits. Results suggest that the prosocial responses to fearful expressions observed in most individuals may stem from their associations with infantile faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Approach to the problem of combined radiation and environmental effect standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burykina, L.N.; Ajzina, N.L.; Vasil'eva, L.A.; Veselovskaya, K.A.; Likhachev, Yu.P.; Ponomareva, V.L.; Satarina, S.M.; Shmeleva, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were used to study combined forms of damage caused by radioactive substances with varioUs types of distribution ( 131 I and 147 Pm) and by external radiation sources (γ, X). Damage caused by radiation and dust factors was also studied. Synergism of the combined effect of the tolerance dose of 147 Pm introduced and preceding external general γ-irradiation was determined. The combined action of 131 I and external γ- and X-ray radiation exhibited an additional effect on rat thyroid glands. The combined action of dust and radiation factors showed that the biological effect depended on the dose abs.orbed in a critical organ (lungs). The results of the investigations point to an important role of critical organs (systems) and the degree of their radiosensitivity in response of body to combined internal and external irradiations. The facts presented show that the approach to standardizing radiation factors from the position of partial summation should be changed. This may be accomplished by using a combination factor which is determined experimentally and reflects a relative biological efficiency of the combined effects as compared to separate ones

  18. A new approach for heparin standardization: combination of scanning UV spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Lima

    Full Text Available The year 2007 was marked by widespread adverse clinical responses to heparin use, leading to a global recall of potentially affected heparin batches in 2008. Several analytical methods have since been developed to detect impurities in heparin preparations; however, many are costly and dependent on instrumentation with only limited accessibility. A method based on a simple UV-scanning assay, combined with principal component analysis (PCA, was developed to detect impurities, such as glycosaminoglycans, other complex polysaccharides and aromatic compounds, in heparin preparations. Results were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. This approach provides an additional, sensitive tool to determine heparin purity and safety, even when NMR spectroscopy failed, requiring only standard laboratory equipment and computing facilities.

  19. Advances in combining gene therapy with cell and tissue engineering-based approaches to enhance healing of the meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, M; McNulty, A L; Mauck, R L; Setton, L A; Guilak, F; Madry, H

    2016-08-01

    Meniscal lesions are common problems in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, and injury or loss of the meniscus accelerates the onset of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite a variety of therapeutic options in the clinics, there is a critical need for improved treatments to enhance meniscal repair. In this regard, combining gene-, cell-, and tissue engineering-based approaches is an attractive strategy to generate novel, effective therapies to treat meniscal lesions. In the present work, we provide an overview of the tools currently available to improve meniscal repair and discuss the progress and remaining challenges for potential future translation in patients. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New user-friendly approach to obtain an Eisenberg plot and its use as a practical tool in protein sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rob C A

    2011-01-01

    The Eisenberg plot or hydrophobic moment plot methodology is one of the most frequently used methods of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is more and more recognized as a helpful tool in Life Sciences in general, and recent developments in approaches recognizing lipid binding regions in proteins are promising in this respect. In this study a bioinformatics approach specialized in identifying lipid binding helical regions in proteins was used to obtain an Eisenberg plot. The validity of the Heliquest generated hydrophobic moment plot was checked and exemplified. This study indicates that the Eisenberg plot methodology can be transferred to another hydrophobicity scale and renders a user-friendly approach which can be utilized in routine checks in protein-lipid interaction and in protein and peptide lipid binding characterization studies. A combined approach seems to be advantageous and results in a powerful tool in the search of helical lipid-binding regions in proteins and peptides. The strength and limitations of the Eisenberg plot approach itself are discussed as well. The presented approach not only leads to a better understanding of the nature of the protein-lipid interactions but also provides a user-friendly tool for the search of lipid-binding regions in proteins and peptides.

  1. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies.

  2. Combining proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of llama (Lama glama) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Bianchi, Leonardo; Henry, Céline; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Llamas belong to the Camelidae family along with camels. While dromedary camel milk has been broadly characterized, data on llama milk proteins are scarce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of llama milk. Skimmed llama milk proteins were first characterized by a 2D separation technique coupling RP-HPLC in the first dimension with SDS-PAGE in the second dimension (RP-HPLC/SDS-PAGE). Llama milk proteins, namely caseins (αs1 -, αs2 -, β-, and κ-caseins), α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, were identified using PMF. Llama milk proteins were also characterized by online LC-ESI-MS analysis. This approach allowed attributing precise molecular masses for most of the previously MS-identified llama milk proteins. Interestingly, α-lactalbumin exhibits distinct chromatographic behaviors between llama and dromedary camel milk. De novo sequencing of the llama α-lactalbumin protein by LC coupled with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) showed the occurrence of two amino acid substitutions (R62L/I and K89L/I) that partly explained the higher hydrophobicity of llama α-lactalbumin compared with its dromedary counterpart. Taken together, these results provide for the first time a thorough description of the protein fraction of Lama glama milk. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Estevinho, Letícia; Machado, Adélio A.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10–20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. - Highlights: • Honey's floral origin labeling is a legal requirement. • Melissopalynology analysis usually used to evaluate pollens profile is laborious. • A novel E-tongue based approach is applied to assess pollens relative

  4. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); CQ-VR, Centro de Química – Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A. [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Estevinho, Letícia [CIMO-Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Machado, Adélio A.S.C. [LAQUIPAI – Laboratório de Química Inorgânica Pura e de Aplicação Interdisciplinar, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências da, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre n°. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-05

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10–20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. - Highlights: • Honey's floral origin labeling is a legal requirement. • Melissopalynology analysis usually used to evaluate pollens profile is laborious. • A novel E-tongue based approach is applied to assess pollens

  5. DC Voltage Droop Control Implementation in the AC/DC Power Flow Algorithm: Combinational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, F.; Macpherson, D.E.; Harrison, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    of operational flexibility, as more than one VSC station controls the DC link voltage of the MTDC system. This model enables the study of the effects of DC droop control on the power flows of the combined AC/DC system for steady state studies after VSC station outages or transient conditions without needing...... to use its complete dynamic model. Further, the proposed approach can be extended to include multiple AC and DC grids for combined AC/DC power flow analysis. The algorithm is implemented by modifying the MATPOWER based MATACDC program and the results shows that the algorithm works efficiently....

  6. A survey of approaches combining safety and security for industrial control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriaa, Siwar; Pietre-Cambacedes, Ludovic; Bouissou, Marc; Halgand, Yoran

    2015-01-01

    The migration towards digital control systems creates new security threats that can endanger the safety of industrial infrastructures. Addressing the convergence of safety and security concerns in this context, we provide a comprehensive survey of existing approaches to industrial facility design and risk assessment that consider both safety and security. We also provide a comparative analysis of the different approaches identified in the literature. - Highlights: • We raise awareness of safety and security convergence in numerical control systems. • We highlight safety and security interdependencies for modern industrial systems. • We give a survey of approaches combining safety and security engineering. • We discuss the potential of the approaches to model safety and security interactions

  7. The combined theoretical and experimental approach to arrive at optimum parameters in friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, C. B.

    2017-12-01

    Even though friction stir welding was invented long back (1991) by TWI England, till now there has no method or procedure or approach developed, which helps to obtain quickly optimum or exact parameters yielding good or sound weld. An approach has developed in which an equation has been derived, by which approximate rpm can be obtained and by setting range of rpm ±100 or 50 rpm over approximate rpm and by setting welding speed equal to 60 mm/min or 50 mm/min one can conduct FSW experiment to reach optimum parameters; one can reach quickly to optimum parameters, i.e. desired rpm, and welding speed, which yield sound weld by the approach. This approach can be effectively used to obtain sound welds for all similar and dissimilar combinations of materials such as Steel, Al, Mg, Ti, etc.

  8. The Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool: Identifying Combinations and Permutations of Multiple Chronic Diseases Using a Record-Level Computational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Nicholson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity, or the co-occurrence of multiple chronic health conditions within an individual, is an increasingly dominant presence and burden in modern health care systems.  To fully capture its complexity, further research is needed to uncover the patterns and consequences of these co-occurring health states.  As such, the Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool and the accompanying Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Toolkit have been created to allow researchers to identify distinct clusters that exist within a sample of participants or patients living with multimorbidity.  Development: The Tool and Toolkit were developed at Western University in London, Ontario, Canada.  This open-access computational program (JAVA code and executable file was developed and tested to support an analysis of thousands of individual records and up to 100 disease diagnoses or categories.  Application: The computational program can be adapted to the methodological elements of a research project, including type of data, type of chronic disease reporting, measurement of multimorbidity, sample size and research setting.  The computational program will identify all existing, and mutually exclusive, combinations and permutations within the dataset.  An application of this computational program is provided as an example, in which more than 75,000 individual records and 20 chronic disease categories resulted in the detection of 10,411 unique combinations and 24,647 unique permutations among female and male patients.  Discussion: The Tool and Toolkit are now available for use by researchers interested in exploring the complexities of multimorbidity.  Its careful use, and the comparison between results, will be valuable additions to the nuanced understanding of multimorbidity.

  9. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  10. A combined segmenting and non-segmenting approach to signal quality estimation for ambulatory photoplethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wander, J D; Morris, D

    2014-01-01

    Continuous cardiac monitoring of healthy and unhealthy patients can help us understand the progression of heart disease and enable early treatment. Optical pulse sensing is an excellent candidate for continuous mobile monitoring of cardiovascular health indicators, but optical pulse signals are susceptible to corruption from a number of noise sources, including motion artifact. Therefore, before higher-level health indicators can be reliably computed, corrupted data must be separated from valid data. This is an especially difficult task in the presence of artifact caused by ambulation (e.g. walking or jogging), which shares significant spectral energy with the true pulsatile signal. In this manuscript, we present a machine-learning-based system for automated estimation of signal quality of optical pulse signals that performs well in the presence of periodic artifact. We hypothesized that signal processing methods that identified individual heart beats (segmenting approaches) would be more error-prone than methods that did not (non-segmenting approaches) when applied to data contaminated by periodic artifact. We further hypothesized that a fusion of segmenting and non-segmenting approaches would outperform either approach alone. Therefore, we developed a novel non-segmenting approach to signal quality estimation that we then utilized in combination with a traditional segmenting approach. Using this system we were able to robustly detect differences in signal quality as labeled by expert human raters (Pearson’s r = 0.9263). We then validated our original hypotheses by demonstrating that our non-segmenting approach outperformed the segmenting approach in the presence of contaminated signal, and that the combined system outperformed either individually. Lastly, as an example, we demonstrated the utility of our signal quality estimation system in evaluating the trustworthiness of heart rate measurements derived from optical pulse signals. (paper)

  11. Developing a Crowdsourcing Approach and Tool for Pharmacovigilance Education Material Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Andrew; Beckmann, Jürgen; Dodoo, Alexander; Härmark, Linda; Hartigan-Go, Kenneth; Hegerius, Anna; Lindquist, Marie; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Tuccori, Marco; Hagemann, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The number of pharmacovigilance professionals worldwide is increasing with a high staff turnover. There is a constant stream of new colleagues with an interest or need to learn about the discipline. Consequently, there is an increasing need for training in pharmacovigilance. An important step towards this has been made through developing and publishing the World Health Organization (WHO)-International Society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP) Pharmacovigilance Curriculum. Using the Pharmacovigilance Curriculum effectively, it should be supplemented by providing comprehensive training material from various sources, and making the Pharmacovigilance Curriculum attractive and a high-utility product. We describe a pilot of the development and initial evaluation of a crowdsourcing tool for the provision of pharmacovigilance education material. Pharmacovigilance experts shared links to their material to sections of relevance in the hierarchy and a small group of organisations conducted an initial testing. In this pilot, we have shown the usability of such a web-based tool. The strengths of this approach include the potential for a routine 'democratic' approach to sharing educational material to a wider community and an openness for access.

  12. Hybrid Neural Network Approach Based Tool for the Modelling of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Laudani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid neural network approach based tool for identifying the photovoltaic one-diode model is presented. The generalization capabilities of neural networks are used together with the robustness of the reduced form of one-diode model. Indeed, from the studies performed by the authors and the works present in the literature, it was found that a direct computation of the five parameters via multiple inputs and multiple outputs neural network is a very difficult task. The reduced form consists in a series of explicit formulae for the support to the neural network that, in our case, is aimed at predicting just two parameters among the five ones identifying the model: the other three parameters are computed by reduced form. The present hybrid approach is efficient from the computational cost point of view and accurate in the estimation of the five parameters. It constitutes a complete and extremely easy tool suitable to be implemented in a microcontroller based architecture. Validations are made on about 10000 PV panels belonging to the California Energy Commission database.

  13. Interdisciplinary Approach to Tool-Handle Design Based on Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Harih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Products are becoming increasingly complex; therefore, designers are faced with a challenging task to incorporate new functionality, higher performance, and optimal shape design. Traditional user-centered design techniques such as designing with anthropometric data do not incorporate enough subject data to design products with optimal shape for best fit to the target population. To overcome these limitations, we present an interdisciplinary approach with medical imaging. The use of this approach is being presented on the development of an optimal sized and shaped tool handle where the hand is imaged using magnetic resonance imaging machine. The obtained images of the hand are reconstructed and imported into computer-aided design software, where optimal shape of the handle is obtained with Boolean operations. Methods can be used to develop fully customized products with optimal shape to provide best fit to the target population. This increases subjective comfort rating, performance and can prevent acute and cumulative trauma disorders. Provided methods are especially suited for products where high stresses and exceptional performance is expected (high performance tools, professional sports, and military equipment, etc.. With the use of these interdisciplinary methods, the value of the product is increased, which also increases the competitiveness of the product on the market.

  14. Approaches of data combining for reliability assessments with taking into account the priority of data application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, O.V.; Pecheritsa, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Based upon the available experience on assessments of risk from Ukrainian NPP's operational events as well as on results of State review of PSA studies for pilot units it should be noted that historical information on domestic NPP's operation is not always available or used properly under implementation of mentioned activities. The several approaches for combining of available generic and specific information for reliability parameters assessment (taking into account the priority of data application) are briefly described in the article along with some recommendations how to apply those approaches

  15. ED-WAVE tool design approach: Case of a textile wastewater treatment plant in Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipofya, V.; Kraslawski, A.; Avramenko, Y.

    The ED-WAVE tool is a PC based package for imparting training on wastewater treatment technologies. The system consists of four modules viz. Reference Library, Process Builder, Case Study Manager, and Treatment Adviser. The principles of case-based design and case-based reasoning as applied in the ED-WAVE tool are utilised in this paper to evaluate the design approach of the wastewater treatment plant at Mapeto David Whitehead & Sons (MDW&S) textile and garments factory, Blantyre, Malawi. The case being compared with MDW&S in the ED-WAVE tool is Textile Case 4 in Sri Lanka (2003). Equalisation, coagulation and rotating biological contactors is the sequencing of treatment units at Textile Case 4 in Sri Lanka. Screening, oxidation ditches and sedimentation is the sequencing of treatment units at MDW&S textile and garments factory. The study suggests that aerobic biological treatment is necessary in the treatment of wastewater from a textile and garments factory. MDW&S incorporates a sedimentation process which is necessary for the removal of settleable matter before the effluent is discharged to the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The study confirmed the practical use of the ED-WAVE tool in the design of wastewater treatment systems, where after encountering a new situation; already collected decision scenarios (cases) are invoked and modified in order to arrive at a particular design alternative. What is necessary, however, is to appropriately modify the case arrived at through the Case Study Manager in order to come up with a design appropriate to the local situation taking into account technical, socio-economic and environmental aspects.

  16. [Suicide and evaluation. Review of French tools: Non-dimensional approach and self-assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; de Chazeron, I; Llorca, P-M

    2016-06-01

    Suicide prevention represents a major challenge to public health, and the suicide risk is a permanent concern in psychiatry. But the main difficulty is its diagnosis. What resources are available in French which seem to help therapists in this process? We can distinguish the non-dimensional approach, the use of self-administered questionnaires or interviewer-administrated questionnaires. In this paper, for reasons of editing constraints, we are interested only in a non-dimensional approach and direct assessment measures by self-assessment, analysing the strengths and limitations of each and taking into account scientific studies that have been devoted to them and their clinical relevance. We first considered various aspects of non-dimensional approach through suicidal risk factors research, suicidal emergency and suicidal potential concepts, Shea approach, the model of Mann and some recommended evaluations. This type of approach has a number of advantages, but also limitations. Dimensional approach allows going further. In this article, we also discuss the existing self-assessment tools in French as for example dedicated item for Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) or specific scales such as Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), Suicidal Probability Scale (SPS), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and self-administered Suicide Risk Assessment Scale of Ducher (aRSD). These last two seem to be used as a priority regarding result of their validation studies. The strong correlation between the self-administered questionnaire aRSD and the interviewer-administered Suicide Risk Assessment Scale of Ducher RSD (r=0.92; P<10(-7)) shows the ability of patients to express their suicidal ideation if we want to invite them to do so. Copyright © 2015 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2013-01-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  18. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun, E-mail: jkkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G., E-mail: vgpetin@yahoo.com [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  19. Combined perventricular septal defect closure and patent ductus arteriosus ligation via the lower ministernotomy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitov, Alexey; Omelchenko, Alexander; Gorbatykh, Yuriy; Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexander; Karaskov, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decade, minimally invasive approaches have been advocated for surgical correction of congenital defects to reduce costs related to hospitalization and for improved cosmesis. Minimal skin incisions and partial sternotomy reduce surgical trauma, however these techniques might not be successful in treating a number of congenital pathological conditions, particularly for combined congenital defects. We focused on cases with a combined presentation of ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. We studied 12 infants who successfully underwent surgical treatment for a combined single-stage ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus closure through a lower ministernotomy without using cardiopulmonary bypass and X-rays. No intraoperative and early postoperative complications or mortality were noted. Postoperative echocardiography did not reveal residual shunts. The proposed technique is safe and reproducible in infants. © Crown copyright 2017.

  20. Combined transnasal and transoral endoscopic approach to a transsphenoidal encephalocele in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sien Hui; Mun, Kein Seong; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Manuel, Anura Michelle; Prepageran, Narayanan; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports an unusual case of a transsphenoidal encephalocele and discusses our experience with a minimally invasive management. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral approach to a transsphenoidal encephalocele in an infant. A 17-day-old boy, who was referred for further assessment of upper airway obstruction, presented with respiratory distress and feeding difficulties. Bronchoscopy and imaging revealed a transsphenoidal encephalocele. At the age of 48 days, he underwent a combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral excision of the nasal component of the encephalocele. This approach, with the aid of neuronavigation, allows good demarcation of the extra-cranial neck of the transsphenoidal encephalocele. We were able to cauterize and carefully dissect the sac prior to excision. The defect of the neck was clearly visualized, and Valsalva manoeuvre was performed to exclude any CSF leak. As the defect was small, it was allowed to heal by secondary intention. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he tolerated full feeds orally on day 2. Postoperative imaging demonstrated no evidence of recurrence of the nasal encephalocele. Endoscopic follow-up showed good healing of the mucosa and no cerebrospinal fluid leak. The surgical management of transsphenoidal encephalocele in neonates and infants is challenging. We describe a safe technique with low morbidity in managing such a condition. The combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral approach with neuronavigation is a minimally invasive, safe and feasible alternative, even for children below 1 year of age.

  1. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by a double story bungalow house in Johor, Malaysia, and assessments of alternative material configurations to determine the best energy performance were evaluated by using Revit Architecture 2012 and Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software to show which of the materials helped in reducing the operational energy use of the building to the greatest extent throughout its annual life cycle. At the end, some alternative, sustainable designs in terms of energy savings have been suggested.

  2. A novel combined interventional radiologic and hepatobiliary surgical approach to a complex traumatic hilar biliary stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. NeMoyer

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign strictures of the biliary system are challenging and uncommon conditions requiring a multidisciplinary team for appropriate management. Presentation of case: The patient is a 32-year-old male that developed a hilar stricture as sequelae of a gunshot wound. Due to the complex nature of the stricture and scarring at the porta hepatis a combined interventional radiologic and surgical approach was carried out to approach the hilum of the right and left hepatic ducts. The location of this stricture was found by ultrasound guidance intraoperatively using a balloon tipped catheter placed under fluoroscopy in the interventional radiology suite prior to surgery. This allowed the surgeons to select the line of parenchymal transection for best visualization of the stricture. A left hepatectomy was performed, the internal stent located and the right hepatic duct opened tangentially to allow a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (a Puestow-like anastomosis. Discussion: Injury to the intrahepatic biliary ductal confluence is rarely fatal, however, the associated injuries lead to severe morbidity as seen in this example. Management of these injuries poses a considerable challenge to the surgeon and treating physicians. Conclusion: Here we describe an innovative multi-disciplinary approach to the repair of this rare injury. Keywords: Combined approach, Interventional radiology, Hepatobiliary surgery, Complex traumatic hilar biliary stricture, Case report

  3. First Approach to a Holistic Tool for Assessing RES Investment Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Flores-Arias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining availability, viability, sustainability, technical options, and environmental impact in an energy-planning project is a difficult job itself for the today’s engineers. This becomes harder if the potential investors also need to be persuaded. Moreover, the problem increases even more if various consumptions are considered, as their patterns depend to a large extent on the type of facility and the activity. It is therefore essential to develop tools to assess the balance between generation and demand in a given installation. In this paper, a valuable tool is developed for the seamless calculation of the integration possibilities of renewable energies and the assessment of derived technical, financial and environmental impacts. Furthermore, it also considers their interaction with the power grid or other networks, raising awareness of the polluting emissions responsible for global warming. Through a series of Structured Query Language databases and a dynamic data parameterization, the software is provided with sufficient information to encode, calculate, simulate and graphically display information on the generation and demand of electric, thermal and transport energy, all in a user-friendly environment, finally providing an evaluation and feasibility report.

  4. Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Meijer

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native. Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.

  5. Energy Portfolio Assessment Tool (EPAT): Sustainable Energy Planning Using the WEF Nexus Approach - Texas Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroue, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The future energy portfolio at the national and subnational levels should consider its impact on water resources and environment. Although energy resources are the main contributors to the national economic growth, these resources must not exploit other primary natural resources. A study of the connections between energy and natural systems, such as water, environment and land is required prior to proceeding to energy development. Policy makers are in need of a tool quantifying the interlinkages across energy, water and the environment, while demonstrating the consequent trade-offs across the nexus systems. The Energy Portfolio Assessment Tool (EPAT) is a tool that enables the policy maker to create different energy portfolio scenarios with various energy and electricity sources, and evaluate the scenario's sustainability environmentally and economically. The Water-Energy-Food nexus systematic approach is the foundation of the EPAT framework. The research evaluates the impact of the current and projected Texas energy portfolios on water and the environment, taking into consideration energy production, electricity generation and policy change. The three scenarios to be assessed include EIA projections for energy production, and EIA projections for electricity generation with and without the Clean Power Plan (CPP). Each scenario is accompanied by tradeoffs across water, land, emissions, energy revenue and electricity cost. The CPP succeeds in mitigating the emissions of the electricity portfolio, but leads to an increase in water consumption and land use. The cost of electricity generation is almost identical with and without environmental conservation. Revenue from energy production increased, but results are majorly influenced by commodity price. Therefore, conservation policies should move from the silo to the nexus mentality to avoid unintended consequences as improving one part of the nexus could end up worsening the other parts.

  6. Developing a planning tool for South African prosecution resources: challenges and approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Koen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In every country the prosecution of criminal cases is governed by different laws, policies and processes. In South Africa, the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA has the responsibility of planning and managing all prosecution functions. The NPA has certain unique characteristics that make it different from other similar organisations internationally. The development of a planning tool that the NPA could use to plan their future resource requirements over the short to medium term required extensive modelling, and its final form included features which, to the best knowledge of the development team, make it unique both locally and internationally. Model design was largely influenced by the challenges emanating from the special requirements and context of the problem. Resources were not forecasted directly, but were derived with the help of simulation models that traced docket flows through various resource-driven processes. Docket flows were derived as a proportion of reported crimes, and these were forecasted using a multivariate statistical model which could take into account explanatory variables as well as the correlations between the patterns observed within different crime categories. The simulation consisted of a number of smaller models which could be run independently, and not of one overarching model. This approach was found to make the best use of available data, and compensated for the fact that certain parameters, linking different courts and court types, were not available. In addition, it simplified scenario testing and sensitivity analysis. The various components of the planning tool, including inputs and outputs of the simulation models and the linkages between the forecasts and the simulation models, were implemented in a set of spreadsheets. By using spreadsheets as a common user interface, the planning tool could be used by prosecutors and managers who may not have extensive mathematical or modelling experience.

  7. A Psychometric Tool for a Virtual Reality Rehabilitation Approach for Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pedroli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a chronic problem that affects the life of subjects and often influences their life choices. The standard rehabilitation methods all use a classic paper and pencil training format but these exercises are boring and demanding for children who may have difficulty in completing the treatments. It is important to develop a new rehabilitation program that would help children in a funny and engaging way. A Wii-based game was developed to demonstrate that a short treatment with an action video game, rather than phonological or orthographic training, may improve the reading abilities in dyslexic children. According to the results, an approach using cues in the context of a virtual environment may represent a promising tool to improve attentional skills. On the other hand, our results do not demonstrate an immediate effect on reading performance, suggesting that a more prolonged protocol may be a future direction.

  8. Assessment of the predictive accuracy of five in silico prediction tools, alone or in combination, and two metaservers to classify long QT syndrome gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Ivone U S; Stuckey, Alexander; Lai, Daniel; Skinner, Jonathan R; Love, Donald R

    2015-05-13

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an autosomal dominant condition predisposing to sudden death from malignant arrhythmia. Genetic testing identifies many missense single nucleotide variants of uncertain pathogenicity. Establishing genetic pathogenicity is an essential prerequisite to family cascade screening. Many laboratories use in silico prediction tools, either alone or in combination, or metaservers, in order to predict pathogenicity; however, their accuracy in the context of LQTS is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of five in silico programs and two metaservers in the analysis of LQTS 1-3 gene variants. The in silico tools SIFT, PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, SNPs&GO and SNAP, either alone or in all possible combinations, and the metaservers Meta-SNP and PredictSNP, were tested on 312 KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A gene variants that have previously been characterised by either in vitro or co-segregation studies as either "pathogenic" (283) or "benign" (29). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated to determine the best combination of in silico tools for each LQTS gene, and when all genes are combined. The best combination of in silico tools for KCNQ1 is PROVEAN, SNPs&GO and SIFT (accuracy 92.7%, sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 100% and MCC 0.70). The best combination of in silico tools for KCNH2 is SIFT and PROVEAN or PROVEAN, SNPs&GO and SIFT. Both combinations have the same scores for accuracy (91.1%), sensitivity (91.5%), specificity (87.5%) and MCC (0.62). In the case of SCN5A, SNAP and PROVEAN provided the best combination (accuracy 81.4%, sensitivity 86.9%, specificity 50.0%, and MCC 0.32). When all three LQT genes are combined, SIFT, PROVEAN and SNAP is the combination with the best performance (accuracy 82.7%, sensitivity 83.0%, specificity 80.0%, and MCC 0.44). Both metaservers performed better than the single in silico tools; however, they did not perform better than the best performing combination of in silico

  9. Modified Lip Repositioning with Esthetic Crown Lengthening: A Combined Approach to Treating Excessive Gingival Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Isis M; Gaud-Quintana, Sadja; Stern, Jacob K

    Lip repositioning surgery to address excessive gingival display induced by different etiologies has received major attention recently. Several techniques and variations have been reported, including myotomy or repositioning of the levator labii superioris muscle, Le Fort impaction, maxillary gingivectomies, botulinum toxin injections, and lip stabilization. This study reports a case of excessive gingival display treated by a modified combined approach. A 25-year-old woman with a 4- to 8-mm gingival display when smiling caused by a combination of short clinical crowns induced by an altered passive eruption and hypermobility of the upper lip underwent a staged esthetic crown-lengthening procedure followed by a modified lip repositioning technique. A description of the technique and a comparison with other modes of therapy is discussed. This modified approach for treating the hypermobile lip included a bilateral removal of a partial-thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule without severing the muscle, leaving the midline frenum intact and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. The narrower vestibule and increased tooth length resulted in a symmetric and pleasing gingival display when smiling that remained stable over time. With proper diagnosis and sequence of therapy, modified lip repositioning surgery combined with esthetic crown lengthening can be used predictably to treat excessive gingival display and enhance smile esthetics.

  10. Attitudes Toward Combining Psychological, Mind-Body Therapies and Nutritional Approaches for the Enhancement of Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Taryn Jade; Henke, Miriam; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the

  11. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder carcinoma treated by combined modality protocol (organ-sparing approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Tadeja; Cufer, Tanja; Cervek, Jozica; Borstnar, Simona; Kragelj, Borut; Zumer-Pregelj, Mirjana

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The results of bladder sparing approach for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, using a combination of transurethral resection (TUR), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, are encouraging. The survival of patients treated by this method is similar to the survival of patients treated by radical cystectomy. The aim of our study was to find out which pretreatment characteristics influence the survival of patients treated by organ sparing approach that would enable us to identify the patients most suitable for this type of treatment. Methods and Materials: The prognostic value of different factors, such as age, gender, performance status, hemoglobin level, clinical stage, histologic grade, presence of obstructive uropathy, and completeness of TUR, has been studied in 105 patients with invasive bladder cancer, who received a bladder sparing treatment in the period from 1988 to 1995. They were treated with a combination of TUR, followed by 2-4 cycles of methotrexate, cisplatinum, and vinblastine polychemotherapy. In complete responders the treatment was completed by radiotherapy (50 Gy to the bladder and 40 Gy to the regional lymph nodes), whereas nonresponders underwent cystectomy whenever feasible. Results: Our study has confirmed an independent prognostic value of performance status, histologic grade, and obstructive uropathy, for the disease-specific survival (DSS) of bladder cancer patients treated by a conservative approach. We believe that performance status best reflects the extent of disease and exerts significant influence on the extent and course of treatment, while obstructive uropathy is a good indicator of local spread of the disease, better than clinical T-stage. Our finding that histologic grade is one of the strongest prognostic factors shows that tumor biology also is a very important prognostic factor in patients treated by conservative approach. Conclusion: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who are most likely to benefit

  12. Minilaparoscopic technique for inguinal hernia repair combining transabdominal pre-peritoneal and totally extraperitoneal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo L; Loureiro, Marcelo P; Bonin, Eduardo A; Claus, Christiano P; Silva, Frederico W; Cury, Antonio M; Fernandes, Flavio A M

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic surgical repair of inguinal hernia is currently conducted using 2 techniques: the totally extraperitoneal (TEP) and the transabdominal (TAPP) hernia repair. The TEP procedure is technically advantageous, because of the use of no mesh fixation and the elimination of the peritoneal flap, leading to less postoperative pain and faster recovery. The drawback is that TEP is not performed as frequently, because of its complexity and longer learning curve. In this study, we propose a hybrid technique that could potentially become the gold standard of minimally invasive inguinal hernia surgery. This will be achieved by combining established advantages of TEP and TAPP associated with the precision and cosmetics of minilaparoscopy (MINI). Between January and July 2011, 22 patients were admitted for endoscopic inguinal hernia repair. The combined technique was initiated with TAPP inspection and direct visualization of a minilaparoscopic trocar dissection of the preperitoneum space. A10-mm trocar was then placed inside the previously dissected preperitoneal space, using the same umbilical TAPP skin incision. Minilaparoscopic retroperitoneal dissection was completed by TEP, and the surgical procedure was finalized with intraperitoneal review and correction of the preperitoneal work. The minilaparoscopic TEP-TAPP combined approach for inguinal hernia is feasible, safe, and allows a simple endoscopic repair. This is achieved by combining features and advantages of both TAPP and TEP techniques using precise and sophisticated MINI instruments. Minilaparoscopic preperitoneal dissection allows a faster and easier creation of the preperitoneal space for the TEP component of the procedure.

  13. Advanced strategies for end-stage heart failure: combining regenerative approaches with LVAD, a new horizon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyenne eTseng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the improved treatment of cardiovascular diseases the population with end-stage heart failure is progressively growing. The scarcity of the gold standard therapy, heart transplantation, demands novel therapeutic approaches. For patients awaiting transplantation ventricular assist devices have been of great benefit on survival. To allow explantation of the assist device and obviate heart transplantation, sufficient and durable myocardial recovery is necessary. However, explant rates so far are low. Combining mechanical circulatory support with regenerative therapies such as cell(-based therapy and biomaterials might give rise to improved long-term results. Although synergistic effects are suggested with mechanical support and stem cell therapy, evidence in both preclinical and clinical setting is lacking. This review focuses on advanced and innovative strategies for the treatment of end-stage heart failure and furthermore appraises clinical experience with combined strategies.

  14. Medical interpreters as tools: dangers and challenges in the utilitarian approach to interpreters' roles and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Kramer, Eric Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The utilitarian view to interpreters' roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter's emotional support perceived as tools. When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients' and interpreters' voice, objectifying interpreters' emotional work, and exploiting patients' needs. Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter's role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Arrhythmia Using Non-linear Approach: A Non-invasive Prognostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monisha; Ghosh, Dipak

    2018-04-01

    Accurate prognostic tool to identify severity of Arrhythmia is yet to be investigated, owing to the complexity of the ECG signal. In this paper, we have shown that quantitative assessment of Arrhythmia is possible using non-linear technique based on "Hurst Rescaled Range Analysis". Although the concept of applying "non-linearity" for studying various cardiac dysfunctions is not entirely new, the novel objective of this paper is to identify the severity of the disease, monitoring of different medicine and their dose, and also to assess the efficiency of different medicine. The approach presented in this work is simple which in turn will help doctors in efficient disease management. In this work, Arrhythmia ECG time series are collected from MIT-BIH database. Normal ECG time series are acquired using POLYPARA system. Both time series are analyzed in thelight of non-linear approach following the method "Rescaled Range Analysis". The quantitative parameter, "Fractal Dimension" (D) is obtained from both types of time series. The major finding is that Arrhythmia ECG poses lower values of D as compared to normal. Further, this information can be used to access the severity of Arrhythmia quantitatively, which is a new direction of prognosis as well as adequate software may be developed for the use of medical practice.

  16. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  17. A Benders decomposition approach for a combined heat and power economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmohammadi, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Benders decomposition algorithm to solve combined heat and power economic dispatch. • Decomposing the CHPED problem into master problem and subproblem. • Considering non-convex heat-power feasible region efficiently. • Solving 4 units and 5 units system with 2 and 3 co-generation units, respectively. • Obtaining better or as well results in terms of objective values. - Abstract: Recently, cogeneration units have played an increasingly important role in the utility industry. Therefore the optimal utilization of multiple combined heat and power (CHP) systems is an important optimization task in power system operation. Unlike power economic dispatch, which has a single equality constraint, two equality constraints must be met in combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. Moreover, in the cogeneration units, the power capacity limits are functions of the unit heat productions and the heat capacity limits are functions of the unit power generations. Thus, CHPED is a complicated optimization problem. In this paper, an algorithm based on Benders decomposition (BD) is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem for cogeneration systems. In the proposed method, combined heat and power economic dispatch problem is decomposed into a master problem and subproblem. The subproblem generates the Benders cuts and master problem uses them as a new inequality constraint which is added to the previous constraints. The iterative process will continue until upper and lower bounds of the objective function optimal values are close enough and a converged optimal solution is found. Benders decomposition based approach is able to provide a good framework to consider the non-convex feasible operation regions of cogeneration units efficiently. In this paper, a four-unit system with two cogeneration units and a five-unit system with three cogeneration units are analyzed to exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In all cases, the

  18. A phenomenological approach for the analysis of combined fatigue and creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Quoc, T.; Biron, A.

    1982-01-01

    An approach is proposed for the life prediction, under cumulative damage conditions, for fatigue and for creep. An interaction effect is introduced to account for a modification in the material behavior due to previous loading. A predictive technique is then developed which is applied to several materials for fatigue and which could potentially be used for creep. With due consideration to the similarity of the formulation for both phenomena, the analysis for the combination of fatigue and creep is then carried out through a straightforward sequential use of the two damage functions. Several patterns are studied without and with an interaction effect. (orig.)

  19. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol using combined approach based on ultrasound, ozone and catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arati J; Gogate, Parag R

    2017-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of ultrasound and ozone operated individually and in combination with catalyst (ZnO and CuO) for establishing the possible synergistic effects for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The dependency of extent of degradation on the operating parameters like temperature (over the range of 30-36°C), initial pH (3-9), catalyst as ZnO (loading of 0.025-0.15g/L) and CuO (loading of 0.02-0.1g/L) and initial concentration of 2,4-DCP (20-50ppm) has been established to maximize the efficacy of ultrasound (US) induced degradation. Using only US, the maximum degradation of 2,4-DCP obtained was 28.85% under optimized conditions of initial concentration as 20ppm, pH of 5 and temperature of 34°C. Study of effect of ozone flow rate for approach of only ozone revealed that maximum degradation was obtained at 400mg/h ozone flow rate. The combined approaches such as US+O 3 , US+ZnO, US+CuO, O 3 +ZnO, O 3 +CuO, US+O 3 +ZnO and US+O 3 +CuO have been subsequently investigated under optimized conditions and observed to be more efficient as compared to individual approaches. The maximum extent of degradation for the combined operation of US+O 3 (400mg/h)+ZnO (0.1g/L) and US+O 3 (400mg/h)+CuO (0.08g/L) has been obtained as 95.66% and 97.03% respectively. The degradation products of 2,4-DCP have been identified using GC-MS analysis and the toxicity analysis has also been performed based on the anti-microbial activity test (agar-well diffusion method) for the different treatment strategies. The present work has conclusively established that the combined approach of US+O 3 +CuO was the most efficient treatment scheme resulting in near complete degradation of 2,4-DCP with production of less toxic intermediates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combining Approach in Stages with Least Squares for fits of data in hyperelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Tibi

    2006-10-01

    The present work concerns a method of continuous approximation by block of a continuous function; a method of approximation combining the Approach in Stages with the finite domains Least Squares. An identification procedure by sub-domains: basic generating functions are determined step-by-step permitting their weighting effects to be felt. This procedure allows one to be in control of the signs and to some extent of the optimal values of the parameters estimated, and consequently it provides a unique set of solutions that should represent the real physical parameters. Illustrations and comparisons are developed in rubber hyperelastic modeling. To cite this article: T. Beda, C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  1. Synthetic approaches towards new polymer systems by the combination of living carbocationic and anionic polymerizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Jesper; Ivan, Bela; Muller, Axel. H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent efforts to obtain block copolymers by combination of living carbocationic and anionic polymerizations are presented.When tolyl-ended polyisobutylene was used as macroinitiator of anionic polymerization of methacrylate derivatives mixtures of homopolymers and block copolymers were formed due...... to incomplete lithiation of this chain end.In another approach a new functionalization method was developed by end-quenching living polyisobutylene with 1,1-diphenylethylene. After transformation of the groups into 2,2-diphenylvinyl end groups and lithiation polymers were synthesized from protected acrylate...

  2. A combined analytic-numeric approach for some boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turkyilmazoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A combined analytic-numeric approach is undertaken in the present work for the solution of boundary-value problems in the finite or semi-infinite domains. Equations to be treated arise specifically from the boundary layer analysis of some two and three-dimensional flows in fluid mechanics. The purpose is to find quick but accurate enough solutions. Taylor expansions at either boundary conditions are computed which are next matched to the other asymptotic or exact boundary conditions. The technique is applied to the well-known Blasius as well as Karman flows. Solutions obtained in terms of series compare favorably with the existing ones in the literature.

  3. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches: Development of a generic fire risk model facilitating calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Sanctis, G.; Fischer, K.; Kohler, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fire risk models support decision making for engineering problems under the consistent consideration of the associated uncertainties. Empirical approaches can be used for cost-benefit studies when enough data about the decision problem are available. But often the empirical approaches...... a generic risk model that is calibrated to observed fire loss data. Generic risk models assess the risk of buildings based on specific risk indicators and support risk assessment at a portfolio level. After an introduction to the principles of generic risk assessment, the focus of the present paper...... are not detailed enough. Engineering risk models, on the other hand, may be detailed but typically involve assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment and make a cost-benefit study problematic. In two related papers it is shown how engineering and data-driven modeling can be combined by developing...

  4. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 250/125 mg combination tablets in healthy human volunteers: use of replicate design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M; Al-Ghazawi, Ahmad; Najib, Naji M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a replicate design approach to a bioequivalence study of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination following a 250/125 mg oral dose to 23 subjects, and to compare the analysis of individual bioequivalence with average bioequivalence. This was conducted as a 2-treatment 2-sequence 4-period crossover study. Average bioequivalence was shown, while the results from the individual bioequivalence approach had no success in showing bioequivalence. In conclusion, the individual bioequivalence approach is a strong statistical tool to test for intra-subject variances and also subject-by-formulation interaction variance compared with the average bioequivalence approach. copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Combined analgesics in (headache) pain therapy: shotgun approach or precise multi-target therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Andreas; Aicher, Bernhard; Fiebich, Bernd L; Haag, Gunther

    2011-03-31

    Pain in general and headache in particular are characterized by a change in activity in brain areas involved in pain processing. The therapeutic challenge is to identify drugs with molecular targets that restore the healthy state, resulting in meaningful pain relief or even freedom from pain. Different aspects of pain perception, i.e. sensory and affective components, also explain why there is not just one single target structure for therapeutic approaches to pain. A network of brain areas ("pain matrix") are involved in pain perception and pain control. This diversification of the pain system explains why a wide range of molecularly different substances can be used in the treatment of different pain states and why in recent years more and more studies have described a superior efficacy of a precise multi-target combination therapy compared to therapy with monotherapeutics. In this article, we discuss the available literature on the effects of several fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of headaches and discuss the evidence in support of the role of combination therapy in the pharmacotherapy of pain, particularly of headaches. The scientific rationale behind multi-target combinations is the therapeutic benefit that could not be achieved by the individual constituents and that the single substances of the combinations act together additively or even multiplicatively and cooperate to achieve a completeness of the desired therapeutic effect.As an example the fixed-dose combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), paracetamol (acetaminophen) and caffeine is reviewed in detail. The major advantage of using such a fixed combination is that the active ingredients act on different but distinct molecular targets and thus are able to act on more signalling cascades involved in pain than most single analgesics without adding more side effects to the therapy. Multitarget therapeutics like combined analgesics broaden the array of therapeutic options, enable the completeness

  6. Combined analgesics in (headache pain therapy: shotgun approach or precise multi-target therapeutics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebich Bernd L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain in general and headache in particular are characterized by a change in activity in brain areas involved in pain processing. The therapeutic challenge is to identify drugs with molecular targets that restore the healthy state, resulting in meaningful pain relief or even freedom from pain. Different aspects of pain perception, i.e. sensory and affective components, also explain why there is not just one single target structure for therapeutic approaches to pain. A network of brain areas ("pain matrix" are involved in pain perception and pain control. This diversification of the pain system explains why a wide range of molecularly different substances can be used in the treatment of different pain states and why in recent years more and more studies have described a superior efficacy of a precise multi-target combination therapy compared to therapy with monotherapeutics. Discussion In this article, we discuss the available literature on the effects of several fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of headaches and discuss the evidence in support of the role of combination therapy in the pharmacotherapy of pain, particularly of headaches. The scientific rationale behind multi-target combinations is the therapeutic benefit that could not be achieved by the individual constituents and that the single substances of the combinations act together additively or even multiplicatively and cooperate to achieve a completeness of the desired therapeutic effect. As an example the fixesd-dose combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, paracetamol (acetaminophen and caffeine is reviewed in detail. The major advantage of using such a fixed combination is that the active ingredients act on different but distinct molecular targets and thus are able to act on more signalling cascades involved in pain than most single analgesics without adding more side effects to the therapy. Summary Multitarget therapeutics like combined analgesics broaden

  7. Combined analgesics in (headache) pain therapy: shotgun approach or precise multi-target therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain in general and headache in particular are characterized by a change in activity in brain areas involved in pain processing. The therapeutic challenge is to identify drugs with molecular targets that restore the healthy state, resulting in meaningful pain relief or even freedom from pain. Different aspects of pain perception, i.e. sensory and affective components, also explain why there is not just one single target structure for therapeutic approaches to pain. A network of brain areas ("pain matrix") are involved in pain perception and pain control. This diversification of the pain system explains why a wide range of molecularly different substances can be used in the treatment of different pain states and why in recent years more and more studies have described a superior efficacy of a precise multi-target combination therapy compared to therapy with monotherapeutics. Discussion In this article, we discuss the available literature on the effects of several fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of headaches and discuss the evidence in support of the role of combination therapy in the pharmacotherapy of pain, particularly of headaches. The scientific rationale behind multi-target combinations is the therapeutic benefit that could not be achieved by the individual constituents and that the single substances of the combinations act together additively or even multiplicatively and cooperate to achieve a completeness of the desired therapeutic effect. As an example the fixesd-dose combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), paracetamol (acetaminophen) and caffeine is reviewed in detail. The major advantage of using such a fixed combination is that the active ingredients act on different but distinct molecular targets and thus are able to act on more signalling cascades involved in pain than most single analgesics without adding more side effects to the therapy. Summary Multitarget therapeutics like combined analgesics broaden the array of therapeutic

  8. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500

  9. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Andreo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  10. SNMP-SI: A Network Management Tool Based on Slow Intelligence System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colace, Francesco; de Santo, Massimo; Ferrandino, Salvatore

    The last decade has witnessed an intense spread of computer networks that has been further accelerated with the introduction of wireless networks. Simultaneously with, this growth has increased significantly the problems of network management. Especially in small companies, where there is no provision of personnel assigned to these tasks, the management of such networks is often complex and malfunctions can have significant impacts on their businesses. A possible solution is the adoption of Simple Network Management Protocol. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard protocol used to exchange network management information. It is part of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite. SNMP provides a tool for network administrators to manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan for network growth. SNMP has a big disadvantage: its simple design means that the information it deals with is neither detailed nor well organized enough to deal with the expanding modern networking requirements. Over the past years much efforts has been given to improve the lack of Simple Network Management Protocol and new frameworks has been developed: A promising approach involves the use of Ontology. This is the starting point of this paper where a novel approach to the network management based on the use of the Slow Intelligence System methodologies and Ontology based techniques is proposed. Slow Intelligence Systems is a general-purpose systems characterized by being able to improve performance over time through a process involving enumeration, propagation, adaptation, elimination and concentration. Therefore, the proposed approach aims to develop a system able to acquire, according to an SNMP standard, information from the various hosts that are in the managed networks and apply solutions in order to solve problems. To check the feasibility of this model first experimental results in a real scenario are showed.

  11. Combined Use of Morphological and Molecular Tools to Resolve Species Mis-Identifications in the Bivalvia The Case of Glycymeris glycymeris and G. pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purroy, Ariadna; Šegvić-Bubić, Tanja; Holmes, Anna; Bušelić, Ivana; Thébault, Julien; Featherstone, Amy; Peharda, Melita

    Morphological and molecular tools were combined to resolve the misidentification between Glycymeris glycymeris and Glycymeris pilosa from Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. The ambiguous literature on the taxonomic status of these species requires this confirmation as a baseline to studies on their ecology and sclerochronology. We used classical and landmark-based morphometric approaches and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses to test for shell character interactions at the individual and population level. Both approaches generated complementary information. The former showed the shell width to length ratio and the valve asymmetry to be the main discriminant characters between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. Additionally, the external microsculpture of additional and finer secondary ribs in G. glycymeris discriminates it from G. pilosa. Likewise, landmark-based geometric morphometrics revealed a stronger opisthogyrate beak and prosodetic ligament in G. pilosa than G. glycymeris. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS2 genes identified that G. glycymeris and G. pilosa form two separate monophyletic clades with mean interspecific divergence of 11% and 0.9% for COI and ITS2, respectively. The congruent patterns of morphometric analysis together with mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic reconstructions indicated the separation of the two coexisting species. The intraspecific divergence occurred during the Eocene and accelerated during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. Glycymeris pilosa showed a high level of genetic diversity, appearing as a more robust species whose tolerance of environmental conditions allowed its expansion throughout the Mediterranean.

  12. Deriving C4 photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence using an Excel tool: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The higher photosynthetic potential of C4 plants has led to extensive research over the past 50 years, including C4 -dominated natural biomes, crops such as maize, or for evaluating the transfer of C4 traits into C3 lineages. Photosynthetic gas exchange can be measured in air or in a 2% Oxygen mixture using readily available commercial gas exchange and modulated PSII fluorescence systems. Interpretation of these data, however, requires an understanding (or the development) of various modelling approaches, which limit the use by non-specialists. In this paper we present an accessible summary of the theory behind the analysis and derivation of C4 photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel Fitting Tool (EFT), making rigorous C4 data analysis accessible to a broader audience. Outputs include those defining C4 photochemical and biochemical efficiency, the rate of photorespiration, bundle sheath conductance to CO2 diffusion and the in vivo biochemical constants for PEP carboxylase. The EFT compares several methodological variants proposed by different investigators, allowing users to choose the level of complexity required to interpret data. We provide a complete analysis of gas exchange data on maize (as a model C4 organism and key global crop) to illustrate the approaches, their analysis and interpretation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Combined object-oriented approach for development of process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I.; Batchkova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The traditional approaches for development of software control system in automation an information technology based on a directly code creation are no longer effective and successful enough. The response to these challenges is the Model Driven Engineering (MDE) or its counter part in the field of architectures Model Driven Architecture (MDA). One of the most promising approach supporting MDE and MDA is UML. It does not specify a methodology for software or system design but aims to provide an integrated modeling framework for structural, functional and behavior descriptions. The success of UML in many object-oriented approaches led to an idea of applying UML to design of multi agent systems. The approach proposed in this paper applies modified Harmony methodology and is based on the combined use of UML profile for system engineering, IEC61499 standard and FIPA standard protocols. The benefits of object-oriented paradigm and the models of IEC61499 standard are extended with UML/SysML and FIPA notations. The development phases are illustrated with the UML models of a simple process control system. The main benefits of using the proposed approach can be summarized as: it provides consistency in the syntax and underlying semantics; increases the potential and likelihood of reuse; supports the whole software development life cycle in the field of process control. Including the SysML features, based on extended activity and parametric diagrams, flow ports and items to the proposed approach opens the possibilities for modeling of continuous system and support the development in field of process control. Another advantage, connected to the UML/MARTE profile is the possibility for analysis of the designed system and detailed design of the hardware and software platform of the modeled application. Key words: object-oriented modeling, control system, UML, SysML, IEC 61499

  14. Estimation of the influence of tool wear on force signals: A finite element approach in AISI 1045 orthogonal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equeter, Lucas; Ducobu, François; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Abouridouane, Mustapha; Klocke, Fritz; Dehombreux, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Industrial concerns arise regarding the significant cost of cutting tools in machining process. In particular, their improper replacement policy can lead either to scraps, or to early tool replacements, which would waste fine tools. ISO 3685 provides the flank wear end-of-life criterion. Flank wear is also the nominal type of wear for longest tool lifetimes in optimal cutting conditions. Its consequences include bad surface roughness and dimensional discrepancies. In order to aid the replacement decision process, several tool condition monitoring techniques are suggested. Force signals were shown in the literature to be strongly linked with tools flank wear. It can therefore be assumed that force signals are highly relevant for monitoring the condition of cutting tools and providing decision-aid information in the framework of their maintenance and replacement. The objective of this work is to correlate tools flank wear with numerically computed force signals. The present work uses a Finite Element Model with a Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The geometry of the tool is changed for different runs of the model, in order to obtain results that are specific to a certain level of wear. The model is assessed by comparison with experimental data gathered earlier on fresh tools. Using the model at constant cutting parameters, force signals under different tool wear states are computed and provide force signals for each studied tool geometry. These signals are qualitatively compared with relevant data from the literature. At this point, no quantitative comparison could be performed on worn tools because the reviewed literature failed to provide similar studies in this material, either numerical or experimental. Therefore, further development of this work should include experimental campaigns aiming at collecting cutting forces signals and assessing the numerical results that were achieved through this work.

  15. Biocompatible Nanoemulsions for Improved Aceclofenac Skin Delivery: Formulation Approach Using Combined Mixture-Process Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailović, Tanja; Ðorđević, Sanela; Marković, Bojan; Ranđelović, Danijela; Cekić, Nebojša; Lukić, Milica; Pantelić, Ivana; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for effective aceclofenac (ACF) skin delivery utilizing sucrose esters [sucrose palmitate (SP) and sucrose stearate (SS)] as additional stabilizers and penetration enhancers. To find the suitable surfactant mixtures and levels of process variables (homogenization pressure and number of cycles - high pressure homogenization manufacturing method) that result in drug-loaded nanoemulsions with minimal droplet size and narrow size distribution, a combined mixture-process experimental design was employed. Based on optimization data, selected nanoemulsions were evaluated regarding morphology, surface charge, drug-excipient interactions, physical stability, and in vivo skin performances (skin penetration and irritation potential). The predicted physicochemical properties and storage stability were proved satisfying for ACF-loaded nanoemulsions containing 2% of SP in the blend with 0%-1% of SS and 1%-2% of egg lecithin (produced at 50°C/20 cycles/800 bar). Additionally, the in vivo tape stripping demonstrated superior ACF skin absorption from these nanoemulsions, particularly from those containing 2% of SP, 0.5% of SS, and 1.5% of egg lecithin, when comparing with the sample costabilized by conventional surfactant - polysorbate 80. In summary, the combined mixture-process experimental design was shown as a feasible tool for formulation development of multisurfactant-based nanosized delivery systems with potentially improved overall product performances.

  16. Smart-card-based automatic meal record system intervention tool for analysis using data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, Satoko; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2010-04-01

    The Smart-card-based Automatic Meal Record system for company cafeterias (AutoMealRecord system) was recently developed and used to monitor employee eating habits. The system could be a unique nutrition assessment tool for automatically monitoring the meal purchases of all employees, although it only focuses on company cafeterias and has never been validated. Before starting an interventional study, we tested the reliability of the data collected by the system using the data mining approach. The AutoMealRecord data were examined to determine if it could predict current obesity. All data used in this study (n = 899) were collected by a major electric company based in Tokyo, which has been operating the AutoMealRecord system for several years. We analyzed dietary patterns by principal component analysis using data from the system and extracted 5 major dietary patterns: healthy, traditional Japanese, Chinese, Japanese noodles, and pasta. The ability to predict current body mass index (BMI) with dietary preference was assessed with multiple linear regression analyses, and in the current study, BMI was positively correlated with male gender, preference for "Japanese noodles," mean energy intake, protein content, and frequency of body measurement at a body measurement booth in the cafeteria. There was a negative correlation with age, dietary fiber, and lunchtime cafeteria use (R(2) = 0.22). This regression model predicted "would-be obese" participants (BMI >or= 23) with 68.8% accuracy by leave-one-out cross validation. This shows that there was sufficient predictability of BMI based on data from the AutoMealRecord System. We conclude that the AutoMealRecord system is valuable for further consideration as a health care intervention tool. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 1H NMR- based metabolomics approaches as non- invasive tools for diagnosis of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: So far, non-invasive diagnostic approaches such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or blood tests do not have sufficient diagnostic power for endometriosis disease. Lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test contributes to the long delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endometriosis. Objective: The present study focuses on the identification of predictive biomarkers in serum by pattern recognition techniques and uses partial least square discriminant analysis, multi-layer feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA modeling tools for the early diagnosis of endometriosis in a minimally invasive manner by 1H- NMR based metabolomics. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was done in Pasteur Institute, Iran in June 2013. Serum samples of 31 infertile women with endometriosis (stage II and III who confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy and 15 normal women were collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model was built by using partial least square discriminant analysis, QDA, and ANNs to determine classifier metabolites for early prediction risk of disease. Results: The levels of 2- methoxyestron, 2-methoxy estradiol, dehydroepiandrostion androstendione, aldosterone, and deoxy corticosterone were enhanced significantly in infertile group. While cholesterol and primary bile acids levels were decreased. QDA model showed significant difference between two study groups. Positive and negative predict value levels obtained about 71% and 78%, respectively. ANNs provided also criteria for detection of endometriosis. Conclusion: The QDA and ANNs modeling can be used as computational tools in noninvasive diagnose of endometriosis. However, the model designed by QDA methods is more efficient compared to ANNs in diagnosis of endometriosis patients.

  18. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2018-02-01

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in minor refugees, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. Results show that studies on diagnostic accuracy of assessment instruments and efficacy of mental healthcare interventions in this population are lacking. Traumatic experiences pre-flight, during the flight and at resettlement, superimposed by parental PTSD, and other contextual factors, might lead to more than 25% of minor refugees developing PTSD. To enhance the number of minor refugees recognized with PTSD, we recommend the use of a brief screening instrument. A public health approach, focusing on environmental supportive factors is the first step in treatment for this group, followed by short-term psychological group interventions focusing on psycho-education and stress reduction. Minor refugees with no improvement in PTSD symptoms by these interventions need referral to specialized mental health care services. Mental health providers should be culturally competent. What is Known: • Post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, sleeping problems, and depression are the most common psychiatric disorders in minor refugees. • Evidence based methods on screening and interventions in minor refugees with psychiatric disorders are lacking. What is New: • In the absence of validated screening tools a best practice reliable, quick and child-friendly tool is presented. • A layered system for mental health care and psychosocial support in minor refugees is explained.

  19. On the bioavailability of trace metals in surface sediments: a combined geochemical and biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Prygiel, Emilie; Lesven, Ludovic; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals was estimated in three river sediments (Sensée, Scarpe, and Deûle Rivers) impacted by different levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn (Northern France). For that, a combination of geochemistry and biological responses (bacteria and chironomids) was used. The results obtained illustrate the complexity of the notion of "bioavailability." Indeed, geochemical indexes suggested a low toxicity, even in surface sediments with high concentrations of total metals and a predicted severe effect levels for the organisms. This was also suggested by the abundance of total bacteria as determined by DAPI counts, with high bacterial cell numbers even in contaminated areas. However, a fraction of metals may be bioavailable as it was shown for chironomid larvae which were able to accumulate an important quantity of metals in surface sediments within just a few days.We concluded that (1) the best approach to estimate bioavailability in the selected sediments is a combination of geochemical and biological approaches and that (2) the sediments in the Deûle and Scarpe Rivers are highly contaminated and may impact bacterial populations but also benthic invertebrates.

  20. Large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. Operative approaches and combination treatment with radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Negishi, Masatoshi; Kohga, Hideaki; Hirato, Masafumi; Ohye, Chihiro [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-09-01

    A major aim of minimally invasive neurosurgery is to preserve function in the brain and cranial nerves. Based on previous results of radiosurgery for central lesions (19 craniopharyngiomas, 46 pituitary adenomas, 9 meningeal tumors), combined micro- and/or radiosurgery was applied for large lesions compressing the hypothalamus and/or brainstem. A basal interhemispheric approach via superomedial orbitotomy or a transcallosal-transforaminal approach was used for these large tumors. Tumors left behind in the hypothalamus or cavernous sinus were treated with radiosurgery using a gamma unit. Preoperative hypothalamo-pituitary functions were preserved in most of these patients. Radiosurgical results were evaluated in patients followed for more than 2 years after treatment. All 9 craniopharyngiomas decreased in size after radiosurgery, although a second treatment was required in 4 patients. All 20 pituitary adenomas were stable or decreased in size and 5 of 7 functioning adenomas showed normalized values of hormones in the serum. All 3 meningeal tumors were stable or decreased in size after treatment. No cavernous sinus symptoms developed after radiosurgery. We conclude that combined micro- and radio-neurosurgery is an effective and less invasive treatment for large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. (author)

  1. Clinical treatment approach of a child with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH combined with malocclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Kabaktchieva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH was defined as "hypomineralisation of systemic origin of permanent first molars, frequently associated with affected incisors". MIH includes the presence of demarcated opacity, post eruptive enamel breakdown, atypical restoration. Тhe approach to management suggested: risk identification, early diagnosis, remineralization for prevention of caries and post eruption breakdown, restorations. The clinicians very seldom notice that children with MIH usually have both- hypomineralisation and malocclusions, and they do not discuss combine treatment plan.Aim. To present our interdisciplinary approach to a patient with MIH, combined with malocclusion.Material and methods. We are presenting 9 year old child with contusio and fractura coronae dentis noncomplicata, distal occlusion, overjet, overbite and retrusion. Two consecutive stages were defined: First stage:- Professional oral hygiene and local remineralisation therapy- Vital pulp therapy of tooth 21 - Space gaining for restoration of the lost height of the molars by the means of posterior bite-plane removable appliance- Restoration of the molars with metal inlays- Lingual tipping of the lower incisorsSecond stage:- Class II correction- Growth control Results.First phase: - The tooth 21 was restored with aesthetic composite material;- Occlusion was raised with occlusal restorations (inleys and orthodontic appliance. Second phase:Medialisation of mandible and holding maxillary growth with functional appliance and occipital EOA until class one occlusal relations.Conclusion. Children with MIH should be examined and treated complex in collaboration with orthodontist and if necessary by other specialists too.

  2. Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision via combined medial and cranial approaches for transverse colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kita, Yoshiaki; Baba, Kenji; Yanagi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Kan; Uchikado, Yasuto; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Mataki, Yuko; Okumura, Hiroshi; Nakajo, Akihiro; Maemura, Kosei; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision via combined medial and cranial approaches with three-dimensional visualization around the gastrocolic trunk and middle colic vessels for transverse colon cancer. We evaluated prospectively collected data of 30 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision between January 2010 and December 2015, 6 of whom we excluded, leaving 24 for the analysis. We assessed the completeness of excision, operative data, pathological findings, length of large bowel resected, complications, length of hospital stay, and oncological outcomes. Complete mesocolic excision completeness was graded as the mesocolic and intramesocolic planes in 21 and 3 patients, respectively. Eleven, two, eight, and three patients had T1, T2, T3, and T4a tumors, respectively; none had lymph node metastases. A mean of 18.3 lymph nodes was retrieved, and a mean of 5.4 lymph nodes was retrieved around the origin of the MCV. The mean large bowel length was 21.9 cm, operative time 274 min, intraoperative blood loss 41 mL, and length of hospital stay 15 days. There were no intraoperative and two postoperative complications. Our procedure for laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision via combined medial and cranial approaches is safe and feasible for transverse colon cancer.

  3. Large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. Operative approaches and combination treatment with radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Negishi, Masatoshi; Kohga, Hideaki; Hirato, Masafumi; Ohye, Chihiro; Shibazaki, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    A major aim of minimally invasive neurosurgery is to preserve function in the brain and cranial nerves. Based on previous results of radiosurgery for central lesions (19 craniopharyngiomas, 46 pituitary adenomas, 9 meningeal tumors), combined micro- and/or radiosurgery was applied for large lesions compressing the hypothalamus and/or brainstem. A basal interhemispheric approach via superomedial orbitotomy or a transcallosal-transforaminal approach was used for these large tumors. Tumors left behind in the hypothalamus or cavernous sinus were treated with radiosurgery using a gamma unit. Preoperative hypothalamo-pituitary functions were preserved in most of these patients. Radiosurgical results were evaluated in patients followed for more than 2 years after treatment. All 9 craniopharyngiomas decreased in size after radiosurgery, although a second treatment was required in 4 patients. All 20 pituitary adenomas were stable or decreased in size and 5 of 7 functioning adenomas showed normalized values of hormones in the serum. All 3 meningeal tumors were stable or decreased in size after treatment. No cavernous sinus symptoms developed after radiosurgery. We conclude that combined micro- and radio-neurosurgery is an effective and less invasive treatment for large central lesions compressing the hypothalamus and brainstem. (author)

  4. Combined computational and experimental approach to improve the assessment of mitral regurgitation by echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Simon J; Li, Wei; Becker, Michael; Kaestner, Wiebke; Büsen, Martin R; Marx, Nikolaus; Merhof, Dorit; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most frequent valvular heart diseases. To assess MR severity, color Doppler imaging (CDI) is the clinical standard. However, inadequate reliability, poor reproducibility and heavy user-dependence are known limitations. A novel approach combining computational and experimental methods is currently under development aiming to improve the quantification. A flow chamber for a circulatory flow loop was developed. Three different orifices were used to mimic variations of MR. The flow field was recorded simultaneously by a 2D Doppler ultrasound transducer and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted using the same geometry and boundary conditions. The resulting computed velocity field was used to simulate synthetic Doppler signals. Comparison between PIV and CFD shows a high level of agreement. The simulated CDI exhibits the same characteristics as the recorded color Doppler images. The feasibility of the proposed combination of experimental and computational methods for the investigation of MR is shown and the numerical methods are successfully validated against the experiments. Furthermore, it is discussed how the approach can be used in the long run as a platform to improve the assessment of MR quantification.

  5. Online monitoring and conditional regression tree test: Useful tools for a better understanding of combined sewer network behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Bareille, G; Pigot, T; Bru, N; Le Hécho, I

    2018-06-01

    A good knowledge of the dynamic of pollutant concentration and flux in a combined sewer network is necessary when considering solutions to limit the pollutants discharged by combined sewer overflow (CSO) into receiving water during wet weather. Identification of the parameters that influence pollutant concentration and flux is important. Nevertheless, few studies have obtained satisfactory results for the identification of these parameters using statistical tools. Thus, this work uses a large database of rain events (116 over one year) obtained via continuous measurement of rainfall, discharge flow and chemical oxygen demand (COD) estimated using online turbidity for the identification of these parameters. We carried out a statistical study of the parameters influencing the maximum COD concentration, the discharge flow and the discharge COD flux. In this study a new test was used that has never been used in this field: the conditional regression tree test. We have demonstrated that the antecedent dry weather period, the rain event average intensity and the flow before the event are the three main factors influencing the maximum COD concentration during a rainfall event. Regarding the discharge flow, it is mainly influenced by the overall rainfall height but not by the maximum rainfall intensity. Finally, COD discharge flux is influenced by the discharge volume and the maximum COD concentration. Regression trees seem much more appropriate than common tests like PCA and PLS for this type of study as they take into account the thresholds and cumulative effects of various parameters as a function of the target variable. These results could help to improve sewer and CSO management in order to decrease the discharge of pollutants into receiving waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-aminolevulinic acid and neuronavigation in high-grade glioma surgery: results of a combined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Fontanella, Marco; Garbossa, Diego; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2012-02-01

    In high-grade glioma surgery, several techniques are used to achieve the maximum cytoreductive treatment preserving neurological functions. However, the effectiveness of all the methods used alone is reduced by specific limitations of each. We assessed the reliability of a multimodal strategy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and neuronavigation. We prospectively studied 18 patients with suspected, non eloquent-area malignant gliomas amenable for complete resection. Conventional illumination was used until the excision appeared complete. The cavity was then systematically inspected in violet-blue light to identify any residual tumour. Multiple biopsies of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent tissue were performed in all cases. Each specimen was labelled according to the sampling location (inside or outside the boundary set by the neuronavigator). The samples were analysed by a neuropathologist blinded to the intraoperative classification. We reviewed the results of both methods, either singly or in combination. Individual analysis showed higher 5-ALA reliability compared to neuronavigation. However, several false-negative fluorescent specimens were detected. With the combined use of fluorescence and neuroimaging, only 1 sample (negative for both 5-ALA and navigation) was tumoral tissue. In our experience, the combined approach showed the best sensitivity and it is recommended in cases of lesions involving non-eloquent areas. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dengiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land evaluation analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of yields has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable areas for agricultural uses. For that reasons, in order to determine land suitability classes of the study area, multi-criteria approach was used with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process by taking into consideration of some land and soil physico-chemical characteristic such as slope, texture, depth, derange, stoniness, erosion, pH, EC, CaCO3 and organic matter. These data and land mapping unites were taken from digital detailed soil map scaled as 1:5.000. In addition, in order to was produce land suitability map GIS was program used for the study area. This study was carried out at Mahmudiye, Karaamca, Yazılı, Çiçeközü, Orhaniye and Akbıyık villages in Yenişehir district of Bursa province. Total study area is 7059 ha. 6890 ha of total study area has been used as irrigated agriculture, dry farming agriculture, pasture while, 169 ha has been used for non-agricultural activities such as settlement, road water body etc. Average annual temperature and precipitation of the study area are 16.1oC and 1039.5 mm, respectively. Finally after determination of land suitability distribution classes for the study area, it was found that 15.0% of the study area has highly (S1 and moderately (S2 while, 85% of the study area has marginally suitable and unsuitable coded as S3 and N. It was also determined some relation as compared results of linear combination technique with other hierarchy approaches such as Land Use Capability Classification and Suitability Class for Agricultural Use methods.

  8. Comparison of online, hands-on, and a combined approach for teaching cautery disbudding technique to dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Charlotte B; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Haley, Derek B; Lissemore, Kerry D; Godkin, M Ann; Duffield, Todd F

    2018-01-01

    The use of pain control for disbudding and dehorning is important from both an animal and industry perspective. Best practices include the use of local anesthetic, commonly given as a cornual nerve block (CNB), and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The proportion is decreasing, but many dairy producers do not use local anesthesia, perhaps in part due to lack of knowledge of the CNB technique. Although this skill is typically learned in person from a veterinarian, alternative methods may be useful. The objective of this trial was to determine if there were differences in the efficacy of online training (n = 23), hands-on training (n = 20), and a combined approach (n = 23) for teaching producers to successfully administer a CNB and disbud a calf. The primary outcome was block efficacy, defined as a lack of established pain behaviors during iron application. Secondary outcomes were background knowledge (assessed by a written quiz), CNB and disbudding technique (evaluated by rubric scoring), time taken, and self-confidence before and after evaluation. Associations between training group and outcome were assessed with logistic regression, ordered logistic regression, and Cox-proportional hazard models, with a random effect for workshop. Block efficacy was not different between training groups, with 91% successful in both combined and online groups, and 75% in the hands-on trained group. Online learners had poorer technical scores than hands-on trainees. The combined group was not different from hands-on. Time to block completion tended to be longer for the online group (62 ± 11 s), whereas time to disbudding completion was not different between hands-on (41 ± 5 s) or combined trainees (41 ± 5 s). The combined group had the highest pre-evaluation confidence score, and remained higher after evaluation than online but was not different than hands-on. Although we saw some statistical differences between groups, absolute differences were small and block efficacy was

  9. A combined energetic and economic approach for the sustainable design of geothermal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Vaccaro, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploitation of medium to low temperature geothermal sources: ORC power plants. • Integrated energetic and economic approach for the analysis of geothermal power plants. • A brief overview of the cost items of geothermal power plants. • Analysis of specific cost of geothermal power plants based on the method proposed. • Analysis of sustainability of geothermal energy systems based on resource durability. - Abstract: The perspectives of future development of geothermal power plants, mainly of small size for the exploitation of medium–low temperature reservoirs, are discussed and analyzed in the present paper. Even if there is a general interest in new power plants and investments in this sector are recognized, the new installations are reduced; the apparent advantage of null cost of the energy source is negatively balanced by the high drilling and installation costs. A key element for the design of a geothermal plant for medium temperature geothermal source is the definition of the power of the plant (size): this is important in order to define not only the economic plan but also the durability of the reservoir. Considering that it is not possible that the development of geothermal industry could be driven only by an economic perspective, the authors propose a method for joining energetic and economic approaches. The result of the combined energetic and economic analysis is interesting particularly in case of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plants in order to define a suitable and optimal size and to maximize the resource durability. The method is illustrated with reference to some particular case studies, showing that the sustainability of small size geothermal plants will be approached only if the research for more economic solutions will be combined with efforts in direction of efficiency increase

  10. A combined coalescence gene-dropping tool for evaluating genomic selection in complex scenarios (ms2gs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Enciso, M; Legarra, A

    2016-04-01

    We present ms2gs, a combined coalescence - gene dropping (i.e. backward-forward) simulator for complex traits. It therefore aims at combining the advantages of both approaches. It is primarily conceived for very short term, recent scenarios such as those that are of interest in animal and plant breeding. It is very flexible in terms of defining QTL architecture and SNP ascertainment bias, and it allows for easy modelling of alternative markers such as RADs. It can use real sequence or chip data or generate molecular polymorphisms via the coalescence. It can generate QTL conditional on extant molecular information, such as low-density genotyping. It models (simplistically) sequence, imputation or genotyping errors. It requires as input both genotypic data in plink or ms formats, and a pedigree that is used to perform the gene dropping. By default, it compares accuracy for BLUP, SNP ascertained data, sequence, and causal SNPs. It employs VanRaden's linear (GBLUP) and nonlinear method for incorporating molecular information. To illustrate the program, we present a small application in a half-sib population and a multiparental (MAGIC) cross. The program, manual and examples are available at https://github.com/mperezenciso/ms2gs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. An empowerment-based approach to developing innovative e-health tools for self-management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, L.; Boog, P. van der; Dumaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    E-health is seen as an important technological tool in achieving self-management; however, there is little evidence of how effective e-health is for self-management. Example tools remain experimental and there is limited knowledge yet about the design, use, and effects of this class of tools. By way

  12. A Linked Data Approach for the Discovery of Educational ICT Tools in the Web of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Calleja, Adolfo; Vega-Gorgojo, Guillermo; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Bote-Lorenzo, Miguel L.; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Alario-Hoyos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) tools to support learning activities is nowadays generalized. Several educational registries provide information about ICT tools in order to help educators in their discovery and selection. These registries are typically isolated and require much effort to keep tool information up to…

  13. A hybrid LIBS-Raman system combined with chemometrics: an efficient tool for plastic identification and sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M Muhammed; Choudhari, Khoobaram S; Bankapur, Aseefhali; Kulkarni, Suresh D; Unnikrishnan, V K; George, Sajan D; Kartha, V B; Santhosh, C

    2017-05-01

    Classification of plastics is of great importance in the recycling industry as the littering of plastic wastes increases day by day as a result of its extensive use. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of a combined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-Raman system for the rapid identification and classification of post-consumer plastics. The atomic information and molecular information of polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were studied using plasma emission spectra and scattered signal obtained in the LIBS and Raman technique, respectively. The collected spectral features of the samples were analyzed using statistical tools (principal component analysis, Mahalanobis distance) to categorize the plastics. The analyses of the data clearly show that elemental information and molecular information obtained from these techniques are efficient for classification of plastics. In addition, the molecular information collected via Raman spectroscopy exhibits clearly distinct features for the transparent plastics (100% discrimination), whereas the LIBS technique shows better spectral feature differences for the colored samples. The study shows that the information obtained from these complementary techniques allows the complete classification of the plastic samples, irrespective of the color or additives. This work further throws some light on the fact that the potential limitations of any of these techniques for sample identification can be overcome by the complementarity of these two techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. An Excel tool for deriving key photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Combined photosynthetic gas exchange and modulated fluorometres are widely used to evaluate physiological characteristics associated with phenotypic and genotypic variation, whether in response to genetic manipulation or resource limitation in natural vegetation or crops. After describing relatively simple experimental procedures, we present the theoretical background to the derivation of photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel-based fitting tool (EFT) that will be of use to specialists and non-specialists alike. We use data acquired in concurrent variable fluorescence-gas exchange experiments, where A/Ci and light-response curves have been measured under ambient and low oxygen. From these data, the EFT derives light respiration, initial PSII (photosystem II) photochemical yield, initial quantum yield for CO2 fixation, fraction of incident light harvested by PSII, initial quantum yield for electron transport, electron transport rate, rate of photorespiration, stomatal limitation, Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) rate of carboxylation and oxygenation, Rubisco specificity factor, mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion, light and CO2 compensation point, Rubisco apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, and Rubisco CO2 -saturated carboxylation rate. As an example, a complete analysis of gas exchange data on tobacco plants is provided. We also discuss potential measurement problems and pitfalls, and suggest how such empirical data could subsequently be used to parameterize predictive photosynthetic models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A new technology perspective and engineering tools approach for large, complex and distributed mission and safety critical systems components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Miguel A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Rapidly emerging technology and methodologies have out-paced the systems development processes' ability to use them effectively, if at all. At the same time, the tools used to build systems are becoming obsolescent themselves as a consequence of the same technology lag that plagues systems development. The net result is that systems development activities have not been able to take advantage of available technology and have become equally dependent on aging and ineffective computer-aided engineering tools. New methods and tools approaches are essential if the demands of non-stop and Mission and Safety Critical (MASC) components are to be met.

  16. Vulnerability assessment of the Toluca Valley aquifer combining a parametric approach and advective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gárfias, J.; Llanos, H.; Franco, R.; Martel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important task in water resources and land management. Depending on the availability of data and the complexity of the hydrogeological conditions, different approaches can be adopted. As an alternative, this study involves the use of a combined approach based on vulnerability methods and advective particle tracking to better understand the susceptibility to contamination in the Toluca valley aquifer. An intrinsic vulnerability map (DRASTIC) was used to identify areas that are more susceptible to ground water contamination. To estimate advective particle tracking, we developed a 3D flow model using VisualModflow and MODPATH to describe the regional flow of groundwater. The vulnerability map demonstrates the problematic application and interpretation of qualitative the vulnerability method of the parametric system group, which indicates a difference of approximately 23% when compared with the modified vulnerability map. Potential contamination sources based on landfill sites were comparatively high; approximately 76% are located in areas that could be susceptible to contamination through vertical infiltration, especially those that are located along the Lerma system of wells. Industrial parks located in the centre of the valley (83%), where continuous extraction of groundwater and land subsidence occurs, have been classified as high vulnerability zones, increasing the risk of contaminants from surface sources reaching the groundwater. In order to understand the susceptibility to contamination in the aquifer, various delineation approaches should be adopted and all the results that validate each other should be considered, thus making a good strategy for implementing different degrees of protection measures. [es

  17. Reprocessed and combined thorium fuel cycles in a PER system with a micro heterogeneous approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Fabiana B.A.; Castro, Victor F.; Faria, Rochkhudson B. de; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A micro heterogeneous approaches were used to study the behavior of reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium in a PWR fuel element considering (TRU-Th) cycle. The goal is to achieve a higher burnup using three different configurations to model the fuel element using SCALE 6.0. The reprocessed fuels were obtained using the ORIGEN 2.1 code from a spent PWR standard fuel (33,000 MWd/tHM burned), with 3.1% of initial enrichment. The spent fuel remained in the cooling pool for five years and then reprocessed using the UREX+ technique. Three configurations of micro heterogeneous approaches were analyzed, and the k inf and plutonium evolution during the burnup were evaluated. The preliminary results show that the behavior of advanced fuel based on transuranic elements spiked with thorium, and micro heterogeneous approach are satisfactory in PWRs, and the configuration that use a combination of Th and TRU (configuration 1) seems to be the most promising once has higher values for k inf during the burnup, compared with other configurations. (author)

  18. A novel combined interventional radiologic and hepatobiliary surgical approach to a complex traumatic hilar biliary stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeMoyer, Rachel E; Shah, Mihir M; Hasan, Omar; Nosher, John L; Carpizo, Darren R

    2018-01-01

    Benign strictures of the biliary system are challenging and uncommon conditions requiring a multidisciplinary team for appropriate management. The patient is a 32-year-old male that developed a hilar stricture as sequelae of a gunshot wound. Due to the complex nature of the stricture and scarring at the porta hepatis a combined interventional radiologic and surgical approach was carried out to approach the hilum of the right and left hepatic ducts. The location of this stricture was found by ultrasound guidance intraoperatively using a balloon tipped catheter placed under fluoroscopy in the interventional radiology suite prior to surgery. This allowed the surgeons to select the line of parenchymal transection for best visualization of the stricture. A left hepatectomy was performed, the internal stent located and the right hepatic duct opened tangentially to allow a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (a Puestow-like anastomosis). Injury to the intrahepatic biliary ductal confluence is rarely fatal, however, the associated injuries lead to severe morbidity as seen in this example. Management of these injuries poses a considerable challenge to the surgeon and treating physicians. Here we describe an innovative multi-disciplinary approach to the repair of this rare injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Improving the Fine-Tuning of Metaheuristics: An Approach Combining Design of Experiments and Racing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista de Moraes Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, metaheuristic algorithms are adapted to a large set of problems by applying few modifications on parameters for each specific case. However, this flexibility demands a huge effort to correctly tune such parameters. Therefore, the tuning of metaheuristics arises as one of the most important challenges in the context of research of these algorithms. Thus, this paper aims to present a methodology combining Statistical and Artificial Intelligence methods in the fine-tuning of metaheuristics. The key idea is a heuristic method, called Heuristic Oriented Racing Algorithm (HORA, which explores a search space of parameters looking for candidate configurations close to a promising alternative. To confirm the validity of this approach, we present a case study for fine-tuning two distinct metaheuristics: Simulated Annealing (SA and Genetic Algorithm (GA, in order to solve the classical traveling salesman problem. The results are compared considering the same metaheuristics tuned through a racing method. Broadly, the proposed approach proved to be effective in terms of the overall time of the tuning process. Our results reveal that metaheuristics tuned by means of HORA achieve, with much less computational effort, similar results compared to the case when they are tuned by the other fine-tuning approach.

  20. Software Tools and Approaches for Compound Identification of LC-MS/MS Data in Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Blaženović

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of small molecules remains a major challenge in untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. We here critically discuss structured elucidation approaches and software that are designed to help during the annotation of unknown compounds. Only by elucidating unknown metabolites first is it possible to biologically interpret complex systems, to map compounds to pathways and to create reliable predictive metabolic models for translational and clinical research. These strategies include the construction and quality of tandem mass spectral databases such as the coalition of MassBank repositories and investigations of MS/MS matching confidence. We present in silico fragmentation tools such as MS-FINDER, CFM-ID, MetFrag, ChemDistiller and CSI:FingerID that can annotate compounds from existing structure databases and that have been used in the CASMI (critical assessment of small molecule identification contests. Furthermore, the use of retention time models from liquid chromatography and the utility of collision cross-section modelling from ion mobility experiments are covered. Workflows and published examples of successfully annotated unknown compounds are included.

  1. Reprogramming cancer cells: a novel approach for cancer therapy or a tool for disease-modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Açelya; de Lázaro, Irene; Taheri, Hadiseh

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin dynamics have been the major focus of many physiological and pathological processes over the past 20 years. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to be reshaped during both cellular reprogramming and tumorigenesis. For this reason, cancer cell reprogramming can provide a powerful tool to better understand both regenerative and cancer-fate processes, with a potential to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Recent studies showed that cancer cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the overexpression of reprogramming transcription factors. Activation of transcription factors and modification of chromatin regulators may result in the remodeling of epigenetic status and refueling of tumorigenicity in these reprogrammed cancer cells. However, studies focusing on cancer cell reprogramming are contradictory; some studies reported increased tumor progression whereas others showed that cellular reprogramming has a treatment potential for cancer. In this review, first, the current knowledge on the epigenetic mechanisms involved during cancer development and cellular reprogramming will be presented. Later, different reports and key factors about pluripotency-based reprogramming of cancer cells will be reviewed in detail. New insights will be provided on cancer biology and therapy in the light of cellular reprogramming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Total organic carbon, an important tool in an holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle Member Inst., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The identification and allocation of multiple hydrocarbon sources in marine sediments is best achieved using an holistic approach. Total organic carbon (TOC) is one important tool that can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations in cases where inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. In a study of the benthic sediments from Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), we find excellent agreement between measured TOC and TOC calculated from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Confirmation by two such independent source indicators (TOC and fingerprint matches) provides evidence that source allocations determined by the fingerprint matches are robust and that the major TOC sources have been correctly identified. Fingerprint matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of various sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. TOC contents are then calculated using source allocation results from fingerprint matches and the TOCs of contributing sources. Comparisons of the actual sediment TOC values and those calculated from source allocation support our earlier published findings that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in sediments in this area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and associated oil seeps along the northern GOA coast and exclude thermally mature area coals from being important contributors to the PWS background due to their high TOC content.

  3. In Search of Samoan Research Approaches to Education: Tofa'a'Anolasi and the Foucauldian Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuvao, Akata Sisigafu'aapulematumua

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces Tofa'a'anolasi, a novel Samoan research framework created by drawing on the work of other Samoan and Pacific education researchers, in combination with adapting the 'Foucauldian tool box' to use for research carried out from a Samoan perspective. The article starts with an account and explanation of the process of…

  4. Quantifying cognition at the bedside: a novel approach combining cognitive symptoms and signs in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Marie-Josée; Fellows, Lesley K; Palladini, Lisa; Finch, Lois; Thomas, Réjean; Mayo, Nancy E

    2015-11-13

    Up to half of all people with HIV infection have some degree of cognitive impairment. This impairment is typically mild, but nonetheless often disabling. Although early detection of cognitive impairment offers the greatest hope of effective intervention, there are important barriers to this goal in most clinical settings. These include uncertainty about how self-reported cognitive symptoms relate to objective impairments, and the paucity of bedside measurement tools suitable for mild deficits. Clinicians need guidance in interpreting cognitive symptoms in this population, and a brief cognitive measurement tool targeted to mild impairment. We addressed these two problems together here. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which performance on cognitive tests and self-reported cognitive symptoms form a unidimensional construct. Two hundred three HIV+ individuals completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, computerized cognitive tasks and a questionnaire eliciting cognitive symptoms. Rasch measurement theory was applied to determine whether patient-reported and performance items could be combined to measure cognition as a unidimensional latent construct. Performance-based items and cognitive symptoms are arranged hierarchically along the same continuum of cognitive ability, forming a measure with thresholds covering a broad spectrum of ability that has good internal reliability. The cognitive symptoms that fit the measurement model relate to important aspects of everyday life, providing evidence that the identified construct is meaningful. This finding lays the foundation for a rapid measure of cognitive ability in people with HIV infection that is feasible for routine clinical use, and shows that some cognitive symptoms are systematically related to performance in this population.

  5. Cooling Systems Design in Hot Stamping Tools by a Thermal-Fluid-Mechanical Coupled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping tools with cooling systems are the key facilities for hot stamping process of Ultrahigh strength steels (UHSS in automotive industry. Hot stamping tools have significant influence on the final microstructure and properties of the hot stamped parts. In serials production, the tools should be rapidly cooled by cooling water. Hence, design of hot stamping tools with cooling systems is important not only for workpieces of good quality but also for the tools with good cooling performance and long life. In this paper, a new multifield simulation method was proposed for the design of hot stamping tools with cooling system. The deformation of the tools was also analyzed by this method. Based on MpCCI (Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface, thermal-fluid simulation and thermal-fluid-mechanical coupled simulation were performed. Subsequently, the geometrical parameters of the cooling system are investigated for the design. The results show that, both the distance between the ducts and the distance between the ducts and the tools loaded contour have significant influence on the quenching effect. And better quenching effect can be achieved with the shorter distance from the tool surface and with smaller distance between ducts. It is also shown that, thermal expansion is the main reason for deformation of the hot forming tools, which causes the distortion of the cooling ducts, and the stress concentration at corner of the ducts.

  6. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  7. A Novel approach for predicting monthly water demand by combining singular spectrum analysis with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidi, Salah L.; Dooley, Jayne; Alkhaddar, Rafid M.; Abdellatif, Mawada; Al-Bugharbee, Hussein; Ortega-Martorell, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    Valid and dependable water demand prediction is a major element of the effective and sustainable expansion of municipal water infrastructures. This study provides a novel approach to quantifying water demand through the assessment of climatic factors, using a combination of a pretreatment signal technique, a hybrid particle swarm optimisation algorithm and an artificial neural network (PSO-ANN). The Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) technique was adopted to decompose and reconstruct water consumption in relation to six weather variables, to create a seasonal and stochastic time series. The results revealed that SSA is a powerful technique, capable of decomposing the original time series into many independent components including trend, oscillatory behaviours and noise. In addition, the PSO-ANN algorithm was shown to be a reliable prediction model, outperforming the hybrid Backtracking Search Algorithm BSA-ANN in terms of fitness function (RMSE). The findings of this study also support the view that water demand is driven by climatological variables.

  8. A combined ADER-DG and PML approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains

    KAUST Repository

    Amler, Thomas

    2012-09-19

    In this work, we present a numerical approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains which combines discontinuous Galerkin methods with arbitrary high order time integration (ADER-DG) and a stabilized modification of perfectly matched layers (PML). Here, the ADER-DG method is applied to Bérenger’s formulation of PML. The instabilities caused by the original PML formulation are treated by a fractional step method that allows to monitor whether waves are damped in PML region. In grid cells where waves are amplified by the PML, the contribution of damping terms is neglected and auxiliary variables are reset. Results of 2D simulations in acoustic media with constant and discontinuous material parameters are presented to illustrate the performance of the method.

  9. Upscaling Our Approach to Peatland Carbon Sequestration: Remote Sensing as a Tool for Carbon Flux Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, K.; Khomik, M.; Clark, J. M.; Quaife, T. L.; Artz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are an important part of the Earth's carbon cycle, comprising approximately a third of the global terrestrial carbon store. However, peatlands are sensitive to climatic change and human mismanagement, and many are now degraded and acting as carbon sources. Restoration work is being undertaken at many sites around the world, but monitoring the success of these schemes can be difficult and costly using traditional methods. A landscape-scale alternative is to use satellite data in order to assess the condition of peatlands and estimate carbon fluxes. This work focuses on study sites in Northern Scotland, where parts of the largest blanket bog in Europe are being restored from forest plantations. A combination of laboratory and fieldwork has been used to assess the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration of peatland sites in different conditions, and the climatic vulnerability of key peat-forming Sphagnum species. The results from these studies have been compared with spectral data in order to evaluate the extent to which remote sensing can function as a source of information for peatland health and carbon flux models. This work considers particularly the effects of scale in calculating peatland carbon flux. Flux data includes chamber and eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide, and radiometric observations include both handheld spectroradiometer results and satellite images. Results suggest that despite the small-scale heterogeneity and unique ecosystem factors in blanket bogs, remote sensing can be a useful tool in monitoring peatland health and carbon sequestration. In particular, this study gives unique insights into the relationships between peatland vegetation, carbon flux and spectral reflectance.

  10. A Novel Supra-Brow Combined with Infra-Brow Lift Approach for Asian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Maoguo; He, Lin; Su, Yingjun; Shi, Junli; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Xiangyu; Yu, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    Direct brow lift surgery remains popular among Asian women despite its disadvantages. The traditional direct brow lift by a supra-brow incision is not suitable for Asian women because of their unique facial features, such as higher eyebrows, wider upper eyelids, and more orbital fat. Therefore, we designed a novel brow lift technique via a supra-brow combined with an infra-brow approach for Asian women. An area of skin above and below the eyebrow was measured, demarcated, and surgically removed. The redundant orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) was excised while keeping the frontalis muscle intact. The OOM in the inferior flap was elevated and sutured to the frontalis muscle. In cases of puffy eyelids, orbital fat was partially removed through an infra-brow incision. Finally, a series of modifications were performed to reduce post-operative scarring. A total of 496 patients underwent this surgery from July 2009 to December 2013 and 432 patients were followed up for at least 6 months after surgery. Post-operative scars, in most patients (428/432), were inconspicuous. There were no facial nerve injuries documented and eight patients reported transient forehead numbness. The height of the palpebral fissure was increased but there was no marked increase observed of the distance between the upper eyelid edge and the eyebrow. In follow-up visits, 409 out of 432 patients (94.7 %) were satisfied with their surgical results. This new brow lift technique via a supra-brow combined with an infra-brow approach provided a simple and safe surgical repair of lateral brow ptosis, upper eyelids hooding, and crows' feet in Asian women. The surgical outcomes were predictable and the scars were inconspicuous. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Systematic review of sex work interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: examining combination prevention approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awungafac, George; Delvaux, Therese; Vuylsteke, Bea

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. The Systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2000 and 22 July 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529). We considered cohort interventions, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional surveys of SW programmes. A framework was used in the description and mapping of intervention to desired outcomes. Twenty-six papers(reporting on 25 studies) were included. A strategy that empowered peer educator leaders to steer community activities showed a twofold increase in coverage of behaviour change communication and utilisation of health facility among SW. Brief alcohol harm reduction effort demonstrated a significant effect on sexual violence and engagement in sex trading. A risk reduction counselling intervention among drug-injecting SW showed an effect on alcohol, substance use and engagement in sex work. No study on a promising intervention like PrEP among SWs was found. We observed that interventions that combined some structural components, biomedical and behavioural strategies tend to accumulate more desired outcomes. The evidence base that can be considered in intervention designs to prevent HIV in SW in SSA is vast. The health sector should consider interventions to reduce binge alcohol intake and intravenous drug use among sex workers. Programmes should staunchly consider multicomponent approaches that explore community-based structural approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Hettne, Kristina M.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small. Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents PMID:27141091

  13. Assessment of MYCN amplification status in Tunisian neuroblastoma: CISH and MLPA combining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H'Mida Ben Brahim, Dorra; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Chabchoub, Imen; Gargouri, Inesse; Harrabi, Imed; Moussa, Adnene; Chourabi, Maroua; Haddaji, Marwa; Sassi, Sihem; Mougou, Soumaya; Gribaa, Moez; Ben Ahmed, Slim; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Nouri, Abdellatif; Saad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) shows a complex combination of genetic aberrations. Some of them represent poor genetic prognosis factors that require specific and intensive chemotherapy. MYCN amplification consists of the major bad outcome prognostic factor, it is indeed frequently observed in aggressive neuroblastomas. To date different methods are used for MYCN status detection. The primary aim of our study was to provide a critical assessment of MYCN status using 2 molecular techniques CISH and MLPA. We also focused on the correlation between neuroblastoma genetic markers and patient's clinical course among 15 Tunisian patients. we developed a descriptive study that includes 15 pediatric Tunisian patients referred to our laboratory from 2004 to 2011. We reported the analysis of fresh and FFPE NB tumors tissues. No significant correlation was found between COG grade and patients overall survival. Assessment of NMYC gene copy number by kappa statistic test revealed high concordance between CISH and MLPA tests (kappa coefficient = 0.02). Despite misdiagnosing of MYCN status fewer than 5 copies, MLPA remains an effective molecular technique that enables a large panel of genomic aberrations screening. Thus combining CISH and MLPA is an effective molecular approach adopted in our laboratory. Our results allow pediatric oncologists to set up the first Neuroblastoma therapeutic strategy based on molecular markers in Tunisia.

  14. Exploring viral reservoir: The combining approach of cell sorting and droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibellini, Lara; Pecorini, Simone; De Biasi, Sara; Pinti, Marcello; Bianchini, Elena; De Gaetano, Anna; Digaetano, Margherita; Pullano, Rosalberta; Lo Tartaro, Domenico; Iannone, Anna; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea; Nasi, Milena

    2018-02-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) blocks different steps of HIV replication and maintains plasma viral RNA at undetectable levels. The virus can remain in long-living cells and create a reservoir where HIV can restart replicating after cART discontinuation. A persistent viral production triggers and maintains a persistent immune activation, which is a well-known feature of chronic HIV infection, and contributes either to precocious aging, or to the increased incidence of morbidity and mortality of HIV positive patients. The new frontier of the treatment of HIV infection is nowadays eradication of the virus from all host cells and tissues. For this reason, it is crucial to have a clear and precise idea of where the virus hides, and which are the cells that keep it silent. Important efforts have been made to improve the detection of viral reservoirs, and new techniques are now giving the opportunity to characterize viral reservoirs. Among these techniques, a strategic approach based upon cell sorting and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is opening new horizons and opportunities of research. This review provides an overview of the methods that combine cell sorting and ddPCR for the quantification of HIV DNA in different cell types, and for the detection of its maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Approach to Bus Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Olszewski, Piotr; Goh, Pong-Chai

    A new method - combined simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem of bus route design and frequency setting for a given road network with fixed bus stop locations and fixed travel demand. The method involves two steps: a set of candidate routes is generated first and then the best subset of these routes is selected by the combined SA and GA procedure. SA is the main process to search for a better solution to minimize the total system cost, comprising user and operator costs. GA is used as a sub-process to generate new solutions. Bus demand assignment on two alternative paths is performed at the solution evaluation stage. The method was implemented on four theoretical grid networks of different size and a benchmark network. Several GA operators (crossover and mutation) were utilized and tested for their effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently converge to the optimal solution on a small network but computation time increases significantly with network size. The method can also be used for other transport operation management problems.

  16. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. A combined approach of hollow microneedles and nanocarriers for skin immunization with plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamornpathomkul B

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boonnada Pamornpathomkul,1 Adisak Wongkajornsilp,2 Wanida Laiwattanapaisal,3 Theerasak Rojanarata,1 Praneet Opanasopit,1 Tanasait Ngawhirunpat1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Development of Green Innovations Group, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different types of microneedles (MNs and nanocarriers for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization of plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin (pOVA. In vitro skin permeation studies indicated that hollow MNs had a superior enhancing effect on skin permeation compared with solid MN patches, electroporation (EP patches, the combination of MN and EP patches, and untreated skin. Upon using hollow MNs combined with nanocarriers for pOVA delivery, the skin permeation was higher than for the delivery of naked pOVA, as evidenced by the increased amount of pOVA in Franz diffusion cells and immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody responses. When the hollow MNs were used for the delivery of nanocarrier:pOVA complexes into the skin of mice, they induced a stronger IgG immune response than conventional subcutaneous (SC injections. In addition, immunization of mice with the hollow MNs did not induce signs of skin infection or pinpoint bleeding. Accordingly, the hollow MNs combined with a nanocarrier delivery system is a promising approach for delivering pOVA complexes to the skin for promoting successful immunization. Keywords: hollow microneedle, solid microneedle, electroporation, plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin, skin immunization, nanocarrier

  18. Computer assisted audit tools and techniques in real world: CAATT's applications and approaches in context

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa, I.; Costa, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, Computer Aided Audit Tools (and Techniques’) support almost all audit processes concerning data extraction and analysis. These tools were firstly aimed to support financial auditing processes. However, their scope is beyond this, therefore, we present case studies and good practices in an academic context. Although in large auditing companies Audit Tools to do data extraction and analysis are very common and applied in several contexts, we realized that is not easy to find practical...

  19. A combined approach for the enhancement and segmentation of mammograms using modified fuzzy C-means method in wavelet domain

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a combined approach for enhancement and segmentation of mammograms is proposed. In preprocessing stage, a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method is applied to obtain the better contrast mammograms. After this, the proposed combined methods are applied. In the first step of the proposed approach, a two dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to all the input images. In the second step, a proposed nonlinear complex diffusion based uns...

  20. Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies: Towards a EU approach for decision support tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Gering, F.; Lochard, J.; Nisbet, A.; Starostova, V.; Tomic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → European emergency management and rehabilitation was strengthened. → Development of generic European handbooks for urban and agricultural areas. → Decision support systems became more operational. → Harmonisation of tools in Europe has been promoted. - Abstract: The 5-year multi-national project EURANOS (European Approach to Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies), funded by the European Commission and 23 European Member States, started in April 2004. Integrating 17 national emergency management organisations with 33 research institutes, it brings together best practices, knowledge and technology to enhance the preparedness for Europe's response to any radiation emergency and long term contamination. Key objectives of the project are to collate information on the likely effectiveness and consequences of a wide range of countermeasures, to provide guidance to emergency management organisations and decision makers on the establishment of an appropriate response strategy and to further enhance advanced decision support systems (DSS), in particular, RODOS (Real-time On-line Decisions Support) decision support system), through feedback from their operational use. Further, the project aims to create regional initiatives leading to information exchange based on state-of-the-art information technologies, to develop guidance which assists Member States in developing a framework for the sustainable rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas and to maintain and enhance knowledge and competence through emergency exercises, training and education, thus fostering best practice in emergency response. The project is divided into three major research activities and a set of demonstration projects which are split in two phases lasting over two and three years, respectively. The research activities address specific issues previously identified by the users or by previous research in the area. They are focused

  1. Combined measurement of plasma cystatin C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: A valuable tool for evaluating progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ruihui; Wei, Xiaobo; Yu, Bin; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xiaohua; Xie, Fen; Zhang, Mahui; Jiang, Ying; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xia, Ying; Jin, Kunlin; Chan, Piu; Wang, Qing; Gao, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) was previously thought as a cause of atypical Parkinsonism. Although Cystatin C (Cys C) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) are known to play critical roles in Parkinsonism, it is unknown whether they can be used as markers to distinguish PSP patients from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C/HDL/LDL-C levels of 40 patients with PSP and 40 healthy age-matched controls. An extended battery of motor and neuropsychological tests, including the PSP-Rating Scale (PSPRS), the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used to evaluate the disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were adopted to assess the prognostic accuracy of Cys C/LDL-C levels in distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects. Patients with PSP exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of Cys C and lower LDL-C. The levels of plasma Cys C were positively and inversely correlated with the PSPRS/NMSS and MMSE scores, respectively. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with PSPRS/NMSS and GDS scores. The ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and LDL-C yielded a better accuracy for distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects than the separate curves for each parameter. Plasma Cys C and LDL-C may be valuable screening tools for differentiating PSP from healthy subjects; while they could be useful for the PSP intensifies and severity evaluation. A better understanding of Cys C and LDL-C may yield insights into the pathogenesis of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined approach branchial sinusectomy: a new technique for excision of second branchial cleft sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusesi, A D

    2009-10-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are well described, with the second arch anomaly being the commonest. Following surgical excision, recurrence occurs in 2 to 22 per cent of cases, and is believed to be due largely to incomplete resection. This report aims to describe a simple surgical technique for treatment of second branchial cleft sinus in the older paediatric age group and adults. An 11-year-old girl underwent surgical excision of a second branchial sinus. Prior to surgery, she was assessed by means of an imaging sonogram, and by direct methylene blue dye injection into the sinus on the operating table, followed by insertion of a metallic probe. Dissection was of the 'step ladder' incision type, but the incision was completed via an oropharyngeal approach. Histological examination of the lesion after excision established the diagnosis. No recurrence had been observed at the time of writing. Although they are congenital lesions, second branchial cleft abnormalities usually present in the older paediatric age group or even in adulthood. In the case reported, a simple combined approach ensured completeness of resection.

  3. Innovation in healthcare services – creating a Combined Contingency Theory and Ecosystems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelseth, Per; Kritchanchai, Duangpun

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to develop an analytical framework used for process development in healthcare services. Healthcare services imply a form of operations management demanding an adapted research approach. This study therefore highlights first in the introduction challenges of healthcare services as a reasoning of this study. It is a type of service that has high societal and therefore ethical concern, but at the same time needs to be carried out efficiently to economise service production resource use. Combined business and ethics concerns need to be balanced in this service supply system. In the literature review that is the bulk of this paper, first, particularities of the service industry processes are considered. This is followed by considering literature on contingency theory to consider the nature of the supply chain context of the healthcare service processes highlighting interdependencies and appropriate technology use. This developed view is then expanded to consider an ecosystems approach to encompass the environment expanding analyses to considering in balanced manner features of business, society and nature. A research model for directing both further researches on the healthcare service industry an innovation of such services in practice is introduced.

  4. The combination of two training approaches to improve older adults' driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Michel; Porter, Michelle M; Marshall, Shawn; Isherwood, Ivy; Riendeau, Julie; Weaver, Bruce; Tuokko, Holly; Molnar, Frank; Miller-Polgar, Jan

    2008-03-01

    An increasing number of older adults rely on the automobile for transportation. Educational approaches based on the specific needs of older drivers may help to optimize safe driving. We examined if the combination of an in-class education program with on-road education would lead to improvements in older drivers' knowledge of safe driving practices and on-road driving evaluations. We used a multisite, randomized controlled trial approach. Participants in the intervention group received the in-class and on-road education; those in the control group waited and were offered the education afterwards. We measured knowledge of safe driving practices before and after the in-class component of the program and on-road driving skills before and after the whole program. Participants' knowledge improved from 61% of correct answers before the in-class education component to 81% after (p < .001). The on-road evaluation results suggested improvements on some aspects of safe driving (e.g., moving in roadway, p < .05) but not on others. The results of this study demonstrate that education programs focused on the needs of older drivers may help improve their knowledge of safe driving practices and actual driving performance. Further research is required to determine if these changes will affect other variables such as driver confidence and crash rates.

  5. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athayde Costa e Silva, Marsil de; Klein, Carlos Eduardo; Mariani, Viviana Cocco; Santos Coelho, Leandro dos

    2013-01-01

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  6. Seismic data two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and hyperbolic Radon transform methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hanchuang; Chen, Shengchang; Ren, Haoran; Liang, Donghui; Zhou, Huamin; She, Deping

    2015-01-01

    In current research of seismic data recovery problems, the sparsity-promoting method usually produces an insufficient recovery result at the locations of null traces. The HRT (hyperbolic Radon transform) method can be applied to problems of seismic data recovery with approximately hyperbolic events. Influenced by deviations of hyperbolic characteristics between real and ideal travel-time curves, some spurious events are usually introduced and the recovery effect of intermediate and far-offset traces is worse than that of near-offset traces. Sparsity-promoting recovery is primarily dependent on the sparsity of seismic data in the sparse transform domain (i.e. on the local waveform characteristics), whereas HRT recovery is severely affected by the global characteristics of the seismic events. Inspired by the above conclusion, a two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and time-invariant HRT methods is proposed, which is based on both local and global characteristics of the seismic data. Two implementation strategies are presented in detail, and the selection criteria of the relevant strategies is also discussed. Numerical examples of synthetic and real data verify that the new approach can achieve a better recovery effect by simultaneously overcoming the shortcomings of sparsity-promoting recovery and HRT recovery. (paper)

  7. Formalized Conflicts Detection Based on the Analysis of Multiple Emails: An Approach Combining Statistics and Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Chahnez; Curé, Olivier; Salzano, Gabriella; Smaïli, Kamel

    In Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), it is crucial for project leaders to detect conflicting situations as early as possible. Generally, this task is performed manually by studying a set of documents exchanged between team members. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged automatic solution that identifies documents, subjects and actors involved in relational conflicts. Our approach detects conflicts in emails, probably the most popular type of documents in CSCW, but the methods used can handle other text-based documents. These methods rely on the combination of statistical and ontological operations. The proposed solution is decomposed in several steps: (i) we enrich a simple negative emotion ontology with terms occuring in the corpus of emails, (ii) we categorize each conflicting email according to the concepts of this ontology and (iii) we identify emails, subjects and team members involved in conflicting emails using possibilistic description logic and a set of proposed measures. Each of these steps are evaluated and validated on concrete examples. Moreover, this approach's framework is generic and can be easily adapted to domains other than conflicts, e.g. security issues, and extended with operations making use of our proposed set of measures.

  8. A holistic method to assess building energy efficiency combining D-S theory and the evidential reasoning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Runming; Yang Yulan; Li Baizhan

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of building energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures for reducing building energy consumption. This paper proposes a holistic method (HMEEB) for assessing and certifying energy efficiency of buildings based on the D-S (Dempster-Shafer) theory of evidence and the Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach. HMEEB has three main features: (i) it provides both a method to assess and certify building energy efficiency, and exists as an analytical tool to identify improvement opportunities; (ii) it combines a wealth of information on building energy efficiency assessment, including identification of indicators and a weighting mechanism; and (iii) it provides a method to identify and deal with inherent uncertainties within the assessment procedure. This paper demonstrates the robustness, flexibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, using two examples to assess the energy efficiency of two residential buildings, both located in the ‘Hot Summer and Cold Winter’ zone in China. The proposed certification method provides detailed recommendations for policymakers in the context of carbon emission reduction targets and promoting energy efficiency in the built environment. The method is transferable to other countries and regions, using an indicator weighting system to modify local climatic, economic and social factors. - Highlights: ► Assessing energy efficiency of buildings holistically; ► Applying the D-S (Dempster-Shafer) theory of evidence and the Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach; ► Involving large information and uncertainties in the energy efficiency decision-making process. ► rigorous measures for policymakers to meet carbon emission reduction targets.

  9. A linguistic approach to solving of the problem of technological adjustment of combines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Borisova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with a linguistic approach to the technological adjustment of difficult harvesters in field conditions. The short characteristic of subject domain is provided. The place of the task of adjustment of the combine harvester working bodies in harvesting is considered. Various groups of signs of the considered task are allocated: external signs of violation of quality of work, regulated parameters of the machine, and parameters of technical condition. The numerical data characterizing interrelations between external signs and parameters of the machine are provided. Materials and Methods: A combine harvester is the difficult dynamic system functioning under constantly changing external conditions. This fact imposes characteristics on the used methods of technological adjustment. Quantitative and qualitative information is used to control harvesting. Availability of different types of uncertainty in considering semantic spaces of factors of the external environment and parameters of the machine allows offering the method of technological adjustment based on an indistinct logical conclusion for the solution of the task. Results: As the analysis result, the decision making methodology for indistinct environment conditions is adapted for the studied subject domain. The generalized scheme of indistinct management of process is offered to technological adjustment of the machine. Models of the studied semantic spaces are considered. Feasibility of use of deductive and inductive conclusions of decisions for various tasks of preliminary setup and adjustment of technological adjustments is shown. The formal and logical scheme of the decision making process based on indistinct expert knowledge is offered. The scheme includes the main stages of the task solution: fazzifikation, composition and defazzifikation. The question of the quantitative assessment of expert knowledge coordination is considered. The examples of the formulation

  10. Efficient Discovery of Novel Multicomponent Mixtures for Hydrogen Storage: A Combined Computational/Experimental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, Christopher [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ozolins, Vidvuds [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kung, Harold H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Yang, Jun [Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Hwang, Sonjong [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Shore, Sheldon [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2016-11-28

    The objective of the proposed program is to discover novel mixed hydrides for hydrogen storage, which enable the DOE 2010 system-level goals. Our goal is to find a material that desorbs 8.5 wt.% H2 or more at temperatures below 85°C. The research program will combine first-principles calculations of reaction thermodynamics and kinetics with material and catalyst synthesis, testing, and characterization. We will combine materials from distinct categories (e.g., chemical and complex hydrides) to form novel multicomponent reactions. Systems to be studied include mixtures of complex hydrides and chemical hydrides [e.g. LiNH2+NH3BH3] and nitrogen-hydrogen based borohydrides [e.g. Al(BH4)3(NH3)3]. The 2010 and 2015 FreedomCAR/DOE targets for hydrogen storage systems are very challenging, and cannot be met with existing materials. The vast majority of the work to date has delineated materials into various classes, e.g., complex and metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents. However, very recent studies indicate that mixtures of storage materials, particularly mixtures between various classes, hold promise to achieve technological attributes that materials within an individual class cannot reach. Our project involves a systematic, rational approach to designing novel multicomponent mixtures of materials with fast hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics and favorable thermodynamics using a combination of state-of-the-art scientific computing and experimentation. We will use the accurate predictive power of first-principles modeling to understand the thermodynamic and microscopic kinetic processes involved in hydrogen release and uptake and to design new material/catalyst systems with improved properties. Detailed characterization and atomic-scale catalysis experiments will elucidate the effect of dopants and nanoscale catalysts in achieving fast kinetics and reversibility. And

  11. An approach and a tool for setting sustainable energy retrofitting strategies referring to the 2010 EP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlot-Valdieu, C.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 EPBD asks for an economic and social analysis in order to preserve social equity and to promote innovation and building productivity. This is possible with a life cycle energy cost (LCEC analysis, such as with the SEC (Sustainable Energy Cost model whose bottom up approach begins with a building typology including inhabitants. Then the analysis of some representative buildings includes the identification of a technico-economical optimum and energy retrofitting scenarios for each retrofitting programme and the extrapolation for the whole building stock. An extrapolation for the whole building stock allows to set up the strategy and to identify the needed means for reaching the objectives. SEC is a decision aid tool for optimising sustainable energy retrofitting strategies for buildings at territorial and patrimonial scales inside a sustainable development approach towards the factor 4. Various versions of the SEC model are now available for housing and for tertiary buildings.

    La directiva europea de 2010 sobre eficiencia energética en los edificios exige un análisis económico y social con el objetivo de preservar la equidad social, promover la innovación y reforzar la productividad en la construcción. Esto es posible con el análisis del coste global ampliado y especialmente con el modelo SEC. El análisis “bottom up” realizado con la SEC se basa en una tipología de edificio/usuario y en el análisis de edificios representativos: la identificación del óptimo técnico-económico y elaboración de escenarios antes de hacer una extrapolación al conjunto del parque. SEC es una herramienta de ayuda a la decisión para desarrollar estrategias territoriales o patrimoniales de rehabilitación energética. Existen diversas versiones del modelo: para edificios residenciales (unifamiliares y plurifamiliares, públicos y privados y para edificios terciarios.

  12. High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.D. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: lbliu.csu@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Zhao, J.-C. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, J.L.; Zheng, F.; Jin, Z.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti–Zr–Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173 K for 1800 h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. - Highlights: • High-efficiency diffusion multiple of Ti–Zr–Ta was manufactured. • Composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems have been obtained effectively, • The methodology and the information can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys.

  13. Tools for an integrated systems approach to sustainable port city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Morel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large port cities like Shanghai, Amsterdam and Rio de Janeiro are key cogwheels in international logistics and transport networks but also serve as showcases for the rest of the world; as such, they constitute strategic assets for the host country´s economy and international influence. Historically, a city and its port often developed independently, through sometimes contradictory or even confrontational policies. Today, the growing number of usage disputes over increasingly coveted coastal areas is prompting local managers to incorporate urban and port-related issues in overarching planning programs. In particular, planning of the sea front and the buffer zone between the port and the city must contribute decisively to the deployment of more effective, cleaner transport services for the port city as a whole. In general, one of the key global challenges for planners and decision-makers consists in integrating sustainable development goals (environmental and social components, as well as the stimulation of industrial competitiveness into urban planning. In this context the PHEBUS research group has initiated an international program of research to develop innovative methods and tools that can help territorial stakeholders to design, evaluate, compare and ultimately choose development scenarios for the future of their port cities. The main themes are addressed via a multidisciplinary systems approach on the scale of a coastal urban area with an industrial and port complex. In particular, the themes include sea front planning, the city-port interface, energy optimization (e.g. the introduction and sharing of renewable energies, risk resilience, climate change and multimodal, clean transport.

  14. Knowledge management as a tool for improving business processes: an action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martínez-Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of Knowledge Management as a tool for improving business processes in a different context from the industrial organizations, as an archaeological museum. Design/methodology/approach: Using data collected from the National Museum of the Sultanate of Oman in Muscat, a methodology for analysis and improvement of processes (the Business Cycle Management Process, CMP is designed and validated. This application is described as an eight phases process based on Six Sigma DMAIC. The model has a characteristic "P" shape. Findings: As the results obtained by the process improvement initiative show, we highlight the relevance of the improvement in all aspects regarding the security in showcases in that context. Research limitations/implications: The complexity of implementing indicators and the partial vision of the project as data were only obtained from a part of one of the companies involved in the construction of the museum. An important implication of this paper is in order to present a methodology to improve the museum processes focusing on the reduction of errors and also adding value for the visitors. Practical implications: The relevance to intervene on certain relevant variables at different levels of management performance is verified. Social implications: Improving the quality of leisure services in order to the identification of certain challenges regarding the nature and competitiveness of cultural services. Originality/value: The current work has served as a repository of knowledge applicable to new similar projects, in which to take into account the peculiarities of each case and in particular the level of quality demanded by the client in a cultural context. It is important to take into account the degree of avoidable dissatisfaction (number of solvable problems that would lead to dissatisfaction, the opportunity for improvement, the reduction of operational waste and the need

  15. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REVITALIZATION TOOLS-ELECTRONIC (SMARTE): OVERVIEW AND DEMONSTRATION FOR FINAL PHASE 3 CONFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. contingent of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic (SMARTe). SMARTe is a web-based, decision support system designed to assist stakeholders in developing and evaluating alternative reu...

  16. A Combined Approach to Cartographic Displacement for Buildings Based on Skeleton and Improved Elastic Beam Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuangang; Guo, Qingsheng; Sun, Yageng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Scale reduction from source to target maps inevitably leads to conflicts of map symbols in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). Displacement is one of the most important map generalization operators and it can be used to resolve the problems that arise from conflict among two or more map objects. In this paper, we propose a combined approach based on constraint Delaunay triangulation (CDT) skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm for automated building displacement. In this approach, map data sets are first partitioned. Then the displacement operation is conducted in each partition as a cyclic and iterative process of conflict detection and resolution. In the iteration, the skeleton of the gap spaces is extracted using CDT. It then serves as an enhanced data model to detect conflicts and construct the proximity graph. Then, the proximity graph is adjusted using local grouping information. Under the action of forces derived from the detected conflicts, the proximity graph is deformed using the improved elastic beam algorithm. In this way, buildings are displaced to find an optimal compromise between related cartographic constraints. To validate this approach, two topographic map data sets (i.e., urban and suburban areas) were tested. The results were reasonable with respect to each constraint when the density of the map was not extremely high. In summary, the improvements include (1) an automated parameter-setting method for elastic beams, (2) explicit enforcement regarding the positional accuracy constraint, added by introducing drag forces, (3) preservation of local building groups through displacement over an adjusted proximity graph, and (4) an iterative strategy that is more likely to resolve the proximity conflicts than the one used in the existing elastic beam algorithm. PMID:25470727

  17. Reconstructing Regional Ionospheric Electron Density: A Combined Spherical Slepian Function and Empirical Orthogonal Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Saeed; Forootan, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    The computerized ionospheric tomography is a method for imaging the Earth's ionosphere using a sounding technique and computing the slant total electron content (STEC) values from data of the global positioning system (GPS). The most common approach for ionospheric tomography is the voxel-based model, in which (1) the ionosphere is divided into voxels, (2) the STEC is then measured along (many) satellite signal paths, and finally (3) an inversion procedure is applied to reconstruct the electron density distribution of the ionosphere. In this study, a computationally efficient approach is introduced, which improves the inversion procedure of step 3. Our proposed method combines the empirical orthogonal function and the spherical Slepian base functions to describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of electron density, respectively. Thus, it can be applied on regional and global case studies. Numerical application is demonstrated using the ground-based GPS data over South America. Our results are validated against ionospheric tomography obtained from the constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) observations and the global ionosphere map estimated by international centers, as well as by comparison with STEC derived from independent GPS stations. Using the proposed approach, we find that while using 30 GPS measurements in South America, one can achieve comparable accuracy with those from COSMIC data within the reported accuracy (1 × 1011 el/cm3) of the product. Comparisons with real observations of two GPS stations indicate an absolute difference is less than 2 TECU (where 1 total electron content unit, TECU, is 1016 electrons/m2).

  18. Multi-UAV Flight using Virtual Structure Combined with Behavioral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kownacki Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementations of multi-UAV systems can be divided mainly into two different approaches, centralised system that synchronises positions of each vehicle by a ground station and an autonomous system based on decentralised control, which offers more flexibility and independence. Decentralisation of multi-UAV control entails the need for information sharing between all vehicles, what in some cases could be problematic due to a significant amount of data to be sent over the wireless network. To improve the reliability and the throughput of information sharing inside the formation of UAVs, this paper proposes an approach that combines virtual structure with a leader and two flocking behaviours. Each UAV has assigned different virtual migration point referenced to the leader's position which is simultaneously the origin of a formation reference frame. All migration points create together a virtual rigid structure. Each vehicle uses local behaviours of cohesion and repulsion respectively, to track its own assigned point in the structure and to avoid a collision with the previous UAV in the structure. To calculate parameters of local behaviours, each UAV should know position and attitude of the leader to define the formation reference frame and also the actual position of the previous UAV in the structure. Hence, information sharing can be based on a chain of local peer-to-peer communication between two consecutive vehicles in the structure. In such solution, the information about the leader could be sequentially transmitted from one UAV to another. Numerical simulations were prepared and carried out to verify the effectiveness of the presented approach. Trajectories recorded during those simulations show collective, coherence and collision-free flights of the formation created with five UAVs.

  19. A combined triggering-propagation modeling approach for the assessment of rainfall induced debris flow susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancanelli, Laura Maria; Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino; Foti, Enrico

    2017-07-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow slides can evolve into debris flows that move rapidly downstream with devastating consequences. Mapping the susceptibility to debris flow is an important aid for risk mitigation. We propose a novel practical approach to derive debris flow inundation maps useful for susceptibility assessment, that is based on the integrated use of DEM-based spatially-distributed hydrological and slope stability models with debris flow propagation models. More specifically, the TRIGRS infiltration and infinite slope stability model and the FLO-2D model for the simulation of the related debris flow propagation and deposition are combined. An empirical instability-to-debris flow triggering threshold calibrated on the basis of observed events, is applied to link the two models and to accomplish the task of determining the amount of unstable mass that develops as a debris flow. Calibration of the proposed methodology is carried out based on real data of the debris flow event occurred on 1 October 2009, in the Peloritani mountains area (Italy). Model performance, assessed by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) indexes, evidences fairly good reproduction of the observed event. Comparison with the performance of the traditional debris flow modeling procedure, in which sediment and water hydrographs are inputed as lumped at selected points on top of the streams, is also performed, in order to assess quantitatively the limitations of such commonly applied approach. Results show that the proposed method, besides of being more process-consistent than the traditional hydrograph-based approach, can potentially provide a more accurate simulation of debris-flow phenomena, in terms of spatial patterns of erosion and deposition as well on the quantification of mobilized volumes and depths, avoiding overestimation of debris flow triggering volume and, thus, of maximum inundation flow depths.

  20. Combined approach based on principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis for investigating hyperspectral plant response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral (HS data represents an extremely powerful means for rapidly detecting crop stress and then aiding in the rational management of natural resources in agriculture. However, large volume of data poses a challenge for data processing and extracting crucial information. Multivariate statistical techniques can play a key role in the analysis of HS data, as they may allow to both eliminate redundant information and identify synthetic indices which maximize differences among levels of stress. In this paper we propose an integrated approach, based on the combined use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA, to investigate HS plant response and discriminate plant status. The approach was preliminary evaluated on a data set collected on durum wheat plants grown under different nitrogen (N stress levels. Hyperspectral measurements were performed at anthesis through a high resolution field spectroradiometer, ASD FieldSpec HandHeld, covering the 325-1075 nm region. Reflectance data were first restricted to the interval 510-1000 nm and then divided into five bands of the electromagnetic spectrum [green: 510-580 nm; yellow: 581-630 nm; red: 631-690 nm; red-edge: 705-770 nm; near-infrared (NIR: 771-1000 nm]. PCA was applied to each spectral interval. CDA was performed on the extracted components to identify the factors maximizing the differences among plants fertilised with increasing N rates. Within the intervals of green, yellow and red only the first principal component (PC had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained more than 95% of total variance; within the ranges of red-edge and NIR, the first two PCs had an eigenvalue higher than 1. Two canonical variables explained cumulatively more than 81% of total variance and the first was able to discriminate wheat plants differently fertilised, as confirmed also by the significant correlation with aboveground biomass and grain yield parameters. The combined

  1. An approach to combine radar and gauge based rainfall data under consideration of their qualities in low mountain ranges of Saxony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jatho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An approach to combine gauge and radar data and additional quality information is presented. The development was focused on the improvement of the diagnostic for temporal (one hour and spatial (1×1 km2 highly resolved precipitation data. The method is embedded in an online tool and was applied to the target area Saxony, Germany. The aim of the tool is to provide accurate spatial rainfall estimates. The results can be used for rainfall run-off modelling, e.g. in a flood management system.

    Quality information allows a better assessment of the input data and the resulting precipitation field. They are stored in corresponding fields and represent the static and dynamic uncertainties of radar and gauge data. Objective combination of various precipitation and quality fields is realised using a cost function.

    The findings of cross validation reveal that the proposed combination method merged the benefits and disadvantages of interpolated gauge and radar data and leads to mean estimates. The sampling point validation implies that the presented method slightly overestimated the areal rain as well as the high rain intensities in case of convective and advective events, while the results of pure interpolation method performed better. In general, the use of presented cost function avoids false rainfall amount in areas of low input data quality and improves the reliability in areas of high data quality. It is obvious that the combined product includes the small-scale variability of radar, which is seen as the important benefit of the presented combination approach. Local improvements of the final rain field are possible due to consideration of gauges that were not used for radar calibration, e.g. in topographic distinct regions.

  2. Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCallum L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps

  3. Combining psychological and engineering approaches to utilizing social robots with children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Fischer, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children. Early identification of an ASD is exceedingly important to the introduction of an intervention. We are developing a robot-assisted approach that will serve as an improved diagnostic and early intervention tool for children with autism. The robot, named PABI® (Penguin for Autism Behavioral Interventions), is a compact humanoid robot taking on an expressive cartoon-like embodiment. The robot is affordable, durable, and portable so that it can be used in various settings including schools, clinics, and the home. Thus enabling significantly enhanced and more readily available diagnosis and continuation of care. Through facial expressions, body motion, verbal cues, stereo vision-based tracking, and a tablet computer, the robot is capable of interacting meaningfully with an autistic child. Initial implementations of the robot, as part of a comprehensive treatment model (CTM), include Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy where the child interacts with a tablet computer wirelessly interfaced with the robot. At the same time, the robot makes meaningful expressions and utterances and uses stereo cameras in eyes to track the child, maintain eye contact, and collect data such as affect and gaze direction for charting of progress. In this paper we present the clinical justification, anticipated usage with corresponding requirements, prototype development of the robotic system, and demonstration of a sample application for robot-assisted ABA therapy.

  4. Combined spectroscopy approaches towards the study of truly 1D carbon-based structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Paola, E-mail: paola.ayala@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The applicability of nanostructured materials owes great part of its success to the proper understanding of their physical properties and the interaction with the surrounding environment. Applications related to improving solar cell efficiency are among the fields in which understanding the behavior of nanomaterials is critical. In this talk I will present an overview and progress report of the use of different spectroscopy techniques such as Raman, photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy as key tools to understand the properties of low dimensional carbon systems with sp{sup 2} hybridization, as well as one dimensional carbyne chains. Keeping in mind that the properties of sp{sup 2} hybridized materials can be nicely tuned via different functionalization methods like substitutional doping, lattice modifications, adsorption of species, among others, this overview will provide an approach to how these techniques can be utilized to understand and analyze changes in the site-selective valence and conduction bands of single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. (author)

  5. An empirical approach for evaluating the usability of model-driven tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Panach, Jose Ignacio; Baars, Arthur Iwan; Vos, Tanja; Pastor, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    MDD tools are very useful to draw conceptual models and to automate code generation. Even though this would bring many benefits, wide adoption of MDD tools is not yet a reality. Various research activities are being undertaken to find why and to provide the required solutions. However, insufficient

  6. Why Web Pages Annotation Tools Are Not Killer Applications? A New Approach to an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Marco; Rizzi, Matteo

    The idea of annotating Web pages is not a new one: early proposals date back to 1994. A tool providing the ability to add notes to a Web page, and to share the notes with other users seems to be particularly well suited to an e-learning environment. Although several tools already provide such possibility, they are not widely popular. This paper…

  7. An eHealth Diary and Symptom-Tracking Tool Combined With Person-Centered Care for Improving Self-Efficacy After a Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Axel; Fors, Andreas; Ulin, Kerstin; Thorn, Jörgen; Swedberg, Karl; Ekman, Inger

    2016-02-23

    Patients with cardiovascular diseases managed by a person-centered care (PCC) approach have been observed to have better treatment outcomes and satisfaction than with traditional care. eHealth may facilitate the often slow transition to more person-centered health care by increasing patients' beliefs in their own capacities (self-efficacy) to manage their care trajectory. eHealth is being increasingly used, but most studies continue to focus on health care professionals' logic of care. Knowledge is lacking regarding the effects of an eHealth tool on self-efficacy when combined with PCC for patients with chronic heart diseases. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of an eHealth diary and symptom-tracking tool in combination with PCC for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This was a substudy of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of PCC in patients hospitalized with ACS. In total, 199 patients with ACS aged eHealth tool, or both, for at least 2 months after hospital discharge. The primary end point was a composite score of changes in general self-efficacy, return to work or prior activity level, and rehospitalization or death 6 months after discharge. Of the 94 patients in the intervention arm, 37 (39%) used the eHealth tool at least once after the index hospitalization. Most of these (24/37, 65%) used the mobile app and not the Web-based app as the primary source of daily self-rating input. Patients used the eHealth tool a mean of 38 times during the first 8 weeks (range 1-118, SD 33) and 64 times over a 6-month period (range 1-597, SD 104). Patients who used the eHealth tool in combination with the PCC intervention had a 4-fold improvement in the primary end point compared with the control group (odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-10.5; P=.005). This improvement was driven by a significant increase in general self-efficacy compared with the control group (P=.011). Patients in the PCC group who did not use the eHealth tool

  8. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  9. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William ePettersson-Yeo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine (SVM, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realised. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: 1 an un-weighted sum of kernels, 2 multi-kernel learning, 3 prediction averaging, and 4 majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (UHR; n=19, first episode psychosis (FEP; n=19 and healthy control subjects (HCs; n=19. Our results show that i whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, ii where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, iii the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no magic bullet for increasing classification accuracy.

  10. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Marquand, Andre F; Joules, Richard; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C R; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realized. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: (1) an un-weighted sum of kernels, (2) multi-kernel learning, (3) prediction averaging, and (4) majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (n = 19), first episode psychosis (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 23). Our results show that (i) whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, (ii) where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, (iii) the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no "magic bullet" for increasing classification accuracy. However, it remains possible that this conclusion is dependent on the use of neuroimaging modalities that had little, or no, complementary information to offer one another, and that the

  11. Encapsulated cell device approach for combined electrical stimulation and neurotrophic treatment of the deaf cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerding, W S; Janssen, H; Hubka, P; Tornøe, J; Mistrik, P; Wahlberg, L; Lenarz, T; Kral, A; Scheper, V

    2017-07-01

    Profound hearing impairment can be overcome by electrical stimulation (ES) of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) via a cochlear implant (CI). Thus, SGN survival is critical for CI efficacy. Application of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to reduce SGN degeneration following deafness. We tested a novel method for local, continuous GDNF-delivery in combination with ES via a CI. The encapsulated cell (EC) device contained a human ARPE-19 cell-line, genetically engineered for secretion of GDNF. In vitro, GDNF delivery was stable during ES delivered via a CI. In the chronic in vivo part, cats were systemically deafened and unilaterally implanted into the scala tympani with a CI and an EC device, which they wore for six months. The implantation of control devices (same cell-line not producing GDNF) had no negative effect on SGN survival. GDNF application without ES led to an unexpected reduction in SGN survival, however, the combination of GDNF with initial, short-term ES resulted in a significant protection of SGNs. A tight fibrous tissue formation in the scala tympani of the GDNF-only group is thought to be responsible for the increased SGN degeneration, due to mechanisms related to an aggravated foreign body response. Furthermore, the fibrotic encapsulation of the EC device led to cell death or cessation of GDNF release within the EC device during the six months in vivo. In both in vitro and in vivo, fibrosis was reduced by CI stimulation, enabling the neuroprotective effect of the combined treatment. Thus, fibrous tissue growth limits treatment possibilities with an EC device. For a stable and successful long-term neurotrophic treatment of the SGN via EC devices in human CI users, it would be necessary to make changes in the treatment approach (provision of anti-inflammatories), the EC device surface (reduced cell adhesion) and the ES (initiation prior to fibrosis formation). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Early Outcomes with Three Approaches for Combined Coronary Revascularization and Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Antal Dönmez

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare three different surgical approaches for combined coronary and carotid artery stenosis as a single stage procedure and to assess effect of operative strategy on mortality and neurological complications. Methods: This retrospective study involves 136 patients who had synchronous coronary artery revascularization and carotid endarterectomy in our institution, between January 2002 and December 2012. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical technique used. Group I included 70 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with on-pump technique, group II included 29 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with off-pump technique, group III included 37 patients who had coronary revascularization with on-pump technique followed by carotid endarterectomy under aortic cross-clamp and systemic hypothermia (22-27ºC. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results: Overall early mortality and stroke rate was 5.1% for both. There were 3 (4.3% deaths in group I, 2 (6.9% deaths in group II and 2 (5.4% deaths in group III. Stroke was observed in 5 (7.1% patients in group I and 2 (6.9% in group II. Stroke was not observed in group III. No statistically significant difference was observed for mortality and stroke rates among the groups. Conclusion: We identified no significant difference in mortality or neurologic complications among three approaches for synchronous surgery for coronary and carotid disease. Therefore it is impossible to conclude that a single principle might be adapted into standard practice. Patient specific risk factors and clinical conditions might be important in determining the surgical tecnnique.

  13. An Event-Based Approach to Design a Teamwork Training Scenario and Assessment Tool in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngan; Watson, William D; Dominguez, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Simulation is a technique recommended for teaching and measuring teamwork, but few published methodologies are available on how best to design simulation for teamwork training in surgery and health care in general. The purpose of this article is to describe a general methodology, called event-based approach to training (EBAT), to guide the design of simulation for teamwork training and discuss its application to surgery. The EBAT methodology draws on the science of training by systematically introducing training exercise events that are linked to training requirements (i.e., competencies being trained and learning objectives) and performance assessment. The EBAT process involves: Of the 4 teamwork competencies endorsed by the Agency for Healthcare Research Quality and Department of Defense, "communication" was chosen to be the focus of our training efforts. A total of 5 learning objectives were defined based on 5 validated teamwork and communication techniques. Diagnostic laparoscopy was chosen as the clinical context to frame the training scenario, and 29 KSAs were defined based on review of published literature on patient safety and input from subject matter experts. Critical events included those that correspond to a specific phase in the normal flow of a surgical procedure as well as clinical events that may occur when performing the operation. Similar to the targeted KSAs, targeted responses to the critical events were developed based on existing literature and gathering input from content experts. Finally, a 29-item EBAT-derived checklist was created to assess communication performance. Like any instructional tool, simulation is only effective if it is designed and implemented appropriately. It is recognized that the effectiveness of simulation depends on whether (1) it is built upon a theoretical framework, (2) it uses preplanned structured exercises or events to allow learners the opportunity to exhibit the targeted KSAs, (3) it assesses performance, and (4

  14. Combined numerical and experimental determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient between an AlCrN-coated Vanadis 4 tool and Rhenus oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris V.; Tiedje, Niels S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Regardless of the field of application, the reliability of numerical simulations depends on correct description of boundary conditions. In thermal simulation, determination of heat transfer coefficients is important because it varies with material properties and process conditions....... This paper shows a combined experimental and numerical analysis applied for determination of the heat transfer coefficient between an AlCrN-coated Vanadis 4 tool and Rhenus LA722086 oil in an unloaded condition, i.e. without the tool being in contact with a workpiece. It is found that the heat transfer...... coefficient in unloaded conditions at 80°C oil temperature is 0.1 kW/(m2∙K) between the selected stamping tool and mineral oil. A sensitivity analysis of the numerical model was performed to verify the effects of mesh discretization, temperature measurement location and tool geometry. Among these parameters...

  15. A Modeling approach for analysis and improvement of spindle-holder-tool assembly dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Budak, Erhan; Ertürk, A.; Erturk, A.; Özgüven, H. N.; Ozguven, H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The most important information required for chatter stability analysis is the dynamics of the involved structures, i.e. the frequency response functions (FRFs) which are usually determined experimentally. In this study, the tool point FRF of a spindle-holder-tool assembly is analytically determined by using the receptance coupling and structural modification techniques. Timoshenko’s beam model is used for increased accuracy. The spindle is also modeled analytically with elastic supports repre...

  16. Tools and approaches for simplifying serious games development in educational settings

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Antonio; Rotaru, Dan C.; Freire, Manuel; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2016-01-01

    Serious Games can benefit from the commercial video games industry by taking advantage of current development tools. However, the economics and requirements of serious games and commercial games are very different. In this paper, we describe the factors that impact the total cost of ownership of serious games used in educational settings, review the specific requirements of games used as learning material, and analyze the different development tools available in the industry highlighting thei...

  17. Engineering students approaching the mathematics textbook as a potential learning tool – opportunities and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Randahl, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Doktorgradsavhandling It is usually assumed that the students at tertiary level work intensively and individually with the new mathematical concepts (Wood, 2001). In this context the mathematics textbook might be an important learning tool. This thesis addresses the issue of what factors might influence the role of the mathematics textbook as a learning tool. The study is situated in the context of the basic mathematics course taken by first-year engineering students. A b...

  18. Efficiency of stormwater control measures for combined sewer retrofitting under varying rain conditions: Quantifying the Three Points Approach (3PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Lerer, Sara Maria; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess and communicate the efficiency of stormwater control measures for retrofitting existing urban areas. The tool extends the Three Points Approach to quantitatively distinguish three rainfall domains: (A) rainwater resource utilisation, (B) urban stormwater drainage pip...

  19. Efficiency of stormwater control measures for combined sewer retrofitting under varying rain conditions: Quantifying the Three Points Approach (3PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Lerer, Sara Maria; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess and communicate the efficiency of stormwater control measures for retrofitting existing urban areas. The tool extends the Three Points Approach to quantitatively distinguish three rainfall domains: (A) rainwater resource utilisation, (B) urban stormwater drainage pipe......, stormwater drainage and flood risks....

  20. A case independent approach on the impact of climate change effects on combined sewer system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    Design and construction of urban drainage systems has to be done in a predictive way, as the average lifespan of such investments is several decades. The design engineer has to predict many influencing factors and scenarios for future development of a system (e.g. change in land use, population, water consumption and infiltration measures). Furthermore, climate change can cause increased rain intensities which leads to an additional impact on drainage systems. In this paper we compare the behaviour of different performance indicators of combined sewer systems when taking into account long-term environmental change effects (change in rainfall characteristics, change in impervious area and change in dry weather flow). By using 250 virtual case studies this approach is--in principle--a Monte Carlo Simulation in which not only parameter values are varied but the entire system structure and layout is changed in each run. Hence, results are more general and case-independent. For example the consideration of an increase of rainfall intensities by 20% has the same effect as an increase of impervious area of +40%. Such an increase of rainfall intensities could be compensated by infiltration measures in current systems which lead to a reduction of impervious area by 30%.

  1. Improvement of fungal disease identification and management: combined health systems and public health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Govender, Nelesh P; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Sacarlal, Jahit; Denning, David W

    2017-12-01

    More than 1·6 million people are estimated to die of fungal diseases each year, and about a billion people have cutaneous fungal infections. Fungal disease diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and specialised laboratory testing, in addition to culture, histopathology, and imaging expertise. Physicians with varied specialist training might see patients with fungal disease, yet it might remain unrecognised. Antifungal treatment is more complex than treatment for bacterial or most viral infections, and drug interactions are particularly problematic. Health systems linking diagnostic facilities with therapeutic expertise are typically fragmented, with major elements missing in thousands of secondary care and hospital settings globally. In this paper, the last in a Series of eight papers, we describe these limitations and share responses involving a combined health systems and public health framework illustrated through country examples from Mozambique, Kenya, India, and South Africa. We suggest a mainstreaming approach including greater integration of fungal diseases into existing HIV infection, tuberculosis infection, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and blindness health programmes; provision of enhanced laboratory capacity to detect fungal diseases with associated surveillance systems; procurement and distribution of low-cost, high-quality antifungal medicines; and concomitant integration of fungal disease into training of the health workforce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Robot Evaluation and Selection with Entropy-Based Combination Weighting and Cloud TODIM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays robots have been commonly adopted in various manufacturing industries to improve product quality and productivity. The selection of the best robot to suit a specific production setting is a difficult decision making task for manufacturers because of the increase in complexity and number of robot systems. In this paper, we explore two key issues of robot evaluation and selection: the representation of decision makers’ diversified assessments and the determination of the ranking of available robots. Specifically, a decision support model which utilizes cloud model and TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese of interactive and multiple criteria decision making method is developed for the purpose of handling robot selection problems with hesitant linguistic information. Besides, we use an entropy-based combination weighting technique to estimate the weights of evaluation criteria. Finally, we illustrate the proposed cloud TODIM approach with a robot selection example for an automobile manufacturer, and further validate its effectiveness and benefits via a comparative analysis. The results show that the proposed robot selection model has some unique advantages, which is more realistic and flexible for robot selection under a complex and uncertain environment.

  3. Combined approaches for the relief of spinal cord injury-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Young S; Kim, Hee Young; Lee, Bong Hyo; Yang, Chae Ha

    2016-04-01

    The adequate treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced neuropathic pain still remains an unresolved problem. The current medications predominantly used in the SCI-induced neuropathic pain therapy are morphine, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and antiepileptics, which suggests that psychiatric aspects might be important factors in the treatment of neuropathic pain. It is well documented that the modulation of the sensory events is not a unique way for achieving pain relief. In addition, pain patients still express dissatisfaction and complain of unwanted effects of the medications, suggesting that alternative approaches for the treatment of neuropathic pain are essential. In psychiatry, pain relief represents relaxation and a feeling of comfort and satisfaction, which suggests that cognitive and emotional motivations are important factors in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The comorbidity of chronic pain and psychiatric disorders, which is well recognized, suggests that the effective therapeutic relief for neuropathic pain induced by SCI can be achieved in conjunction with the management of the sensory and psychiatric aspects of patient. In this review, we address the feasibility of a combined acupuncture and pharmacotherapy treatment for the relief of neuropathic pain behavior following SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasible approach of contactless power transfer technology combined with HTS coils based on electromagnetic resonance coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo; Hwang, Si Dole

    2013-01-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) systems have been recently gaining popularity widely since it is an available option to realize the power delivery and storage with connector-free devices across a large air gap. Especially, the CPT with electromagnetic resonance coupling method is possible to exchange energy within 2 m efficiently. However, the power transfer efficiency of CPT in commercialized products has been limited because the impedance matching of coupled coils is sensitive. As a reasonable approach, we combined the CPT system with HTS wire technology and called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Since the superconducting coils have an enough current density, the superconducting antenna and receiver coils at CPT system have a merit to deliver and receive a mass amount of electric energy. In this paper, we present the feasibility of the SUCPT system and examine the transmission properties of SUCPT phenomenon between room temperature and very low temperature at 77 K as long as the receiver is within 1.0 m distance.

  5. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, Karl-Johan; Kiryunin, Andrey; Pospelov, Guennadi

    2011-01-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at |η| 3.2 in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |η| = 0.45 of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap beam test. The local hadron calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap beam test data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte Carlo simulations are presented.

  6. A Novel Segmentation Approach Combining Region- and Edge-Based Information for Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaozhong Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging has become one of the most popular medical imaging modalities with numerous diagnostic applications. However, ultrasound (US image segmentation, which is the essential process for further analysis, is a challenging task due to the poor image quality. In this paper, we propose a new segmentation scheme to combine both region- and edge-based information into the robust graph-based (RGB segmentation method. The only interaction required is to select two diagonal points to determine a region of interest (ROI on the original image. The ROI image is smoothed by a bilateral filter and then contrast-enhanced by histogram equalization. Then, the enhanced image is filtered by pyramid mean shift to improve homogeneity. With the optimization of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, the RGB segmentation method is performed to segment the filtered image. The segmentation results of our method have been compared with the corresponding results obtained by three existing approaches, and four metrics have been used to measure the segmentation performance. The experimental results show that the method achieves the best overall performance and gets the lowest ARE (10.77%, the second highest TPVF (85.34%, and the second lowest FPVF (4.48%.

  7. Human Activity-Understanding: A Multilayer Approach Combining Body Movements and Contextual Descriptors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Granata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A deep understanding of human activity is key to successful human-robot interaction (HRI. The translation of sensed human behavioural signals/cues and context descriptors into an encoded human activity remains a challenge because of the complex nature of human actions. In this paper, we propose a multilayer framework for the understanding of human activity to be implemented in a mobile robot. It consists of a perception layer which exploits a D-RGB-based skeleton tracking output used to simulate a physical model of virtual human dynamics in order to compensate for the inaccuracy and inconsistency of the raw data. A multi-support vector machine (MSVM model trained with features describing the human motor coordination through temporal segments in combination with environment descriptors (object affordance is used to recognize each sub-activity (classification layer. The interpretation of sequences of classified elementary actions is based on discrete hidden Markov models (DHMMs (interpretation layer. The framework assessment was performed on the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-120 [1]. The performances of our method are comparable with those presented in [2] and clearly show the relevance of this model-based approach.

  8. A combined bottom-up/top-down approach to prepare a sterile injectable nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing; Wang, Yanjiao

    2014-09-10

    To prepare a uniform nanosuspension of strongly hydrophobic riboflavin laurate (RFL) allowing sterile filtration, physical modification (bottom-up) was combined with high-pressure homogenization (top-down) method. Unlike other bottom-up approaches, physical modification with surfactants (TPGS and PL-100) by lyophilization controlled crystallization and compensated for the poor wettability of RFL. On one hand, crystal growth and aggregation during freezing was restricted by a stabilizer-layer adsorbed on the drug surface by hydrophobic interaction. On the other hand, subsequent crystallization of drug in the sublimation process was limited to the interstitial spaces between solvent crystals. After lyophilization, modified drug with a smaller particle size and better wettability was obtained. When adding surfactant solution, water molecules passed between the hydrophilic groups of surface active molecules and activated the polymer chains allowing them to stretch into water. The coarse suspension was crushed into a nanosuspension (MP=162 nm) by high-pressure homogenization. For long term stability, lyophilization was applied again to solidify the nanosuspension (sorbitol as cryoprotectant). A slight crystal growth to about 600 nm was obtained to allow slow release for a sustained effect after muscular administration. Moreover, no paw-licking responses and very slight muscular inflammation demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility of this long-acting RFL injection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined reservoir simulation and seismic technology, a new approach for modeling CHOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghabarati, H.; Lines, L.; Settari, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Dumitrescu, C. [Sensor Geophysical Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    One of the primary recovery schemes for developing heavy oil reservoirs in Canada is cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS). With the introduction of progressive cavity pumps, CHOPS can be applied in unconsolidated or weakly consolidated formations. In order to better understand reservoir properties and recovery mechanism, this paper discussed the use of a combined reservoir simulation and seismic technology that were applied for a heavy oil reservoir situated in Saskatchewan, Canada. Using a seismic survey acquired in 1989, the study used geostatistical methods to estimate the initial reservoir porosity. Sand production was then modeled using an erosional velocity approach and the model was run based on oil production. The paper also compared the results of true porosity derived from simulation against the porosity estimated from a second seismic survey acquired in 2001. Last, the extent and the shape of the enhanced permeability region was modelled in order to estimate porosity distribution. It was concluded that the performance of the CHOPS wells depended greatly on the rate of creation of the high permeability zone around the wells. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs., 1 appendix.

  10. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-09-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  11. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  12. A Quantitative Exposure Planning Tool for Surgical Approaches to the Sacroiliac Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Kevin D; Ming, Bryan W; Fox, Wade E; Bellamy, Nelly; Sims, Stephen H; Karunakar, Madhav A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2016-06-01

    To aid in surgical planning by quantifying and comparing the osseous exposure between the anterior and posterior approaches to the sacroiliac joint. Anterior and posterior approaches were performed on 12 sacroiliac joints in 6 fresh-frozen torsos. Visual and palpable access to relevant surgical landmarks was recorded. Calibrated digital photographs were taken of each approach and analyzed using Image J. The average surface areas of exposed bone were 44 and 33 cm for the anterior and posterior approaches, respectively. The anterior iliolumbar ligament footprint could be visualized in all anterior approaches, whereas the posterior aspect could be visualized in all but one posterior approach. The anterior approach provided visual and palpable access to the anterior superior edge of the sacroiliac joint in all specimens, the posterior superior edge in 75% of specimens, and the inferior margin in 25% and 50% of specimens, respectively. The inferior sacroiliac joint was easily visualized and palpated in all posterior approaches, although access to the anterior and posterior superior edges was more limited. The anterior S1 neuroforamen was not visualized with either approach and was more consistently palpated when going posterior (33% vs. 92%). Both anterior and posterior approaches can be used for open reduction of pure sacroiliac dislocations, each with specific areas for assessing reduction. In light of current plate dimensions, fractures more than 2.5 cm lateral to the anterior iliolumbar ligament footprint are amenable to anterior plate fixation, whereas those more medial may be better addressed through a posterior approach.

  13. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  14. Modelling of clay diagenesis using a combined approach of crystalchemistry and thermochemistry: a case study in the smectite illitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Claudio; Previde Massara, Elisabetta; Di Paola, Eleonora; Ortenzi, Andrea; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Blanc, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Diagenetic transformations occurring in clayey and arenaceous sediments is investigated in a number of hydrocarbon reservoirs with an integrated approach that combines mineralogical analysis, crystalchemistry, estimation of thermochemical parameters of clay minerals, and geochemical modelling. Because of the extremely variable crystalchemistry of clays, especially in the smectite - illite compositional range, the estimation of thermochemical parameters of site-specific clay-rich rocks is crucial to investigate water-rock equilibria and to predict mineralogical evolutionary patterns at the clay-sandstone interface. The task of estimating the thermochemical properties of clay minerals and predicting diagenetic reactions in natural reservoirs is accomplished through the implementation of an informatized, procedure (IP) that consists of: (i) laboratory analysis of smectite, illite and mixed layers (I/S) for the determination of their textural characteristics and chemical composition; (ii) estimation of the thermodynamic and structural parameters (enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation, thermal capacity, molar volume, molar weight) with a MS Excel tool (XLS) specifically developed at the French Bureau of Geological and Mining Researches (BRGM); (iii) usage of the SUPCRT (Johnson et al., 1992) software package (thereinafter, SSP) to derive log K values to be incorporated in thermodynamic databases of the standard geochemical codes; (iv) check of the consistency of the stability domains calculated with these log K values with relevant predominance diagrams; (v) final application of geochemical and reactive transport models to investigate the reactive mechanisms under different thermal conditions (40-150°C). All the simulations consider pore waters having roughly the same chemical composition of reservoir pore waters, and are performed with The Geochemist Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2015), PHREEQC (Parkhurst, 1999) and TOUGHREACT (Xu, 2006). The overall

  15. A Hybrid Hierarchical Approach for Brain Tissue Segmentation by Combining Brain Atlas and Least Square Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Keyvan; Kazemi, Kamran; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Helfroush, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new semi-automatic brain tissue segmentation method based on a hybrid hierarchical approach that combines a brain atlas as a priori information and a least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The method consists of three steps. In the first two steps, the skull is removed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extracted. These two steps are performed using the toolbox FMRIB's automated segmentation tool integrated in the FSL software (FSL-FAST) developed in Oxford Centre for functional MRI of the brain (FMRIB). Then, in the third step, the LS-SVM is used to segment grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM). The training samples for LS-SVM are selected from the registered brain atlas. The voxel intensities and spatial positions are selected as the two feature groups for training and test. SVM as a powerful discriminator is able to handle nonlinear classification problems; however, it cannot provide posterior probability. Thus, we use a sigmoid function to map the SVM output into probabilities. The proposed method is used to segment CSF, GM and WM from the simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Brainweb MRI simulator and real data provided by Internet Brain Segmentation Repository. The semi-automatically segmented brain tissues were evaluated by comparing to the corresponding ground truth. The Dice and Jaccard similarity coefficients, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the quantitative validation of the results. The quantitative results show that the proposed method segments brain tissues accurately with respect to corresponding ground truth. PMID:24696800

  16. An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gilio, A; de Gennaro, G; Dambruoso, P; Ventrella, G

    2015-10-15

    Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st-20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM2.5 and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive framework

  17. [Sinus tarsi approach combined with medial distraction technique for treatment of intra-articular calcaneus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haichao; Ren, Haoyang; Li, Bing; Yu, Tao; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-07-08

    ?To discuss the effectiveness of limited open reduction via sinus tarsi approach using medial distraction technique in the treatment of intra-articular calcaneus fractures by comparing with open reduction and internal fixation via extensile L-shaped incision. ?A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 21 patients with intra-articular calcaneus fractures treated by sinus tarsi approach combined with medial distraction technique between April 2013 and November 2014 (minimally invasive group), and 32 patients treated by extensile L-shaped incision approach between June 2012 and September 2014 (extensile incision group). No significant difference was found in gender, age, injury pattern, fracture classification, time from injury to operation, preoperative Böhler angle, Gissane angle, calcaneal varus angle, the ankle and hind-foot score of American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), and visual analogue scale (VAS) score between 2 groups (P>0.05), which was comparable. The operation time, wound complications, and bone healing time were recorded. The postoperative function was also evaluated by AOFAS score and VAS score. The pre-and post-operative Böhler angle, Gissane angle, and calcaneal varus angle were measured on the X-ray films, and the corrective angle was calculated. ?Sixteen patients were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 11.5 months) in the minimally invasive group, and 23 patients for 6-24 months (mean, 13.5 months) in the extensile incision group. Difference was not significant in operation time between 2 groups (t=0.929, P=0.796). No complication occurred in the minimally invasive group; partial skin flap necrosis occurred in 3 cases of the extensile incision group, was cured after dressing change. There was no loosening of implants or reduction loss in 2 groups at last follow-up. Subtalar joint stiffness occurred in 1 case of the minimally invasive group and 4 cases of the extensile incision group, and 1 patient had discomfort for the

  18. Community health assessment tool: a patterns approach to data collection and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, N F; Harton, M K

    1992-01-01

    Creation of an assessment tool to apply Gordon's functional patterns to the community as a client was a rewarding and stimulating project. Through use of the CHAT, students developed an appreciation of the complexity and inter-relationship of numerous aspects of the community. They completed the nursing process by developing appropriate nursing diagnoses, and planning, implementing, and evaluating a health promotion project. As the students continue to use this tool in the health promotion course, the diagnoses which they generate are being collected. From this accumulated input the plan is to compile a list of common diagnoses which are appropriate to use when the community is the client.

  19. A Preliminary Report on Combined Penoscrotal and Perineal Approach for Placement of Penile Prosthesis with Corporal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Brusky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims at describing the combined penoscrotal and perineal approach for placement of penile prosthesis in cases of severe corporal fibrosis and scarring. Materials and methods. Three patients with extensive corporal fibrosis underwent penile prosthesis placement via combined penoscrotal and perineal approach from 1997 to 2006. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 129 months. Results. All patients underwent successful implantation of semirigid penile prosthesis. There were no short- or long-term complications. Conclusions. Results on combined penoscrotal and perineal approach to penile prosthetic surgery in this preliminary series of patients suggest that it is a safe technique and increases the chance of successful outcome in the surgical management of severe corporal fibrosis.

  20. Combining pre-spill shoreline segmentation data and shoreline assessment tools to support early response management and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Owens, E.H.; Martin, V.; Laforest, S.

    2003-01-01

    Several organizations, such as Environment Canada and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, are developing or refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools were recently created by Environment Canada (Quebec and Ontario regions). The tools, which use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, can be used for planning and documenting support needed for shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system, was conducted at Vercheres, Quebec in October 2002 by Eastern Canada Response Corporation. The testing took place during the planning stage of the early phases of a spill, namely after the first over-flight. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The information would have to be available in time to be considered during the planning activities. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Combined mixed approach algorithm for in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Caro, Liberato; Scattarella, Francesco; Giannini, Cinzia; Tangaro, Sabina; Rigon, Luigi; Longo, Renata; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the past decade, phase-contrast imaging (PCI) has been applied to study different kinds of tissues and human body parts, with an increased improvement of the image quality with respect to simple absorption radiography. A technique closely related to PCI is phase-retrieval imaging (PRI). Indeed, PCI is an imaging modality thought to enhance the total contrast of the images through the phase shift introduced by the object (human body part); PRI is a mathematical technique to extract the quantitative phase-shift map from PCI. A new phase-retrieval algorithm for the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging is here proposed. Methods: The proposed algorithm is based on a mixed transfer-function and transport-of-intensity approach (MA) and it requires, at most, an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy in the initial estimate determines the convergence speed of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm retrieves both the object phase and its complex conjugate in a combined MA (CMA). Results: Although slightly less computationally effective with respect to other mixed-approach algorithms, as two phases have to be retrieved, the results obtained by the CMA on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The authors have also tested the CMA on noisy experimental phase-contrast data obtained by a suitable weakly absorbing sample consisting of a grid of submillimetric nylon fibers as well as on a strongly absorbing object made of a 0.03 mm thick lead x-ray resolution star pattern. The CMA has shown a good efficiency in recovering phase information, also in presence of noisy data, characterized by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratios down to a few dBs, showing the possibility to enhance with phase radiography the signal-to-noise ratio for features in the submillimetric scale with respect to the attenuation

  2. A Survey of Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering Approaches, Methods, and Tools on the Inputs and Outputs View

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka D. Sija; Young-Hoon Goo; Kyu-Seok Shim; Huru Hasanova; Myung-Sup Kim

    2018-01-01

    A network protocol defines rules that control communications between two or more machines on the Internet, whereas Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering (APRE) defines the way of extracting the structure of a network protocol without accessing its specifications. Enough knowledge on undocumented protocols is essential for security purposes, network policy implementation, and management of network resources. This paper reviews and analyzes a total of 39 approaches, methods, and tools towards ...

  3. Engineering and training simulators: A combined approach for nuclear plant construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnois, Olivier; Gain, Pascal; Bartak, Jan; Gathmann, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Simulation technologies have always been widely used on nuclear applications, but with a clear division between engineering application, using highly validated code run in batch mode, and training purpose where real time computation is a mandatory requirement. Thanks to the flexibility of modern simulation technology and the increased performance of computers, it becomes now possible to develop Nuclear Power plant simulators that can be used both for engineering and training purposes. In the last years, the revival of nuclear industry raised a number of new construction or plant finishing projects in which the application of this combined approach would result in decisive improvement on plant construction lead times, better project control and cost optimizations. The simulator development is to be executed in a step-wise approach, scheduled in parallel with the plant design and construction phases. During a first step, the simulator will model the plant nuclear island systems plus the corresponding instrumentation and control, specific malfunctions and local commands. It can then be used for engineering activities defining and validating the plant operating strategies in case of incidents or accidents. The Simulator executive Station and Operator Station will be in prototype version with an interface imagery enabling monitoring and control of the simulator. Availability of such simulation platform leads to a significant increase in efficiency of the engineering works, the possibility to validate basic design hypotheses and detect defects and conflicts early. The second phase will consist in the fully detailed simulation of Main Control Room plant supervision and control MMI, taking into account I and C control loops detailed design improvement, while having sufficient fidelity in order to be suitable for the future operator training. Its use will enable the engineering units not only to specify and validate normal, incident and accident detailed plant

  4. Determination of contact maps in proteins: A combination of structural and chemical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek, E-mail: mc@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Gómez-Sicilia, Àngel [Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Av. Doctor Arce, 37, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), C/Faraday 9, 28049 Cantoblanco (Madrid) (Spain)

    2015-12-28

    Contact map selection is a crucial step in structure-based molecular dynamics modelling of proteins. The map can be determined in many different ways. We focus on the methods in which residues are represented as clusters of effective spheres. One contact map, denoted as overlap (OV), is based on the overlap of such spheres. Another contact map, named Contacts of Structural Units (CSU), involves the geometry in a different way and, in addition, brings chemical considerations into account. We develop a variant of the CSU approach in which we also incorporate Coulombic effects such as formation of the ionic bridges and destabilization of possible links through repulsion. In this way, the most essential and well defined contacts are identified. The resulting residue-residue contact map, dubbed repulsive CSU (rCSU), is more sound in its physico-chemical justification than CSU. It also provides a clear prescription for validity of an inter-residual contact: the number of attractive atomic contacts should be larger than the number of repulsive ones — a feature that is not present in CSU. However, both of these maps do not correlate well with the experimental data on protein stretching. Thus, we propose to use rCSU together with the OV map. We find that the combined map, denoted as OV+rCSU, performs better than OV. In most situations, OV and OV+rCSU yield comparable folding properties but for some proteins rCSU provides contacts which improve folding in a substantial way. We discuss the likely residue-specificity of the rCSU contacts. Finally, we make comparisons to the recently proposed shadow contact map, which is derived from different principles.

  5. Combining native MS approaches to decipher archaeal box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particle structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Jean-Michel; Manival, Xavier; Tillault, Anne-Sophie; Atmanene, Cédric; Bobo, Claude; Branlant, Christiane; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Charpentier, Bruno; Cianférani, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Site-specific isomerization of uridines into pseudouridines in RNAs is catalyzed either by stand-alone enzymes or by box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/sRNPs). The archaeal box H/ACA sRNPs are five-component complexes that consist of a guide RNA and the aCBF5, aNOP10, L7Ae, and aGAR1 proteins. In this study, we performed pairwise incubations of individual constituents of archaeal box H/ACA sRNPs and analyzed their interactions by native MS to build a 2D-connectivity map of direct binders. We describe the use of native MS in combination with ion mobility-MS to monitor the in vitro assembly of the active H/ACA sRNP particle. Real-time native MS was used to monitor how box H/ACA particle functions in multiple-turnover conditions. Native MS also unambiguously revealed that a substrate RNA containing 5-fluorouridine (f(5) U) was hydrolyzed into 5-fluoro-6-hydroxy-pseudouridine (f(5) ho(6) Ψ). In terms of enzymatic mechanism, box H/ACA sRNP was shown to catalyze the pseudouridylation of a first RNA substrate, then to release the RNA product (S22 f(5) ho(6) ψ) from the RNP enzyme and reload a new substrate RNA molecule. Altogether, our native MS-based approaches provide relevant new information about the potential assembly process and catalytic mechanism of box H/ACA RNPs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Successful Recanalization of a Complete Lobar Bronchial Stenosis in a Lung Transplant Patient Using a Combined Percutaneous and Bronchoscopic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Vitulo, Patrizio; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Burgio, Gaetano; Caruso, Settimo; Bertani, Alessandro; Callari, Adriana; Luca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Airway stenosis is a major complication after lung transplantation that is usually managed with a combination of interventional endoscopic techniques, including endobronchial debridement, balloon dilation, and stent placement. Herein, we report a successful case of recanalization of a complete stenosis of the right middle lobe bronchus in a lung transplant patient, by using a combined percutaneous–bronchoscopic approach after the failure of endobronchial debridement

  7. Successful Recanalization of a Complete Lobar Bronchial Stenosis in a Lung Transplant Patient Using a Combined Percutaneous and Bronchoscopic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Vitulo, Patrizio, E-mail: pvitulo@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Pulmonology Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Burgio, Gaetano, E-mail: gburgio@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Operating Room Service, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Italy); Caruso, Settimo, E-mail: secaruso@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Bertani, Alessandro, E-mail: abertani@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Thoracic Surgery and Lung Transplantation Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Callari, Adriana, E-mail: acallari@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Pulmonology Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Luca, Angelo, E-mail: aluca@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Airway stenosis is a major complication after lung transplantation that is usually managed with a combination of interventional endoscopic techniques, including endobronchial debridement, balloon dilation, and stent placement. Herein, we report a successful case of recanalization of a complete stenosis of the right middle lobe bronchus in a lung transplant patient, by using a combined percutaneous–bronchoscopic approach after the failure of endobronchial debridement.

  8. Tuning COCOMO-II for Software Process Improvement: A Tool Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYEDA UMEMA HANI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to compete in the international software development market the software organizations have to adopt internationally accepted software practices i.e. standard like ISO (International Standard Organization or CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration in spite of having scarce resources and tools. The aim of this study is to develop a tool which could be used to present an actual picture of Software Process Improvement benefits in front of the software development companies. However, there are few tools available to assist in making predictions, they are too expensive and could not cover dataset that reflect the cultural behavior of organizations for software development in developing countries. In extension to our previously done research reported elsewhere for Pakistani software development organizations which has quantified benefits of SDPI (Software Development Process Improvement, this research has used sixty-two datasets from three different software development organizations against the set of metrics used in COCOMO-II (Constructive Cost Model 2000. It derived a verifiable equation for calculating ISF (Ideal Scale Factor and tuned the COCOMO-II model to bring prediction capability for SDPI (benefit measurement classes such as ESCP (Effort, Schedule, Cost, and Productivity. This research has contributed towards software industry by giving a reliable and low-cost mechanism for generating prediction models with high prediction accuracy. Hopefully, this study will help software organizations to use this tool not only to predict ESCP but also to predict an exact impact of SDPI.

  9. Evolution and population genetics of exotic and reemerging pathogens: traditional and novel tools and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.J. Grünwald; E.M. Goss

    2011-01-01

    Given human population growth and accelerated global trade, the rate of emergence of exotic plant pathogens is bound to increase. Understanding the processes that lead to the emergence of new pathogens can help manage emerging epidemics. Novel tools for analyzing population genetic variation can be used to infer the evolutionary history of populations or species,...

  10. Social media as a useful tool in food risk and benefit communication? A strategic orientation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutsaert, P.; Pieniak, Z.; Regan, A.; McConnon, A.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Lores, M.; Lozano, N.; Guzzon, A.; Santare, D; Verbeke, W.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the determinants of risk perception and in identifying the necessary components of effective food risk and benefit communication, this has not been matched with the development of efficient and appropriate communication tools. Little work

  11. An Integrated Approach to the Use of Complementary Visual Learning Tools in an Undergraduate Microbiology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    The ability to appreciate the inter-connectedness of complex biological relationships can be difficult for many students. Graphical knowledge in the form of concept maps and flow charts are learning tools which can assist students to recognise the inter-connectivity. This report focuses on a trial which incorporates these two related visual…

  12. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  13. A linear combination of pharmacophore hypotheses as a new tool in search of new active compounds--an application for 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Warszycki

    Full Text Available This study explores a new approach to pharmacophore screening involving the use of an optimized linear combination of models instead of a single hypothesis. The implementation and evaluation of the developed methodology are performed for a complete known chemical space of 5-HT1AR ligands (3616 active compounds with K i < 100 nM acquired from the ChEMBL database. Clusters generated from three different methods were the basis for the individual pharmacophore hypotheses, which were assembled into optimal combinations to maximize the different coefficients, namely, MCC, accuracy and recall, to measure the screening performance. Various factors that influence filtering efficiency, including clustering methods, the composition of test sets (random, the most diverse and cluster population-dependent and hit mode (the compound must fit at least one or two models from a final combination were investigated. This method outmatched both single hypothesis and random linear combination approaches.

  14. Development of a practice tool for community-based nurses: the Heart Failure Palliative Approach to Care (HeFPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Patricia H; Joy, Cathy; Costigan, Jeannine; Carter, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Patients living with advanced heart failure (HF) require a palliative approach to reduce suffering. Nurses have described significant knowledge gaps about the disease-specific palliative care (PC) needs of these patients. An intervention is required to facilitate appropriate end-of-life care for HF patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a user-friendly, evidence-informed HF-specific practice tool for community-based nurses to facilitate care and communication regarding a palliative approach to HF care. Guided by the Knowledge to Action framework, we identified key HF-specific issues related to advanced HF care provision within the context of a palliative approach to care. Informed by current evidence and subsequent iterative consultation with community-based and specialist PC and HF nurses, a pocket guide tool for community-based nurses was created. We developed the Heart Failure Palliative Approach to Care (HeFPAC) pocket guide to promote communication and a palliative approach to care for HF patients. The HeFPAC has potential to improve the quality of care and experiences for patients with advanced HF. It will be piloted in community-based practice and in a continuing education program for nurses. The HeFPAC pocket guide offers PC nurses a concise, evidence-informed and practical point-of care tool to communicate with other clinicians and patients about key HF issues that are associated with improving disease-specific HF palliative care and the quality of life of patients and their families. Pilot testing will offer insight as to its utility and potential for modification for national and international use.

  15. BrainCheck - a very brief tool to detect incipient cognitive decline: optimized case-finding combining patient- and informant-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensperger, Michael M; Taylor, Kirsten I; Berres, Manfred; Foldi, Nancy S; Dellenbach, Myriam; Bopp, Irene; Gold, Gabriel; von Gunten, Armin; Inglin, Daniel; Müri, René; Rüegger, Brigitte; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas U

    2014-01-01

    Optimal identification of subtle cognitive impairment in the primary care setting requires a very brief tool combining (a) patients' subjective impairments, (b) cognitive testing, and (c) information from informants. The present study developed a new, very quick and easily administered case-finding tool combining these assessments ('BrainCheck') and tested the feasibility and validity of this instrument in two independent studies. We developed a case-finding tool comprised of patient-directed (a) questions about memory and depression and (b) clock drawing, and (c) the informant-directed 7-item version of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Feasibility study: 52 general practitioners rated the feasibility and acceptance of the patient-directed tool. Validation study: An independent group of 288 Memory Clinic patients (mean ± SD age = 76.6 ± 7.9, education = 12.0 ± 2.6; 53.8% female) with diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment (n = 80), probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 185), or major depression (n = 23) and 126 demographically matched, cognitively healthy volunteer participants (age = 75.2 ± 8.8, education = 12.5 ± 2.7; 40% female) partook. All patient and healthy control participants were administered the patient-directed tool, and informants of 113 patient and 70 healthy control participants completed the very short IQCODE. Feasibility study: General practitioners rated the patient-directed tool as highly feasible and acceptable. Validation study: A Classification and Regression Tree analysis generated an algorithm to categorize patient-directed data which resulted in a correct classification rate (CCR) of 81.2% (sensitivity = 83.0%, specificity = 79.4%). Critically, the CCR of the combined patient- and informant-directed instruments (BrainCheck) reached nearly 90% (that is 89.4%; sensitivity = 97.4%, specificity = 81.6%). A new and very brief instrument for

  16. Enhancement of loss detection capability using a combination of the Kalman Filter/Linear Smoother and controllable unit accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to loss detection is presented which combines the optimal loss detection capability of state estimation techniques with a controllable unit accounting approach. The state estimation theory makes use of a linear system model which is capable of modeling the interaction of various controllable unit areas within a given facility. An example is presented which illustrates the increase in loss detection probability which is realizable with state estimation techniques. Comparisons are made with a Shewhart Control Chart and the CUSUM statistic

  17. Improvement of visual debugging tool. Shortening the elapsed time for getting data and adding new functions to compare/combine a set of visualized data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    The visual debugging tool 'vdebug' has been improved, which was designed for the debugging of programs for scientific computing. Improved were the following two points; (1) shortening the elapsed time required for getting appropriate data to visualize; (2) adding new functions which enable to compare and/or combine a set of visualized data originated from two or more different programs. As for shortening elapsed time for getting data, with the improved version of 'vdebug', we could achieve the following results; over hundred times shortening the elapsed time with dbx, pdbx of SX-4 and over ten times with ndb of SR2201. As for the new functions to compare/combine visualized data, it was confirmed that we could easily checked the consistency between the computational results obtained in each calculational steps on two different computers: SP and ONYX. In this report, we illustrate how the tool 'vdebug' has been improved with an example. (author)

  18. Scientific and methodological tools of cost management of enterprises: the main approaches and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Dikunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the economic nature of expenses for the industrial and defense enterprises occurs through the definition of a conceptual framework, harmonization of definitions of such things as cost, costs and expenses. In the study, these concepts are used as equivalent terms. In theory, there are different classifications of production cost and sales of products’ cost, a part of which is not used in practice. While analyzing the legislative division into elements it was proposed to complement the legal classification of an element of the costs of supply and distribution. The need for categorization is obvious, which is possible after considering the existing classifications of expenditures in the completely manufacturing process. This study shows that they do not solve all the tasks by the cost control. This problem can be solved if you set the relationship of costs and revenues with the actions of the persons, responsible for the use of resources and introduce so-called responsibility centers.The most promising methods include: cost-benefit analysis, planning on a zero basis, strategic cost management in the organization. The comparative analysis allowed to create the fundamental basis for their combined use in the creation of a mechanism to control costs, because this method is widely used in recent times by progressive enterprises. However, there are problems of its implementation with regard to the current economic situation in the state.The law regulates supply and marketing policy of the companies. The analysis of the used classifications in the supply and marketing systems of the enterprises allowed offering group costs. Their elements are described in detail and delimitation of the production costs is carried out. There is no such a division in practical activities of enterprises.To confirm this fact and clarify further research directions, we have considered the real status of the expenses for manufacture and realization of production

  19. Novel 3D Approach to Flare Modeling via Interactive IDL Widget Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, G. M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, and soon-to-be, available sophisticated 3D models of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares require a new level of user-friendly visualization and analysis tools allowing quick and easy adjustment of the model parameters and computation of realistic radiation patterns (images, spectra, polarization, etc). We report the current state of the art of these tools in development, already proved to be highly efficient for the direct flare modeling. We present an interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved radio and X-ray spectra. The object-based architecture of this application provides full interaction with imported 3D magnetic field models (e.g., from an extrapolation) that may be embedded in a global coronal model. Various tools provided allow users to explore the magnetic connectivity of the model by generating magnetic field lines originating in user-specified volume positions. Such lines may serve as reference lines for creating magnetic flux tubes, which are further populated with user-defined analytical thermal/non thermal particle distribution models. By default, the application integrates IDL callable DLL and Shared libraries containing fast GS emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++ and soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging these default libraries with any user-defined IDL or external callable codes designed to solve the radiation transfer equation in the same or other wavelength ranges of interest. To illustrate the tool capacity and generality, we present a step-by-step real-time computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data obtained by NORH and RHESSI instruments. We discuss further anticipated developments of the tools needed to accommodate

  20. An approach to combining unreliable pieces of evidence and their propagation in a system response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor O.; Utkin, Lev V.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to representing, aggregating and propagating aleatory and epistemic uncertainty through computational models. The framework for the approach employs the theory of imprecise coherent probabilities. The approach is exemplified by a simple algebraic system, the inputs of which are uncertain. Six different uncertainty situations are considered, including mixtures of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty

  1. Evaluating the importance of surface soil contributions to reservoir sediment in alpine environments: a combined modelling and fingerprinting approach in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, L.; Gaspar, L.; Latorre, B.; Blake, W. H.; Navas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Soil in alpine environments plays a key role in the development of ecosystem services and in order to maintain and preserve this important resource, information is required on processes that lead to soil erosion. Similar to other mountain alpine environments, the Benasque catchment is characterised by temperatures below freezing that can last from November to April, intense rainfall events, typically in spring and autumn, and rugged topography which makes assessment of erosion challenging. Indirect approaches to soil erosion assessment, such as combined model approaches, offer an opportunity to evaluate soil erosion in such areas. In this study (i) the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological and erosion model and (ii) sediment fingerprinting procedures were used in parallel to assess the viability of a combined modelling and tracing approach to evaluate soil erosion processes in the area of the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park (central Spanish Pyrenees). Soil erosion rates and sediment contribution of potential sediment sources defined by soil type (Kastanozems/Phaeozems; Fluvisols and Cambisols) were assessed. The SWAT model suggested that, with the highest specific sediment yields, Cambisols are the main source of sediment in the Benasque catchment and Phaeozems and Fluvisols were identified as the lowest sediment contributors. Spring and winter model runs gave the highest and lowest specific sediment yield, respectively. In contrast, sediment fingerprinting analysis identified Fluvisols, which dominate the riparian zone, as the main sediment source at the time of sampling. This indicates the importance of connectivity as well as potential differences in the source dynamic of material in storage versus that transported efficiently from the system at times of high flow. The combined approach enabled us to better understand soil erosion processes in the Benasque alpine catchment, wherein SWAT identified areas of potential high sediment yield in large flood

  2. An approach to derive some simple empirical equations to calibrate nuclear and acoustic well logging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Al Alfy, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    A set of three pads was constructed from primary materials (sand, gravel and cement) to calibrate the gamma-gamma density tool. A simple equation was devised to convert the qualitative cps values to quantitative g/cc values. The neutron-neutron porosity tool measures the qualitative cps porosity values. A direct equation was derived to calculate the porosity percentage from the cps porosity values. Cement-bond log illustrates the cement quantities, which surround well pipes. This log needs a difficult process due to the existence of various parameters, such as: drilling well diameter as well as internal diameter, thickness and type of well pipes. An equation was invented to calculate the cement percentage at standard conditions. This equation can be modified according to varying conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A patient and community-centered approach selecting endpoints for a randomized trial of a novel advance care planning tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges JFP

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available John FP Bridges,1,2 Norah L Crossnohere,2 Anne L Schuster,1 Judith A Miller,3 Carolyn Pastorini,3,† Rebecca A Aslakson2,4,5 1Department of Health Policy and Management, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 2Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 3Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI Project, Baltimore, MD, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 5Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA †Carolyn Pastorini passed away on August 24, 2015 Background: Despite a movement toward patient-centered outcomes, best practices on how to gather and refine patients’ perspectives on research endpoints are limited. Advanced care planning (ACP is inherently patient centered and would benefit from patient prioritization of endpoints for ACP-related tools and studies.Objective: This investigation sought to prioritize patient-centered endpoints for the content and evaluation of an ACP video being developed for patients undergoing major surgery. We also sought to highlight an approach using complementary engagement and research strategies to document priorities and preferences of patients and other stakeholders.Materials and methods: Endpoints identified from a previously published environmental scan were operationalized following rating by a caregiver co-investigator, refinement by a patient co-investigator, review by a stakeholder committee, and validation by patients and family members. Finalized endpoints were taken to a state fair where members of the public who indicated that they or a loved one had undergone major surgery prioritized their most relevant endpoints and provided comments.Results: Of the initial 50 ACP endpoints identified from the review, 12 endpoints were selected for public

  4. A Probabilistic Approach for Reliability and Life Prediction of Electronics in Drilling and Evaluation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    while drilling (MWD) and logging while drilling ( LWD ). The OnTrak tool takes measurements like resistivity, gamma ray, pressure and vibration. (3) Bi...estimation. LVPS = Low voltage power supply LWD = Logging while drilling MaPS = Maintenance and performance system MLE = Maximum likelihood estimation...years industry experience, with prior roles in Geoscience and LWD Operations. He has a BSc in Geology from the University of South Australia, an MSc

  5. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of high-alloy tool steels : theoretical and experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of tool steels and high-speed steels has led to a significant increase in alloy additions, such as Co, Cr, Mo, N, V, and W. Knowledge about the phase relations in these multicomponent alloys, that is, the relative stability between different carbides or the solubility of different elements in the carbides and in the matrix phase, is essential for understanding the behaviour of these alloys in heat treatments. This information is also the basis for improving the properti...

  6. Social media as a useful tool in food risk and benefit communication? A strategic orientation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeke, W.; Santare, D.; Guzzon, A.; Lozano, N.; Lores, M.; Kuttschreuter, M.; McConnon, Á.; Regan, Á.; Pieniak, Z.; Rutsaert, P.

    2014-01-01

    10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.02.003 Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the determinants of risk perception and in identifying the necessary components of effective food risk and benefit communication, this has not been matched with the development of efficient and appropriate communication tools. Little work has been done examining the implications of the explosion of new media and web technologies, which may offer potential for improving food risk and benefit communi...

  7. New expert system approach for the design of a diagnosis tool in a production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouss, H.; Mouss, D.; Scholz Reiter, B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for an increase in quality and speed of the diagnosis led to the reduction in the unavailability times of the production equipment. Thus, among the objectives of this study, need for operating on the level of the industrial sector of production through making of tools of assistance to the diagnosis of the abnormal operations, which are integrated into the environment of the system and allow the optimization of intervention times.

  8. A hierarchical bayesian approach to ecological count data: a flexible tool for ecologists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fordyce

    Full Text Available Many ecological studies use the analysis of count data to arrive at biologically meaningful inferences. Here, we introduce a hierarchical bayesian approach to count data. This approach has the advantage over traditional approaches in that it directly estimates the parameters of interest at both the individual-level and population-level, appropriately models uncertainty, and allows for comparisons among models, including those that exceed the complexity of many traditional approaches, such as ANOVA or non-parametric analogs. As an example, we apply this method to oviposition preference data for butterflies in the genus Lycaeides. Using this method, we estimate the parameters that describe preference for each population, compare the preference hierarchies among populations, and explore various models that group populations that share the same preference hierarchy.

  9. Biogem: an effective tool based approach for scaling up open source software development in bioinformatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnal, R.J.P.; Smant, G.; Prins, J.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biogem provides a software development environment for the Ruby programming language, which encourages community-based software development for bioinformatics while lowering the barrier to entry and encouraging best practices. Biogem, with its targeted modular and decentralized approach, software

  10. Decontamination of a municipal landfill leachate from endocrine disruptors using a combined sorption/bioremoval approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo; Senesi, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Sorption and biodegradation are the main mechanisms for the removal of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDs) from both solid and liquid matrices. There are recent evidences about the capacity of white-rot fungi to decontaminate water systems from phenolic EDs by means of their ligninolytic enzymes. Most of the available studies report the removal of EDs by biodegradation or adsorption separately. This study assessed the simultaneous removal of five EDs—the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestradiol (EE2), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), and the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate—from a municipal landfill leachate (MLL) using a combined sorption/bioremoval approach. The adsorption matrices used were potato dextrose agar alone or added with each of the following adsorbent materials: ground almond shells, a coffee compost, a coconut fiber, and a river sediment. These matrices were either not inoculated or inoculated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and superimposed on the MLL. The residual amount of each ED in the MLL was quantified after 4, 7, 12, and 20 days by HPLC analysis and UV detection. Preliminary experiments showed that (1) all EDs did not degrade significantly in the untreatedMLL for at least 28 days, (2) the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus was largely stimulated by components of the MLL, and (3) the enrichment of potato dextrose agar with any adsorbent material favored the fungal growth for 8 days after inoculation. A prompt relevant disappearance of EDs in the MLL occurred both without and, especially, with fungal activity, with the only exception of the very water soluble dimethoate that was poorly adsorbed and possibly degraded only during the first few days of experiments. An almost complete removal of phenolic EDs, especially EE2 and NP, occurred after 20 days or much earlier and was generally enhanced by the adsorbent materials used. Data obtained indicated that both adsorption and biodegradation mechanisms contribute

  11. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total

  12. A combined experimental and mathematical approach for molecular-based optimization of irinotecan circadian delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Ballesta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Circadian timing largely modifies efficacy and toxicity of many anticancer drugs. Recent findings suggest that optimal circadian delivery patterns depend on the patient genetic background. We present here a combined experimental and mathematical approach for the design of chronomodulated administration schedules tailored to the patient molecular profile. As a proof of concept we optimized exposure of Caco-2 colon cancer cells to irinotecan (CPT11, a cytotoxic drug approved for the treatment of colorectal cancer. CPT11 was bioactivated into SN38 and its efflux was mediated by ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells. After cell synchronization with a serum shock defining Circadian Time (CT 0, circadian rhythms with a period of 26 h 50 (SD 63 min were observed in the mRNA expression of clock genes REV-ERBα, PER2, BMAL1, the drug target topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, the activation enzyme carboxylesterase 2 (CES2, the deactivation enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1, and efflux transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2. DNA-bound TOP1 protein amount in presence of CPT11, a marker of the drug PD, also displayed circadian variations. A mathematical model of CPT11 molecular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD was designed and fitted to experimental data. It predicted that CPT11 bioactivation was the main determinant of CPT11 PD circadian rhythm. We then adopted the therapeutics strategy of maximizing efficacy in non-synchronized cells, considered as cancer cells, under a constraint of maximum toxicity in synchronized cells, representing healthy ones. We considered exposure schemes in the form of an initial concentration of CPT11 given at a particular CT, over a duration ranging from 1 to 27 h. For any dose of CPT11, optimal exposure durations varied from 3h40 to 7h10. Optimal schemes started between CT2h10 and CT2h30, a time interval corresponding to 1h30 to 1h50 before the nadir of CPT11 bioactivation rhythm in

  13. Investigating the impact of a combined approach of perceived organisational support for strengths use and deficit correction on employee outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els, C.; Mostert, K.; van Woerkom, M.

    2018-01-01

    Orientation: The positive psychology paradigm suggests a balanced focus on employee strengths and deficits. However, an overemphasis on strengths has raised questions regarding the value of a focus on strengths use, deficit improvement or a combined approach with a balanced focus on both. Research

  14. Reification in the Learning of Square Roots in a Ninth Grade Classroom: Combining Semiotic and Discursive Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinno, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on combining semiotic and discursive approaches to reification in classroom interactions. It focuses on the discursive characteristics and semiotic processes involved in the teaching and learning of square roots in a ninth grade classroom in Japan. The purpose of this study is to characterize the development of mathematical…

  15. Towards a Platform of Investigative Tools for Biomimicry as a New Approach for Energy-Efficient Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chayaamor-Heil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major problems worldwide are environmental concern and energy shortage along with the high consumption of energy in buildings and the lack of sources. Buildings are the most intensive energy consumers, and account for 40% of worldwide energy use, which is much more than transportation. In next 25 years, CO2 emissions from buildings are projected to grow faster than in other sectors. Thus, architects must attempt to find solutions for managing buildings energy consumption. One of new innovative approaches is Biomimicry, which is defined as the applied science that derives inspiration for solutions to human problems through the study of natural designs’ principles. Although biomimicry is considered to be a new approach for achieving sustainable architecture, but there is still not enough access for architects to make use of it, especially to implement biomimetic design strategy in architectural project. The main objective of this paper is to raise awareness of architects making use of biomimetic strategies with better accessible facility. We propose to create the tool setting relationship to formalize and bridge between biological and architectural knowledge, along with investigative tools to investigate the ability of reducing energy consumption by applying the biomimetic strategies on efficient-energy building design. This article hypothetically proposes an investigative tool based on Bayesian networks for testing the rapid result of choices from natural devices according to specific multi-criteria requirements in each case study.

  16. Social Informatics: Natural Tools for Students' Information Training in The Conditions of Embodied and Mental Approaches Being Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Barkhatova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the problem under study is due to the society's requirements for the quality information training of a personality which is oriented to forming the solid fundamental knowledge as well as to developing the cognitive capacities that are needed for solving mental tasks. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the opportunities of applying the natural tools in information training of students from the standpoints of embodied and mental approaches. The main idea of these is integrated studying of an object, beginning with learning it in an "embodied" way and finishing with abstract models formed in the human memory. The leading approach to the research is the integrated one taking into account the psychological and pedagogical, didactic and methodological constituents. It allows identifying the psychological and pedagogical conditions of application of natural tools as well as the possible ways of their use. The authors describe models of natural tools of computer science training in individual sections of the school course as the main results. The materials of the paper are of practical value in methods of teaching computer science to students at various stages of education.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of a Pedagogical Tool Combining Questions Listed as Learning Objectives and Answers Provided as Online Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Laneuville

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the learning of basic concepts in molecular biology of an undergraduate science class, a pedagogical tool was developed, consisting of learning objectives listed at the end of each lecture and answers to those objectives made available as videos online. The aim of this study was to determine if the pedagogical tool was used by students as instructed, and to explore students’ perception of its usefulness. A combination of quantitative survey data and measures of online viewing was used to evaluate the usage of the pedagogical practice. A total of 77 short videos linked to 11 lectures were made available to 71 students, and 64 completed the survey. Using online tracking tools, a total of 7046 views were recorded. Survey data indicated that most students (73.4% accessed all videos, and the majority (98.4% found the videos to be useful in assisting their learning. Interestingly, approximately half of the students (53.1% always or most of the time used the pedagogical tool as recommended, and consistently answered the learning objectives before watching the videos. While the proposed pedagogical tool was used by the majority of students outside the classroom, only half used it as recommended limiting the impact on students’ involvement in the learning of the material presented in class.

  18. Combined acute ecotoxicity of malathion and deltamethrin to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera): comparison of different data analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Camara, Baba Issa; Felten, Vincent; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François

    2018-04-19

    We studied the combined acute effect (i.e., after 48 h) of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) on Daphnia magna. Two approaches were used to examine the potential interaction effects of eight mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion: (i) calculation of mixture toxicity index (MTI) and safety factor index (SFI) and (ii) response surface methodology coupled with isobole-based statistical model (using generalized linear model). According to the calculation of MTI and SFI, one tested mixture was found additive while the two other tested mixtures were found no additive (MTI) or antagonistic (SFI), but these differences between index responses are only due to differences in terminology related to these two indexes. Through the surface response approach and isobologram analysis, we concluded that there was a significant antagonistic effect of the binary mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion that occurs on D. magna immobilization, after 48 h of exposure. Index approaches and surface response approach with isobologram analysis are complementary. Calculation of mixture toxicity index and safety factor index allows identifying punctually the type of interaction for several tested mixtures, while the surface response approach with isobologram analysis integrates all the data providing a global outcome about the type of interactive effect. Only the surface response approach and isobologram analysis allowed the statistical assessment of the ecotoxicological interaction. Nevertheless, we recommend the use of both approaches (i) to identify the combined effects of contaminants and (ii) to improve risk assessment and environmental management.

  19. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R; Noethiger, Christoph B

    2016-01-05

    Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss' kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They found the iPad (median 5, IQR 4

  20. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED UAV-BASED RGB AND THERMAL REMOTE SENSING DATA: A NEW APPROACH TO CROWD MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collecting vast amount of data does not solely help to fulfil information needs related to crowd monitoring, it is rather important to collect data that is suitable to meet specific information requirements. In order to address this issue, a prototype is developed to facilitate the combination of UAV-based RGB and thermal remote sensing datasets. In an experimental approach, image sensors were mounted on a remotely piloted aircraft and captured two video datasets over a crowd. A group of volunteers performed diverse movements that depict real world scenarios. The prototype is deriving the movement on the ground and is programmed in MATLAB. This novel detection approach using combined data is afterwards evaluated against detection algorithms that only use a single data source. Our tests show that the combination of RGB and thermal remote sensing data is beneficial for the field of crowd monitoring regarding the detection of crowd movement.

  1. Pulse Sign Separation Technique for the Received Bits in Wireless Ultra-Wideband Combination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A. Fayadh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When receiving high data rate in ultra-wideband (UWB technology, many users have experienced multiple-user interference and intersymbol interference in the multipath reception technique. Structures have been proposed for implementing rake receivers to enhance their capabilities by reducing the bit error probability (Pe, thereby providing better performances by indoor and outdoor multipath receivers. As a result, several rake structures have been proposed in the past to reduce the number of resolvable paths that must be estimated and combined. To achieve this aim, we suggest two maximal ratio combiners based on the pulse sign separation technique, such as the pulse sign separation selective combiner (PSS-SC and the pulse sign separation partial combiner (PSS-PC to reduce complexity with fewer fingers and to improve the system performance. In the combiners, a comparator was added to compare the positive quantity of positive pulses and negative quantities of negative pulses to decide whether the transmitted bit was 1 or 0. The Pe was driven by simulation for multipath environments for impulse radio time-hopping binary phase shift keying (TH-BPSK modulation, and the results were compared with those of conventional selective combiners (C-SCs and conventional partial combiners (C-PCs.

  2. Partial maxillectomy for ameloblastoma of the maxilla with infratemporal fossa involvement: A combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A; Hart, L; Polachova, H; Chovanec, M; Schalek, P

    2018-02-21

    Ameloblastoma represents the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. Because of the proximity of the maxillary tumors to the orbit and skull base, it should be managed as radically as possible. Maxillectomy, mainly via the transfacial or transoral approach, represents the most common type of surgical procedure. Drawback of these approaches is limited control of the superiomedial extent of the tumour in the paranasal area. We report the use of a combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach to manage maxillary plexiform ameloblastoma in a 48-year-old male patient. A combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach enabled the radical removal of tumour with a 1.5cm margin of radiographically intact bone with good control from both intrasinusal and intraoral aspects. Adequate visualization of the extent of the lesion (e.g. orbit, infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base) had been achieved. Non-complicated healing was achieved. This technique of partial maxillectomy led to very good aesthetic and functional results. No recurrence had been noted during review appointments. The combination of endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach for a partial maxillectomy allows sufficient reduction of the defect, thus eliminating the necessity for reconstruction and reducing the morbidity associated with it. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A fully-coupled approach combining plastic deformation and liquid lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    This paper presents a new approach based on a fully coupled procedure in which the lubricant flow and theplastic deformation of the metallic material are solved simultaneously. The approach is applied to strip reduction of asheet with surface pockets in order to investigate the escape of the lubr......This paper presents a new approach based on a fully coupled procedure in which the lubricant flow and theplastic deformation of the metallic material are solved simultaneously. The approach is applied to strip reduction of asheet with surface pockets in order to investigate the escape...

  4. Biomimetics approach for methods to release microobjects from the gripping tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Moon, Jack; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    of handling can be found in for example insect everyday life, cells, enzymes etc. To find out these principles we need special tools, like BioDlab database, which is created specially to find the examples form the biology in order to solve engineering problems. In this report different principles of handling...... at the micro and nano level are presented as well as solutions for micro assembly principles are introduced, concentrating on the adhesion and releasing during the picking and releasing stages of the handling scenario....

  5. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT THEORY DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF SYSTEM APPROACH AND BUSINESS ENGINEERING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Strich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Management should be carried out with due account of the system theory and using tools and opportunities offered by such modern management components as business engineering and reengineering. Main points of this theory are given along with detailed determination of business engineering and reengineering particularly efficient while determining measures needed to reorganize an enterprise (or a group of enterprises through updating its organizational structure as well as economic, personnel or other system. Out-sourcing also described in detail is considered as modern enterprise management system’s most efficient instrument.

  6. Combined supra-transorbital keyhole approach for treatment of delayed intraorbital encephalocele: A minimally invasive approach for an unusual complication of decompressive craniectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Somma, Lucia; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Nasi, Davide; Balercia, Paolo; Lupi, Ettore; Girotto, Riccardo; Polonara, Gabriele; Scerrati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraorbital encephalocele is a rare entity characterized by the herniation of cerebral tissue inside the orbital cavity through a defect of the orbital roof. In patients who have experienced head trauma, intraorbital encephalocele is usually secondary to orbital roof fracture. Case Description: We describe here a case of a patient who presented an intraorbital encephalocele 2 years after severe traumatic brain injury, treated by decompressive craniectomy and subsequent autologous cranioplasty, without any evidence of orbital roof fracture. The encephalocele removal and the subsequent orbital roof reconstruction were performed by using a modification of the supraorbital keyhole approach, in which we combine an orbital osteotomy with a supraorbital minicraniotomy to facilitate view and access to both the anterior cranial fossa and orbital compartment and to preserve the already osseointegrated autologous cranioplasty. Conclusions: The peculiarities of this case are the orbital encephalocele without an orbital roof traumatic fracture, and the combined minimally invasive approach used to fix both the encephalocele and the orbital roof defect. Delayed intraorbital encephalocele is probably a complication related to an unintentional opening of the orbit during decompressive craniectomy through which the brain herniated following the restoration of physiological intracranial pressure gradients after the bone flap repositioning. The reconstruction of the orbital roof was performed by using a combined supra-transorbital minimally invasive approach aiming at achieving adequate surgical exposure while preserving the autologous cranioplasty, already osteointegrated. To the best of our knowledge, this approach has not been previously used to address intraorbital encephalocele. PMID:26862452

  7. Combined operando Raman/UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy as a tool to study supported metal oxide catalysts at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinnemans, Stanislaus Josephus

    2006-01-01

    A novel set-up has been developed in which two complementary spectroscopic techniques, namely operando Raman and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, are combined. With this set-up it is possible to characterize catalytic materials under reaction conditions (high temperature, normal pressure) and in this way on

  8. A teaching skills assessment tool inspired by the Calgary-Cambridge model and the patient-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Johanna; Lanier, Cédric; Perron, Noelle Junod; Nendaz, Mathieu; Clavet, Diane; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a descriptive tool for peer review of clinical teaching skills. Two analogies framed our research: (1) between the patient-centered and the learner-centered approach; (2) between the structures of clinical encounters (Calgary-Cambridge communication model) and teaching sessions. During the course of one year, each step of the action research was carried out in collaboration with twelve clinical teachers from an outpatient general internal medicine clinic and with three experts in medical education. The content validation consisted of a literature review, expert opinion and the participatory research process. Interrater reliability was evaluated by three clinical teachers coding thirty audiotaped standardized learner-teacher interactions. This tool contains sixteen items covering the process and content of clinical supervisions. Descriptors define the expected teaching behaviors for three levels of competence. Interrater reliability was significant for eleven items (Kendall's coefficient pteaching skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Hodges

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml, Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination

  10. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Paye, Jusufu; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Clements, Archie; Zhang, Yaobi

    2012-01-01

    A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml), Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml) and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml) districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination with the local knowledge and programme needs.

  11. A combined Component-Based Approach for the Design of Distributed Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, Dick; Yang, H.; Gupta, S.

    2001-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling binary units of production, distribution and deployment, the so-called components. Several approaches to component-based development have been proposed recently. Most of these approaches are based on

  12. A Combined Social Action, Mixed Methods Approach to Vocational Guidance Efficacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…

  13. A complex tool and three simple approaches to improving quality assurance and safety in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, F; Sansogne, R; Arbiser, S; Suarez, V; Franco, M; Escobar, J

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and safety controls in radiation therapy delivery processes that involve the Physics Department of an institution are commonly time consuming tasks. Carrying out daily controls in very busy clinics without compromising patient schedule is challenging. This work describes the usage of Electronic Portal Imaging Devices in combination with some in-house software to simplify and systematize three different tasks of the Physics Department Quality Assurance Program, improving the easiness, reliability and velocity of daily tests (author)

  14. Approach motivation and cognitive resources combine to influence memory for positive emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Adrienne; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the elaborated intrusion theory of desire, the current research tested the hypothesis that persons higher in trait approach motivation process positive stimuli deeply, which enhances memory for them. Ninety-four undergraduates completed a measure of trait approach motivation, viewed positive or negative image slideshows in the presence or absence of a cognitive load, and one week later completed an image memory test. Higher trait approach motivation predicted better memory for the positive slideshow, but this memory boost disappeared under cognitive load. Approach motivation did not influence memory for the negative slideshow. The current findings support the idea that individuals higher in approach motivation spontaneously devote limited resources to processing positive stimuli.

  15. The antimicrobial resistance containment and surveillance approach--a public health tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Gunnar S.; Tapsall, John W.; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Lazzari, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) is widely recognized as a global public health threat because it endangers the effectiveness of treatment of infectious diseases. In 2001 WHO issued the Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, but it has proved difficult to translate the recommendations of the Global Strategy into effective public health actions. The purpose of the Antimicrobial Resistance Containment and Surveillance (ARCS) approach is to facilitate the formulation of public health programmes and the mobilization of human and financial resources for the containment of AMR. The ARCS approach highlights the fundamental link between rational drug use and containment of AMR. Clinical management of human and animal infections should be improved through better disease control and prevention, high quality diagnostic testing, appropriate treatment regimens and consumer health education. At the same time, systems for supplying antimicrobial drugs should include appropriate regulations, lists of essential drugs, and functional mechanisms for the approval and delivery of drugs. Containment of AMR is defined in the ARCS approach as the continuous application of this package of core interventions. Surveillance of the extent and trends of antimicrobial resistance as well as the supply, selection and use of antimicrobial drugs should be established to monitor the process and outcome of containment of AMR. The ARCS approach is represented in the ARCS diagram (Fig. 2) which provides a simplified, but comprehensive illustration of the complex problem of containment and monitoring of AMR. PMID:15654407

  16. Metric-based approach and tool for modeling the I and C system using Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenko, Valentyna; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Odarushchenko, Elena; Butenko, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Markov's chains (MC) are well-know and widely applied in dependability and performability analysis of safety-critical systems, because of the flexible representation of system components dependencies and synchronization. There are few radblocks for greater application of the MC: accounting the additional system components increases the model state-space and complicates analysis; the non-numerically sophisticated user may find it difficult to decide between the variety of numerical methods to determine the most suitable and accurate for their application. Thus obtaining the high accurate and trusted modeling results becomes a nontrivial task. In this paper, we present the metric-based approach for selection of the applicable solution approach, based on the analysis of MCs stiffness, decomposability, sparsity and fragmentedness. Using this selection procedure the modeler can provide the verification of earlier obtained results. The presented approach was implemented in utility MSMC, which supports the MC construction, metric-based analysis, recommendations shaping and model solution. The model can be exported to the wall-known off-the-shelf mathematical packages for verification. The paper presents the case study of the industrial NPP I and C system, manufactured by RPC Radiy. The paper shows an application of metric-based approach and MSMC fool for dependability and safety analysis of RTS, and procedure of results verification. (author)

  17. FINANCIAL BALANCE - BASIC TOOL IN APPROACHING FINANCIAL DIAGNOSIS FOR FIRM VALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel BERCEANU; Nicolae SICHIGEA; Marcel DRĂCEA

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a very topical issue, namely the importance in assessing the company's financial accounts. Thus, after a brief role in evaluating company financial diagnosis and approaches related to the concept of financial balance, we presented the financial balance sheet in terms of logic building financial stability analysis. At the end of the paper were presented some conclusions.

  18. Participation as a Tool for Interactional Work on Twitter: A Sociolinguistic Approach to Social Media "Engagement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Fawn T.

    2013-01-01

    This work approaches the concept of social media engagement through a lens of participation theory. Following the work of Goffman (1981) and others, this dissertation uses the concepts of the participation framework and the participant role to explore engagement as a function of participation in interaction. The purposes of this dissertation are…

  19. Development of a Multi-Event Trajectory Optimization Tool for Noise-Optimized Approach Route Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, M.L.; Hartjes, S.; Visser, H.G.; Hebly, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research effort towards the development of a multi-event trajectory optimization methodology that allows to synthesize RNAV approach routes that minimize a cumulative measure of noise, taking into account the total noise effect aggregated for

  20. Introducing Product Lines through Open Source Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to introducing product lines to companies that lower their initial risk by applying open source tools and a smooth learning curve into the use and creation of domain specific modeling combined with standardized variability modeling.

  1. The Use of a Combined Bioinformatics Approach to Locate Antibiotic Resistance Genes on Plasmids From Whole Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovars From Humans in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Kudirkiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we identified plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in draft whole genome sequences of 16 selected Salmonella enterica isolates representing six different serovars from humans in Ghana. The plasmids and the location of resistance genes in the genomes were predicted using a combination of PlasmidFinder, ResFinder, plasmidSPAdes and BLAST genomic analysis tools. Subsequently, S1-PFGE was employed for analysis of plasmid profiles. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella isolates showing multidrug resistance phenotypically. ESBL, either blaTEM52−B or blaCTX−M15 were present in two cephalosporin resistant isolates of S. Virchow and S. Poona, respectively. The systematic genome analysis revealed the presence of different plasmids in different serovars, with or without insertion of antimicrobial resistance genes. In S. Enteritidis, resistance genes were carried predominantly on plasmids of IncN type, in S. Typhimurium on plasmids of IncFII(S/IncFIB(S/IncQ1 type. In S. Virchow and in S. Poona, resistance genes were detected on plasmids of IncX1 and TrfA/IncHI2/IncHI2A type, respectively. The latter two plasmids were described for the first time in these serovars. The combination of genomic analytical tools allowed nearly full mapping of the resistance plasmids in all Salmonella strains analyzed. The results suggest that the improved analytical approach used in the current study may be used to identify plasmids that are specifically associated with resistance phenotypes in whole genome sequences. Such knowledge would allow the development of rapid multidrug resistance tracking tools in Salmonella populations using WGS.

  2. Online Lexicological Tools in ESP – Towards an Approach to Strategy Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Krajka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Together with great proliferation of online resources on the one hand and a striking lack of commercially published materials for specific ESP domains on the other, the ESP teacher needs to reflect on using Internet materials judiciously in the language classroom. An indispensable element of the teaching process in any context is effective resourcing, or the ability to find, evaluate and use reference tools of various kinds. This strategy is also necessary in the ESP context, and the range of available resources goes beyond dictionaries only and encompasses, among others, specialized dictionaries, glossaries, terminology databanks. The purpose of the present paper is to outline the procedure of online resourcing, by giving specific steps for the training of the skill based on ESP materials of various types. The theoretical discussion of strategy training will be substantiated with the practical activities for the procedure.

  3. Probabilistic record linkage is a valid and transparent tool to combine databases without a patient identification number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meray, Nora; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the technical approach and subsequent validation of the probabilistic linkage of the three anonymous, population-based Dutch Perinatal Registries (LVR1 of midwives, LVR2 of obstetricians, and LNR of pediatricians/neonatologists). These registries do not share a unique

  4. White rot fungi and advanced combined biotechnology with nanomaterials: promising tools for endocrine-disrupting compounds biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danlian; Guo, Xueying; Peng, Zhiwei; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Gong, Xiaomin; Deng, Rui; Xue, Wenjing; Wang, Rongzhong; Yi, Huan; Liu, Caihong

    2017-10-29

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can interfere with endocrine systems and bio-accumulate through the food chain and even decrease biodiversity in contaminated areas. This review discusses a critical overview of recent research progress in the biotransformation of EDCs (including polychlorinated biphenyl and nonylphenol, and suspected EDCs such as heavy metals and sulfonamide antibiotics) by white rot fungi (WRF) based on techniques with an emphasis on summarizing and analyzing fungal molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms. Not only intracellular metabolism which seems to perform essential roles in the ability of WRF to transform EDCs, but also advanced applications are deeply discussed. This review mainly reveals the removal pathway of heavy metal and antibiotic pollutants because the single pollution almost did not exist in a real environment while the combined pollution has become more serious and close to people's life. The trends in WRF technology and its related advanced applications which use the combined technology, including biocatalysis of WRF and adsorption of nanomaterials, to degrade EDCs have also been introduced. Furthermore, challenges and future research needs EDCs biotransformation by WRF are also discussed. This research, referring to metabolic mechanisms and the combined technology of WRF with nanomaterials, undoubtedly contributes to the applications of biotechnology. This review will be of great benefit to an understanding of the trends in biotechnology for the removal of EDCs.

  5. Is the fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide a good approach to treat hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Maillard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Marc P Maillard, Michel BurnierService of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, SwitzerlandAbstract: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with selective AT1 receptor antagonists is recognized as an effective mean to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Among the class of AT1 receptor antagonists, telmisartan offers the advantage of a very long half-life. This enables blood pressure control over 24 hours using once-daily administration. The combination of telmisartan with hydrochlorothiazide is a logical step because numerous previous studies have demonstrated that sodium depletion enhances the antihypertensive efficacy of drugs interfering with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. In accordance with past experience using similar compounds blocking the RAS, several controlled studies have now demonstrated that the fixed-dose combination of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide is superior in lowering blood pressure than either telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide alone. Of clinical interest also is the observation that the excellent clinical tolerance of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist is not affected by the association of the low-dose thiazide. Thus telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide is an effective and well-tolerated antihypertensive combination. Finally, the development of fixed-dose combinations should improve drug adherence because of the one-pill-a-day regimen.Keywords: telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide, fixed-dose combinations, antihypertensive agent, safety, compliance

  6. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  7. Serum Steroid Ratio Profiles in Prostate Cancer: A New Diagnostic Tool Toward a Personalized Medicine Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino; Bassani, Barbara; D'Ambrosio, Gioacchino; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Consonni, Paolo; Castellani, Laura; Conti, Matteo; Cristoni, Simone; Noonan, Douglas M

    2018-01-01

    Serum steroids are crucial molecules altered in prostate cancer (PCa). Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the elected technology for the analysis of steroids in diverse biological samples. Steroids have complex biological pathways and stoichiometry and it is important to evaluate their quantitative ratio. MS applications to patient hormone profiling could lead to a diagnostic approach. Here, we employed the Surface Activated Chemical Ionization-Electrospray-NIST (SANIST) developed in our laboratories, to obtain quantitative serum steroid ratio relationship profiles with a machine learning Bayesian model to discriminate patients with PCa. The approach is focused on steroid relationship profiles and disease association. A pilot study on patients affected by PCa, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), and control subjects [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) lower than 2.5 ng/mL] was done in order to investigate the classification performance of the SANIST platform. The steroid profiles of 71 serum samples (31 controls, 20 patients with PCa and 20 subjects with benign prostate hyperplasia) were evaluated. The levels of 10 steroids were quantitated on the SANIST platform: Aldosterone, Corticosterone, Cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, Androstenedione, Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 17-OH-Progesterone and Progesterone. We performed both traditional and a machine learning analysis. We show that the machine learning approach based on the steroid relationships developed here was much more accurate than the PSA, DHEAS, and direct absolute value match method in separating the PCa, BPH and control subjects, increasing the sensitivity to 90% and specificity to 84%. This technology, if applied in the future to a larger number of samples will be able to detect the individual enzymatic disequilibrium associated with the steroid ratio and correlate it with the disease. This learning machine approach could be valid in a personalized medicine

  8. A Balanced Theoretical and Empirical Approach for the Development of a Design Support Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Aakjær; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of a new design support system may change the engineering designer's work situation. Therefore, it may not be possible to derive all the functionalities for a design support system from solely empirical studies of manual design work. Alternatively the design support system could ...... system, indicating a proposal for how to balance a theoretical and empirical approach. The result of this research will be utilized in the development of a Designer's Workbench to support the synthesis activity in mechanical design....

  9. First approach to a holistic tool for assessing RES investment feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Arias, José María; Ciabattoni, Lucio; Monteriù, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Combining availability, viability, sustainability, technical options, and environmental impact in an energy-planning project is a difficult job itself for the today’s engineers. This becomes harder if the potential investors also need to be persuaded. Moreover, the problem increases even more....... Through a series of Structured Query Language databases and a dynamic data parameterization, the software is provided with sufficient information to encode, calculate, simulate and graphically display information on the generation and demand of electric, thermal and transport energy, all in a user...

  10. Combined Yamamoto approach for simultaneous estimation of adsorption isotherm and kinetic parameters in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdt, Matthias; Gillet, Florian; Heege, Stefanie; Hitzler, Julian; Kalbfuss, Bernd; Guélat, Bertrand

    2015-09-25

    Application of model-based design is appealing to support the development of protein chromatography in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the required efforts for parameter estimation are frequently perceived as time-consuming and expensive. In order to speed-up this work, a new parameter estimation approach for modelling ion-exchange chromatography in linear conditions was developed. It aims at reducing the time and protein demand for the model calibration. The method combines the estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters based on the simultaneous variation of the gradient slope and the residence time in a set of five linear gradient elutions. The parameters are estimated from a Yamamoto plot and a gradient-adjusted Van Deemter plot. The combined approach increases the information extracted per experiment compared to the individual methods. As a proof of concept, the combined approach was successfully applied for a monoclonal antibody on a cation-exchanger and for a Fc-fusion protein on an anion-exchange resin. The individual parameter estimations for the mAb confirmed that the new approach maintained the accuracy of the usual Yamamoto and Van Deemter plots. In the second case, offline size-exclusion chromatography was performed in order to estimate the thermodynamic parameters of an impurity (high molecular weight species) simultaneously with the main product. Finally, the parameters obtained from the combined approach were used in a lumped kinetic model to simulate the chromatography runs. The simulated chromatograms obtained for a wide range of gradient lengths and residence times showed only small deviations compared to the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Weighting Performance Evaluation Criteria Base in Balanced Score Card Approach with Use of Combination Method Shapley value & Bull\\'s-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kamfiroozi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation as a control tool was considered by managers in the organizations and manufactures. In this paper we decide to present a new model for performance evaluation and industrial companies ranking at uncertain conditions. Based on this, we implemented performance evaluation based on balance score card (BSC method. Beside, we tried to use three parameter interval grey numbers in lieu of linguistic variables. Then evaluation and weighting of fourth indicators is done with use of Bulls-eye-Shapley combination method that is counted as new approach in this article. Reason of utilization of three parameter interval grey numbers and combination method was decreasing of environmental uncertainty on data and model. This combination weighting method can be used as a new method in decision making Science. At final of this paper case study was implemented on industrial companies (nail makers that ranking of these companies is obtained by use of grey-TOPSIS method (that is a generalization of classic TOPSIS for three parameter interval grey numbers.

  12. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  13. Real-space grids and the Octopus code as tools for the development of new simulation approaches for electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Strubbe, David; De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Varas, Alejandro; Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Verstraete, Matthieu J.; Stella, Lorenzo; Nogueira, Fernando; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Castro, Alberto; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Rubio, Angel

    Real-space grids are a powerful alternative for the simulation of electronic systems. One of the main advantages of the approach is the flexibility and simplicity of working directly in real space where the different fields are discretized on a grid, combined with competitive numerical performance and great potential for parallelization. These properties constitute a great advantage at the time of implementing and testing new physical models. Based on our experience with the Octopus code, in this article we discuss how the real-space approach has allowed for the recent development of new ideas for the simulation of electronic systems. Among these applications are approaches to calculate response properties, modeling of photoemission, optimal control of quantum systems, simulation of plasmonic systems, and the exact solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for low-dimensionality systems.

  14. Monitoring hemodynamics and oxygenation of the kidney in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a hybrid approach to investigate the dynamics of perfusion and oxygenation in the kidney of rats under pathophysiologically relevant conditions. Our approach combines near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in the renal cortex, and an invasive probe method for measuring total renal blood flow by an ultrasonic probe, perfusion by laser-Doppler fluxmetry, and tissue oxygen tension via fluorescence quenching. Hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation were determined from experimental data by a Monte Carlo model. The hybrid approach was applied to investigate and compare temporal changes during several types of interventions such as arterial and venous occlusions, as well as hyperoxia, hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by different mixtures of the inspired gas. The approach was also applied to study the effects of the x-ray contrast medium iodixanol on the kidney.

  15. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmma Suparmaniam, Madan; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2016-01-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing. (paper)

  16. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P. [National University of Athens, Dept. of Pathology, Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade.

  17. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade

  18. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve-Vives Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%, Physical-Activity (15%, Active Coping (9% and Passive Coping (6.3%. A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a

  19. COMSY - A software tool for PLIM + PLEX with integrated risk-informed approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.; Nopper, H.; Roessner, R.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of mechanical components and structures in a thermal power plant are designed to experience a service life which is far above the intended design life. In most cases, only a small percentage of mechanical components are subject to significant degradation which may affect the integrity or the function of the component. If plant life extension (PLEX) is considered as an option, a plant specific PLIM strategy needs to be developed. One of the most important tasks of such a PLIM strategy is to identify those components which (i) are relevant for the safety and/or availability of the plant and (ii) experience elevated degradation due to their operating and design conditions. For these components special life management strategies need to be established to reliably monitor their condition. FRAMATOME ANP GmbH has developed the software tool COMSY, which is designed to efficiently support a plant-wide lifetime management strategy for static mechanical components, providing the basis for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. The objective is the economical and safe operation of power plants over their design lifetime - and beyond. The tool provides the capability to establish a program guided technical documentation of the plant by utilizing a virtual plant data model. The software integrates engineering analysis functions and comprehensive material libraries to perform a lifetime analysis for various degradation mechanisms typically experienced in power plants (e.g. flow-accelerated corrosion, intergranular stress corrosion cracking, strain-induced cracking, material fatigue, cavitation erosion, droplet impingement erosion, pitting, etc.). A risk-based prioritization serves to focus inspection activities on safety or availability relevant locations, where a degradation potential exists. Trending functions support the comparison of the as-measured condition with the predicted progress of degradation while making allowance for measurement tolerances. The

  20. The SAGE spectrometer: A tool for combined in-beam γ-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, P; Herzberg, R-D; Pakarinen, J; Butler, P A; Cox, D; Cresswell, J R; Parr, E; Sampson, J; Greenlees, P T; Sorri, J; Hauschild, K; Jones, P; Julin, R; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Coleman-Smith, P J; Lazarus, I H; Letts, S C; Pucknell, V F E

    2011-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer allows simultaneous in-beam γ-ray and internal conversion electron measurements, by combining a germanium detector array with a highly segmented silicon detector and an electron transport system. SAGE is coupled with the ritu gas-filled recoil separator and the great focal-plane spectrometer for recoil-decay tagging studies. Digital electronics are used both for the γ ray and the electron parts of the spectrometer. SAGE was commissioned in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae in the beginning of 2010.

  1. MTAD combined with endosonic irrigation as a new approach for the disinfection of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Endoactivator could improve the synergistic antimicrobial action of 1.3% NaOCl and MTAD against E. faecalis biofilm and removal of the smear layer with less erosion of the dentin surface. The combination could be a safe and efficient irrigation regimen.

  2. Combining Generalized Phase Contrast with matched filtering into a versatile beam shaping approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....

  3. A unique anesthesia approach for carotid endarterectomy: Combination of general and regional anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhen Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid endarterectomy (CEA, a preventable surgery, reduces the future risks of cerebrovascular stroWke in patients with marked carotid stenosis. Peri-operative management of such patients is challenging due to associated major co-morbidities and high incidence of peri-operative stroke and myocardial infarction. Both general anesthesia (GA and local regional anesthesia (LRA can be used with their pros and cons. Most developing countries as well as some developed countries usually perform CEA under GA because of technical easiness. LRA usually comprises superficial, intermediate, deep cervical plexus block or a combination of these techniques. Deep block, particularly, is technically difficult and more complicated, whereas intermediate plexus block is technically easy and equally effective. We did CEA under a combination of GA and LRA using ropivacaine 0.375% with 1 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine (DEX infiltration. In LRA, we gave combined superficial and intermediate cervical plexus block with infiltration at the incision site and along the lower border of mandible. We observed better hemodynamics in intraoperative as well as postoperative periods and an improved postoperative outcome of the patient. So, we concluded that combination of GA and LRA is a good anesthetic technique for CEA. Larger randomized prospective trials are needed to support our conclusion.

  4. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  5. A Hybrid Approach to Composite Damage and Failure Analysis Combining Synergistic Damage Mechanics and Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for fai ling to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...to Composite Damage and Fai lure Analysis Combining Synergistic Damage Mechanics and Peridynamics Sb. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-16-1-2173 Sc. PROGRAM

  6. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  7. Pathology economic model tool: a novel approach to workflow and budget cost analysis in an anatomic pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, David; Aoun, Patricia; Powell, Michael; Juncker, Flemming; Mollerup, Jens

    2010-08-01

    The need for higher efficiency, maximum quality, and faster turnaround time is a continuous focus for anatomic pathology laboratories and drives changes in work scheduling, instrumentation, and management control systems. To determine the costs of generating routine, special, and immunohistochemical microscopic slides in a large, academic anatomic pathology laboratory using a top-down approach. The Pathology Economic Model Tool was used to analyze workflow processes at The Nebraska Medical Center's anatomic pathology laboratory. Data from the analysis were used to generate complete cost estimates, which included not only materials, consumables, and instrumentation but also specific labor and overhead components for each of the laboratory's subareas. The cost data generated by the Pathology Economic Model Tool were compared with the cost estimates generated using relative value units. Despite the use of automated systems for different processes, the workflow in the laboratory was found to be relatively labor intensive. The effect of labor and overhead on per-slide costs was significantly underestimated by traditional relative-value unit calculations when compared with the Pathology Economic Model Tool. Specific workflow defects with significant contributions to the cost per slide were identified. The cost of providing routine, special, and immunohistochemical slides may be significantly underestimated by traditional methods that rely on relative value units. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis may identify specific workflow processes requiring improvement.

  8. Development of a state machine sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: evolution, development, and lessons learned using a CASE tool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathan; Summers, Kellee R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool approach. The main purpose of the Interferometer Sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations to be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Harel finite state machine software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real-time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORBA, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  9. Gas fired combined cycle plant in Singapore: energy use, GWP and cost-a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Leong, K.C.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.; Tso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify the non-renewable (fossil) energy use and global warming potential (GWP) in electricity generation from a typical gas fired combined cycle power plant in Singapore. The cost of electricity generation was estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 367.5 MW gas fired combined cycle power plant operating in Singapore revealed that hidden processes consume about 8% additional energy in addition to the fuel embedded energy, and the hidden GWP is about 18%. The natural gas consumed during the operational phase accounted for 82% of the life cycle cost of electricity generation. An empirical relation between plant efficiency and life cycle energy use and GWP in addition to a scenario for electricity cost with varying gas prices and plant efficiency have been established

  10. T-scan III system diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in orthodontics - a modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpevska, Vesna; Kovacevska, Gordana; Benedeti, Alberto; Jordanov, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review was performed to establish the mechanism, methodology, characteristics, clinical application and opportunities of the T-Scan III System as a diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in different fields of dentistry, precisely in orthodontics. Searching of electronic databases, using MEDLINE and PubMed, hand searching of relevant key journals, and screening of reference lists of included studies with no language restriction was performed. Publications providing statistically examined data were included for systematic review. Twenty potentially relevant Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were identified. Only ten met the inclusion criteria. The literature demonstrates that using digital occlusal analysis with T-Scan III System in orthodontics has significant advantage with regard to the capability of measuring occlusal parameters in static positions and during dynamic of the mandible. Within the scope of this systematic review, there is evidence to support that T-Scan system is rapid and accurate in identifying the distribution of the tooth contacts and it shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic screening device for occlusion and for improving the occlusion after various dental treatments. Additional clinical studies are required to advance the indication filed of this system. Importance of using digital occlusal T-Scan analysis in orthodontics deserves further investigation.

  11. The DSET Tool Library: A software approach to enable data exchange between climate system models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Climate modeling is a computationally intensive process. Until recently computers were not powerful enough to perform the complex calculations required to simulate the earth`s climate. As a result standalone programs were created that represent components of the earth`s climate (e.g., Atmospheric Circulation Model). However, recent advances in computing, including massively parallel computing, make it possible to couple the components forming a complete earth climate simulation. The ability to couple different climate model components will significantly improve our ability to predict climate accurately and reliably. Historically each major component of the coupled earth simulation is a standalone program designed independently with different coordinate systems and data representations. In order for two component models to be coupled, the data of one model must be mapped to the coordinate system of the second model. The focus of this project is to provide a general tool to facilitate the mapping of data between simulation components, with an emphasis on using object-oriented programming techniques to provide polynomial interpolation, line and area weighting, and aggregation services.

  12. Using Bayesian network and AHP method as a marketing approach tools in defining tourists’ preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Papić-Blagojević

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marketing approach is associated to market conditions and achieving long term profitability of a company by satisfying consumers’ needs. This approach in tourism does not have to be related only to promoting one touristic destination, but is associated to relation between travel agency and its clients too. It considers that travel agencies adjust their offers to their clients’ needs. In that sense, it is important to analyze the behavior of tourists in the earlier periods with consideration of their preferences. Using Bayesian network, it could be graphically displayed the connection between tourists who have similar taste and relationships between them. On the other hand, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to rank tourist attractions, with also relying on past experience. In this paper we examine possible applications of these two models in tourism in Serbia. The example is hypothetical, but it will serve as a base for future research. Three types of tourism are chosen as a representative in Vojvodina: Cultural, Rural and Business tourism, because they are the bright spot of touristic development in this area. Applied on these forms, analytic hierarchy process has shown its strength in predicting tourists’ preferences.

  13. An integrated approach towards the nutritional assessment of the Sardinian donkey: a tool for clinical nutritionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cappai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to establish: i a species-specific approach for nutritional assessment during clinical checks on Sarda breed adult donkeys, and ii a suitable equation for body weight prediction, which at present is lacking. A total of 18 adult donkeys were sampled and the following criteria were recorded: body weight (BW, body condition score (BCS, muscular mass index (MMI, along with somatometric measures (height at withers; chest girth and metabolic profiles of each individual. The species-specific nutritional assessment based on the integrated approach turned out to correlate significantly (P<0.05 with the body condition score and levels of Na, P and cholesterol in blood. The parametric equation for predicting the BW (y=0.353a+0.443b-7.62, where a= height at withers in cm; b= chest girth in cm closely fit the determined BW, with a standard error of SE=±5 kg BW.

  14. A Survey of Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering Approaches, Methods, and Tools on the Inputs and Outputs View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka D. Sija

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A network protocol defines rules that control communications between two or more machines on the Internet, whereas Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering (APRE defines the way of extracting the structure of a network protocol without accessing its specifications. Enough knowledge on undocumented protocols is essential for security purposes, network policy implementation, and management of network resources. This paper reviews and analyzes a total of 39 approaches, methods, and tools towards Protocol Reverse Engineering (PRE and classifies them into four divisions, approaches that reverse engineer protocol finite state machines, protocol formats, and both protocol finite state machines and protocol formats to approaches that focus directly on neither reverse engineering protocol formats nor protocol finite state machines. The efficiency of all approaches’ outputs based on their selected inputs is analyzed in general along with appropriate reverse engineering inputs format. Additionally, we present discussion and extended classification in terms of automated to manual approaches, known and novel categories of reverse engineered protocols, and a literature of reverse engineered protocols in relation to the seven layers’ OSI (Open Systems Interconnection model.

  15. Identification and mapping the high nature value farmland by the comparison of a combined and species approaches in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lazzerini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity farming systems play a crucial role in nature conservation by preserving 50% of habitats, flora and fauna occurring in Europe. For this reason the identification, classification and mapping of high nature value farmlands (HNVfs is becoming an overriding concern. In this study, two different approaches, namely combined approach and species-based approach, were used to spatially identify HNVfs (type 1, 2 and 3 across Tuscany region (Italy. The first approach calculated different indicators (extensive practices indicator, crop diversity indicator, landscape element indicator at 1×1 km grid cell spatial resolution using pre-existent spatial datasets integrated within a global information system environment. Whilst, the speciesbased approach relied on a pre-existent regional naturalistic inventory. All indicators and the resulting HNVfs derived from the two approaches were aggregated at municipality level. Despite some difference, the two adopted approaches intercepted spatially the same HNVfs areas, accounting for 35% of the total utilised agricultural area of the region. Just 16% of HNVfs resulted located inside protected areas, thus under current conservation and protection management actions. Finally, HNVfs of the Tuscany region were spatially aggregated in four relevant agro-ecosystems by taking into consideration the cropping systems and the landscape elements’ characteristics peculiar in the region.

  16. External validation of approaches to prediction of falls during hospital rehabilitation stays and development of a new simpler tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vratsistas-Curto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To test the external validity of 4 approaches to fall prediction in a rehabilitation setting (Predict_FIRST, Ontario Modified STRATIFY (OMS, physiotherapists’ judgement of fall risk (PT_Risk, and falls in the past year (Past_Falls, and to develop and test the validity of a simpler tool for fall prediction in rehabilitation (Predict_CM2. Participants: A total of 300 consecutively-admitted rehabilitation inpatients. Methods: Prospective inception cohort study. Falls during the rehabilitation stay were monitored. Potential predictors were extracted from medical records. Results: Forty-one patients (14% fell during their rehabilitation stay. The external validity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, for predicting future fallers was: 0.71 (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 0.61–0.81 for OMS (Total_Score; 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57–0.74 for Predict_FIRST; 0.65 (95% CI 0.57–0.73 for PT_Risk; and 0.52 for Past_Falls (95% CI: 0.46–0.60. A simple 3-item tool (Predict_CM2 was developed from the most predictive individual items (impaired mobility/transfer ability, impaired cognition, and male sex. The accuracy of Predict_CM2 was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66–0.81, comparable to OMS (Total_Score (p = 0.52, significantly better than Predict_FIRST (p = 0.04, and Past_Falls (p < 0.001, and approaching significantly better than PT_Risk (p = 0.09. Conclusion: Predict_CM2 is a simpler screening tool with similar accuracy for predicting fallers in rehabilitation to OMS (Total_Score and better accuracy than Predict_FIRST or Past_Falls. External validation of Predict_CM2 is required.

  17. Effects of temperature and irradiance on a benthic microalgal community: A combined two-dimensional oxygen and fluorescence imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-01-01

    The effects of temperature and light on both oxygen (O2) production and gross photosynthesis were resolved in a benthic microalgae community by combining two-dimensional (2D) imaging of O2 and variable chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Images revealed a photosynthetically active community...... microbial community, at different temperatures. The present imaging approach demonstrates a great potential to study consequences of environmental effects on photosynthetic activity and O2 turnover in complex phototrophic benthic communities....

  18. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  19. Structured Assessment Approach: a microcomputer-based insider-vulnerability analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Structured Assessment Approach (SAA) was developed to help assess the vulnerability of safeguards systems to insiders in a staged manner. For physical security systems, the SAA identifies possible diversion paths which are not safeguarded under various facility operating conditions and insiders who could defeat the system via direct access, collusion or indirect tampering. For material control and accounting systems, the SAA identifies those who could block the detection of a material loss or diversion via data falsification or equipment tampering. The SAA, originally desinged to run on a mainframe computer, has been converted to run on a personal computer. Many features have been added to simplify and facilitate its use for conducting vulnerability analysis. For example, the SAA input, which is a text-like data file, is easily readable and can provide documentation of facility safeguards and assumptions used for the analysis

  20. Critical infrastructures at risk: A need for a new conceptual approach and extended analytical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed on the one hand a much greater and tighter integration of goods or services supply systems and growing interconnectedness as well as changing organizational and operational factors, and on the other hand an increased social vulnerability in the face of accidental or intentional disruption. The work of the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) in the field of critical infrastructures has focused on both the risks associated with five individual infrastructures and the issues associated with the increasing interdependence between them. This paper presents a selection of system weaknesses and a number of policy options that have been identified and highlights issues for further investigation and dialogue with stakeholders. Furthermore, the need to extend current modeling and simulation techniques in order to cope with the increasing system complexity is elaborated. An object-oriented, hybrid modeling approach promising to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional methods is presented

  1. A new combined approach on Hurst exponent estimate and its applications in realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Huang, Yirong

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new estimator of Hurst exponent based on the combined information of the conventional rescaled range methods. We demonstrate the superiority of the proposed estimator by Monte Carlo simulations, and the applications in estimating the Hurst exponent of daily volatility series in Chinese stock market. Moreover, we indicate the impact of the type of estimator and structural break on the estimating results of Hurst exponent.

  2. Super-Monte Carla : a combined approach to x-ray beam planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P.; Hoban, P.

    1996-01-01

    A new accurate 3-D radiotherapy dose calculation algorithm, Super-Monte Carlo (SMC), has been developed which combines elements of both superposition/convolution and Monte Carlo methods. Currently used clinical dose calculation algorithms (except those based on the superposition method) can have errors of over 10%, especially where significant density inhomogeneities exist, such as in the head and neck, and lung regions. Errors of this magnitude can cause significan departures in the tumour control probability of the actual treatment. (author)

  3. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erli Sugiono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization–transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  4. Experimental design and modelling approach to evaluate efficacy of β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, S K B; Derendorf, H

    2017-07-29

    A β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) confers susceptibility of β-lactamase-expressing multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms to the partnering β-lactam (BL). To discuss the experimental design and modelling strategies for two-drug combinations, using ceftazidime- and aztreonam-avibactam combinations, as examples. The information came from several publications on avibactam in vitro time-kill studies and corresponding pharmacodynamic models. The experimental design to optimally gather crucial information from constant-concentration time-kill studies is to use an agile matrix of two-drug concentration combinations that cover 0.25- to 4-fold BL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) relative to the BLI concentrations to be tested against the particular isolate. This shifting agile design can save substantial costs and resources, without sacrificing crucial information needed for model development. The complex synergistic BL/BLI interaction is quantitatively explored using a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) mathematical model that accounts for antimicrobial activities in the combination, bacteria-mediated BL degradation and inhibition of BL degradation by BLI. A predictive mathematical formulation for the two-drug killing effects preserves the correlation between the model-derived EC 50 of BL and the BL MIC. The predictive value of PK/PD model is evaluated against external data that were not used for model development, including but not limited to in vitro hollow fibre and in vivo murine infection models. As a framework for translational predictions, the goal of this modelling strategy is to significantly decrease the decision-making time by running clinical trial simulations with MIC-substituted EC 50 function for isolates of comparable susceptibility through established correlation between BL MIC and EC 50 values. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining NT3-overexpressing MSCs and PLGA microcarriers for brain tissue engineering: A potential tool for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Hanieh; Keshvari, Hamid; Fasehee, Hamidreza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Faghihi, Shahab

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that characterized by destruction of substantia nigrostriatal pathway due to the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Regardless of substantial efforts for treatment of PD in recent years, an effective therapeutic strategy is still missing. In a multidisciplinary approach, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are genetically engineered to overexpress neurotrophin-3 (nt-3 gene) that protect central nervous system tissues and stimulates neuronal-like differentiation of BMSCs. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcarriers are designed as an injectable scaffold and synthesized via double emulsion method. The surface of PLGA microcarriers are functionalized by collagen as a bioadhesive agent for improved cell attachment. The results demonstrate effective overexpression of NT-3. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in transfected BMSCs reveal that NT-3 promotes the intracellular signaling pathway of DA neuron differentiation. It is also shown that transfected BMSCs are successfully attached to the surface of microcarriers. The presence of dopamine in peripheral media of cell/microcarrier complex reveals that BMSCs are successfully differentiated into dopaminergic neuron. Our approach that sustains presence of growth factor can be suggested as a novel complementary therapeutic strategy for treatment of Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A clinical trial with combined transcranial direct current stimulation and alcohol approach bias retraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Two studies showed an improvement in clinical outcomes after alcohol approach bias retraining, a form of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). We investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance effects of CBM. TDCS is a neuromodulation technique that can increase

  7. Using a combination of binning strategies and taxonomic approaches to unravel the anaerobic digestion microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    of scaffolds comprehensive of thousands genome sequences, but the binning of these scaffolds into OTUs representative of microbial genomes is still challenging. In the attempt to obtain a deep characterization of the anaerobic digestion microbiome, different metagenomic binning approaches were integrated...

  8. A hybrid approach to decision making and information fusion: Combining humans and artificial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Frans C.A.; Pavlin, Gregor; Winterboer, Andi; Evers, Vanessa

    This paper argues that hybrid human–agent systems can support powerful solutions to relevant problems such as Environmental Crisis management. However, it shows that such solutions require comprehensive approaches covering different aspects of data processing, model construction and the usage. In

  9. Sensitivity of tidal sand wave characteristics to environmental parameters: A combined data analysis and modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, R.B.; de Swart, H.E.; van Dijk, T.A.G.P.

    2011-01-01

    An integrated field data-modelling approach is employed to investigate relationships between the wavelength of tidal sand waves and four environmental parameters: tidal current amplitude, water depth, tidal ellipticity and median grain size. From echo sounder data at 23 locations on the Dutch

  10. Combining goal-oriented and model-driven approaches to solve the Payment Problem Scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asuncion, C.H.; Quartel, Dick; Pokraev, S.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the objective to provide an improved participation of business domain experts in the design of service-oriented integration solutions, we extend our previous work on using the COSMO methodology for service mediation by introducing a goal-oriented approach to requirements engineering.

  11. New approaches in systems diagnosis : combining metabolomics and ultra-weak photon emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetto-Burgos, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, the use of a systems-based view of life has provided key insight into fundamental processes with respect to biology. In life sciences, important paradigm shifts are the way in which we approach health and disease. Although modern medicine has traditionally emphasized pathology and

  12. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods…

  13. Separate and combined sewer systems: a long-term modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    Sewer systems convey mostly dry weather flow, coming from domestic and industrial sanitary sewage as well as infiltration flow, and stormwater due to meteoric precipitations. Traditionally, in urban drainage two types of sewer systems are adopted: separate and combined sewers. The former convey dry and wet weather flow separately into two different networks, while the latter convey dry and wet weather flow together. Which is the best solution in terms of cost-benefit analysis still remains a controversial subject. The present study was aimed at comparing the pollution loads discharged to receiving bodies by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) for different kinds of sewer systems (combined and separate). To accomplish this objective, a comparison between the two systems was carried out using results from simulations of catchments characterised by different dimensions, population densities and water supply rate. The analysis was based on a parsimonious mathematical model able to simulate the sewer system as well as the WWTP during both dry and wet weather. The rain series employed for the simulations was six years long. Several pollutants, both dissolved and particulate, were modelled. The results confirmed the uncertainties in the choice of one system versus the other, emphasising the concept that case-by-case solutions have to be undertaken. Further, the compared systems showed different responses in terms of effectiveness in reducing the discharged mass to the RWB in relation to the particular pollutant taken into account.

  14. Estimation and optimization of flank wear and tool lifespan in finish turning of AISI 304 stainless steel using desirability function approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Bouzid

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available The wear of cutting tools remains a major obstacle. The effects of wear are not only antagonistic at the lifespan and productivity, but also harmful with the surface quality. The present work deals with some machinability studies on flank wear, surface roughness, and lifespan in finish turning of AISI 304 stainless steel using multilayer Ti(C,N/Al2O3/TiN coated carbide inserts. The machining experiments are conducted based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and cutting time on the two performance outputs (i.e. VB and Ra, and combined effects of two cutting parameters, namely cutting speed and feed rate on lifespan (T, are explored employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined using a quadratic regression model and optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established through desirability function approach (DFA optimization. The results show that the flank wear is influenced principally by the cutting time and in the second level by the cutting speed. In addition, it is indicated that the cutting time is the dominant factor affecting workpiece surface roughness followed by feed rate, while lifespan is influenced by cutting speed. The optimum level of input parameters for composite desirability was found Vc1-f1-t1 for VB, Ra and Vc1-f1 for T, with a maximum percentage of error 6.38%.

  15. Introduction of an energy efficiency tool for small scale biomass gasifiers – A thermodynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakalis, S.; Patuzzi, F.; Baratieri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of plants for electricity, heat and materials production. • Thermodynamic analysis by using exergy, entransy and statistical entropy. • Extrapolation of a single efficiency index by combining the thermodynamic parameters. • Application of methodology for two monitored small scale gasifiers. - Abstract: Modern gasification plants, should be treated as poly-generation facilities because, alongside the production of electricity and heat, valuable or waste materials streams are generated. Thus, integrated methods should be introduced in order to account for the full range and the nature of the products. Application of conventional hybrid indicators that convert the output into monetary units or CO_2 equivalents are a source of bias because of the inconsistency of the conversion factors and unreliability of the available data. Therefore, this study introduces a novel thermodynamic-based method for assessing gasification plants performance by means of exergy, entransy and statistical entropy. A monitoring campaign has been implemented on two small scale gasifiers and the results have been applied on the proposed method. The energy plants are compared in respect to their individual thermodynamic parameters for energy production and materials distribution. In addition, the method returns one single value which is a resultant of all the investigated parameters and is a characteristic value of the overall performance of an energy plant.

  16. Pictorial materials database: 1200 combinations of pigments, dyes, binders and varnishes designed as a tool for heritage science and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Tiziana; Buscaglia, Paola; Migliorini, Simonetta; Nervo, Marco; Piccablotto, Gabriele; Piccirillo, Anna; Pisani, Marco; Puglisi, Davide; Vaudan, Dario; Zucco, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    The conservation of artworks requires a profound knowledge about pictorial materials, their chemical and physical properties and their interaction and/or degradation processes. For this reason, pictorial materials databases are widely used to study and investigate cultural heritage. At Centre for Conservation and Restoration La Venaria Reale, we prepared a set of about 1200 mock-ups with 173 different pigments and/or dyes, used across all the historical times or as products for conservation, four binders, two varnishes and four different materials for underdrawings. In collaboration with the Laboratorio Analisi Scientifiche of Regione Autonoma Valle d'Aosta, the National Institute of Metrological Research and the Department of Architecture and Design of the Polytechnic of Turin, we created a scientific database that is now available online (http://www.centrorestaurovenaria.it/en/areas/diagnostic/pictorial-materials-database) designed as a tool for heritage science and conservation. Here, we present a focus on materials for pictorial retouching where the hyperspectral imaging application, conducted with a prototype of new technology, allowed to provide a list of pigments that could be more suitable for conservation treatments and pictorial retouching. Then we present the case study of the industrial painting Notte Barbara (1962) by Pinot Gallizio where the use of the database including modern and contemporary art materials showed to be very useful and where the fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy technique was decisive for pigment identification purpose. Later in this research, the mock-ups will be exploited to study degradation processes, e.g., the lightfastness, or the possible formation of interaction products, e.g., metal carboxylates.

  17. Systems biology approaches and tools for analysis of interactomes and multi-target drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrattenholz, André; Groebe, Karlfried; Soskic, Vukic

    2010-01-01

    diseases" remains a most pressing medical need. Currently, a change of paradigm can be observed with regard to a new interest in agents that modulate multiple targets simultaneously, essentially "dirty drugs." Targeting cellular function as a system rather than on the level of the single target, significantly increases the size of the drugable proteome and is expected to introduce novel classes of multi-target drugs with fewer adverse effects and toxicity. Multiple target approaches have recently been used to design medications against atherosclerosis, cancer, depression, psychosis and neurodegenerative diseases. A focussed approach towards "systemic" drugs will certainly require the development of novel computational and mathematical concepts for appropriate modelling of complex data. But the key is the extraction of relevant molecular information from biological systems by implementing rigid statistical procedures to differential proteomic analytics.

  18. Cohesive Laws and Progressive Damage Analysis of Composite Bonded Joints, a Combined Numerical/Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations, in agreement with experimental tests, indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  19. Sentiment analysis of political communication: combining a dictionary approach with crowdcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmayer, Martin; Jenny, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment is important in studies of news values, public opinion, negative campaigning or political polarization and an explosive expansion of digital textual data and fast progress in automated text analysis provide vast opportunities for innovative social science research. Unfortunately, tools currently available for automated sentiment analysis are mostly restricted to English texts and require considerable contextual adaption to produce valid results. We present a procedure for collecting fine-grained sentiment scores through crowdcoding to build a negative sentiment dictionary in a language and for a domain of choice. The dictionary enables the analysis of large text corpora that resource-intensive hand-coding struggles to cope with. We calculate the tonality of sentences from dictionary words and we validate these estimates with results from manual coding. The results show that the crowdbased dictionary provides efficient and valid measurement of sentiment. Empirical examples illustrate its use by analyzing the tonality of party statements and media reports.

  20. Automated Extraction of Cranial Landmarks from Computed Tomography Data using a Combined Method of Knowledge and Pattern Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan N. RAJAPAKSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of anatomical structures from medical imaging data is a significant and critical function in the medical domain. Past studies in this context have mainly utilized two main approaches, the knowledge and learning methodologies based methods. Further, most of previous reported studies have focused on identification of landmarks from lateral X-ray Computed Tomography (CT data, particularly in the field of orthodontics. However, this study focused on extracting cranial landmarks from large sets of cross sectional CT slices using a combined method of the two aforementioned approaches. The proposed method of this study is centered mainly on template data sets, which were created using the actual contour patterns extracted from CT cases for each of the landmarks in consideration. Firstly, these templates were used to devise rules which are a characteristic of the knowledge based method. Secondly, the same template sets were employed to perform template matching related to the learning methodologies approach. The proposed method was tested on two landmarks, the Dorsum sellae and the Pterygoid plate, using CT cases of 5 subjects. The results indicate that, out of the 10 tests, the output images were within the expected range (desired accuracy in 7 instances and acceptable range (near accuracy for 2 instances, thus verifying the effectiveness of the combined template sets centric approach proposed in this study.

  1. Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarraga, Ibon, E-mail: ibon.galarraga@bc3research.org; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel, E-mail: mikel.gonzalez@bc3research.org; Markandya, Anil, E-mail: anil.markandya@bc3research.org

    2011-12-15

    This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: > The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. > The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. > The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). > The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.

  2. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, G; Valente, G

    2003-01-01

    Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R n , can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown

  3. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, G; Valente, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2003-02-21

    Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R{sup n}, can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown.

  4. Combining Expertise: Reflecting on a Team Approach to Curriculum Development and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M. Bailey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This article discussed curriculum development and implementation using a unique collaboration of basic scientists and clinicians functioning as course co-directors. It explores the pros, cons, and unintended consequences of this integrated approach through reflections of the faculty involved. Methods Ten faculty participated in semi-structured phone interviews to reflect on their experiences. Results Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four key themes: (1 the value of the basic scientist and clinician partnership, (2 strategies for coordination, (3 balancing responsibilities, and (4 hierarchy and power. Discussion This study identified that both basic scientists and clinicians experienced benefits from using a course co-director collaborative approach to curriculum development and implementation. While challenges are also noted, the benefits of the collaboration were evident in course organization, course evaluation reports, student feedback, and USMLE Step I pass rate.

  5. Combined Approach of PNN and Time-Frequency as the Classifier for Power System Transient Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Pervez Memon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The transients in power system cause serious disturbances in the reliability, safety and economy of the system. The transient signals possess the nonstationary characteristics in which the frequency as well as varying time information is compulsory for the analysis. Hence, it is vital, first to detect and classify the type of transient fault and then to mitigate them. This article proposes time-frequency and FFNN (Feedforward Neural Network approach for the classification of power system transients problems. In this work it is suggested that all the major categories of transients are simulated, de-noised, and decomposed with DWT (Discrete Wavelet and MRA (Multiresolution Analysis algorithm and then distinctive features are extracted to get optimal vector as input for training of PNN (Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. The simulation results of proposed approach prove their simplicity, accurateness and effectiveness for the automatic detection and classification of PST (Power System Transient types

  6. Exploring Student-Generated Animations, Combined with a Representational Pedagogy, as a Tool for Learning in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Zeynep; Aubusson, Peter

    2018-02-01

    This article describes an investigation into teaching and learning with student-generated animations combined with a representational pedagogy. In particular, it reports on interactive discussions that were stimulated by the students' own animations as well as their critiques of experts' animations. Animations representing views of states of matter provided a vehicle by which to investigate learning in a series of lessons. The study was implemented with Year 11 high school students. After students constructed, presented and discussed their animations, they watched and critiqued experts' animations. They were then interviewed about the teaching-learning process. Most students (91%) spoke positively about follow-up discussion classes, saying that their previous conceptions and understanding of states of matter had improved. They explained that they had identified some alternative conceptions, which they had held regarding states of matter and explained how their conceptions had changed. They reported that the teaching/learning process had helped them to develop a deeper understanding of the changing states of matter.

  7. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined periodontic-orthodonticendodontic interdisciplinary approach in the treatment of periodontally compromised tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa, D; Mehta, D. S.; Puri, Viren K.; Shetty, Sadashiva

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment in adult patients is one of the most frequently encountered components involving multidisciplinary approaches. In the present report, a 28-year-old male patient was treated for localized chronic periodontitis with pocket formation, mobility, pathologic migration and malalignment of maxillary left lateral incisor tooth #22. The periodontal therapy included motivation, education and oral-hygiene instructions (O.H.I.), scaling and root planing and periodontal flap surgery. ...

  9. A Hybrid Approach to Composite Damage and Failure Analysis Combining Synergistic Damage Mechanics and Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    manufacturing defects in the intermediately -homogenized model of fiber-reinforced composites. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Computational micromechanics; Cavitation...defects in the intermediately -homogenized model of fiber-reinforced composites. Task 1.1 Micro-level crack initiation Background and motivation In...new Intermediate Homogenization Peridynamic approach (IH-PD model) for failure in multiphase materials. We plan to apply this IH-PD model for the

  10. Resolving Nuclear Reactor Lifetime Extension Questions: A Combined Multiscale Modeling and Positron Characterization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B; Asoka-Kumar, P; Denison, A; Glade, S; Howell, R; Marian, J; Odette, G; Sterne, P

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical composition of nanometer precipitates responsible for irradiation hardening and embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels, which threaten to limit the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants worldwide. The scientific approach incorporates computational multiscale modeling of radiation damage and microstructural evolution in Fe-Cu-Ni-Mn alloys, and experimental characterization by positron annihilation spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering. The modeling and experimental results are

  11. A Novel Combined Hybrid Approach to Enable Revascularisation of a Trauma-Induced Subclavian Artery Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Sabbagh

    Full Text Available : Introduction: This case highlights the complexity of upper limb revascularization after a subclavian artery traumatic injury and strengthens the role of a hybrid/multi-disciplinary approach to such injuries. Report: A 45-year-old male patient presented with an acute right upper limb following a traumatic injury to the right subclavian artery due to a motor vehicle accident (MVA. Associated injuries included an unstable cervical spine injury, a large open right clavicular injury, and a brain injury, which limited the potential revascularisation options available. The arm was revascularised using a hybrid endovascular/open surgical approach, namely embolization of the proximal subclavian artery (just distal to vertebral artery and a right common femoral artery to distal axillary artery bypass using prosthetic material. Discussion: Blunt injuries to the subclavian artery are often high impact, complex and associated with multiple injuries to surrounding structures, which limit the role of standard procedures used in the elective setting. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary team involvement, using a hybrid approach and a novel distal inflow site to restore upper limb perfusion. Keywords: Upper limb, Ischemia, Trauma, Revascularization

  12. A combined experimental and analytical approach for interface fracture parameters of dissimilar materials in electronic packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, N.R.; Ghosh, S.; Guven, I.; Madenci, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the development of a combined experimental and analytical technique to determine the critical values of fracture parameters for interfaces between dissimilar materials in electronic packages. This technique utilizes specimens from post-production electronic packages. The mechanical testing is performed inside a scanning electron microscope while the measurements are achieved by means of digital image correlation. The measured displacements around the crack tip are used as the boundary conditions for the analytical model to compute the energy release rate. The critical energy release rate values obtained from post-production package specimens are obtained to be lower than those laboratory specimens

  13. A neoteric multidrug combination: novel approach to limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma involving the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Hari; Kumar, M Siva; Kumar, Sabitha Hari; Kumar, Kingsly Selva

    2016-01-01

    Limited cutaneous scleroderma is a subtype of scleroderma limited to the skin of the face, hands, feet and forearms. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman affected by limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma involving the orofacial region and causing restricted mouth opening. The patient showed noteworthy improvement of the skin lesion by use of a combination of intralesional corticosteroid with hyaluronidase and various multiantioxidants, resulting in amelioration of her mouth opening problem. The patient gave her full informed written consent to this report being published. PMID:27033280

  14. A neoteric multidrug combination: novel approach to limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma involving the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Hari; Kumar, M Siva; Kumar, Sabitha Hari; Kumar, Kingsly Selva

    2016-03-31

    Limited cutaneous scleroderma is a subtype of scleroderma limited to the skin of the face, hands, feet and forearms. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman affected by limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma involving the orofacial region and causing restricted mouth opening. The patient showed noteworthy improvement of the skin lesion by use of a combination of intralesional corticosteroid with hyaluronidase and various multiantioxidants, resulting in amelioration of her mouth opening problem. The patient gave her full informed written consent to this report being published. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. The perfection