WorldWideScience

Sample records for combined sewer system

  1. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Royuela, Albert; Bosch, Ll.; Kiser, M.A.; Poch, Manuel; Corominas Tabares, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a C...

  2. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  3. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, A; Bosch, Ll; Kiser, M A; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2015-02-01

    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a CSS using overflow duration and rain volume data, (2) characterizing the performance of CSO structures with statistics, (3) evaluating the compliance of a CSS with government guidelines, and (4) generating decision tree models to provide support to managers for making decisions about system maintenance. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a CSS in La Garriga, Spain. The rain volume breaking point from which CSO structures started to overflow ranged from 0.6 mm to 2.8 mm. The structures with the best and worst performance in terms of overflow (overflow probability, order, duration and CSO ranking) were characterized. Most of the obtained decision trees to predict overflows from rain data had accuracies ranging from 70% to 83%. The results obtained from the proposed methodology can greatly support managers and engineers dealing with real-world problems, improvements, and maintenance of CSSs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. COMBINED-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO), along with sanitary-sewer overflow and stormwater are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater t...

  5. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  6. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  7. Separate and combined sewer systems: a long-term modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    Sewer systems convey mostly dry weather flow, coming from domestic and industrial sanitary sewage as well as infiltration flow, and stormwater due to meteoric precipitations. Traditionally, in urban drainage two types of sewer systems are adopted: separate and combined sewers. The former convey dry and wet weather flow separately into two different networks, while the latter convey dry and wet weather flow together. Which is the best solution in terms of cost-benefit analysis still remains a controversial subject. The present study was aimed at comparing the pollution loads discharged to receiving bodies by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) for different kinds of sewer systems (combined and separate). To accomplish this objective, a comparison between the two systems was carried out using results from simulations of catchments characterised by different dimensions, population densities and water supply rate. The analysis was based on a parsimonious mathematical model able to simulate the sewer system as well as the WWTP during both dry and wet weather. The rain series employed for the simulations was six years long. Several pollutants, both dissolved and particulate, were modelled. The results confirmed the uncertainties in the choice of one system versus the other, emphasising the concept that case-by-case solutions have to be undertaken. Further, the compared systems showed different responses in terms of effectiveness in reducing the discharged mass to the RWB in relation to the particular pollutant taken into account.

  8. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  9. Assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to suspended solids loads in combined sewer systems during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-04-01

    Within the French observatories network SOERE "URBIS," databases of continuous turbidity measurements accumulating hundreds of events and many dry weather days are available for two sites with different features (Clichy in Paris and Ecully in Lyon). These measurements, converted into total suspended solids (TSS) concentration using TSS-turbidity relationships and combined with a model of runoff event mean concentration, enable the assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather TSS loads observed at the outlet of the two watersheds. Results show that the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solid's discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80 % of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. The uncertainties associated to these results are assessed too.

  10. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas With and Without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff discharge into waterbodies potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme pre...

  11. Bayesian analysis for erosion modelling of sediments in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, A; Chebbo, G; Tassin, B

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has confirmed that the sediments at the bed of combined sewer systems are the main source of particulate and organic pollution during rain events contributing to combined sewer overflows. However, existing urban stormwater models utilize inappropriate sediment transport formulas initially developed from alluvial hydrodynamics. Recently, a model has been formulated and profoundly assessed based on laboratory experiments to simulate the erosion of sediments in sewer pipes taking into account the increase in strength with depth in the weak layer of deposits. In order to objectively evaluate this model, this paper presents a Bayesian analysis of the model using field data collected in sewer pipes in Paris under known hydraulic conditions. The test has been performed using a MCMC sampling method for calibration and uncertainty assessment. Results demonstrate the capacity of the model to reproduce erosion as a direct response to the increase in bed shear stress. This is due to the model description of the erosional strength in the deposits and to the shape of the measured bed shear stress. However, large uncertainties in some of the model parameters suggest that the model could be over-parameterised and necessitates a large amount of informative data for its calibration.

  12. Sewer System Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Field Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan.

  13. Contributions of wastewater, runoff and sewer deposit erosion to wet weather pollutant loads in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Gromaire, M C; Kafi, M; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G

    2010-12-01

    An observatory of urban pollutants was created in Paris for the purpose of assessing the dynamics of wastewater and wet weather flow (WW and WWF) pollutant loads within combined sewers. This observatory is composed of six urban catchments, covering land areas ranging in size from 42 ha to 2581 ha. For a wide array of parameters including total suspended solids (TSS), chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD(5)), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), heavy metals (Cu and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), this article is intended to evaluate the contributions of wastewater, runoff and in-sewer processes to WWF pollutant loads through the use of an entry-exit mass balance approach. To achieve this objective, a total of 16 rain events were sampled on these sites between May 2003 and February 2006. This study has confirmed that at the considered catchment scale (i.e. from 42 ha to 2581 ha) the production and transfer processes associated with WWF pollutant loads do not vary with basin scale. Entry-exit chemical mass balances over all catchments and for a large number of rain events indicate that wastewater constitutes the main source of organic and nitrogenous pollution, while runoff is the predominant source of Zn. For Cu, PAHs and TSS, the calculation underscores the major role played by in-sewer processes, specifically by sediment erosion, as a source of WWF pollution. A significant loss of dissolved metals was also observed during their transfer within the sewer network, likely as a consequence of the adsorption of dissolved metals on TSS and/or on sewer deposits. Moreover, the nature of eroded particles was examined and compared to the various sewer deposits. This comparison has highlighted that such particles exhibit similar organic and PAH contents to those measured in the organic layer, thus suggesting that the deposit eroded during a wet weather period is organic and of a nature comparable to the organic layer

  14. Functional evaluation of pollutant transformation in sediment from combined sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Sang, Langtao; Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Xiaochang C; Wang, Guanghua

    2018-07-01

    In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants. As a result, the accumulation of dissolved organic matter and the variation of ORP values along the sediment depth led to the depth-dependent reproduction characteristics of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were existed in the middle and deep layer of the sediment respectively. However, the diversity of nitrifying and polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria was low in sewer sediment and those microbial communities showed a non-significant correlation with nitrogen and phosphorus contaminants, which indicated that the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus contaminants was mainly caused by physical deposition process. Thus, this study proposed a promising pathway to evaluate pollutant transformation and can help provide theoretical foundation for urban sewer improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe. Most of the time, combined sewer systems transport all of their wastewater to a sewage treatment plant, where it is treated and then discharged to a water body. During periods of heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the wastewater volume in a combined sewer system can exceed the capacity of the sewer system or treatment plant. For this reason, combined sewer systems are designed to overflow occasionally and discharge excess untreated wastewater directly to nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies. For further information visit: http://cfpub1.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=5

  16. MANUAL: REAL TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managers, engineers, and operators of combined urban sewer systems are faced with difficult problems related to the operation and maintenance of their facilities. In addition to the issues related to the operation and upkeep of the system, many sewerage agencies are facing increa...

  17. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel

    2016-04-15

    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A case independent approach on the impact of climate change effects on combined sewer system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    Design and construction of urban drainage systems has to be done in a predictive way, as the average lifespan of such investments is several decades. The design engineer has to predict many influencing factors and scenarios for future development of a system (e.g. change in land use, population, water consumption and infiltration measures). Furthermore, climate change can cause increased rain intensities which leads to an additional impact on drainage systems. In this paper we compare the behaviour of different performance indicators of combined sewer systems when taking into account long-term environmental change effects (change in rainfall characteristics, change in impervious area and change in dry weather flow). By using 250 virtual case studies this approach is--in principle--a Monte Carlo Simulation in which not only parameter values are varied but the entire system structure and layout is changed in each run. Hence, results are more general and case-independent. For example the consideration of an increase of rainfall intensities by 20% has the same effect as an increase of impervious area of +40%. Such an increase of rainfall intensities could be compensated by infiltration measures in current systems which lead to a reduction of impervious area by 30%.

  19. Cesium and strontium loads into a combined sewer system from rainwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Yoshida, Daiki; Ito, Ayumi; Umita, Teruyuki

    2016-12-01

    In this study, combined sewage samples were taken with time in several rain events and sanitary sewage samples were taken with time in dry weather to calculate Cs and Sr loads to sewers from rainwater runoff. Cs and Sr in rainwater were present as particulate forms at first flush and the particulate Cs and Sr were mainly bound with inorganic suspended solids such as clay minerals in combined sewage samples. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis showed Cs and Sr loads from rainwater runoff could be estimated by the total amount of rainfall and antecedent dry weather days. The variation of the Sr load from rainwater to sewers was more sensitive to total amount of rainfall and antecedent dry weather days than that of the Cs load. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...... receiving waters when detention ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. It is concluded that consequences can be fatal for receiving waters, if no retention of pollutants is integrated into the system....

  1. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2016-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...... complex CSO structures. The three concepts was tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements....

  2. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  3. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network.

  4. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-01-01

    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks.

  5. COMBINED AND STORM SEWER NETWORK MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Synowiecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispensable part in this step is their proper calibration calibration. In addition to ongoing monitoring of the sewer system, periodic inspections by the qualified employees of Water and Sewage Company should be done. The following article reviews measurement devices, their calibration methods, as well as the phenomena that occur during operation in the sewer network. It provides a solution for monitoring and control based on the experience of the Municipal Water and Sewage Company in Wroclaw, describing common operational problems, their causes, prevention methods and a network operation walkthrough with the improve of performance indicators KPI (Key Performance Indicators according the ECB (European Benchmarking Co-operation.

  6. Characterization and evaluation of potential reuse options for wastewater sludge and combined sewer system sediments in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Mendez, J.M.; Barrios, J.A.; Salgado, G.; Sheinbaum, C.

    2003-07-01

    Combined sewer systems generate sediments that have characteristics similar to those of primary sludge. Mexico City has such a system composed of a network of pipes, regulation structures (dams, basins) and open channels. The annual generation of sediments is estimated in 2.8 Mm{sup 3}, which includes 0.41 Mm{sup 3} of sludge. As a result, the total capacity for transporting water is reduced considerably, making necessary to extract yearly an approximate 0.85 Mm{sup 3} of those materials and to send them to a final disposal site with a capacity that is being exhausted. As part of the local Governmental effort, this project evaluates the quality of sediments from 6 dams, 4 regulation basins, 2 open channels, and 3 transfer stations. Also, sludge from 20 wastewater treatment plants was sampled. The results showed an important presence of lead and hydrocarbons in some sediments, and some sludge samples contained arsenic and nickel above the limits. Moreover, microbial levels exceeded the limits in all the sediments and sludge samples. Erosion was linked to the generation of an important amount of sediments based on lead concentration. A classification was established to determine the degree of contamination of the sediments as well as the required treatment to allow their potential reuse. (author)

  7. The Characteristics of Waste Water Flow in a Danish Combined Sewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    have been analysed in order to extract some of their characteristics. Furthermore it is emphasised that the presence of a self-cleansing capacity of a combined sewer system is of vital importance in order to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. Whether or not the pipelines...

  8. A software-based sensor for combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, G; Fach, S; Engelhard, C; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADA-system of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow.

  9. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP.

  10. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  11. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume.

  12. Storm water management implications on WWTPS in combined sewer systems: Integration strategies and process conditions; Implicaciones sobre la estacion depuradora de la gestion de aguas pluviales en los sistemas de saneamiento unitario: estrategias de integracion y afecciones sobre los procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Lopez, J.; Jacome Burgos, A.; Anta Alvarez, J.; Blanco Menendez, J. P.; Hernaez Oubina, D.; Rio Cambeses, H. del

    2012-07-01

    New design and strategies to manage wet weather floes in combined sewer systems, which main objective is to minimize environmental impacts on water bodies, require the treatment of large volumes of storm water. Wet weather flows introduced into combined sewer show dynamic-transient behavior both in terms of flow discharges and pollution. With traditional design strategies, large pollution peaks are spilled during rain events into water receiving bodies by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Nowadays, CSOs have been reduced providing some storage capacity into the combined sewer systems (either in network, by means storm water tanks, or in WWTP). The stored storm water and its associated pollution should be treated. WWTP inflows during rainy events are conditioned by the local storm water management strategy. The WWTP can be overcome if it is managed using traditional dry weather strategies. In order to optimize the treatment performance and to assure that urban pollution do not reach aquatic environment, the WWTP must participate in the system in an integrated manner. This is a key element. This paper shows firstly the importance of CSO pollution and the development of new strategies for storm water management in combined sewer systems. Storm water tanks, located in the sewerage system, have been one of the most common solutions adopted but there are some experiences of wet weather flow management at the WWTP. All these strategies are revised in the paper. Once the role of the WWTP in the new combined sewer systems is known, the article presents a review about the problems generated by the hydraulic overloads and the large variations of the pollution characteristics on different stages of the water line. Special emphasis is made on the problems generated in secondary processes based on activated sludge. these problems are analysed in detail and some mitigation strategies are proposed. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. COMBINED AND STORM SEWER NETWORK MONITORING

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Synowiecka; Ewa Burszta-Adamiak; Tomasz Konieczny; Paweł Malinowski

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispens...

  14. Agile Design of Sewer System Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nooijen, R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.; Van Leeuwen, P.E.R.M.; Van Velzen, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first part of an attempt to include stakeholder participation in the design of a central automatic controller for a sewer system in a small pilot project (five subcatchments) and present lessons learned so far. The pilot is part of a project aimed at the improvement of water quality

  15. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  16. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-02-01

    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment.

  17. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  18. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Facilities: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer systems (CSS) collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These c...

  19. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solv...

  20. Priority substances in combined sewer overflows: case study of the Paris sewer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Garnaud, S; Rocher, V; Moilleron, R

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to supply data on both priority pollutant (PP) occurrence and concentrations in combined sewer overflows (CSOs). A single rain event was studied on 13 sites within the Paris sewer network. For each sample, a total of 66 substances, including metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, organotins, volatile organic compounds, chlorobenzenes, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed. Of the 66 compounds analyzed in all, 40 PPs including 12 priority hazardous substances were detected in CSOs. As expected, most metals were present in all samples, reflecting their ubiquitous nature. Chlorobenzenes and most pesticides were never quantified above the limit of quantification, while the majority of the other organic pollutants, except DEHP (median concentration: 22 μg.l(-1)), were found to lie in the μg.l(-1) range. For the particular rain event studied, the pollutant loads discharged by CSOs were evaluated and then compared to pollutant loads conveyed by the Seine River. Under the hydraulic conditions considered and according to the estimations performed, this comparison suggests that CSOs are potentially significant local source of metals, PAHs and DEHP. Depending on the substance, the ratio between the CSO and Seine River loads varied from 0.5 to 26, underscoring the important local impact of CSOs at the scale of this storm for most pollutants.

  1. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and PAA for the inactivation of E. coli in CSO wastewater using laboratory bench-scale jar tests and Muddy Creek field site studies based on the following items:•Storage, shelf life, and application of the disinfectants.•Effectiveness of the disinfectants in the inactivation of E. coli.•Formation of harmful byproducts by the disinfectants.•Operation and maintenance costs, including the cost of the disinfectant, its storage, application, and neutralizing agent for the disinfectant to maintain the Ohio EPA guideline for residual disinfectant at the discharge point. Like many cities in the USA, Cincinnati, Ohio is attempting to find the best way to meet state and federal requirements concerning combined sewer overflow (CSO) wastewater. The Muddy Creek CSO treatment facility was constructed to provide treatment for CSO Numbers 198 and 216 from the Westwood Trunk sewer. The Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSDGC) is currently using sodium hypochlorite for disinfection in this treatment facility. Because of degradation of hypochlorite during storage and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), MSDGC is evaluating alternat

  2. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Bot...

  3. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation...

  4. RTC simulations on large branched sewer systems with SmaRTControl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Kees; van Beest, Dick; van der Plaat, Marcel; de Graaf, Erno; Schaart, Niels

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands many large branched sewer systems exist. RTC can improve the performance of these systems. The objective of the universal algorithm of SmaRTControl is to improve the performance of the sewer system and the WWTP. The effect of RTC under rain weather flow conditions is simulated using a hydrological model with 19 drainage districts. The system related inefficiency coefficient (SIC) is introduced for assessment of the performance of sewer systems. The performance can be improved by RTC in combination with increased pumping capacities in the drainage districts, but without increasing the flow to the WWTP. Under dry weather flow conditions the flow to the WWTP can be equalized by storage of wastewater in the sewer system. It is concluded that SmaRTControl can improve the performance, that simulations are necessary and that SIC is an excellent parameter for assessment of the performance.

  5. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  6. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solving these problems, preliminary Receding Horizon Control with Moving Horizon Estimation (RHC/MHE) results, based on flow measurements, were also obtained. In this work, the RHC/MHE algorithm has been extended to take into account both flow and water level measurements and the resulting control loop has been extensively simulated to assess the system performance according different measurement availability scenarios and rain events. All simulations have been carried out using a detailed physically based model of a real case-study network as virtual reality.

  7. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  8. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  9. Prediction of organic combined sewer sediment release and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Seco, Raquel Irene; Schellart, Alma Neeltje Antonia; Gómez Valentín, Manuel; Tait, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Accurate predictions of sediment loads released by sewer overflow discharges are important for being able to provide protection to vulnerable receiving waters. These predictions are sensitive to the estimated sediment characteristics and on the site conditions of in-pipe deposit formation. Their application without a detailed analysis and understanding of the initial conditions under which in-sewer deposits were formed normally results in very poor estimations. In this study, in-sewer sedimen...

  10. Implementation of an integrated real-time control system of sewer system and waste water treatment plant in the city of Wilhelmshaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seggelke, Katja; Löwe, Roland; Beeneken, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A case study for integrated real-time control (RTC) of an urban drainage system in the city of Wilhelmshaven (Germany) is explained. The fuzzy based RTC strategy combines control of the sewer system and inflow to the waste water treatment plant. The main objective in controlling the sewer system...... is to reduce the number of overflows and the volume at a combined sewer overflow (CSO), located close to a bathing beach. Based on online measurements, the operation mode of two pumping stations is modified. This approach allows the safe activation of free storage volume in the sewer system without...... RTC system has been operational for approximately one year....

  11. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  13. A novel method for rapid inspection of sewer networks: combining acoustic and optical means

    OpenAIRE

    Plihal, H.; Kretschmer, F.; Bin Ali, M.T.; See, C.H.; Romanova, A.; Horoshenkov, K.V.; Ertl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Operation and maintenance of the public sewer system represent key tasks for an\\ud operator. Condition assessment is usually conducted by conventional closed\\ud circuit television (CCTV) inspection. However, alternative tools such as\\ud manhole-zoom cameras (MZCs) and the acoustic technology SewerBatt® are\\ud available today.\\ud The INNOKANIS project investigates structural and operational condition\\ud assessment in the sewer system by means of 3 MZC models and SewerBatt® to\\ud develop a comb...

  14. DSM-flux: A new technology for reliable Combined Sewer Overflow discharge monitoring with low uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté Marín, Ainhoa; Rivière, Nicolas; Lipeme Kouyi, Gislain

    2018-06-01

    In the past ten years, governments from the European Union have been encouraged to collect volume and quality data for all the effluent overflows from separated stormwater and combined sewer systems that result in a significant environmental impact on receiving water bodies. Methods to monitor and control these flows require improvements, particularly for complex Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) structures. The DSM-flux (Device for Stormwater and combined sewer flows Monitoring and the control of pollutant fluxes) is a new pre-designed and pre-calibrated channel that provides appropriate hydraulic conditions suitable for measurement of overflow rates and volumes by means of one water level gauge. In this paper, a stage-discharge relation for the DSM-flux is obtained experimentally and validated for multiple inflow hydraulic configurations. Uncertainties in CSO discharges and volumes are estimated within the Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) framework. Whatever the upstream hydraulic conditions are, relative uncertainties are lower than 15% and 2% for the investigated discharges and volumes, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffa, P.E. (Calocerinos and Spina, Liverpool, NY); Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.

    1982-06-01

    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  16. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    for this thesis was therefore the wish for a methodological approach to sewer system control design. Using a case study the following research hypothesis was tested in this thesis: Using classical and modern control theory, a methodological approach can be derived for designing sewer system control. This can aid....... This was not unexpected, since the true potential of having optimisation arises, when a system has many control loops with limit-ing constraints and/or changing prioritisation between them. The results showed that for small sewer systems, where the complexity is limited, it is not necessarily the best option to implement...... generate control systems of the future that are more robust, more structured, have a better performance and are easi-er to maintain....

  17. Modelling sewer sediment deposition, erosion, and transport processes to predict acute influent and reduce combined sewer overflows and CO(2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of solids deposition, erosion, and transport processes in sewer systems has improved considerably in the past decade. This has provided guidance for controlling sewer solids and associated acute pollutants to protect the environment and improve the operation of wastewater systems. Although measures to decrease combined sewer overflow (CSO) events have reduced the amount of discharged pollution, overflows continue to occur during rainy weather in combined sewer systems. The solution lies in the amount of water allotted to various processes in an effluent treatment system, in impact evaluation of water quality and prediction technology, and in stressing the importance of developing a control technology. Extremely contaminated inflow has been a serious research subject, especially in connection with the influence of rainy weather on nitrogen and organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). An intensive investigation of an extremely polluted inflow load to WWTP during rainy weather was conducted in the city of Matsuyama, the region used for the present research on total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Since the inflow during rainy weather can be as much as 400 times that in dry weather, almost all sewers are unsettled and overflowing when a rain event is more than moderate. Another concern is the energy consumed by wastewater treatment; this problem has become important from the viewpoint of reducing CO(2) emissions and overall costs. Therefore, while establishing a prediction technology for the inflow water quality characteristics of a sewage disposal plant is an important priority, the development of a management/control method for an effluent treatment system that minimises energy consumption and CO(2) emissions due to water disposal is also a pressing research topic with regards to the quality of treated water. The procedure to improve water quality must make use of not only water quality and biotic criteria, but also

  18. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  19. Vision-based system for the control and measurement of wastewater flow rate in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L S; Schaeli, B; Sage, D; Kayal, S; Jeanbourquin, D; Barry, D A; Rossi, L

    2009-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges represent an important source of contamination to the environment. However, the harsh environment inside sewers and particular hydraulic conditions during rain events reduce the reliability of traditional flow measurement probes. In the following, we present and evaluate an in situ system for the monitoring of water flow in sewers based on video images. This paper focuses on the measurement of the water level based on image-processing techniques. The developed image-based water level algorithms identify the wall/water interface from sewer images and measure its position with respect to real world coordinates. A web-based user interface and a 3-tier system architecture enable the remote configuration of the cameras and the image-processing algorithms. Images acquired and processed by our system were found to reliably measure water levels and thereby to provide crucial information leading to better understand particular hydraulic behaviors. In terms of robustness and accuracy, the water level algorithm provided equal or better results compared to traditional water level probes in three different in situ configurations.

  20. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  1. Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, S R; Shepherd, W; Sailor, G; Shucksmith, J; Saul, A J

    2014-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic performance of CSOs using artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to hydraulic models. Previous work has explored using an ANN model for the prediction of chamber depth using time series for depth and rain gauge data. Rainfall intensity data that can be provided by rainfall radar devices can be used to improve on this approach. Results are presented using real data from a CSO for a catchment in the North of England, UK. An ANN model trained with the pseudo-inverse rule was shown to be capable of predicting CSO depth with less than 5% error for predictions more than 1 hour ahead for unseen data. Such predictive approaches are important to the future management of combined sewer systems.

  2. Combined sewer overflow control with LID based on SWMM: an example in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z L; Zhang, G Q; Wu, Z H; He, Y; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Although low impact development (LID) has been commonly applied across the developed countries for mitigating the negative impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on urban hydrological environment, it has not been widely used in developing countries yet. In this paper, a typical combined sewer system in an urbanized area of Shanghai, China was used to demonstrate how to design and choose CSO control solutions with LID using stormwater management model. We constructed and simulated three types of CSO control scenarios. Our findings support the notion that LID measures possess favorable capability on CSO reduction. Nevertheless, the green scenarios which are completely comprised by LID measures fail to achieve the maximal effectiveness on CSO reduction, while the gray-green scenarios (LID measure combined with gray measures) achieve it. The unit cost-effectiveness of each type of scenario sorts as: green scenario > gray-green scenario > gray scenario. Actually, as the storage tank is built in the case catchment, a complete application of green scenario is inaccessible here. Through comprehensive evaluation and comparison, the gray-green scenario F which used the combination of storage tank, bio-retention and rain barrels is considered as the most feasible one in this case.

  3. Deterministic Versus Stochastic Interpretation of Continuously Monitored Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    1994-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the uncertainty of input parameters to deterministic models for sewer systems. The analysis reveals a very significant uncertainty, which can be decreased, but not eliminated and has to be considered for engineering application. Stochastic models have a potential for ...

  4. Tree root intrusion in sewer systems: A review of extent and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.B. Randrup; E.G. McPherson; L.R. Costello

    2001-01-01

    Interference between trees and sewer systems is likely to occur in old systems and in cracked pipes. Factors that contribute to damage include old pipes with joints, shallow pipes, small-dimension pipes, and fast-growing tree species. Because roots are reported to cause >50% of all sewer blockages, costs associated with root removal from sewers is substantial. In...

  5. A statistical approach to guide the management of the anterior part of the sewer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    The anterior part of the sewer system consists of a system of gully pots and lateral (house) connections that drain to main sewers. The total length of lateral house connections can be similar to the total length of the sewers they drain to. In addition, there are 7 million gully pots with

  6. Assessment of erosion and sedimentation dynamic in a combined sewer network using online turbidity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Le Hécho, I; Bareille, G; Pigot, T

    2015-01-01

    Eroded sewer sediments are a significant source of organic matter discharge by combined sewer overflows. Many authors have studied the erosion and sedimentation processes at the scale of a section of sewer pipe and over short time periods. The objective of this study was to assess these processes at the scale of an entire sewer network and over 1 month, to understand whether phenomena observed on a small scale of space and time are still valid on a larger scale. To achieve this objective the continuous monitoring of turbidity was used. First, the study of successive rain events allows observation of the reduction of the available sediment and highlights the widely different erosion resistance for the different sediment layers. Secondly, calculation of daily chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluxes during the entire month was performed showing that sediment storage in the sewer pipe after a rain period is important and stops after 5 days. Nevertheless, during rainfall events, the eroded fluxes are more important than the whole sewer sediment accumulated during a dry weather period. This means that the COD fluxes promoted by runoff are substantial. This work confirms, with online monitoring, most of the conclusions from other studies on a smaller scale.

  7. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...

  8. Toxicity and pollutant impact analysis in an urban river due to combined sewer overflows loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, A; Maglionico, M; Bolognesi, A; Artina, S

    2010-01-01

    The Navile Channel (Bologna, Italy) is an ancient artificial water course derived from the Reno river. It is the main receiving water body for the urban catchment of Bologna sewer systems and also for the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) main outlet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) impact on Navile Channel's water quality. In order to collect Navile flow and water quality data in both dry and wet weather conditions, two measuring and sampling stations were installed, right upstream and downstream the WWTP outflow. The study shows that even in case of low intensity rain events, CSOs have a significant effect on both water quantity and quality, spilling a considerable amount of pollutants into the Navile Channel and presenting also acute toxicity effects. The collected data shown a good correlations between the concentrations of TSS and of chemical compounds analyzed, suggesting that the most part of such substances is attached to suspended solids. Resulting toxicity values are fairly high in both measuring points and seem to confirm synergistic interactions between heavy metals.

  9. The sewer collection system, the first treatment step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustia, B.M.; Dickerson, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The Civil Engineering Research Foundation's (CERF) Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC) conducted an evaluation of a microbial treatment additive that converts the entire sewer collection system into an efficient high-speed treatment step. The technology claims to reduce total suspended solids (TSS) by > 60% and carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD), simultaneously by > 30% before it reaches the treatment plant. The technology uses pump station wet wells as the network nodes to add the microbial treatment to the waste water collection system This process uses the natural retention time in the sewer coupled with the addition of an extremely concentrated mixture of select, symbiotic, facultative microbes, which degrade the waste en route to the treatment plant. These bacteria do not produce odorous compounds and they replace the sulfur-reducing-bacteria (SRB) in the biomass on the walls of the force mains and on the wet perimeter of the gravity sewer piping by 'competitive exclusion.' This microbial substitution is achieved by the high quantity of organisms injected into the collection system. This reduces the sulfides in the wastewater thereby reducing the odor, along with greatly reducing the corrosion elements, which attack the piping in a sewer collection system. The objective of EvTEC evaluation was to verify the performance and reliability of such a microbial additive to treat wastewater and reduce plant 'sludges,' or biosolids. Among other performance issues, the evaluation addressed the technology's ability to treat domestic wastewater flows over an extended time period (i.e., greater than 3 months, 6 months, 12 months..., etc.) and to see if the benefits are improved during particular times of year. The benefits to using the additive include reducing the biosolids produced at the treatment plant and increasing the treatment plant's efficiency and capacity. This in turn helped reduce operating costs without requiring a large

  10. Flood reduction as an ecosystem service of constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A.; Bresciani, R.; Masi, F.; Boano, F.; Revelli, R.; Ridolfi, L.

    2018-05-01

    Urban runoff negatively impacts the receiving streams and different solutions have been proposed in literature to limit the effect of urbanization on the water balance. These solutions suggest to manage urban runoff in order to switch from a post-development river hydrograph (high peak and short duration) back again to a pre-development hydrograph (low peak and high duration). Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent severe pollutant sources for receiving streams due to the combination of first flush of roads and sewers and black water conveyed by combined sewer systems. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment (CSO-CWs) are adopted with increasing frequency for reducing pollutant inputs to streams. Moreover, these systems exhibit the characteristic to behave similarly to ponds, wetlands, and bioretention systems that provide flood mitigation by decreasing the intensity of peak flows. This work aims to show the additional ecosystem service provided by CSO-CWs in term of limitation of the hydraulic impact of CSO on stream hydrograph. A mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic behavior of a real case study situated in Gorla Maggiore (Italy), which includes vertical flow subsurface beds (VF) as first stage and a free water surface bed (FWS) as second stage. The model simulates the unsaturated flow within VF and the accumulation of water on the top of VF and within FWS. Results show a satisfactory lamination performance of the system for both single and up to 5 consecutive flood events, with a peak flow reduction ranging from 52.7% to 95.4%. Withdrawn of flow rate from the river in order to cope with long dry period does not significantly affect the lamination performances. The considered CSO-CW exhibits an excellent lamination efficiency also during more intense floods events, with a peak flow reduction of 86.2% for a CSO event with return period of 10 years. The flow rate frequency density function determined by the CSO-CW is more shifted towards

  11. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kaegi@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  12. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  13. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  14. The distribution dynamics and desorption behaviour of mobile pharmaceuticals and caffeine to combined sewer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Darwano, H; Duy, S Vo; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Arp, H P H; Dorner, S

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine. Differences in apparent distribution coefficients, K d,app , between SS and StS were related to differences in their organic carbon (OC) content, and the practice of artificially modifying the concentration. K d,app values of modified contaminant concentrations and high OC sediments were substantially higher. Pseudo-second order desorption rates for these mobile compounds were also quantified. Successive flushing events to simulate the addition of stormwater to sewer networks revealed that aqueous concentrations would not necessarily decrease, because the added water will rapidly return to equilibrium concentrations with the sediments. Sorption and desorption kinetics must be considered in addition to dilution, to avoid underestimating the influence of dilution on concentrations of pharmaceuticals discharged to the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  16. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  17. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  18. Trace element carriers in combined sewer during dry and wet weather: an electron microscope investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Samrani, A G; Lartiges, B S; Ghanbaja, J; Yvon, J; Kohler, A

    2004-04-01

    The nature of trace element carriers contained in sewage and combined sewer overflow (CSO) was investigated by TEM-EDX-Electron diffraction and SEM-EDX. During dry weather, chalcophile elements were found to accumulate in sewer sediments as early diagenetic sulfide phases. The sulfurization of some metal alloys was also evidenced. Other heavy metal carriers detected in sewage include metal alloys, some iron oxihydroxide phases and neoformed phosphate minerals such as anapaite. During rain events, the detailed characterization of individual mineral species allowed to differentiate the contributions from various specific sources. Metal plating particles, barite from automobile brake, or rare earth oxides from catalytic exhaust pipes, originate from road runoff, whereas PbSn alloys and lead carbonates are attributed to zinc-works from roofs and paint from building siding. Soil contribution can be traced by the presence of clay minerals, iron oxihydroxides, zircons and rare earth phosphates. However, the most abundant heavy metal carriers in CSO samples were the sulfide particles eroded from sewer sediments. The evolution of relative abundances of trace element carriers during a single storm event, suggests that the pollution due to the "first flush" effect principally results from the sewer stock of sulfides and previously deposited metal alloys, rather than from urban surface runoff.

  19. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  20. Bacterial diversity impacts as a result of combined sewer overflow in a polluted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Calderon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. At the current study, three sites were sampled one week apart during a dry period and a wet period, where indication of a combined sewage overflow event could be detected. 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing from these three sites collectively yielded over 1000 species of bacteria belonging to twenty-two classes. Based on these data, it is hypothesized that differences identified in the microbiome on wet versus dry days are as a result of combined sewage overflow, street runoff, and additional fluctuations in the creek’s environment associated with rain. It was found that after a combined sewer overflows event, the levels of Gamma Proteobacteria increased while the levels of Actinobacteria decreased. However, levels of bacteria stayed relatively unchanged at a site further away from combined sewer overflows discharge. Species found in Newtown Creek include pelagic, marine, human and animal pathogens, hydrocarbonoclastic, and other environmental microbes.

  1. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to the receiver during rain events. The possible impact of untreated wastewater emitted to the receiver is also presented. Apart from the pollution of the receiver, mainly by organic and nutrient substances, the microbiological contamination which is dangerous for people using the river as a recreation area and for animals that use a water receiver as a source of drinking water, should be taken into particular attention.

  2. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    Today it is common practice - in the major part of Europe - to base design of sewer systems in urban areas on recommended minimum values of flooding frequencies related to either pipe top level, basement level in buildings or level of road surfaces. Thus storm water runoff in sewer systems is only...... proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing sewer systems. If a sewer system can fulfil recommended flooding frequencies or not, can only be verified...... by performing long term simulations - using a sewer flow simulation model - and draw up extreme event statistics from the model simulations. In this context it is important to realize that uncertainties related to the input parameters of rainfall runoff models will give rise to uncertainties related...

  3. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indianapolis Department of Public Works began a study to evaluate the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff discharging to Fall Geek on the White River. This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality during base flow with that during storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the combined-sewer overflows. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 combined-sewer overflows on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply.

  4. 78 FR 9908 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire AGENCY...) general permit for discharges from small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) to certain waters... requirements of the CWA. The regulations at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer...

  5. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed

  6. REAL-TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed management program for a specific urban sewerage system during a wet-weather event. The function of RTC is to assure efficient operation of the sewerage system and maximum utilization of existing storage capacity, either to fully conta...

  7. Controlling sewer systems – a critical review based on systems in three EU cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, D.

    2017-01-01

    The term Real Time Control (RTC) is widely used to describe all types of control systems in sewer systems. Today the term covers everything from the simplest to the most advanced types of control systems, making it difficult to communicate about sewer system control in a precise manner, as well...... as search and find specific types of control systems for comparison. Through a survey of implemented control systems in three EU cities today and with the perspectives of current research within the field of sewer system control, the needs for a new control system design framework is identified....... With the basis of existing frameworks for control system design, a new time-scale dependent framework is proposed. We believe this comprehensive time-scale dependent framework can help water utilities to retrofit and design new control solutions and facilitate knowledge sharing about existing designs....

  8. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems:a danisk case study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.; Neve, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promis...

  10. Climate change impacts on the duration and frequency of combined sewer overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, C.; Mailhot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSO) occur when large rainwater inflow from heavy precipitation exceeds the capacity of urban combined sewage systems. Many American and European cities with old sewage systems see their water quality significantly deteriorate during such events. In the long term, changes in the rainfall regime due to climate change may lead to more severe and more frequent CSO episodes and thus compel cities to review their global water management. The overall objective of this study is to investigate how climate change will impact CSO frequency and duration. Data from rain gauges located nearby 30 overflow outfalls, in southern Quebec, Canada, were used to identify rain events leading to overflows, using CSO monitored data from May to October during the period 2007-2009. For each site, occurrence and duration of CSO events were recorded and linked to a rainfall event. Many rain events features can be used to predict CSO events, such as total depth, duration, average intensity and peak intensity. Results based on Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis show that CSO occurrence is best predicted by total rainfall. A methodology is proposed to calculate the CSO probability of occurrence and duration for each site of interest using rainfall series as input data. Monte Carlo method is then used to estimate CSO frequency. To evaluate the climate change impact on CSO, these relationships are used with simulated data from the Canadian Regional Climate Model to compare the distribution of annual number of CSO events over the 1960-1990 period and the 2070-2100 period.

  11. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  12. Risk-based decision making to manage water quality failures caused by combined sewer overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwastava, A. K.; Torres-Matallana, J. A.; Tait, S.; Schellart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory authorities set certain environmental permit for water utilities such that the combined sewer overflows (CSO) managed by these companies conform to the regulations. These utility companies face the risk of paying penalty or negative publicity in case they breach the environmental permit. These risks can be addressed by designing appropriate solutions such as investing in additional infrastructure which improve the system capacity and reduce the impact of CSO spills. The performance of these solutions is often estimated using urban drainage models. Hence, any uncertainty in these models can have a significant effect on the decision making process. This study outlines a risk-based decision making approach to address water quality failure caused by CSO spills. A calibrated lumped urban drainage model is used to simulate CSO spill quality in Haute-Sûre catchment in Luxembourg. Uncertainty in rainfall and model parameters is propagated through Monte Carlo simulations to quantify uncertainty in the concentration of ammonia in the CSO spill. A combination of decision alternatives such as the construction of a storage tank at the CSO and the reduction in the flow contribution of catchment surfaces are selected as planning measures to avoid the water quality failure. Failure is defined as exceedance of a concentration-duration based threshold based on Austrian emission standards for ammonia (De Toffol, 2006) with a certain frequency. For each decision alternative, uncertainty quantification results into a probability distribution of the number of annual CSO spill events which exceed the threshold. For each alternative, a buffered failure probability as defined in Rockafellar & Royset (2010), is estimated. Buffered failure probability (pbf) is a conservative estimate of failure probability (pf), however, unlike failure probability, it includes information about the upper tail of the distribution. A pareto-optimal set of solutions is obtained by performing mean

  13. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper; Gramstad, Robin; Öjstedt, Ulrik; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L− 1 PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli ...

  14. Combined Sewer Overflow pretreatment with chemical coagulation and a particle settler for improved peracetic acid disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Bonnerup, Arne; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (Hydro......Separator®) and additional coagulation with poly-aluminum-chloride. Disinfection for Enterococcus increased with the applied dose of PAA and additional improvement was achieved when it was preceded by chemical coagulation with 5 mg L−1 poly-aluminum-chloride. When Enterococcus was reduced by treatment in the Hydro...

  15. Micropollutants in stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow in the Copenhagen area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Jensen, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater runoff contains a broad range of micropollutants. In Europe a number of these substances are regulated through the Water Framework Directive, which establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for surface waters. Knowledge about discharge of these substances through stormwater...... runoff and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) is essential to ensure compliance with the EQSs. Results from a screening campaign including more than 50 substances at four stormwater discharge locations and one CSO in Copenhagen are reported here. Heavy metal concentrations were detected at levels similar...

  16. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  17. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  18. Characterization of water quality among direct and delayed wet -weather flows in an urban combined sewer catchment of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anootnara Talkul Kuster

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare five water quality parameters (BOD, TSS, total zinc, TKN, and fecal coliform in wet-weather flow of a combined sewer catchment against dry-weather flow, while making a distinction between direct and delayed inflow, which has often not been made. Correlations and event mean concentrations (EMCs were also calculated. A total of 38 samples were collected from Khon Kaen’s combined sewer system between March and August 2015. Concentrations in direct inflow of three parameters: total zinc ( x = 0.24 mg/L, IQR = 0.12-0.34, TSS (240 mg/L, 176-356, and BOD (59.7 mg/L, 42.4-77.8 were higher than delayed inflow ( x = 0.04 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 23.7 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of delayed inflow were similar to or lower than dry-weather flow. Pollutant concentrations for particulatebased pollutants were much higher during the direct inflow phase of rain events compared to the delayed inflow phase. Dissolved-phased nutrients, however, were not different.

  19. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  20. Impact of Combined Sewer Overflow on Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Quality of Rivers for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Mascher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli (EC and intestinal enterococci (IE were 2.84, 2.90 and 2.93. In the investigated period of time, the tested treatment plant released 4.3% of the total annual load flow volume as combined sewer overflow (CSO, that is, when the influent into the combined sewer exceeds the capacity of the treatment plant and coarsely cleaned wastewater arrives at the recipient. This CSO discharge increased the number of FIB significantly by 1.2 × 102 MPN/100 mL for EC, and by 1.8 × 101 MPN/100 mL for IE. For the Styrian part of the Mur River (1.6 million inhabitants, a calculation of FIB of all sewage treatment plants estimating the same ratio of CSO (4.3% and a given mean flow rate (QM results in a significant increase of the FIB load in the recipient: 3.8 × 103 MPN/100 mL for EC and 5.8 × 102 MPN/100 mL for IE. On the basis of these values the standards of water quality for recreational purposes cannot be met.

  1. A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly Botswana being a dry country does not always have the water supply available and only some households have a house connection which provides enough water to flush a gravity sewer. Coupled to this is the low housing density and generally flat landscape in rural Botswana that means the conventional gravity ...

  2. Localization of groundwater infiltration in the combined sewers of Brussels by stable isotopes measurements (δ18O, δD) by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    In the last 20 years research has been conducted to quantify the infiltration of groundwater into the sewers. This groundwater, called parasitic water, increases the volume of waste-water to be treated and consequently the cost of this treatment. Moreover, in the case of combined sewer systems, the parasitic water also limits the sewer capacity and indirectly increases the risks of combined sewer overflows and floods. The infiltration of groundwater occurs trough cracks, sewer collapses and from direct connections with old springs. Different methods quantify the intrusion of parasitic water. Among these, the use of the stable isotopes of water (δ18O & δD) shows good result in catchments or cities close to Mountainous regions (example from Lyon, Zurich), where isotopic signals vary significantly because of continental and altitude effects. However many cities, such as Brussels, are located in more oceanic settings and theoretically offer less potential for the application of the stable isotopes method. In the case of Brussels, river-water from the Meuse is used to produce domestic-water. The catchment of this river extends into the Ardennes, which are affected by slightly different climatic conditions. δ18O & δD analyzes of groundwater from the main aquifer (Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian) and domestic-water from the Callois reservoir fed by the Meuse River show sufficient isotopic differences in the south of Brussels, but only during the summer. The discrimination potential is better with δD than with δ18O. The improvement of δD measurements (precision, costs,...) brought by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy largely contributes to the potential of using stable isotopes method to trace water in Brussels. The first campaigns in the sewers also show a little enrichment (in heavy isotopes) of the waste-water in comparison with the reservoir waters and tap waters. This increases the potential of the method but constrains the sampling to pure waste-water in sewer segments

  3. Modeling climate change impacts on combined sewer overflow using synthetic precipitation time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendel, David; Beck, Ferdinand; Dittmer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study climate change impacts on combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Southern Germany, were assessed based on continuous long-term rainfall-runoff simulations. As input data, synthetic rainfall time series were used. The applied precipitation generator NiedSim-Klima accounts for climate change effects on precipitation patterns. Time series for the past (1961-1990) and future (2041-2050) were generated for various locations. Comparing the simulated CSO activity of both periods we observe significantly higher overflow frequencies for the future. Changes in overflow volume and overflow duration depend on the type of overflow structure. Both values will increase at simple CSO structures that merely divide the flow, whereas they will decrease when the CSO structure is combined with a storage tank. However, there is a wide variation between the results of different precipitation time series (representative for different locations).

  4. PPCPs wet weather mobilization in a combined sewer in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Héctor; Suárez, Joaquín; Puertas, Jerónimo; Ures, Pablo

    2013-04-01

    An intense campaign was carried out over a 14 month period to characterize concentrations and loads of 7 well-known Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), during dry and wet weather conditions, in an urban combined catchment in the northwest of Spain, a geographical zone with an average annual rainfall over 1500 mm. The main objective was to gather more in-depth knowledge of the mobilization of these "micropollutants" in an urban combined sewer and the possible pressures on water receiving bodies due to combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Hydrographs and pollutographs of these substances in dry weather flows (DWF), on weekdays and weekends, and wet weather flows (WWF) during 10 rain events have been characterized to obtain data that are sufficiently representative for statistical analysis. The research findings show that there is a considerable mobilization of these substances during rain events, mainly in the first part of the hydrographs, especially HHCB galaxolide, ibuprofen and paracetamol with maximum concentrations of 9.76, 8.51 and 5.71 μg/L respectively, whereas these concentrations in dry weather only reached 2.57, 2.11 and 0.72 μg/L respectively. There is a good correlation between the degree of mobilization in wet weather flows and the percentage of dry weather particulate phase of each studied substance, indicating that such mobilization may be associated with adsorption on the sediments deposited on the collectors during the antecedent dry period. These results are in good agreement with removal in conventional WWTP, especially for compounds that tend to adsorb onto sewage sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cesium and strontium behaviors in wastewater collected by different sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nao K.; Hatanaka, Takuma; Umita, Teruyuki [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iwate University, 020-8551, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Ito, Ayumi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Iwate University, 020-8551, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the release of radionuclides such as {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr into the environment. Some of these radionuclides have been entering sewage treatment plants through sewer systems and then being transferred to sewage sludge. There are two types of sewer systems, e.g. a combined sewer system (CSS) and a separated sewer system (SSS). The CSS transfers rainwater runoff and domestic wastewater to the treatment plants in a single pipe. The SSS has independent pipes; one pipe transfers domestic wastewater to the treatment plant and the other pipe transfers rainwater runoff to river or sea. Since most of the radionuclides released into the atmosphere by the nuclear accident fell onto the land surface by precipitation, the CSS should collect more radionuclides than the SSS. However, there is little information about behavior differences of radionuclides in wastewater between the two types of sewer systems. The objective of the present study was to clarify the differences of radionuclide behavior in wastewater between the CSS and SSS. Behaviors of stable Cs and Sr in wastewater were observed as a means to predict radiocesium and radiostrontium. Two types of wastewater were collected in Morioka city, Japan: wastewater in a CSS in a rain event (WC) and wastewater in a SSS (WS). The WC was taken at a high rate filtration plant every 20 minutes from the beginning of the rain event for several hours in 2013. The WS was collected at a sewage treatment plant once a month from June to October 2013; sometimes the collection was at the time of a rain event. Suspended solid (SS) in each sample was measured as a physicochemical property. The element concentrations in total, dissolved, and particulate fractions were determined. While the SS in the WS taken on rainy day was 0.11 g/L, the SS in the WC was 0.36 g/L in the beginning of the rainfall and then decreased with time. Total Cs concentration

  6. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  7. Use long short-term memory to enhance Internet of Things for combined sewer overflow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Lindholm, Geir; Ratnaweera, Harsha

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow causes severe water pollution, urban flooding and reduced treatment plant efficiency. Understanding the behavior of CSO structures is vital for urban flooding prevention and overflow control. Neural networks have been extensively applied in water resource related fields. In this study, we collect data from an Internet of Things monitoring CSO structure and build different neural network models for simulating and predicting the water level of the CSO structure. Through a comparison of four different neural networks, namely multilayer perceptron (MLP), wavelet neural network (WNN), long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU), the LSTM and GRU present superior capabilities for multi-step-ahead time series prediction. Furthermore, GRU achieves prediction performances similar to LSTM with a quicker learning curve.

  8. [Study on the characteristics of combined sewer overflow from the high density residential area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Li, Tian

    2006-08-01

    The urban non-point pollution has become main pollution resource of urban water bodies of Shanghai. Character of combined sewer overflow from watershed SA in Shanghai was studied, and the correlation of influence factors to the EMCs of overflows was discussed. It is found that the EMCs of COD, BOD, SS, NH3-N, TN, TP are 614 mg/L, 208.5 mg/L, 684 mg/L, 17.6 mg/L, 29.8 mg/L, 3.0 mg/L respectively, and the values obtained herein are much higher than the documented data from other countries. From the probability plot of the EMCs, it is found that the BOD has the best fitness for lognormal distribution; and correlation between the EMCs of COD, SS and the ratio of antecedent dry weather time to rain duration is quite good.

  9. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. In batch scale experiment 2.5 mg·L -1 PAA removed around 4 log unit of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO with long contact time. Removal of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO were always around or above 3 log unit using 2-4 mg·L -1 PFA with short contact time in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. There were no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA, slight toxicological effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event. Disinfection...

  10. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch......-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L− 1 PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO was always around or above 3 log units using 2–4 mg L− 1 PFA; with a 20 min contact...... time in both batch-scale and pre-field experiments. There was no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA; a slight toxic effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic...

  11. Geochemical distribution and mobility of heavy metals in sediments of urban streams affected by combined sewer overflows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnaťuková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 85-94 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : sediments * heavy metals * urban streams * sequential extraction * combined sewer overflows Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011

  12. Release of hydrogen sulfide in a sewer system under intermittent flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa

    2017-01-01

    The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously and thro......The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously...... authors’ publications addressing relatively small pipes and moderate water flows....

  13. A methodological approach to the design of optimising control strategies for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters. Accordin......This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters....... Accordingly, two novel optimisation configurations are developed, where the optimisation either acts on the actuators or acts on the regulatory control layer. These two optimisation designs are evaluated on a sub-catchment of the sewer system in Copenhagen, and found to perform better than the existing...

  14. Measurement of infiltration rates in urban sewer systems by use of oxygen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bénédittis, J; Bertrand-Krajewski, J L

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the principle of a method to measure infiltration rates in sewer systems based on the use of oxygen isotopes and its application in Lyon (France). In the urban area of Lyon, significant differences in delta 18O that can reach 3 per thousand are observed between the oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater originating from Rhone, Saone and from their associated alluvial aquifers. Drinking water supplying Lyon results mainly from pumping in the Rhone alluvial aquifer. Therefore, in some areas, the difference of isotopic composition between wastewater resulting from the consumption of drinking water and local groundwater can be used to measure infiltration in sewer systems. The application in the catchment of Ecully shows that the infiltration flow rate presents strong fluctuations at an hourly scale: it varies between 15 and 40 m3/h. This variability could be explained by non-constant discharges of pumping and by variations of the water level in the sewer.

  15. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based...... evaluation criteria describing the cumulative and acute effects are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed set of models is capable of generating daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as describing the effect of rain events on wastewater characteristics. Two sets of case studies...

  16. New approach for receiving water objectives for overflows from sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the results of the work for the establishment of consistent objectives for storm overflows from sewer systems in respect to the physical conditions in streams and rivers in Denmark. First the result of a questionnaire is mentioned. Next some principles of the methods for formu...

  17. SEWER AND TANK FLUSHING FOR SEDIMENT, CORROSION AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an overview of causes of sewer deterioration together with a discussion of control methods that can prevent or arrest this deterioration. In particular, the paper covers inline- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of se...

  18. Assessment of annual pollutant loads in combined sewers from continuous turbidity measurements: sensitivity to calibration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Chebbo, G

    2009-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for assessing annual wet weather Suspended Solids (SS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads in combined sewers, along with the associated uncertainties from continuous turbidity measurements. The proposed method is applied to data from various urban catchments in the cities of Paris and Nantes. The focus here concerns the impact of the number of rain events sampled for calibration (i.e. through establishing linear SS/turbidity or COD/turbidity relationships) on the uncertainty of annual pollutant load assessments. Two calculation methods are investigated, both of which rely on Monte Carlo simulations: random assignment of event-specific calibration relationships to each individual rain event, and the use of an overall relationship built from the entire available data set. Since results indicate a fairly low inter-event variability for calibration relationship parameters, an accurate assessment of pollutant loads can be derived, even when fewer than 10 events are sampled for calibration purposes. For operational applications, these results suggest that turbidity could provide a more precise evaluation of pollutant loads at lower cost than typical sampling methods.

  19. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  20. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper; Gramstad, Robin; Öjstedt, Ulrik; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L(-1) PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO was always around or above 3 log units using 2-4 mg L(-1) PFA; with a 20 min contact time in both batch-scale and pre-field experiments. There was no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA; a slight toxic effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event, the disinfection efficiencies were confirmed and degradation rates were slightly higher than predicted in simulated CSO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance assessment of a vertical flow constructed wetland treating unsettled combined sewer overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfy, T G; Gerodolle, M; Gourdon, R; Meyer, D; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2017-06-01

    The performance of a vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow treatment (CSO CW) has been evaluated. The full-scale site has been monitored for 3 years for major pollutants and for two load events for a range of micropollutants (metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Performance were predominantly high (97% for total suspended solids (TSS), 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 72% for NH 4 -N), even if several loads were extremely voluminous, pushing the filter to its limits. Two different filter materials (a 4:1 mixture of sand and zeolite and natural pozzolana) showed similar treatment performance. Furthermore, environmental factors were correlated with COD removal efficiency. The greatest influencers of COD removal efficiency were the inlet dissolved COD concentrations and the duration and potential evapotranspiration during inter-event periods. Furthermore, sludge was analysed for quality and a sludge depth map was created. The map, and calculating the changes in sludge volume, helped to understand solid accumulation dynamics.

  2. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics.

  3. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurico-Iglesias, Miguel; Castro, Ignacio Montero; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2015-01-01

    . Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current......The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems...

  4. CORAL off-line: an object-oriented tool for optimal control of sewer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Figueras, J.; Cembrano, Gabriela; Puig, Vicenç; Quevedo, Joseba; Salamero Sansalvado, María; Marti Marques, Joaquim

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a tool to aid in the analysis and design of combined sewer networks. Complex drainage systems include actuators, like flow-diversion gates and detention tanks, which should be optimally controlled in order to minimize flooding and combined sewer overflow (CSO). Through these optimisations volume to waste water treatment plants (WWTP) is maximised. CORAL is a tool able to model a combined sewer network, simulate rain events, calculate actuators optimal policies, reproduce ...

  5. Green Infrastructure Simulation and Optimization to Achieve Combined Sewer Overflow Reductions in Philadelphia's Mill Creek Sewershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. S.; McGarity, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability for mass deployment of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) to intercept significant amounts of urban runoff has the potential to reduce the frequency of a city's combined sewer overflows (CSOs). This study was performed to aid in the Overbrook Environmental Education Center's vision of applying this concept to create a Green Commercial Corridor in Philadelphia's Overbrook Neighborhood, which lies in the Mill Creek Sewershed. In an attempt to further implement physical and social reality into previous work using simulation-optimization techniques to produce GSI deployment strategies (McGarity, et al., 2016), this study's models incorporated land use types and a specific neighborhood in the sewershed. The low impact development (LID) feature in EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate various geographic configurations of GSI in Overbrook. The results from these simulations were used to obtain formulas describing the annual CSO reduction in the sewershed based on the deployed GSI practices. These non-linear hydrologic response formulas were then implemented into the Storm Water Investment Strategy Evaluation (StormWISE) model (McGarity, 2012), a constrained optimization model used to develop optimal stormwater management practices on the watershed scale. By saturating the avenue with GSI, not only will CSOs from the sewershed into the Schuylkill River be reduced, but ancillary social and economic benefits of GSI will also be achieved. The effectiveness of these ancillary benefits changes based on the type of GSI practice and the type of land use in which the GSI is implemented. Thus, the simulation and optimization processes were repeated while delimiting GSI deployment by land use (residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation). The results give a GSI deployment strategy that achieves desired annual CSO reductions at a minimum cost based on the locations of tree trenches, rain gardens, and rain barrels in specified land

  6. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane L; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-05-15

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation and control problem of sewer systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in concrete materials for sewer systems affected by microbial induced concrete corrosion: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Ukrainczyk, Neven; Koraimann, Günther; Kienesberger, Sabine; Dietzel, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Microbial induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is recognized as one of the main degradation mechanisms of subsurface infrastructure worldwide, raising the demand for sustainable construction materials in corrosive environments. This review aims to summarize the key research progress acquired during the last decade regarding the understanding of MICC reaction mechanisms and the development of durable materials from an interdisciplinary perspective. Special focus was laid on aspects governing concrete - micoorganisms interaction since being the central process steering biogenic acid corrosion. The insufficient knowledge regarding the latter is proposed as a central reason for insufficient progress in tailored material development for aggressive wastewater systems. To date no cement-based material exists, suitable to withstand the aggressive conditions related to MICC over its entire service life. Research is in particular needed on the impact of physiochemical material parameters on microbial community structure, growth characteristics and limitations within individual concrete speciation. Herein an interdisciplinary approach is presented by combining results from material sciences, microbiology, mineralogy and hydrochemistry to stimulate the development of novel and sustainable materials and mitigation strategies for MICC. For instance, the application of antibacteriostatic agents is introduced as an effective instrument to limit microbial growth on concrete surfaces in aggressive sewer environments. Additionally, geopolymer concretes are introduced as highly resistent in acid environments, thus representing a possible green alternative to conventional cement-based construction materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stable isotopes of water as a natural tracer for infiltration into urban sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, O.; Gresch, M.; de Bénédittis, J.; Prigiobbe, V.; Gujer, W.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate understanding of the hydraulic interaction between leaky sewers and groundwater is essential for the sustainable management of both sewer systems and aquifers in urbanized areas. Undesirable infiltration of groundwater into sewers can contribute over 50% of the total discharge and is detrimental to treatment plant efficiency. On the other hand, in many European cities groundwater surface levels seem to be particularly controlled by the drainage effect of permeable sewer systems. However, nowadays methods for the quantification of these exchange processes are still subject to considerable uncertainties due to their underlying assumptions. The frequently used assumption that the night time minimum in the diurnal wastewater hydrograph is equal to the "parasitic discharge" has to be reconsidered to today's patterns of human life as well as to the long residence time of wastewater in the sewer networks of modern cities. The suitability of stable water isotopes as a natural tracer to differentiate the origin of water in the sewer ("real" wastewater or infiltrating groundwater) is currently investigated in three different catchment areas. The studies are carried out within the framework of the European research project APUSS (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems): 1) The village of Rümlang (Zürich, Switzerland) is predominantly served with drinking water from the Lake Zürich. A large fraction of the lakes water is derived from precipitation in the Alps. This drinking water represents the intrinsic provenience of the wastewater with an δ18O value around -11,5 per mill and δ^2H value around -82 per mill vs. SMOW. In contrast, the local groundwater is originating from precipitation in a moderate altitude of about 450 m above sea level and shows comparatively enriched mean δ18O values of -9,7 per mill and δ^2H values of -70 per mill with only small natural variations. The isotopic separation between these

  9. Peracetic acid disinfection kinetics for combined sewer overflows: indicator organisms, antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Alessia; Medina, William Morales; Fahrenfeld, Nicole L

    2017-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) degrade water quality and end-of-pipe treatment is one potential solution for retrofitting this outdated infrastructure. The goal of this research was to evaluate peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant for CSOs using viability based molecular methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), indicator organism marker gene BacHum, and 16S rRNA genes. Simulated CSO effluent was prepared using 23-40% wastewater, representing the higher end of the range of wastewater concentrations reported in CSO effluent. PAA residual following disinfection was greatest for samples with the lowest initial COD. Treatment of simulated CSO effluent (23% wastewater) with 100 mg∙min/L PAA (5 mg/L PAA, 20 min) was needed to reduce viable cell sul 1, tet (G), and BacHum (1.0±0.63-3.2±0.25-log) while 25 to 50 mg•min/L PAA (5 mg/L PAA, 5-10 min) was needed to reduce viable cell loads (0.62±0.56-1.6±0.08-log) in 40% wastewater from a different municipal treatment plant. Increasing contact time after the initial decrease in viable cell gene copies did not significantly improve treatment. A much greater applied Ct of 1200 mg∙min/L PAA (20 mg/L PAA, 60 min) was required for significant log reduction of 16S rRNA genes (3.29±0.13-log). No significant losses of mex B were observed during the study. Data were fitted to a Chick-Watson model and resulting inactivation constants for sul 1 and tet (G) > BacHum > 16S rRNA. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated the initial viable and total microbial communities were distinct and that treatment with PAA resulted in marked increases of the relative abundance of select phyla, particularly Clostridia which increased by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude. Results confirm that membrane disruption is a mechanism for PAA disinfection and further treatment is needed to reduce total ARGs in CSO effluent.

  10. Combined sewer overflows impact on water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during wet weather conditions, and it elevated nutrients and pathogen levels. It is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating especially in rainstorms. The Harlem River, a 9.3 mile long natural straight, connects the Hudson and East Rivers in New York City. It had been historically used for swimming, fishing, boating. Anthropogenic impacts have degraded water quality, limiting current aquatic activity in the river. CSOs water samples were collected during rainstorms, and analyzed in the laboratories of the Chemistry and Biology Department, Bronx Community College, City University of New York. Results showed elevated bacteria/pathogen and nutrient levels. Most recent data showed an ammonia concentration of 2.6 mg/L on July 30, 2015 during a heavy afternoon thunderstorm, and an ammonia level 2.7mg/L during tropical storm Arthur on July 2, 2014. Both significantly exceeded the EPA regulation level for NYC waters of 0.23mg/L. Phosphate levels peaked at 0.197 mg/L during a heavy thunderstorm on Apr 28, 2011, which was much higher than regulated level of 0.033 mg/L. Turbidity was 319 FAU during the July 30 2015 heavy thunderstorm, and was 882 FAU during tropical storm Arthur; which was significantly higher than regulation level of 5.25 FAU. CSOs collected during a recent heavy rainstorm on Oct 28, 2015, showed fecal coliform of 1 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. of 60,000 MPN/100ml, and enterococcus of 65,000 MPN/100ml; which exceeded regulated levels of fecal coliform-200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.-126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus-104 MPN/100ml. It is critical to reduce CSOs, restore ecosystem and improve water quality of the Harlem River. Green wall, green roof, and wetland had been used to reduce stormwater runoff & CSOs in the Bronx River; these green infrastructures are going to be used along the Harlem River waterfront as well. The goal of this research is to make the Harlem River swimmable and fishable

  11. Online monitoring and conditional regression tree test: Useful tools for a better understanding of combined sewer network behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Bareille, G; Pigot, T; Bru, N; Le Hécho, I

    2018-06-01

    A good knowledge of the dynamic of pollutant concentration and flux in a combined sewer network is necessary when considering solutions to limit the pollutants discharged by combined sewer overflow (CSO) into receiving water during wet weather. Identification of the parameters that influence pollutant concentration and flux is important. Nevertheless, few studies have obtained satisfactory results for the identification of these parameters using statistical tools. Thus, this work uses a large database of rain events (116 over one year) obtained via continuous measurement of rainfall, discharge flow and chemical oxygen demand (COD) estimated using online turbidity for the identification of these parameters. We carried out a statistical study of the parameters influencing the maximum COD concentration, the discharge flow and the discharge COD flux. In this study a new test was used that has never been used in this field: the conditional regression tree test. We have demonstrated that the antecedent dry weather period, the rain event average intensity and the flow before the event are the three main factors influencing the maximum COD concentration during a rainfall event. Regarding the discharge flow, it is mainly influenced by the overall rainfall height but not by the maximum rainfall intensity. Finally, COD discharge flux is influenced by the discharge volume and the maximum COD concentration. Regression trees seem much more appropriate than common tests like PCA and PLS for this type of study as they take into account the thresholds and cumulative effects of various parameters as a function of the target variable. These results could help to improve sewer and CSO management in order to decrease the discharge of pollutants into receiving waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari

    This article presents selected examples of model-based prediction and control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems, developed within the framework of the Storm- and Wastewater Informatics project (SWI). By exploiting all the available on-line information (e.g. radar based rainfall...... of pollutants discharged from treatment plants, etc.). The tools developed in the SWI project include (but are not limited to (i) rainfall nowcasting based on radar measurements, (ii) probabilistic flow forecasting based on data assimilation and stochastic models, (iii) prediction and optimization of wet......-weather performance of wastewater treatment plants, and (iv) integrated control of the different elements of the integrated wastewater systems. Full-scale testing of these tools in different catchment located in Denmark ensure that the developed tools can represent an important step forwards for on-line operation...

  13. Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Ashley, Richard M; Viklander, Maria

    2015-09-15

    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of bacteria and somatic coliphages in constructed wetlands for the treatment of combined sewer overflow (retention soil filters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppelt, Jan P; Tondera, Katharina; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) introduce numerous pathogens from fecal contamination, such as bacteria and viruses, into surface waters, thus endangering human health. In Germany, retention soil filters (RSFs) treat CSOs at sensitive discharge points and can contribute to reducing these hygienically relevant microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the extent of how dry period, series connection and filter layer thickness influence the reduction efficiency of RSFs for Escherichia coli (E. coli), intestinal enterococci (I. E.) and somatic coliphages. To accomplish this, we had four pilot scale RSFs built on a test field at the wastewater treatment plant Aachen-Soers. While two filters were replicates, the other two filters were installed in a series connection. Moreover, one filter had a thinner filtration layer than the other three. Between April 2015 and December 2016, the RSFs were loaded in 37 trials with pre-conditioned CSO after dry periods ranging from 4 to 40 days. During 17 trials, samples for microbial analysis were taken and analyzed. The series connection of two filters showed that the removal increases when two systems with a filter layer of the same height are operated in series. Since the microorganisms are exposed twice to the environmental conditions on the filter surface and in the upper filter layers, there is a greater chance for abiotic adsorption increase. The same effect could be shown when filters with different depths were compared: the removal efficiency increases as filter thickness increases. This study provides new evidence that regardless of seasonal effects and dry period, RSFs can improve hygienic situation significantly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In urban drainage modeling long term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties concerning long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer...... overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO...... gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity...

  16. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren

    2009-01-01

    In urban drainage modelling long term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties concerning long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer...... overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO...... gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity...

  17. ICUD-0530 Scenario based risk assessment of the dispersion of E-coli from combined sewer overflow to a fresh-water lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2017-01-01

    A scenario based risk assessment method is used to evaluate how combined sewer overflow (CSO) affects a nearby bathing beach in Skanderborg, Denmark. The method combines an urban drainage model with a 3D CFD model to pre-simulate 60 different scenarios, used for assessing the risk of poor bathing...

  18. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  19. Temporal analysis of E. coli, TSS and wastewater micropollutant loads from combined sewer overflows: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne-Sophie, Madoux-Humery; Dorner, Sarah M; Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-05-01

    A combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfall was monitored to assess the impact of temporal mass loads on the appropriateness of treatment options. Instantaneous loads (mass per s) varied by approximately three orders of magnitude during events (n = 9 in spring, summer and the fall) with no significant seasonal variations. The median fraction of total loads discharged with the first 25% of the total volume ranged from 28% (theophylline) to 40% (Total Suspended Solids (TSS)) and loads remained high for the duration of the events. E. coli and TSS loads originated primarily from wastewater (WW) (63% and 75%, respectively). However, a mix of stormwater (SW) and sewer deposit (SD) resuspension contributed from 73 to 95% for the first 50% of the volume discharged of total TSS loads for 2 events. The contribution of SD resuspension was not negligible for Wastewater Micropollutants (WWMPs), especially for carbamazepine. Sustained high loads over the course of CSOs highlight the need to revisit current CSO and SW management strategies that focus on the treatment of early discharge volumes.

  20. Radiation exposure of sewer workers associated with radioactive discharges from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.E.; Wilkins, S.

    1991-07-01

    Models have been developed to estimate the dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the sewer system serving a hospital where nuclear medicine and other techniques are used, and to assess the radiation doses to sewer workers and maintenance staff who may be exposed to these discharges. The dispersion model has been tested in a practical situation for the radionuclide 131 I. For a typical combination of hospital and sewer works, the estimated critical group doses arising from discharges of four selected radionuclides, 32 P, 99m Tc, 125 I and 131 I, are 30 μSv y -1 and 20 μSv y -1 respectively for a worker at the sewer works and for a sewer maintenance worker exposed for prolonged periods in the region of the sewer system adjacent to the hospital discharge point. (author)

  1. Uncertainty in prediction and simulation of flow in sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders

    the uncertainty in the state variables. Additionally the observation noise is accounted for by a separate observation noise term. This approach is also referred to as stochastic grey-box modelling. A state dependent diffusion term was developed using a Lamperti transformation of the states, and implemented...... performance beyond the one-step. The reliability was satisfied for the one-step prediction but were increasingly biased as the prediction horizon was expanded, particularly in rainy periods. GLUE was applied for estimating uncertainty in such a way that the selection of behavioral parameter sets continued....... Conversely the parameter estimates of the stochastic approach are physically meaningful. This thesis has contributed to developing simplified rainfall-runoff models that are suitable for model predictive control of urban drainage systems that takes uncertainty into account....

  2. Removal of micropollutants, facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria in a full-scale retention soil filter receiving combined sewer overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Heß, Stefanie; Lüddeke, Frauke; Sacher, Frank; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined sewer systems collect surface runoff as well as wastewater of industrial and domestic origin. During periods of heavy rainfall the capacity of the sewer system is exceeded and the overflow is discharged into receiving waters without any treatment. Consequently, combined sewer overflow (CSO) is considered as a major source of water pollution. This study investigates the effectiveness of a retention soil filter (RSF) for the removal of micropollutants as well as facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria from CSO. The removal of organic group parameters like total organic carbon was excellent and the removal efficiency for micropollutants of the RSF and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats wastewater of the same origin during dry and normal weather conditions, was comparable. Compounds of high environmental concern like estrogens or certain pharmaceuticals, e.g. diclofenac, were completely eliminated or removed to a high degree during RSF passage. RSF treatment also reduced the number of E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci by 2.7, 2.2 and 2.4 log-units (median values), respectively. Obviously, some Staphylococcus species can better adapt to the conditions of the RSF than others as a shift of the abundance of the different species was observed when comparing the diversity of staphylococci obtained from the RSF influent and effluent. RSF treatment also decreased the absolute number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci isolates also decreased during passage of the RSF, whereas the percentage of resistant enterococci did not change. For E. coli ampicillin and for enterococci and staphylococci erythromycin determined the antibiotic resistance level. The results demonstrate that RSFs can be considered as an adequate treatment option for CSO. The performance for the removal of micropollutants is comparable with a medium sized WWTP with conventional activated sludge

  3. Comparing peracetic acid and hypochlorite for disinfection of combined sewer overflows: Effects of suspended-solids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, M; Loconsole, J; Schockling, A J; Nerenberg, R; Pavissich, J P

    2017-12-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an alternative disinfectant that may be effective for combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfection, but little is known about the effect of particle size on PAA disinfection efficiency. In this work, PAA and hypochlorite were compared as disinfectants, with a focus on the effect of wastewater particles. Inactivation experiments were conducted on suspended cultures of Escherichia coli and wastewater suspended solids. Tested size fractions included particle diameters disinfection efficiency decreased with increasing solids size. However, solids size had little effect on PAA disinfection. The PAA disinfection efficiency decreased at pH values above 7.5. Live/dead staining revealed that PAA disinfection leaves most cells in a viable but non-culturable condition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses suggests that PAA and hypochlorite may inactivate E. coli bacteria by similar mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. An experiment to use medical I-131 as tracer in a city sewer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Susanne; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    City sewer systems have to reliably carry residential and industrial wastewater to treatment plants, often mixed with rainwater. Transport in the sewer system is regularly modelled in order to predict sewerage levels, transport velocities and volume discharges. Radioisotopes would be interesting tracers, as they can be detected quickly and without the need of applying wet chemistry. Medical isotopes are released in large quantities (many MBq) by excretion from patients either at the location of administration or from elsewhere, most probably the patient's home. Depending on diagnostic or treatment modality, isotopes of different physical characteristics are used, often bound to compounds of specific metabolic behaviour. Routine environmental surveillance regularly detects the most common diagnostic ({sup 99m}Tc) and therapeutic ({sup 131}I) isotopes in city wastewater samples. Except for {sup 131}I in the case of a nuclear emergency, no contributions from sources other than medical are expected. Medical isotopes therefore might be used for tracing purposes, provided individual inputs can be identified and separated. A field experiment has been designed involving {sup 131}I releases from a single patient who had undergone radioiodine thyroid ablation therapy. This modality is applied after thyroid cancer surgery in order to destroy residual thyroid tissue. Activities up to 5 GBq of {sup 131}I are used which are excreted within few days, as no iodine-retaining thyroid tissue remains. In Germany, about 20,000 of these treatments are performed yearly. For a sewer system of 500,000 inhabitants, about 150 cases would be expected per year, making it quite improbable to have interference between individual patient releases in the same region of the city sewer system. Practically, the radiometric laboratory was informed of the expected release of an (anonymous) patient from the collaborating radiotherapy unit several days in advance, plus the approximate location of

  6. Contributions of combined sewer overflows and treated effluents to the bacterial load released into a coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aukidy, M; Verlicchi, P

    2017-12-31

    The impact of combined sewer overflow (CSO) on the receiving water body is an issue of increasing concern, as it may lead to restrictions in the use and destination of the receiving body, such as bathing or recreational area closures, fish and shellfish consumption restrictions, and contamination of drinking water resources. Recent investigations have mainly referred to the occurrence and loads of suspended solids, organic compounds and, in some cases, micropollutants. Attempts have been made to find correlations between the discharged load and the size and characteristics of the catchment area, climate conditions, rainfall duration and intensity. This study refers to a touristic coastal area in the north-east of Italy, which is characterized by a combined sewer network including 5 CSO outfalls which, in the case of heavy rain events, directly discharge the exceeding water flow rate into channels which, after a short distance, reach the Adriatic Sea. The study analyzed: i) rainfall events during the summer period in 2014 which led to overflow in the different outfalls, ii) the inter- and intra-event variability with regard to E. coli, Enterococci and conductivity, and iii) the hydraulic and pollutant (E. coli and Enterococci) loads discharged by the local wastewater treatment plant and by all the CSO outfalls. Finally, it estimated the contribution of each source to the released hydraulic and pollutant loads into the receiving water body. Moreover, it was also found that the modest water volume discharged by all CSO outfalls (only 8% of the total volume discharged by the area) contains >90% of the microbial load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2011-01-01

    . It is shown that an additive diffusion noise term description leads to a violation of the physical constraints of the system, whereas a state dependent diffusion noise avoids this problem and should be favoured. It is also shown that a logarithmic transformation of the flow measurements secures positive lower...... flow prediction limits, because the observation noise is proportionally scaled with the modelled output. Finally it is concluded that a state proportional diffusion term best and adequately describes the one-step flow prediction uncertainty, and a proper description of the system noise is important......Generating flow forecasts with uncertainty limits from rain gauge inputs in sewer systems require simple models with identifiable parameters that can adequately describe the stochastic phenomena of the system. In this paper, a simple grey-box model is proposed that is attractive for both...

  8. Development and testing of highway storm-sewer flow measurement and recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Kaehrle, W.R.; Hardee, Jack; Cordes, E.H.; Landers, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of measuring instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic-bubbler pressure transducer head measuring systems. Tracer-dilution and acoustic flow meter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the above instruments as well as from a tipping-bucket rain gage and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer-dilution systems. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Fate of cocaine drug biomarkers in sewer system: the role of suspended solids in biotransformation and sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    on the fate of illicit drugs in sewer systems. This study aims at assessing the role of suspended solids on the biotransformation and sorption in raw sewage of eight illicit drug biomarkers (cocaine, heroin, methadone, mephedrone, ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and THC and their urinary metabolites...

  10. An effective and comprehensive model for optimal rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, António Freire; Barros, Luís Tiago; Santos, Joana; Temido, Jorge Santos

    2018-01-15

    In the field of rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems, a large number of technical, environmental, and economic aspects are often relevant in the decision-making process, which may be modelled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Examples are those related with the operation and assessment of networks, optimization of structural, hydraulic, sanitary, and environmental performance, rehabilitation programmes, and execution works. In particular, the cost of investment, operation and maintenance needed to reduce or eliminate Infiltration from the underground water table and Inflows of storm water surface runoff (I/I) using rehabilitation techniques or related methods can be significantly lower than the cost of transporting and treating these flows throughout the lifespan of the systems or period studied. This paper presents a comprehensive I/I cost-benefit approach for rehabilitation that explicitly considers all elements of the systems and shows how the approximation is incorporated as an objective function in a general evolutionary multi-objective optimization model. It takes into account network performance and wastewater treatment costs, average values of several input variables, and rates that can reflect the adoption of different predictable or limiting scenarios. The approach can be used as a practical and fast tool to support decision-making in sewer network rehabilitation in any phase of a project. The fundamental aspects, modelling, implementation details and preliminary results of a two-objective optimization rehabilitation model using a genetic algorithm, with a second objective function related to the structural condition of the network and the service failure risk, are presented. The basic approach is applied to three real world cases studies of sanitary sewerage systems in Coimbra and the results show the simplicity, suitability, effectiveness, and usefulness of the approximation implemented and of the objective function proposed

  11. Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.

  12. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  14. Sewer solids separation by sedimentation--the problem of modeling, validation and transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Brombach, H; Geiger, W F

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation of sewer solids in tanks, ponds and similar devices is the most relevant process for the treatment of stormwater and combined sewer overflows in urban collecting systems. In the past a lot of research work was done to develop deterministic models for the description of this separation process. But these modern models are not commonly accepted in Germany until today. Water Authorities are sceptical with regard to model validation and transferability. Within this paper it is checked whether this scepticism is reasonable. A framework-proposal for the validation of mathematical models with zero or one dimensional spatial resolution for particle separation processes for stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment is presented. This proposal was applied to publications of repute on sewer solids separation by sedimentation. The result was that none of the investigated models described in literature passed the validation entirely. There is an urgent need for future research in sewer solids sedimentation and remobilization!

  15. Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water δ(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water δ(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO.

  16. Deep Tunnel for Regulating Combined Sewer Overflow Pollution and Flood Disaster: A Case Study in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The DongHaoChong (DHC basin is located in the central city zone of Guangzhou City, China. Owing to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, diversion of rain and sewage is difficult. Waterlogging occurs frequently and combined sewer overflow (CSO pollution is a serious problem during the rainy season. Therefore, a deep tunnel for the DongHaoChong basin has been planned and its construction is currently underway. An urban rainstorm model for the DongHaoChong basin was developed on the basis of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM, and both the interception effect of CSO pollution and the degree of mitigation of flood were analyzed. Reasonable scenarios for the deep tunnel in terms of rainstorms with different design recurrence periods were evaluated. From the viewpoints of preventing rainstorm waterlogging disasters and protecting water quality in the region downstream of DongHaoChong River, the river flood control and drainage capacities of the region were improved to a 2-year rainstorm design recurrence period by the construction of the deep tunnel. Furthermore, the main pollutant load of the CSO is expected to be reduced by about 30%–40%.

  17. Receding horizon control of hybrid linear delayed systems: Application to sewer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    A control-oriented hybrid linear model for water transport in sewer networks is proposed as a suitable framework for the computation of real-time controllers for the minimization of flooding in presence of heavy-rain events. The model is based on individual network elements (sewers, gates, weirs and tanks) and does not rely on topological simplifications, thus providing a better description of the hydrological and hydraulic phenomena than in similar works. Using a generic form of a hybrid lin...

  18. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarup-Jensen, K; Rasmussen, M R; Thorndahl, S

    2009-01-01

    In urban drainage modelling long-term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties with regards to long-term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO volumes. Traditionally, long-term rainfall series, from a local rain gauge, are unavailable. In the present case study, however, long and local rain series are available. 2 rainfall gauges have recorded events for approximately 9 years at 2 locations within the catchment. Beside these 2 gauges another 7 gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity can be handled, e.g. by introducing an "averaging procedure" based on the variability within the set of statistics. All simulations are performed by means of the MOUSE LTS model.

  19. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern - a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintrup, J. [Chemistry Lab., Wessling GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Wuensch, G. [Lehrgebiet Analytische Chemie, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic ''sewer slime impact'' is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto. (orig.)

  20. Water quality control of combined sewer overflows. The <> procedure; Il controllo qualitativo delle immissioni fognarie nei corpi idrici. La procedura <>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artina, S.; Maglionico, M. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria delle Strutture, dei Trasporti, delle Acque, del Rilevamento, del Territorio; Lo Greco, P. [HR Wallingford, Wallingford Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The EEC Directive 91/271 endorse has brought to attention the pollution problem caused in the receiving waters by Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). This paper describes a procedure, set up in England, called UPM (Urban Pollution Management), meant to environmentally protect receiving waters. The UPM Procedure is merely a methodology to evaluate the impact of pollutants discharged from sewer overflows during rainfall events. [Italian] Il recepimento della direttiva CEE 91/271 ha portato ancora una volta in primo piano il problema dell'inquinamento dei corpi idrici causato dalle immissioni fognarie. Il presente articolo descrive una procedura messa a punto in Inghilterra, denominata UPM (Urban Pollution Management), destinata al controllo qualitativo dei corsi d'acqua ricettori di scarichi fognari. L'UPM non costituisce una normativa bensi una metodologia intesa a valutare l'impatto degli scarichi fognari sui ricettori durante gli eenti meteorici.

  1. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  2. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan K.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark A.; McCarthy, David; Murphy, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May–July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs.

  3. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark; McCarthy, David T; Murphy, Heather M

    2018-07-15

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May-July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of storm water in unitary sewer systems; Gestion de las aguas de tormenta en las redes de alcantarillado unitarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayos, C.

    1999-08-01

    A brief review is provided of the general problems of storm waters and how they are dealt with in Directive 91/27/EEC. An experiment in Asturias, Spain, is reported in which storm water storage tanks were designed to reduce the number and impact of discharges from the unitary sewer systems. The criteria for calculating the design flows in accordance with the guidelines of Spain`s Northern Hydrographic Confederation, the procedures used in determining the size of the overflows and the different elements employed in the equipment, control systems and safety systems are all described. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Research note: Mapping spatial patterns in sewer age, material, and proximity to surface waterways to infer sewer leakage hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G.; Bain, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying areas where deteriorating sewer infrastructure is in close proximity to surface waterways is needed to map likely connections between sewers and streams. We present a method to estimate sewer installation year and deterioration status using historical maps of the sewer network, parcel-scale property assessment data, and pipe material. Areas where streams were likely buried into the sewer system were mapped by intersecting the historical stream network derived from a 10-m resolution digital elevation model with sewer pipe locations. Potential sewer leakage hotspots were mapped by identifying where aging sewer pipes are in close proximity (50-m) to surface waterways. Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), indicated 41% of the historical stream length was lost or buried and the potential interface between sewers and streams is great. The co-location of aging sewer infrastructure (>75 years old) near stream channels suggests that 42% of existing streams are located in areas with a high potential for sewer leakage if sewer infrastructure fails. Mapping the sewer-stream interface provides an approach to better understand areas were failing sewers may contribute a disproportional amount of nutrients and other pathogens to surface waterways.

  6. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  7. Modelling of sedimentation and remobilization in in-line storage sewers for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehmann, T; Flores, C; Luekewille, F; Mietzel, T; Spengler, B; Geiger, W F

    2005-01-01

    A special arrangement of combined sewer overflow tanks is the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge (ISS-down). This layout has the advantage that, besides the sewer system, no other structures are required for stormwater treatment. The verification of the efficiency with respect to the processes of sedimentation and remobilization of sediment within the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge is carried out in a combination of a field and a pilot plant study. The model study was carried out using a pilot plant model scaled 1:13. The following is intended to present some results of the pilot plant study and the mathematical empirical modelling of the sedimentation and remobilization process.

  8. Characterization and risk assessment of seasonal and weather dynamics in organic pollutant mixtures from discharge of a separate sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Liza-Marie; Busch, Wibke; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner

    2018-05-15

    Sites of wastewater discharge are hotspots for pollution of freshwaters with organic micropollutants and are often associated with adverse effects to aquatic organisms. The assessment, monitoring and managment of these hotspots is challenged by variations in the pollutant mixture composition due to season, weather conditions and random spills. In this study, we unraveled temporal exposure patterns in organic micropollutant mixtures from wastewater discharge and analyzed respective acute and sublethal risks for aquatic organisms. Samples were taken from two components of a separate sewer system i) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and ii) a rain sewer of a medium size town as well as from the receiving river in different seasons. Rain sewer samples were separately collected for rain and dry - weather conditions. We analyzed 149 compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By considering the pollution dynamics in the point sources, we reduced the complexity of pollutant mixtures by k-means clustering to a few emission groups representing temporal and weather-related pollution patterns. From these groups, we derived biological quality element (BQE) - specific risk patterns. In most cases, one main risk driving emission group and a few individual risk driving compounds were identified for each BQE. While acute risk for fish was quite low, algae were exposed to seasonally emitted herbicides (terbuthylazine, spiroxamine) and crustaceans to randomly spilled insecticides (diazinon, dimethoate). Sublethal risks for all BQE were strongly influenced by constantly emitted pollutants, above all, pharmaceuticals. Variability of risks in the river was mainly driven by water discharge of the river rather than by season or peak events. Overall, the studied WWTP represented the major pollution source with a specific emission of agricultural compounds. However, the investigated rain sewer showed to be a constant pollution source due to illicit connections

  9. Information use in Dutch sewer assest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are capital-intensive infrastructures, requiring appropriate asset management to safeguard serviceability. In the Netherlands, effective sewer asset management is described by De Leeuw’s control paradigm. Reliable data and information are key elements in decision-making for

  10. Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Manh Hoai; Nguyen Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen Hung Minh; Pham Hung Viet; Berg, Michael; Alder, Alfredo C.; Giger, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence, temporal trend, sources and toxicity of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were investigated in sediment samples from the sewer system of Hanoi City, including the rivers Nhue, To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu and the Yen So Lake. In general, the concentrations of the pollutants followed the order DDTs > PCBs > HCHs (β-HCH) > HCB. However, the pollution pattern was different for the DDTs and PCBs when the sampling locations were individually evaluated. The concentrations of the DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, and HCB ranged from 4.4 to 1100, 1.3 to 384, <0.2 to 36 and <0.2 to 22 ng/g d.w., respectively. These levels are higher than at any other location in Vietnam. Compared to measurements from 1997, the DDTs, PCBs, β-HCH and HCB levels show an increasing trend with DDT/DDE ratios, indicating very recent inputs into the environment although these persistent compounds are banned in Vietnam since 1995. - Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were studied in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi.

  11. Innovative use of lamella clarifiers for central stormwater treatment in separate sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Lamella settlers have been used in the past few years for the sedimentation of particles in wastewater and stormwater applications. A new and very innovative approach for the treatment of stormwater flows is proposed which extends the portfolio of solutions beyond traditional settling tanks. Surface runoff is stored in a sewer or a basin and finally treated in a small but continuously operated lamella clarifier. The low throughput flow will yield good treatment efficiency at a small footprint. The possibilities of using existing storage volume in a storm sewer, as well as the structural flexibility of the arrangement are decisive benefits. As a large operational advantage, the lamellae may be cleaned mechanically, e.g. by pivoting under water. Finally, the flow and the sludge which will be sent to the downstream treatment plant will be minimized. A new comparative simulation method is proposed in order to assess an equivalent degree of stormwater treatment, either by achieving an equal annual volume of treated stormwater or, more directly, an equal amount of spilled pollutant load. The new solution is compared with a traditional settling tank according to current German design rules. Additionally, a case study from a real installation will be presented.

  12. Aromatic hydrocarbons from service stations in the sewer system in Cartagena, Columbia; Hidrocarburos aromaticos en la red de alcantarillado procedentes de estaciones de servicio en Cartagena (Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachorro Sanchez, P.; Gonzalez Garcia, H.; Luna Jara, J.

    2000-07-01

    The results of this study are part of a project for characterising domestic and industrial waste flowing through the sewer system of Cartagena de Indias (Columbia). Characterisation was carried out in order to establish the contaminating load in the drinking water supply with a view to establishing a framework for compensatory taxes levied by the corresponding environmental agency. (Author)

  13. Watershed-scale impacts of stormwater green infrastructure on hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and combined sewer overflows in the mid-Atlantic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, Michael J; McDonald, Rob I; Jaffe, Peter R

    2016-09-15

    Stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including rain gardens, detention ponds, bioswales, and green roofs, is being implemented in cities across the globe to reduce flooding, combined sewer overflows, and pollutant transport to streams and rivers. Despite the increasing use of urban SGI, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Washington, DC, Montgomery County, MD, and Baltimore County, MD, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The cumulative impact of SGI was evaluated over space and time by comparing watersheds with and without SGI, and by assessing how long-term changes in SGI impact hydrologic and water quality metrics over time. Most Mid-Atlantic municipalities have a goal of achieving 10-20% of the landscape drain runoff through SGI by 2030. Of these areas, Washington, DC currently has the greatest amount of SGI (12.7% of the landscape drained through SGI), while Baltimore County has the lowest (7.9%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI have less flashy hydrology, with 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3(-) and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in phosphorus exports or combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. When comparing individual watersheds over time, increases in SGI corresponded to non-significant reductions in hydrologic flashiness compared to watersheds with no change in SGI. While the implementation of SGI is somewhat in its infancy in some regions, cities are beginning to have a scale of SGI where there are statistically significant differences in hydrologic patterns and water quality. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  14. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation...

  15. Dynamics of rain-induced pollutographs of solubles in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutsch, M; Müller, I; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    When looking at acute receiving water impacts due to combined sewer overflows the characteristics of the background diurnal sewage flux variation may influence the peak loads from combined sewer overflows (CSO) and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent significantly. In this paper, effects on the dynamic compounds transported in the sewer, on CSO discharges and WWTP loading are evaluated by means of hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are based on different scenarios for diurnal dry-weather flow variations induced by different infiltration rates.

  16. Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems based on conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkai; Liu, Yanchen; Cheng, Xun; Zhu, David Z.; Shi, Hanchang; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) in a sanitary sewer is difficult when RDII and overflow occur simultaneously. This study proposes a novel conductivity-based method for estimating RDII. The method separately decomposes rainfall-derived inflow (RDI) and rainfall-induced infiltration (RII) on the basis of conductivity data. Fast Fourier transform was adopted to analyze variations in the flow and water quality during dry weather. Nonlinear curve fitting based on the least squares algorithm was used to optimize parameters in the proposed RDII model. The method was successfully applied to real-life case studies, in which inflow and infiltration were successfully estimated for three typical rainfall events with total rainfall volumes of 6.25 mm (light), 28.15 mm (medium), and 178 mm (heavy). Uncertainties of model parameters were estimated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method and were found to be acceptable. Compared with traditional flow-based methods, the proposed approach exhibits distinct advantages in estimating RDII and overflow, particularly when the two processes happen simultaneously.

  17. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources.

  18. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  19. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  20. Development and evaluation of a decision-supporting model for identifying the source location of microbial intrusions in real gravity sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Assuming a scenario of a hypothetical pathogenic outbreak, we aimed this study at developing a decision-support model for identifying the location of the pathogenic intrusion as a means of facilitating rapid detection and efficient containment. The developed model was applied to a real sewer system (the Campbell wash basin in Tucson, AZ) in order to validate its feasibility. The basin under investigation was divided into 14 sub-basins. The geometric information associated with the sewer network was digitized using GIS (Geological Information System) and imported into an urban sewer network simulation model to generate microbial breakthrough curves at the outlet. A pre-defined amount of Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is an indicator of fecal coliform bacteria, was hypothetically introduced into 56 manholes (four in each sub-basin, chosen at random), and a total of 56 breakthrough curves of E. coli were generated using the simulation model at the outlet. Transport patterns were classified depending upon the location of the injection site (manhole), various known characteristics (peak concentration and time, pipe length, travel time, etc.) extracted from each E. coli breakthrough curve and the layout of sewer network. Using this information, we back-predicted the injection location once an E. coli intrusion was detected at a monitoring site using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The results showed that ANNs identified the location of the injection sites with 57% accuracy; ANNs correctly recognized eight out of fourteen expressions with relying on data from a single detection sensor. Increasing the available sensors within the basin significantly improved the accuracy of the simulation results (from 57% to 100%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nowcasting of rainfall and of combined sewage flow in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achleitner, Stefan; Fach, Stefan; Einfalt, Thomas; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Nowcasting of rainfall may be used additionally to online rain measurements to optimize the operation of urban drainage systems. Uncertainties quoted for the rain volume are in the range of 5% to 10% mean square error (MSE), where for rain intensities 45% to 75% MSE are noted. For larger forecast periods up to 3 hours, the uncertainties will increase up to some hundred percents. Combined with the growing number of real time control concepts in sewer systems, rainfall forecast is used more and more in urban drainage systems. Therefore it is of interest how the uncertainties influence the final evaluation of a defined objective function. Uncertainty levels associated with the forecast itself are not necessarily transferable to resulting uncertainties in the catchment's flow dynamics. The aim of this paper is to analyse forecasts of rainfall and specific sewer output variables. For this study the combined sewer system of the city of Linz in the northern part of Austria located on the Danube has been selected. The city itself represents a total area of 96 km2 with 39 municipalities connected. It was found that the available weather radar data leads to large deviations in the forecast for precipitation at forecast horizons larger than 90 minutes. The same is true for sewer variables such a CSO overflow for small sub-catchments. Although the results improve for larger spatial scales, acceptable levels at forecast horizons larger than 90 minutes are not reached.

  2. Searching for storm water inflows in foul sewers using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoort, R.; Hoppe, H.; Haan, C.; Langeveld, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    A major drawback of separate sewer systems is the occurrence of illicit connections: unintended sewer cross-connections that connect foul water outlets from residential or industrial premises to the storm water system and/or storm water outlets to the foul sewer system. The amount of unwanted storm

  3. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, O.; Backhaus, Antje; Birch, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility......, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented...

  4. Hydrodynamic modelling of the influence of stormwater and combined sewer overflows on receiving water quality: Benzo(a)pyrene and copper risks to recreational water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Bondelind, Mia; Karlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Dick; Sokolova, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The risk from chemical substances in surface waters is often increased during wet weather, due to surface runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and erosion of contaminated land. There are strong incentives to improve the quality of surface waters affected by human activities, not only from ecotoxicity and ecosystem health perspectives, but also for drinking water and recreational purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of urban stormwater discharges and CSOs on receiving water in the context of chemical health risks and recreational water quality. Transport of copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the Göta River (Sweden) was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Within the 16 km modelled section, 35 CSO and 16 urban stormwater point discharges, as well as the effluent from a major wastewater treatment plant, were included. Pollutant concentrations in the river were simulated for two rain events and investigated at 13 suggested bathing sites. The simulations indicate that water quality guideline values for Cu are exceeded at several sites, and that stormwater discharges generally give rise to higher Cu and BaP concentrations than CSOs. Due to the location of point discharges and the river current inhibiting lateral mixing, the north shore of the river is better suited for bathing. Peak concentrations have a short duration; increased concentrations of the pollutants may however be present for several days after a rain event. Monitoring of river water quality indicates that simulated Cu and BaP concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as measured concentrations. It is concluded that hydrodynamic modelling is a useful tool for identifying suitable bathing sites in urban surface waters and areas of concern where mitigation measures should be implemented to improve water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling Illicit Drug Fate in Sewers for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram

    was found during festival period as compared to normal weekdays. Wastewater-based epidemiology is a truly interdisciplinary approach in which engineering tools, including models developed and tested in this thesis, can be beneficial for the accurate estimation of drug consumption in urban areas........ Sewer systems can be considered as biological reactors, in which the concentration of organic chemicals present in wastewater can be impacted by in-sewer processes during hydraulic residence time. Illicit drug biomarkers, as trace organic chemicals in the range of nanograms to micrograms per liter...... on sorption and transformation of drug biomarkers in raw wastewater and sewer biofilms; and (ii) developing modelling tools – by combining and extending existing modelling frameworks – to predict such processes. To achieve this goal, a substantial part of this thesis was dedicated to the experimental...

  6. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  7. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in § 35...

  10. Quantitative and qualitative hydrologic balance for a suburban watershed with a separate sewer system (Nantes, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, V; Larrarte, F; Berthier, M; Favreau, L; Sauvourel, Y; Letellier, L; Mosisni, M L; Raimbault, G

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative budget at the outlet of the storm-water runoff system of a small suburban watershed is presented together with some data regarding waste-water. 445,000 m3 (34% of the rain-water volume) were drained by the storm-water runoff system and 40,879 m3 by the waste-water system from September 2002 to March 2004. Storm-water runoff is generally not heavily polluted with regard to trace metals but concentrations occasionally exceed the standards for surface water of good quality. On the contrary, pesticides (diuron and glyphosate) have very high concentrations especially in spring and autumn when their use is maximum. As the St Joseph storm-water runoff is finally discharged into the Erdre River, measures to reduce the use of these pollutants should be considered.

  11. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society......This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...

  12. Identifying the best locations to install flow control devices in sewer networks to enable in-sewer storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; Carbajal, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Simões, N. E.; Sá Marques, A.; de Sousa, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The activation of available in-sewer storage volume has been suggested as a low-cost flood and combined sewer overflow mitigation measure. However, it is currently unknown what the attributes for suitable objective functions to identify the best location for flow control devices are and the impact of those attributes on the results. In this study, we present a novel location model and efficient algorithm to identify the best location(s) to install flow limiters. The model is a screening tool that does not require hydraulic simulations but rather considers steady state instead of simplistic static flow conditions. It also maximises in-sewer storage according to different reward functions that also considers the potential impact of flow control device failure. We demonstrate its usefulness on two real sewer networks, for which an in-sewer storage potential of approximately 2,000 m3 and 500 m3 was estimated with five flow control devices installed.

  13. Application of dynamic modeling for assessing the impact of radioactive releases to water sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundell-Bergman, Synnove; Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Potential radiological emergencies due to accidental or malicious acts involving nuclear materials requires tools for emergency dose assessment to help in the planning of countermeasures. In urban areas, the municipal sewage systems will receive the wastewater from households, industries and hospitals as well as the run-off water. Investigations have shown that sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator for radionuclides released from hospitals or spread via the atmosphere and thus simulation modelling of the fate of radionuclides entering sewage treatment plants via urban drainage systems could prove useful in emergency situations. A dynamic model (LUCIA) has been developed to assess the radiological consequences of non-homogenous releases of radionuclides to the sewage plants. In the first step the focussing has been on radioactive liquid releases from hospitals and the predictions show that there is a significant probability (> 0,2) that the sewage worker doses exceed 10 μSv/y while doses to farmers or fishermen (downstream plants) are marginal. Comparison of measured and estimated concentration values for iodine-131 reveal that the predictions made by LUCIA are reasonably good and fall within a factor of 2. For the purpose of emergency preparedness, scenarios have been defined and the fate of released radionuclides has been assessed. The main features of the LUCIA model will be presented and the application of the tool for emergency preparedness will be discussed. (author)

  14. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  15. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  16. A dynamic ventilation model for gravity sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y C; Nobi, N; Nguyen, T; Vorreiter, L

    2012-01-01

    To implement any effective odour and corrosion control technology in the sewer network, it is imperative that the airflow through gravity sewer airspaces be quantified. This paper presents a full dynamic airflow model for gravity sewer systems. The model, which is developed using the finite element method, is a compressible air transport model. The model has been applied to the North Head Sewerage Ocean Outfall System (NSOOS) and calibrated using the air pressure and airflow data collected during October 2008. Although the calibration is focused on forced ventilation, the model can be applied to natural ventilation as well.

  17. An Environmental Innovation: The Sewer Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the effort to clean up America's waters, there is a little-known complicating factor: because they leak, sewer systems in many American cities are causing rather than preventing pollution of rivers and lakes. Fixing the leaks is difficult because their locations are unknown. Maintenance crews can't tear up a whole city looking for cracks in the pipes; they must first determine which areas are most likely suspects. An aerospace spinoff is providing help in that regard. The problem starts with heavy rains. Rainwater naturally flows into the sewers from streets, but sewage systems are designed to accommodate it. However, they are not designed to handle the additional flow of "groundwater", rain absorbed by the earth which seeps into the sewers through leaks in pipes and sewer walls. After a storm, groundwater seepage can increase the waterflow to deluge proportions, with the result that sewage treatment plants are incapable of processing the swollen flow. When that happens the sluices must be opened, dumping raw sewage into rivers and lakes.

  18. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    OpenAIRE

    Hannouche , A.; Chebbo , G.; Joannis , C.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both...

  19. Characterization of the settling process for wastewater from a combined sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, P; Carbone, M; Penna, N; Marsalek, J

    2011-12-15

    Among the methods used for determining the parameters necessary for design of wastewater settling tanks, settling column tests are used most commonly, because of their simplicity and low costs. These tests partly mimic the actual settling processes and allow the evaluation of total suspended solids (TSS) removal by settling. Wastewater samples collected from the Liguori Channel (LC) catchment in Cosenza (Italy) were subject to settling column tests, which yielded iso-removal curves for both dry and wet-weather flow conditions. Such curves were approximated well by the newly proposed power law function containing two empirical parameters, a and b, the first of which is the particle settling velocity and the second one is a flocculation factor accounting for deviations from discrete particle settling. This power law function was tested for both the LC catchment and literature data and yielded a very good fit, with correlation coefficient values (R(2)) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Finally, variations in the settling tank TSS removal efficiencies with parameters a and b were also analyzed and provided insight for settling tank design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  1. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events

    OpenAIRE

    LACOUR, Céline; JOANNIS, Claude; GROMAIRE, MC; CHEBBO, Ghassan

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification...

  2. Stormwater induced input of Pb, Cd, As, Zn and other toxic heavy metals into the sewer system of a region characterized by mining residues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichos, C.; Muehle, K.

    1993-06-01

    An estimation of heavy metal transport within the river Freiberger Mulde as well as detailed knowledge about pollutant concentration in sewage sludges, in surface soil and in various mining residues give rise to assume that stormwater induced input especially of As, Pb, Cd and Zn into the sewer system of the town of Freiberg has a significant share of contribution to the high pollution of the river. It is the aim of the project to determine the heavy metal input quantitatively where beside the entire transport above all the main transport ways are to be investigated. In the first period of research reported about a movable monitoring station with rainfall gauge, flow rate meter and automatic sampler had to be supplied. First results of stormwater effects at the main intercepting sewer were discussed on the basis of dry-wether flow. For precipitation intensities of 0.5-1 mm/10 min with 4 to 5fold discharge rates at the maximum the measurements showed about 2 to 6fold dry-wether diurnal loads during a rain wether flow of only one hour. Thus, for the case of flood flow up to 100fold diurnal loads may be expected within an hour. The pollutant transport depends on the intensity of rain and on the duration of dry wether before the rain. Further studies above all apply to the main ways of transport but simultaneously to the entire loads to be measured before the storm sewage overflow. Data to be expected in this way may contribute to a long-term simulation of the sewerage as an important aid for planning storage basins. (orig.) [de

  3. SEWER NETWORK DISCHARGE OPTIMIZATION USING THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MINZU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  4. Management of sewer overflow structure in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leymann, G.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the geological morphology of the south and west of Germany, combined sewer systems are used to drain sewage and rain water in urban areas. In this system, industrial and domestic sewage as well as rain water flowing off areas with sealed surfaces are discharged into one pipe. Size and structure of this sewer system are designed to fulfil the criterium, that the total amount of water, stemming from rain events of an intensity not to be exceeded more than once a year, can be drained without flooding any part of the area considered. In the past, construction costs were reduced by building overflow structures at suitable sites; these structures discharge a volume of water exceeding five times the amount of water produced during dry weather in a most directly way in the outlet channel. In the sewage treatment plant, only two fifths of this remaining water volume was treated mechanically and biologically. Three fifths were discharged into the natural waters after mechanical treatment only

  5. Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Sediment characteristics and transport processes in sewers are markedly different from river. There is a wide range of particle densities and smaller particle size variation in sewers. Sediment supply and the available erodible material are more limited in sewers, and the diverse hydraulic characteristics in sewer systems are more unsteady. Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for engineers. The effects of sediment formation in sewer systems, an appropriate sediment transport modelling with the ability to determine the location and depth of sediment deposit is needed. It is necessary to design efficiently considering the transfer and settling phenomena of the sediment coming into the sewer systems. During transport in the sewer, the minimum shear flow velocity and possible shear stress at which the sediment is transported smoothly. However, the interaction of sediment and fluid within the sewer systems has been very complex and the rigorous theoretical handling of this problem has not been developed. It is derived from the empirical values obtained from the river bed. The basic theory that particles float is based on the balance between sedimentation of particles by gravity and turbulent diffusion of fluids. There are many variables related. Representative parameters include complex phenomena due to collisions between particles, particles and fluids, and interactions between particles and tube walls. In general, the main parameters that form the boundary between the main transport and sediment are particle size, density, volume fraction, pipe diameter and gravity. As the particle size and volume concentration increase, the minimum feed rate increases and the same tendency is observed for the change of the capillary diameter. Based on this tendency, this study has developed a sediment deposition height capacity formula to take into consideration the sewer discharge

  6. Searching for storm water inflows in foul sewers using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoort, Rémy; Hoppe, Holger; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    A major drawback of separate sewer systems is the occurrence of illicit connections: unintended sewer cross-connections that connect foul water outlets from residential or industrial premises to the storm water system and/or storm water outlets to the foul sewer system. The amount of unwanted storm water in foul sewer systems can be significant, resulting in a number of detrimental effects on the performance of the wastewater system. Efficient removal of storm water inflows into foul sewers requires knowledge of the exact locations of the inflows. This paper presents the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) monitoring data to localize illicit storm water inflows into foul sewer systems. Data results from two monitoring campaigns in foul sewer systems in the Netherlands and Germany are presented. For both areas a number of storm water inflow locations can be derived from the data. Storm water inflow can only be detected as long as the temperature of this inflow differs from the in-sewer temperatures prior to the event. Also, the in-sewer propagation of storm and wastewater can be monitored, enabling a detailed view on advection.

  7. The Historical Development of Sewers Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence of surface-based storm drainage systems in early Babylonian and Mesopotamian Empires in Iraq (ca. 4000–2500 BC, it is not until after ca. 3000 BC that we find evidence of the well organized and operated sewer and drainage systems of the Minoans and Harappans in Crete and the Indus valley, respectively. The Minoans and Indus valley civilizations originally, and the Hellenes and Romans thereafter, are considered pioneers in developing basic sewerage and drainage technologies, with emphasis on sanitation in the urban environment. The Hellenes and Romans further developed these techniques and greatly increased the scale of these systems. Although other ancient civilizations also contributed, notably some of the Chinese dynasties, very little progress was made during the Dark ages from ca. 300 AD through to the middle of the 18th century. It was only from 1850 onwards that that modern sewerage was “reborn”, but many of the principles grasped by the ancients are still in use today. This paper traces the development of the sewer from those earliest of civilizations through to the present day and beyond. A 6000 year technological history is a powerful validation of the vital contribution of sewers to human history.

  8. A stable isotope approach for the quantification of sewer infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Oliver; Gresch, Markus; Gujert, Willi

    2007-08-15

    Extraneous flows in wastewater collection systems are conventionally evaluated solely on the consideration of discharge hydrographs, which often involves a great degree of subjectivity and oversimplification. To obtain reliable information on the material fluxes within the urban environment, the use of intrinsic tracers can be the optimal choice. We demonstrate the successful use of naturally occurring stable isotopes of water (18O/16O and D/H) to accurately quantify extraneous discharge of groundwater in a combined sewer network. Fresh water supply from a distant hydrological regime provided usable isotopic separations between drinking water (proxy for real foul sewage) and local groundwater (proxy for sewer infiltration) of 1.8 per thousand in delta18O and 11.7 per thousand in 62H. Diurnal variation of wastewater isotopic composition reflected both the varying rates of foul sewage production and irregular dispersion effects in the pipe network. The latter suggest the existence of larger cumulative backwater zone volumes, which have not been attended to yet. Infiltrating groundwater contributed 39% (95% confidence interval = +/- 2.5%) of the total daily dry weather wastewater discharge. This paper discusses all relevant aspects for practical application of the method. It presents a comprehensive framework for uncertainty analysis and details on the detection and discrimination of possibly interfering effects.

  9. Informal uncertainty analysis (GLUE of continuous flow simulation in a hybrid sewer system with infiltration inflow – consistency of containment ratios in calibration and validation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Breinholt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of flows in sewer systems is increasingly applied to calibrate urban drainage models used for long-term simulation. However, most often models are calibrated without considering the uncertainties. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE methodology is here applied to assess parameter and flow simulation uncertainty using a simplified lumped sewer model that accounts for three separate flow contributions: wastewater, fast runoff from paved areas, and slow infiltrating water from permeable areas. Recently GLUE methodology has been critisised for generating prediction limits without statistical coherence and consistency and for the subjectivity in the choice of a threshold value to distinguish "behavioural" from "non-behavioural" parameter sets. In this paper we examine how well the GLUE methodology performs when the behavioural parameter sets deduced from a calibration period are applied to generate prediction bounds in validation periods. By retaining an increasing number of parameter sets we aim at obtaining consistency between the GLUE generated 90% prediction limits and the actual containment ratio (CR in calibration. Due to the large uncertainties related to spatio-temporal rain variability during heavy convective rain events, flow measurement errors, possible model deficiencies as well as epistemic uncertainties, it was not possible to obtain an overall CR of more than 80%. However, the GLUE generated prediction limits still proved rather consistent, since the overall CRs obtained in calibration corresponded well with the overall CRs obtained in validation periods for all proportions of retained parameter sets evaluated. When focusing on wet and dry weather periods separately, some inconsistencies were however found between calibration and validation and we address here some of the reasons why we should not expect the coverage of the prediction limits to be identical in calibration and validation periods in real

  10. Determination of an Optimal Trunk Sewer-line Route for Kikuyu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best alternative is a sewerage system that uses sewer-lines to convey sewage into a treatment works. This project seeks to replace the traditional methods currently used in Kikuyu Town with a sewerage system. Geospatial technologies are used to site a treatment plant and the main trunk sewer-line route in Kikuyu ...

  11. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying ventilation in sewer systems is a prerequisite to predict transport of odorous and corrosive gasses within the system as well as their interaction with the urban atmosphere. This paper studies ventilation in sewer systems quantified by measurements of the natural...... occurring compound CO2. Most often Danish wastewater is supersaturated with CO2 and hence a potential for stripping is present. A novel model was built based on the kinetics behind the stripping process. It was applied to simulate ventilation rates from field measurements of wastewater temperature, p...

  12. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  13. Informal uncertainty analysis (GLUE) of continuous flow simulation in a hybrid sewer system with infiltration inflow - Consistency of containment ratios in calibration and validation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Grum, Morten; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    to assess parameter and flow simulation uncertainty using a simplified lumped sewer model that accounts for three separate flow contributions: wastewater, fast runoff from paved areas, and slow infiltrating water from permeable areas. Recently GLUE methodology has been critisised for generating prediction...... rain inputs and more accurate flow observations to reduce parameter and model simulation uncertainty. © Author(s) 2013....

  14. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    Context.: In many parts of the world, brown rats have colonised sewer systems and the rat populations in sewers are often thought to be a source of problems with rats on the surface. The management of sewer rat populations is usually performed with little, if any, knowledge of the dynamics and be...

  16. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real rainfall time series as input ans with the aply of a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (autoregressiv moving average model......) as the model of the storm sewer system. The output of the simulation is the frequency distribution of the peak flow, overflow volume etc. from the overflow or retention storage. The parameters in the transfer model is found either from rainfall/runoff measurements in the catchment or from one or a few...

  17. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental...... medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios...... on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations...

  18. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  19. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  20. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  1. The Use of Intelligent Relays for the Sewer Cleaning Vehicle Control and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chiver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the way in which the electrical control and automation system of the 5 mc combined sewer and gully cleaning vehicle equipped by a local company was designed, using the intelligent relay of the easy 700 type of Moeller (Eaton company. The control of all the equipments is performed locally from the control panel and some of them can also by remote controlled by means of the radio waves. The program required by the intelligent relay was created, tested and implemented with the help of the dedicated software easy-soft 6, developed by the manufacturing company.

  2. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  3. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    to a storm sewer system. The output of the simulation is the frequency distribution of the peak flow, overflow volume etc. from the overflow or the retention storage. The parameters in the transfer model are found either from rainfall/runoff measurements in the catchment or from one or more simulations...

  4. NORTH PORTAL - SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the three main sanitary sewer lines serving the Change House Facility No.5008, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  5. Studies for the disposal system of the sewers of Santos and Sao Vicente (Brazil). Measurement of the sewage flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, V.; Ohara, T.; Sanches, W.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the sewage flow rate is a difficult problem in the field of sanitary engineering. A channel cross section calibration at a CHLORINE TREATMENT STATION was performed, in order to simplify the subsequent measurement of sewage flow, at a permanent stream-gauging station. The total count method was chosen because of its advantages over both the current instrument meter and the dilution technique of a radioactive or non-radioactive tracer (rodhamine and fluoresceine); the sewage transport materials might damage the current meter instruments and could also degrade chemical dyes because of the reduction properties of sewage. NH 4 Br labeled with 82 Br was used as radioactive tracer. The irradiated NH 4 Br was dissolved in a sodium thiosulphate solution. In spite of the presence of suspended materials in the sewage and the subsequent delicate operation of pumping out the flowing sewage through a by-pass where the measuring system was installed, accurate and reproducible field measurements were obtained [pt

  6. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  7. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...... environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is “wrapped around” a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: a reference scenario...... and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense...

  8. The environmental impact of informal and home productive arrangement in the jewelry and fashion jewelry chain on sanitary sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Luz, Maciel Santos; Fávaro, Déborah Inês Teixeira; Ferreira, Francisco Jorge; da Silva Paganini, Wanderley; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2018-04-01

    The outsourcing informal home practices adopted in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain can cause toxic substance elimination in the effluents and raise a concern for its environmental impact. This study evaluates if this informal work alters the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs: As, Cd, Cr total and Cr-VI, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) in the sewage network. The sanitary sewage samples (n = 540) were collected in 15 manholes during two campaigns in three different areas of Limeira-SP, Brazil (industrial area, with informal work and without known industrial/informal activity). The sewage sludge (n = 12), raw (n = 12), and treated sewage (n = 12) were collected in two wastewater treatment plants (WWT: AS and TATU) operating with different treatment process. The PTE determination was performed by ICP-OES, direct mercury analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Cr-VI, Cu, Ni, and Zn were the only elements above the quantification limit. Four samples exceeded Cu or Zn values permitted to be discharged into sewage system; however, the concentration average was lower than that established by Brazilian legislation. A difference was found between values above and below the 75th percentile for campaign and total organic carbon values (p < 0.015). The AS-treated sewage presented low concentrations of Cu (p < 0.05), Zn (p = 0.02), and Ni (p = 0.01) compared to treated sewage from TATU. In the sludge samples, the Cu means exceeded the limits of the Brazilian legislation (1500 mg kg -1 ) and the Zn results were very close to the limits (2800 mg kg -1 ). The heterogeneity of the results can indicate the sporadic nature of the PTE's sanitary disposal. PTEs used in jewelry and fashion jewelry chain may precipitate on the sludge, where presented high concentrations of Cu and Zn which require controlled destination.

  9. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable......Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling...... overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5–30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall...

  10. Principles and Approaches for Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Appelgren, Cecilia; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    A study has been carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A result of the study is a mathematical model MOUSE ST which describes sediment transport in sewers....... This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in in MOUSE ST. Further, the paper presents a simple application of MOUSE ST to the Rya catchment in Gothenburg, Sweden....

  11. Principles and approaches for numerical modelling of sediment transport in sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsen, Torben; Appelgren, Cecilia

    1994-01-01

    model MOUSE ST which describes the sediment transport in sewers. This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in MOUSE ST. The study was founded by the Swedish Water and Waste Works Association and the Nordic Industrial......A study has been carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden with the objectives to describe the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A results of the study is a mathematical...

  12. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  13. Combinations of complex dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Kevin M

    2003-01-01

    This work is a research-level monograph whose goal is to develop a general combination, decomposition, and structure theory for branched coverings of the two-sphere to itself, regarded as the combinatorial and topological objects which arise in the classification of certain holomorphic dynamical systems on the Riemann sphere. It is intended for researchers interested in the classification of those complex one-dimensional dynamical systems which are in some loose sense tame. The program is motivated by the dictionary between the theories of iterated rational maps and Kleinian groups.

  14. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    of the residual disinfectants PFA, PAA and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and their degradation products hydrogen peroxide and chlorite, in relation to organisms in the aquatic ecosystem was studied. With the help of ecotoxicity data, a preliminary environmental risk assessment of PFA, PAA and ClO2 for CSO disinfection...

  15. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  16. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  17. Loads of Sewer Manholes within Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zięba

    2014-01-01

    Originality/Value: The presented method is an original concept. It enables the determination of additional external horizontal loads acting on sewer manholes within mining areas, in particular the flexible manholes made of thermoplastics. It also enables the determination of dependencies of changes in the cross-sections of risers of flexible sewer manholes (with different circumferential stiffness on the horizontal soil strains.

  18. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealin...

  19. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealin...

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of iron and alkalinity generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Kustermans, Caroline; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2017-07-01

    The addition of iron salts is one of the most commonly used dosing strategies for sulfide control in sewers. However, iron salts decrease the sewage pH which not only reduces the effectiveness of sulfide precipitation but also enhances the release of residual sulfide to the sewer atmosphere. Equally important, concentrated iron salt solutions are corrosive and their frequent transport, handling, and on-site storage often come with Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) concerns. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a novel sulfide control approach using electrochemical systems with parallel placed iron electrodes. This enabled combining anodic dissolved iron species release with cathodic hydroxyl anion production, which alleviates all the aforementioned concerns. A long-term experiment was successfully carried out achieving an average sulfide removal efficiency of 95.4 ± 4.4% at low voltage input of 2.90 ± 0.54 V over the course of 8 weeks. This electrochemical method was demonstrated to successfully achieve efficient sulfide control. In addition, it increases the sewage pH, thereby overcoming the drawbacks associated with the pH decrease in the case of conventional iron salt dosing. Ferrous ions were produced at an overall coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2 ± 1.2%, whereas oxygen evolution and direct sulfide oxidation were not observed. Short-term experiments showed that increasing either inter-electrode gap or current density increased the cell voltage associated with the increase in the ohmic drop of the system. Overall, this study highlights the practical potential of in-situ generation of dissolved iron species and simultaneous hydroxyl anion generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Interactions between heavy metals and sewer slimes. Wechselwirkungen zwischen Schwermetallen und Sielhaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutekunst, B.

    1989-09-01

    Sewer slimes in wastewater pipes are an efficient means for detecting heavy metals discharged into the sewer system. The chances and limits of this method are discussed on the basis of the interactions between the heavy metals and the sewer slime. Chemical processes which lead to an accumulation of heavy metals are precipitation, adsorption and sedimentation. The mobilization is due to dissolution, desorption and complexation. The dependency of the waste water parameters pH, redox potential, heavy metal concentration and speciation on the accumulation and mobilization of the heavy metals is investigated as well as the binding capacity and strength. The heavy metals speciations in sewer slime are estimated by the application of a sequential leaching technique. Finally the practical significance of the experiments is shown. (orig.).

  3. Application of a leakage model to assess exfiltration from sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, C; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    The exfiltration of wastewater from sewer systems in urban areas causes a deterioration of soil and possibly groundwater quality. Beside the simulation of transport and degradation processes in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer the analysis of the potential impact requires the estimation of quantity and temporal variation of wastewater exfiltration. Exfiltration can be assessed by the application of a leakage model. The hydrological approach was originally developed to simulate the interactions between the groundwater and surface water, it was adapted to allow for modelling of interactions between groundwater and sewer system. In order to approximate the exfiltration specific model parameters infiltration specific parameters were used as a basis. Scenario analysis of the exfiltration in the City of Dresden from 1997 to 1999 and during the flood event in August 2002 shows the variation and the extent of exfiltration rates.

  4. The use of multiple tracers to evaluate the impact of sewered and non-sewered development on coastal water quality in a rural area of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Long, Sharon C; Bocca, Thais

    2014-05-01

    When onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) are not sited appropriately or installed properly, wastewater constituents can be a source of adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater, which can lead to potential public health risks. A paired monitoring design developed to compare water quality in sewered and non-sewered areas is presented here. It is suggested as a possible monitoring scheme for assessing the impact of sewer installation projects. As such, two sets of single-family, rural residential Florida neighborhoods were evaluated over a two-year period to gain insight into the effects of small-community use of OSTDS on coastal water quality. One set of two neighborhoods were connected to the sanitary sewer network and the other set of two were served exclusively by OSTDS. Water quality sampling was conducted at the paired sites during seasonal high water table (SHWT) and seasonal low water table (SLWT) events. Measured surface water quality during the SHWT showed indications of environmental impacts from OSTDS in terms of nutrients, microbial pathogen indicators, and other water quality measures, such as turbidity and conductivity. However, during the SLWT events, no obvious impacts attributable to OSTDS were detected. The water quality results indicate that OSTDS impacts may be measureable in rural areas. Other factors, such as microbial indicator survival and regrowth potential, may confound the understanding of water quality impacts of sewer projects. For example, the microbial indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were found to persist over time and therefore did not always represent true comparisons of OSTDS and sewered areas between seasons. The timeframe for evaluating the effects of sewer projects may be longer than anticipated because of this survival and regrowth phenomenon.

  5. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored and cont...... benchmark model. Due to the inherent constraints the applied approach is based on Model Predictive Control....

  6. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  7. Oahu Sewer Lateral Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inventory of sewer laterals, used for tracking, monitoring, and flow analysis as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. The base sewer...

  8. Oahu Sewer Main Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear features representing sewer main lines as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. Includes an inventory of sewer mains used for...

  9. Sewerage Service Areas - MDC_SewerServiceArea

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Water and Sewer Service Area layer was derived from the original paper based sketches which contained both water and sewer utility boundary information. This...

  10. Oahu Sewer Manhole Points, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point features representing sewer manholes as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. This inventory of sewer manholes used by tracking,...

  11. Sewer slime analysis as a method of spotting heavy metal bearing waste water discharge. Sielhautuntersuchungen zur Einkreisung schwermetallhaltiger Einleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutekunst, B.

    1988-01-01

    The sewer slime method, in analogy to sediment analyses, informs about the discharges which are polluted with heavy metals and fed into the public sewage system at specific points, independent of the time of discharge. The sewer slime consisting of bacteria, fungi, organic and inorganic compounds concentrates heavy metals by sedimentation, adsorption and precipitation processes and thus represents a pollution indicator. This study characterizes sewer slimes by means of physical properties and by analysis of the chemical and biological composition. The mechanisms of heavy metal enrichment and reduction under altered environmental conditions are analyzed using the elements Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn as examples. (RB).

  12. The fate of radioactivity in sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environment Agencies authorise and monitor the disposal of low-level radioactive waste to sewers. Such discharges originate from non-nuclear sites such as hospitals, universities and research centres. Discharges are strictly controlled through authorisations, which place conditions and limits on the disposer. We commissioned the work summarised within this, leaflet to reassess the fate of these radioactive discharges and to ensure that this practice remains acceptable and is still the best option for disposal. In all cases the study found assessed radiation doses (associated with these discharges) to be a small fraction of the public dose limit. The Environment Agencies conclude from this study that the disposal of radioactive waste to sewers remains the best option available to ensure the safety of the public (including sewer workers) and to protect the environment

  13. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...... exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  15. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Regueiro-Picallo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25.

  16. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative

  20. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  2. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E

    2012-12-01

    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change. Copyright © 2012

  3. Application of Morphological Segmentation to Leaking Defect Detection in Sewer Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ching Su

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED, to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO, were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines.

  4. Quantification of groundwater infiltration and surface water inflows in urban sewer networks based on a multiple model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Krebs, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The management of sewer systems requires information about discharge and variability of typical wastewater sources in urban catchments. Especially the infiltration of groundwater and the inflow of surface water (I/I) are important for making decisions about the rehabilitation and operation of sewer networks. This paper presents a methodology to identify I/I and estimate its quantity. For each flow fraction in sewer networks, an individual model approach is formulated whose parameters are optimised by the method of least squares. This method was applied to estimate the contributions to the wastewater flow in the sewer system of the City of Dresden (Germany), where data availability is good. Absolute flows of I/I and their temporal variations are estimated. Further information on the characteristics of infiltration is gained by clustering and grouping sewer pipes according to the attributes construction year and groundwater influence and relating these resulting classes to infiltration behaviour. Further, it is shown that condition classes based on CCTV-data can be used to estimate the infiltration potential of sewer pipes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical review on the stability of illicit drugs in sewers and wastewater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Bade, Richard; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Covaci, Adrian; Bijlsma, Lubertus; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Ort, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) applies advanced analytical methods to quantify drug residues in wastewater with the aim to estimate illicit drug use at the population level. Transformation processes during transport in sewers (chemical and biological reactors) and storage of wastewater samples before analysis are expected to change concentrations of different drugs to varying degrees. Ignoring transformation for drugs with low to medium stability will lead to an unknown degree of systematic under- or overestimation of drug use, which should be avoided. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the stability of commonly investigated drugs and, furthermore, suggest a more effective approach to future experiments. From over 100 WBE studies, around 50 mentioned the importance of stability and 24 included tests in wastewater. Most focused on in-sample stability (i.e., sample preparation, preservation and storage) and some extrapolated to in-sewer stability (i.e., during transport in real sewers). While consistent results were reported for rather stable compounds (e.g., MDMA and methamphetamine), a varying range of stability under different or similar conditions was observed for other compounds (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine and morphine). Wastewater composition can vary considerably over time, and different conditions prevail in different sewer systems. In summary, this indicates that more systematic studies are needed to: i) cover the range of possible conditions in sewers and ii) compare results more objectively. To facilitate the latter, we propose a set of parameters that should be reported for in-sewer stability experiments. Finally, a best practice of sample collection, preservation, and preparation before analysis is suggested in order to minimize transformation during these steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-05-15

    Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the performance of sewer rehabilitation on the reduction of infiltration and inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufer, P; Scheidegger, A; Rieckermann, J

    2012-10-15

    Inflow and Infiltration (I/I) into sewer systems is generally unwanted, because, among other things, it decreases the performance of wastewater treatment plants and increases combined sewage overflows. As sewer rehabilitation to reduce I/I is very expensive, water managers not only need methods to accurately measure I/I, but also they need sound approaches to assess the actual performance of implemented rehabilitation measures. However, such performance assessment is rarely performed. On the one hand, it is challenging to adequately take into account the variability of influential factors, such as hydro-meteorological conditions. On the other hand, it is currently not clear how experimental data can indeed support robust evidence for reduced I/I. In this paper, we therefore statistically assess the performance of rehabilitation measures to reduce I/I. This is possible by using observations in a suitable reference catchment as a control group and assessing the significance of the observed effect by regression analysis, which is well established in other disciplines. We successfully demonstrate the usefulness of the approach in a case study, where rehabilitation reduced groundwater infiltration by 23.9%. A reduction of stormwater inflow of 35.7%, however, was not statistically significant. Investigations into the experimental design of monitoring campaigns confirmed that the variability of the data as well as the number of observations collected before the rehabilitation impact the detection limit of the effect. This implies that it is difficult to improve the data quality after the rehabilitation has been implemented. Therefore, future practical applications should consider a careful experimental design. Further developments could employ more sophisticated monitoring methods, such as stable environmental isotopes, to directly observe the individual infiltration components. In addition, water managers should develop strategies to effectively communicate statistically

  8. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model i...... is being developed as a part of a study being carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden. The project is funded by the Swedish Water and Waste Water Works Association and the Nordic Industrial Foundation.......This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...

  9. Diagnostic system for combine cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yujiro; Nomura, Masumi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ito, Ryoji; Kita, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    We developed the Diagnostic System for Combined Cycle Power Plant which enables inexperienced operators as well as experienced operators to cope with abnormal conditions of Combined Cycle Power Plant. The features of this system are the Estimate of Emergency Level for Operation and the Prediction of Subsequent Abnormality, adding to the Diagnosis of Cause and the Operation Guidance. Moreover in this system, Diagnosis of Cause was improved by using our original method and support screens can be displayed for educational means in normal condition as well. (Authors)

  10. Monitoring the Startup of a Sacrificial Concrete Sewer for Odor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    with extended retention time. For the purpose of the study, a 50-m long sacrificial concrete gravity sewer was constructed using a high alkalinity concrete pipe. The monitoring campaign reported in this paper covers the first 9 months of operation. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of the system...

  11. NORTH PORTAL-SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  12. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... maintained sanitary sewer systems are meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into them... sewage from these overflows can contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. It can... influent flows to exceed the treatment capacity of existing secondary treatment units. Known as ``peak...

  13. Biodegradability of organic matter associated with sewer sediments during first flush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakrabani, Ruben; Vollertsen, Jes; Ashley, Richard M; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2009-04-01

    The high pollution load in wastewater at the beginning of a rain event is commonly known to originate from the erosion of sewer sediments due to the increased flow rate under storm weather conditions. It is essential to characterize the biodegradability of organic matter during a storm event in order to quantify the effect it can have further downstream to the receiving water via discharges from Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO). The approach is to characterize the pollutograph during first flush. The pollutograph shows the variation in COD and TSS during a first flush event. These parameters measure the quantity of organic matter present. However these parameters do not indicate detailed information on the biodegradability of the organic matter. Such detailed knowledge can be obtained by dividing the total COD into fractions with different microbial properties. To do so oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurements on batches of wastewater have shown itself to be a versatile technique. Together with a conceptual understanding of the microbial transformation taking place, OUR measurements lead to the desired fractionation of the COD. OUR results indicated that the highest biodegradability is associated with the initial part of a storm event. The information on physical and biological processes in the sewer can be used to better manage sediment in sewers which can otherwise result in depletion of dissolved oxygen in receiving waters via discharges from CSOs.

  14. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site

  15. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  17. Leveraging Spatial Data to Assess Where Sewers Leak and Impinge on Urban Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, P. A.; Roehrdanz, P.; Lee, D. G.; Feraud, M.; Maier, M.; Means, J. C.; Snyder, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the modern urban water environment (UWE), engineered systems provide wastewater collection, treatment, and reuse; stormwater and graywater management; and potable water treatment, distribution and conservation. Underpinning such systems are physical, private and public, infrastructures whose integrities impinge on major goals of protecting groundwater and surface water resources, managing flooding, and securing safe drinking water. Here we study sanitary sewers, i.e. the main pipes in wastewater collection systems that improve public health by reducing pathogen exposure, and that afford reclaiming water for beneficial reuse. We ask: what is the relationship between sanitary sewer integrity and nearby water quality? Research methods include acquiring spatially defined sewer metadata that are analyzed using a published pipe leakage algorithm with variables of age, depth, materials of construction, length, diameter, slope, and nature of overburden. By executing the algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS), coupled with relating leakage probabilities to shallow groundwater table proximities—also digitally assembled, from well depth data—maps of wastewater exfiltration scores were produced for a city. Field sampling shallow groundwater allowed assessing concentrations of wastewater indicator compounds including personal care products and pharmaceuticals (PCPPs), and showing positive relationships between wastewater exfiltration scores and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), reactive nitrogen species, an artificial sweetener acesulfame, and a stable isotope of oxygen (δ18O). The approach is extended to surface waters, where exfiltrating wastewater may transport from leaking sanitary sewers through the unsaturated zone to nearby storm drains or to storm drains that are submerged in contaminated groundwater. Spatially assessing sewer interactions within the UWE, as such, could aid urban infrastructure management and investment.

  18. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  19. Water System Adaptation to Hydrological Changes: Module 2, Stormwater Management and Sewer Performance under Intense Storms: Case Study from Lawrence, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course focuses on water system adaptation to short-term and long-term climate and hydrologic stressors that affect water availability, water quality, security, and resilience. The course is organized into 15 sequential modules. The lectures will be augmented by weekly assign...

  20. Development of a method for the detection of heavy metal discharges into the sewer system. Final report. Methodenentwicklung zum einfachen Nachweis schwermetallhaltiger Einleitungen ins oeffentliche Kanalnetz mittels Sielhautuntersuchungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutekunst, B.

    1988-03-01

    Very often the agricultural use of municipal sludges is inhibited due to heavy metals contents, that exceed the values of the municipal sludge decree (Klaerschlammverordnung). This sludge contamination can only be reduced, if heavy metal containing run-offs are avoided. An effective method for registration and control of the waste water run-offs is therefore necessary. The analysis of sewer slime, a biofilm, that grows on the inner surface of waste water canals is a successful method to localize heavy metal laden run-offs. In this paper the results of the biological and the chemical analysis of several sewer slimes of different origins are presented. The accumulation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sewer slimes at different chemical conditions (pH, metal and slime concentrations) is investigated. The accumulation rate may reach 90%. The affinity of the slime towards metals decreases in the following way: Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni. The attachment of the metals on the biomass is mostly irreversible. Sequentional leaching shows that more than 70% of the Cd, Cu and Pb is tightly bound. Ni and Zn also appear in more soluble species. The remobilization of heavy metals is possible at acid conditions and in the presence of chelating agents. The growth of the biofilm depends on the nutrient content of the waste water and its flow rate. (orig.) With 42 refs., 15 tabs., 18 figs.

  1. [Combined forecasting system of peritonitis outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, N V; Klimov, A E; Agrba, S B; Gaidukevich, E K

    To create a reliable system for assessing of severity and prediction of the outcome of peritonitis. Critical analysis of the systems for peritonitis severity assessment is presented. The study included outcomes of 347 patients who admitted at the Department of Faculty Surgery of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 2015-2016. The cause of peritonitis were destructive forms of acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, various perforation of small and large intestines (including tumor). Combined forecasting system for peritonitis severity assessment is created. The system includes clinical, laboratory data, assessment of systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and severity of organ failure (qSOFA). The authors focused on easily identifiable parameters which are available in virtually any surgical hospital. Threshold value (lethal outcome probability over 50%) is 8 scores in this system. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3, 99.7 and 98.9%, respectively according to ROC-curve that exceeds those parameters of MPI and APACHE II.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  5. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    risks and corrosion of concrete and metals. Most of the problems relate to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of sewer networks. In this respect, the processes of the sulfur cycle are of fundamental importance in ultimately determining the extent of such problems. This study focused...... calibrated and validated against field data. In the extension to the WATS model, sulfur transformations were described by six processes: 1. Sulfide production taking place in the biofilm and sediments covering the permanently wetted sewer walls; 2. Biological sulfide oxidation in the permanently wetted...... to the sewer atmosphere, potentially resulting in concrete corrosion. The extended WATS model represents a major improvement over previously developed models for prediction of sulfide buildup in sewer networks. Compared to such models, the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks...

  6. Camera System MTF: combining optic with detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben B.; Granger, Zachary A.

    2017-08-01

    MTF is one of the most common metrics used to quantify the resolving power of an optical component. Extensive literature is dedicated to describing methods to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for stand-alone optical components such as a camera lens or telescope, and some literature addresses approaches to determine an MTF for combination of an optic with a detector. The formulations pertaining to a combined electro-optical system MTF are mostly based on theory, and assumptions that detector MTF is described only by the pixel pitch which does not account for wavelength dependencies. When working with real hardware, detectors are often characterized by testing MTF at discrete wavelengths. This paper presents a method to simplify the calculation of a polychromatic system MTF when it is permissible to consider the detector MTF to be independent of wavelength.

  7. Combined confinement system applied to tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1986-01-01

    From particle orbit point of view, a tokamak is a combined confinement configuration where a closed toroidal volume is surrounded by an open confinement system like a magnetic mirror. By eliminating a cold halo plasma, the energy loss from the plasma becomes convective. The H-mode in diverted tokamaks is an example. Because of the favorable scaling of the energy confinement time with temperature, the performance of the tokamak may be significantly improved by taking advantage of this effect. (author)

  8. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane Loft

    2013-01-01

    . The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by through a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow, given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied...

  9. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  10. Down Under – Aspects of Microbial Fuel Cell’s sewer implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrich, Jonas Maximilian Sven

    2017-01-01

    Increasing energy demand and simultaneous depletion of raw materials requires us to use existing resources more wisely. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) recover energy from waste water while clearing it. The sewage system with its million-kilometer-length is a highly interesting field for its application. The present work is therefore dedicated to aspects of Microbial Fuel Cells’ sewer implementation. Firstly, the wastewater infrastructure was evaluated with respect to suitable implementation s...

  11. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...... main. H2S related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed at such locations. The experiments showed that the rate of H2S oxidation was significantly faster on concrete pipe surfaces than on plastic pipe surfaces. Steady state calculations based on the kinetic data demonstrated that the gas phase...... H2S concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henrys law. In plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on these surfaces. Finally...

  12. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  13. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification and common parameters, such as the antecedent dry weather period, total event volume per impervious hectare and both the mean and maximum hydraulic flow for each event, was also studied. Moreover, the dynamics of flow and turbidity signals were compared at the event scale. No simple relation between turbidity responses, hydraulic flow dynamics and the chosen parameters was derived from this effort. Knowledge of turbidity dynamics could therefore potentially improve wet weather management, especially when using pollution-based real-time control (P-RTC) since turbidity contains information not included in hydraulic flow dynamics and not readily predictable from such dynamics.

  15. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  16. Implication of climate change on urban drainage systems of Chicago and Mainstream and DesPlaines (MS/DP) Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.; Oberg, N.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of changing climate patterns and rainfall extremes on sewer system and river basin has been brought to attention to the researchers worldwide. In 1972, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) adopted the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) to address combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution and flooding problems in the Chicago land area. The hydrosystem laboratory in University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developed a series of numerical models accordingly to analyze the complex hydraulic behavior of the as-built TARP system. Due to the interconnected nature of City of Chicago sewer network and MS/DP TARP system, a tightly coupled hydrological and hydraulic model MetroFlow was developed to facilitate such analysis by integrating previous developed models. This study utilized MetroFlow to predict the hydrologic/hydraulic response of the system for a set of pre-determined design and historical storm events. Accordingly, combined sewer overflows (CSO) of Chicago combined sewer system and MS/DP TARP system were evaluated under current and future weather scenarios. The total CSOs from TARP system can be considered as urban point pollution source to the surrounding receiving bodies, hence the potential impact of climate change on CSO fluxes is essential reference to wastewater infrastructure design and operations of the hydraulic regulating structures under storm events to mitigate predicted risks.

  17. A Monte-Carlo-Based Method for the Optimal Placement and Operation Scheduling of Sewer Mining Units in Urban Wastewater Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Psarrou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of sewer mining. It is based on extracting wastewater from a wastewater system, treating it on-site and producing recycled water applicable for non-potable uses. Despite the technology’s considerable benefits, several challenges hinder its implementation. Sewer mining disturbs biochemical processes inside sewers and affects hydrogen sulfide build-up, resulting in odor, corrosion and health-related problems. In this study, a tool for optimal sewer mining unit placement aiming to minimize hydrogen sulfide production is presented. The Monte-Carlo method coupled with the Environmental Protection Agency’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to conduct multiple simulations of the network. The network’s response when sewage is extracted from it is also examined. Additionally, the study deals with optimal pumping scheduling. The overall methodology is applied in a sewer network in Greece providing useful results. It can therefore assist in selecting appropriate locations for sewer mining implementation, with the focus on eliminating hydrogen sulfide-associated problems while simultaneously ensuring that higher water needs are satisfied.

  18. 33 CFR 86.13 - Combined whistle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) A combined whistle system is a number of whistles (sound emitting sources) operated together... evidenced by at least two-thirds of the whistles in the combined system having fundamental frequencies... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined whistle systems. 86.13...

  19. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiven...

  20. A high rate clarifier for load levelling in sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R A; Davey, A; Li, H

    2003-01-01

    The combining of chemically assisted clarification with a proprietary physical separation technology has led to a high rate process for clarifying flocculated sewage and other waste streams. This hybrid physico-chemical system, known as the CDS Fine Solids Separation (FSS) System, was developed over a two year period within a sewage treatment plant environment. This paper summarises the results of a recent field trial of the system with a Victorian water authority which experiences heavy loading of sewers in a coastal town during holiday periods. The trial sought to evaluate the FSS as a tool for smoothing the load on the 11 km long sewer to the sewage treatment plant (STP). The FSS system could possibly enable the costly augmentation of the sewer to be deferred, particularly as the capacity of the existing sewer pipe is satisfactory for most of the year. Water quality parameters were determined for a range of flowrates and operational conditions over a two month period. Large reductions were achieved in TSS, TP, FC, turbidity and BOD5, with only minimal reductions in NH3 and TON. These results showed that the FSS could meet the authority's objectives for load levelling and would provide a 20-25% increase in effective sewer capacity. The data are also discussed in terms of possible use of the effluent from the FSS for water reuse applications.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ... of the location. The Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS) employs innovations in nozzle design, lightweight composites and combination agents to design a system with extinguishment capabilities of much larger ARFF vehicles...

  2. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF SEWERS USING ELEMENTS OF RECYCLED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  3. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galpin, F.L.; Merrell, G.; Rogers, V.C.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study's objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. A Combined Preconditioning Strategy for Nonsymmetric Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ayuso Dios, Blanca; Barker, A. T.; Vassilevski, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    of the additive Schwarz method applied to nonsymmetric but definite matrices is presented for which the abstract assumptions are verified. A variable preconditioner, combining the original nonsymmetric one and a weighted least-squares version of it, is shown

  5. Computer aided system for parametric design of combination die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranje, Vishal G.; Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a computer aided system for parametric design of combination dies is presented. The system is developed using knowledge based system technique of artificial intelligence. The system is capable to design combination dies for production of sheet metal parts having punching and cupping operations. The system is coded in Visual Basic and interfaced with AutoCAD software. The low cost of the proposed system will help die designers of small and medium scale sheet metal industries for design of combination dies for similar type of products. The proposed system is capable to reduce design time and efforts of die designers for design of combination dies.

  6. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-16

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  7. Optimal Design of Gravitational Sewer Networks with General Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Afshar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Cellular Automata method is applied for the optimal design of sewer networks. The solution of sewer network optimization problems requires the determination of pipe diameters and average pipe cover depths, minimizing the total cost of the sewer network subject to operational constraints. In this paper, the network nodes and upstream and downstream pipe cover depths are considered as CA cells and cell states, respectively, and the links around each cell are taken into account as neighborhood. The proposed method is a general and flexible method for the optimization of sewer networks as it can be used to optimally design both gravity and pumped network due to the use of pipe nodal cover depths as the decision variables. The proposed method is tested against two  gravitational sewer networks and the  comparison of results with other methods such as  Genetic algorithm, Cellular Automata, Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Insulin delivery systems combined with microneedle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuan; Zhu, Dan Dan; Chen, Bo Zhi; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Guo, Xin Dong

    2018-03-29

    Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs. Drug free MNs include solid MNs ("poke and patch"), hollow MNs ("poke and flow") and reservoir-based swelling MNs ("poke and swell R-type"), and drug loaded MNs include coated MNs ("coat and poke"), dissolving MNs ("poke and release") and insulin incorporated swelling MNs ("poke and swell I-type"). Majority researches of MN-based IDSs have been conducted by using hollow MNs or dissolving MNs, and almost all clinical trials for MN-based IDSs have employed hollow MNs. "Poke and patch" approach dramatically increase skin permeability compared to traditional transdermal patch, but MNs fabricated from silicon or metal may leave sharp waste in the skin and cause a safety issue. "Poke and flow" approach, similar to transitional subcutaneous (SC) injection, is capable of producing faster insulin absorption and action than SC injection but may associate with blockage, leakage and low flow rate. Coated MNs are able of retaining the activity of drug, which loaded in a solid phase, for a long time, however have been relatively less studied for insulin application as the low drug dosing. "Poke and release" approach leaves no biohazardous sharp medical waste and is capable of rapid drug release. "Poke and swell R-type" can be seen as a combination of "poke and flow" and "poke and patch" approach, while "poke and swell I-type" is an approach between "coat and

  9. Modelling the impact of retention-detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, Søren; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Taylor, Heidi; Bockhorn, Britta; Larsen, Hauge; Kjølby, Morten Just; Blicher, Anne Steensen; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark. The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m³/100 m² (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous simulations covering 22 years showed that annual stormwater runoff was reduced by 68-87%, and that the retention volume was on average 53% full at the beginning of rain events. The effect of different retention-detention volume combinations was simulated, and results showed that allocating 20-40% of a soakaway volume to detention would significantly increase peak runoff reduction with a small reduction in the annual runoff.

  10. Reliability of adaptive multivariate software sensors for sewer water quality monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a multivariate approach, based on Principal Component Analysis PCA), as software sensor for fault detection and reconstruction of missing measurements in on-line monitoring of sewer water quality. The analysis was carried out on a 16-months dataset of five...... commonly available on-line measurements (flow, turbidity, ammonia, conductivity and temperature). The results confirmed the great performance of PCA (up to 10 weeks after parameter estimation) when estimating a measurement from the combination of the remaining four variables, a useful feature in data...

  11. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  12. Impacts on sewer performance due to changes to inputs in domestic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of changes in domestic wastewater inputs on sewer performance have been debated since the dawn of the great sewer construction movement in the 1850s. Nowadays, typical household wastewater that enters sewers can generally be divided into streams from the WC, shower and/or bathtub, kitchen sink, washing machine and dishwasher. Changes in thecomposition of domestic wastewater entering a sewer will depend on inter alia the properties of the appliances used in the households and house...

  13. Combined solar collector and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Smyth, M.; Eames, P.; Lo, S.N.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

  14. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  15. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  16. Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water...

  17. A Combined Preconditioning Strategy for Nonsymmetric Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ayuso Dios, Blanca

    2014-01-01

    We present and analyze a class of nonsymmetric preconditioners within a normal (weighted least-squares) matrix form for use in GMRES to solve nonsymmetric matrix problems that typically arise in finite element discretizations. An example of the additive Schwarz method applied to nonsymmetric but definite matrices is presented for which the abstract assumptions are verified. A variable preconditioner, combining the original nonsymmetric one and a weighted least-squares version of it, is shown to be convergent and provides a viable strategy for using nonsymmetric preconditioners in practice. Numerical results are included to assess the theory and the performance of the proposed preconditioners.

  18. A Combined Preconditioning Strategy for Nonsymmetric Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Dios, B. Ayuso [Univ. of Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Mathematics; King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Barker, A. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, P. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Here, we present and analyze a class of nonsymmetric preconditioners within a normal (weighted least-squares) matrix form for use in GMRES to solve nonsymmetric matrix problems that typically arise in finite element discretizations. An example of the additive Schwarz method applied to nonsymmetric but definite matrices is presented for which the abstract assumptions are verified. Variable preconditioner, which combines the original nonsymmetric one and a weighted least-squares version of it, and it is shown to be convergent and provides a viable strategy for using nonsymmetric preconditioners in practice. Numerical results are included to assess the theory and the performance of the proposed preconditioners.

  19. Combined heat and power solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    An Australian-designed photovoltaic (PV) power system that also supplies hot water is close to commercial release. PVs have been around for decades and solar concentrators have been efficiently heating water for nearly a century. The Australian National University, Department of Engineering - Centre for Sustainable Energy systems (CSES), has designed a domestic scale modular system that not only generates electricity but also provides concentrated thermal energy to heat water for a Solahart hot water system and is designed to be deployed into small to medium scale applications such as hospitals, schools and dwellings with an easily assembled galvanised steel frame. A market research was carried out and is envisaged that at least 7,500 units will be installed annually by the year 2005 and up to 25,000 units by 2008

  20. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  1. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  2. A combined system for measuring animal motion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M S; Young, C W; Li, Y C

    2000-01-31

    In this study, we have developed a combined animal motion activity measurement system that combines an infrared light matrix subsystem with an ultrasonic phase shift subsystem for animal activity measurement. Accordingly, in conjunction with an IBM PC/AT compatible personal computer, the combined system has the advantages of both infrared and ultrasonic subsystems. That is, it can at once measure and directly analyze detailed changes in animal activity ranging from locomotion to tremor. The main advantages of this combined system are that it features real time data acquisition with the option of animated real time or recorded display/playback of the animal's motion. Additionally, under the multi-task operating condition of IBM PC, it can acquire and process behavior using both IR and ultrasound systems simultaneously. Traditional systems have had to make separate runs for gross and fine movement recording. This combined system can be profitably employed for normative behavioral activity studies and for neurological and pharmacological research.

  3. Damage estimation of sewer pipe using subtitles of CCTV inspection video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kitae; Kim, Byeongcheol; Kim, Taeheon; Seo, Dongwoo

    2017-04-01

    Recent frequent occurrence of urban sinkhole serves as a momentum of the periodic inspection of sewer pipelines. Sewer inspection using a CCTV device needs a lot of time and efforts. Many of previous studies which reduce the laborious tasks are mainly interested in the developments of image processing S/W and exploring H/W. And there has been no attempt to find meaningful information from the existing CCTV images stored by the sewer maintenance manager. This study adopts a cross-correlation based image processing method and extracts sewer inspection device's location data from CCTV images. As a result of the analysis of location-time relation, it show strong correlation between device stand time and the sewer damages. In case of using this method to investigate sewer inspection CCTV images, it will save the investigator's efforts and improve sewer maintenance efficiency and reliability.

  4. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  5. Stochastic long term modelling of a drainage system with estimation of return period uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Long term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow (CSO) in drainage systems are associated with large uncertainties. Especially on rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper proposes a Monte Carlo based methodology for stochastic prediction of...

  6. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of

  7. The Majority Wins: a Method for Combining Speaker Diarization Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Jong, F.M.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining multiple diarization systems into one single system by applying a majority voting scheme. The voting scheme selects the best segmentation purely on basis of the output of each system. On our development set of NIST Rich Transcription evaluation

  8. Sewer infiltration/inflow: long-term monitoring based on diurnal variation of pollutant mass flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, V; Stránský, D; Sýkora, P

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a method for quantification of infiltrating groundwater based on the variation of diurnal pollutant load and continuous water quality and quantity monitoring. Although the method gives us the potential to separate particular components of wastewater hygrograph, several aspects of the method should be discussed. Therefore, the paper investigates the cost-effectiveness, the relevance of pollutant load from surface waters (groundwater) and the influence of measurement time step. These aspects were studied in an experimental catchment of Prague sewer system, Czech Republic, within a three-month period. The results indicate high contribution of parasitic waters on night minimal discharge. Taking into account the uncertainty of the results and time-consuming maintenance of the sensor, the principal advantages of the method are evaluated. The study introduces a promising potential of the discussed measuring concept for quantification of groundwater infiltrating into the sewer system. It is shown that the conventional approach is sufficient and cost-effective even in those catchments, where significant contribution of foul sewage in night minima would have been assumed.

  9. Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2016-03-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found.

  10. Development of a combined soil-wash/in-furnace vitrification system for soil remediation at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, I.L.; Guo, Y.; Lahoda, E.J.; Lai, Shan-Tao; Muller, I.S.; Ruller, J.; Grant, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report addresses research and development of technologies for treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. Weldon Spring raffinate sludges were used in a direct vitrification study to investigate their use as fluxing agents in glass formulations when blended with site soil. Storm sewer sediments from the Oak Ridge, TN, Y-12 facility were used for soil washing followed by vitrification of the concentrates. Both waste streams were extensively characterized. Testing showed that both mercury and uranium could be removed from the Y-12 soil by chemical extraction resulting in an 80% volume reduction. Thermal desorption was used on the contaminant-enriched minority fraction to separate the mercury from the uranium. Vitrification tests demonstrated that high waste loading glasses could be produced from the radioactive stream and from the Weldon Spring wastes which showed very good leach resistance, and viscosities and electrical conductivities in the range suitable for joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) processing. The conceptual process described combines soil washing, thermal desorption, and vitrification to produce clean soil (about 90% of the input waste stream), non-radioactive mercury, and a glass wasteform; the estimated processing costs for that system are about $260--$400/yd 3 . Results from continuous melter tests performed using Duratek's advanced JHCM (Duramelter) system are also presented. Since life cycle cost estimates are driven largely by volume reduction considerations, the large volume reductions possible with these multi-technology, blended waste stream approaches can produce a more leach resistant wasteform at a lower overall cost than alternative technologies such as cementation

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055 and 2004-006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  12. A combination chaotic system and application in color image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, R.; Zarebnia, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, by using Logistic, Sine and Tent systems we define a combination chaotic system. Some properties of the chaotic system are studied by using figures and numerical results. A color image encryption algorithm is introduced based on new chaotic system. Also this encryption algorithm can be used for gray scale or binary images. The experimental results of the encryption algorithm show that the encryption algorithm is secure and practical.

  13. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting

  14. Combined heuristic with fuzzy system to transmission system expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Sousa, Aldir; Asada, Eduardo N. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    A heuristic algorithm that employs fuzzy logic is proposed to the power system transmission expansion planning problem. The algorithm is based on the divide to conquer strategy, which is controlled by the fuzzy system. The algorithm provides high quality solutions with the use of fuzzy decision making, which is based on nondeterministic criteria to guide the search. The fuzzy system provides a self-adjusting mechanism that eliminates the manual adjustment of parameters to each system being solved. (author)

  15. Coordinating rule-based and system-wide model predictive control strategies to reduce storage expansion of combined urban drainage systems: The case study of Lundtofte, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meneses, Elbys Jose; Gaussens, Marion; Jakobsen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    performance in terms of combined sewer overflow (CSO) volumes, environmental impacts, and utility costs, which were reduced by up to 10%. The risk-based optimization strategy provided slightly better performance in terms of reducing CSO volumes, with evident improvements in environmental impacts and utility...... a five-year period. This study illustrates that including RTC during the planning stages reduces the infrastructural costs while offering better environmental protection, and that dynamic risk-based optimisation allows prioritising environmental impact reduction for particularly sensitive locations....

  16. Comparison of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and principal component analysis/DFT as forecasting tools for absorbance time series received by UV-visible probes installed in urban sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas-Nossa, Leonardo; Torres, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce a forecasting method for UV-Vis spectrometry time series that combines principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and to compare the results obtained with those obtained by using DFT. Three time series for three different study sites were used: (i) Salitre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Bogotá; (ii) Gibraltar pumping station in Bogotá; and (iii) San Fernando WWTP in Itagüí (in the south part of Medellín). Each of these time series had an equal number of samples (1051). In general terms, the results obtained are hardly generalizable, as they seem to be highly dependent on specific water system dynamics; however, some trends can be outlined: (i) for UV range, DFT and PCA/DFT forecasting accuracy were almost the same; (ii) for visible range, the PCA/DFT forecasting procedure proposed gives systematically lower forecasting errors and variability than those obtained with the DFT procedure; and (iii) for short forecasting times the PCA/DFT procedure proposed is more suitable than the DFT procedure, according to processing times obtained.

  17. System for combining laser beams of diverse frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for combining laser beams of different frequencies into a number of beams each comprising laser radiation having components of each of the different frequencies. The system can be used in laser isotope separation facilities. (U.K.)

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE SYSTEM INFLUENCE ON RECEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pluta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing waste water discharges to the receiver is now one of the most important activities to ensure the protection of surface waters. This is caused mainly by progressive urbanization and increasing impervious surfaces. Discharge of sewage with a large load of pollutants affect the receivers in a negative way. The quality of waste water varies and depends on many factors, but above all, it is closely linked with sewer system applied to the drainage catchment. The article presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impact of three basic sewer systems: combined, separate and semi-separate. The analysis was performed for a typical urban catchment, using the average concentration of the basic indicators of pollution, which total suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus, COD, BOD5, selected heavy metals are merked. The results concluded that each of these sewer systems characterized by varying environmental impacts depending on the indicator of pollution. The best of today available technical solutions seem to be semi-separate sewer system, using the storage tank with the control in real time (RTC for controlling the flow.

  19. COMBINED SYSTEMS OF ENERGY GENERATION – A CHARACTERISATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gilewski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents issues concerning technical solutions of combined systems of energy generation which can be used primarily in low-level power plants, installed in various types of public utility sites. A detailed description is given of selected ways of powering combined energy generation systems, presenting conceptual outlines of their operation and information on their advantages, disadvantages and applications. The following systems are introduced: gas-steam, back-pressure steam turbine, extraction-condensing steam turbine, gas turbine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine, fuel cells and internal combustion piston engine. Moreover, the study addresses economic aspects of energy generation in combined systems, discussing different methodologies of cost calculation, including the one used by the European Union. The article also gives a detailed review of piston engine combined-system aggregates available in the Polish market. Type series of associated systems designed for low-power appliances are shown, produced by Polish and foreign companies such as Viessmann, Centrum Elektroniki Stosowanej CES, H. Cegielski – Poznań, KWE Technika Energetyczna, TEDOM Poland or the EPS System.

  20. Technical note on drainage systems:design of pipes and detention facilities for rainwater

    OpenAIRE

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2014-01-01

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/st...

  1. Modelling the impact of retention–detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, S.; Mark, O.

    2015-01-01

    . The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous...... simulations covering 22 years showed that annual stormwater runoff was reduced by 68-87%, and that the retention volume was on average 53% full at the beginning of rain events. The effect of different retention-detention volume combinations was simulated, and results showed that allocating 20...

  2. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  3. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Olsen, R. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Hewett, M. [NorthernStar Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  4. Assessing the quality of sewer pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.

    2013-01-01

    Sewerage and urban drainage systems are capital intensive infrastructures characterised by process and structure complexity. For instance, in the Netherlands (2009), the municipalities spent around €1,2 billion on sewerage (or €151/per household/annum) (Walder, 2011). Proper operation and

  5. Combined system of solar heating and cooling using heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, R.A.; Anarbaev, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    The heating and cooling systems of apartment buildings based on combined solar heat-pump equipment has been considered and the procedure of calculating its parameters has been worked out. A technical-economic analysis has been performed and compared with the boiler-setting version. (author)

  6. Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...

  7. Reconsidering Urban Sewer and Treatment Facilities in East Africa as Interplay of Flows, Networks and Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization has brought about concentrations of people in densely populated settlements, resulting in the generation of waste water that needs to be disposed off in a hygienic way to avoid the outbreak of diseases. Decisions on what area to sewer, the nature of sewer schemes and treatment works to

  8. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects.

  9. Combined Optimal Control System for excavator electric drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, N. S.; Kochetkov, V. P.; Platonova, E. V.; Glushkin, E. Y.; Dulesov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents a synthesis of the combined optimal control algorithms of the AC drive rotation mechanism of the excavator. Synthesis of algorithms consists in the regulation of external coordinates - based on the theory of optimal systems and correction of the internal coordinates electric drive using the method "technical optimum". The research shows the advantage of optimal combined control systems for the electric rotary drive over classical systems of subordinate regulation. The paper presents a method for selecting the optimality criterion of coefficients to find the intersection of the range of permissible values of the coordinates of the control object. There is possibility of system settings by choosing the optimality criterion coefficients, which allows one to select the required characteristics of the drive: the dynamic moment (M) and the time of the transient process (tpp). Due to the use of combined optimal control systems, it was possible to significantly reduce the maximum value of the dynamic moment (M) and at the same time - reduce the transient time (tpp).

  10. Combining Innovation Systems and Global Value Chains for Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Lema, Rasmus; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to ongoing work which seeks to bring together the national innovation system and global value chain literatures for the study of economic development. We depart from the view that such a new combination will be helpful both in enhancing understanding of socioeconomic...... processes in developing countries and in building a more useful knowledge base for action. To this aim, we combine bibliometric analysis with a qualitative review of work from both bodies of literature. The purpose is to inform a research agenda suited for policy-relevant studies of economic development...

  11. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  12. Monitoring Performance of a combined water recycling system

    OpenAIRE

    Castleton, H.F.; Hathway, E.A.; Murphy, E.; Beck, S.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Global water demand is expected to outstrip supply dramatically by 2030, making water recycling an important tool for future water security. A large combined grey water and rainwater recycling system has been monitored in response to an identified knowledge gap of the in-use performance of such systems. The water saving efficiency of the system was calculated at −8ṡ5% in 2011 and –10% in 2012 compared to the predicted 36%. This was due to a lower quantity of grey water and rainwater being col...

  13. The fabrication and characterization of a PLGA nanoparticle–Pheroid® combined drug delivery system combined drug delivery system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chelopo, MP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available -NPs) and exclusion (neg-NPs) of chitosan (CT) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), to evaluate their interaction with the Pheroid® Vesicles. The average particle size of the novel NP–Pheroid® combined system ranged from approximately 1990–2450 nm while the zeta potential...

  14. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE SHELLS: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the non-failure criterion for each ply constituting the inner and outer laminate facings. The numerical results were obtained at low cost by using the finite element method. Studies have focused on structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form (egg-shaped section when it is subjected, during annular space filling operation, to pressure forces generated by wet concrete. To ensure the safety of the composite shell structure, Tsai-Hill criterion function is applied and results are presented for the most stressed plies

  15. [Early detection of occupational skin diseases in sewer workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A

    2018-04-25

    Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.

  16. Examination of the haemostatic system in radiation and combination hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegelein, K.

    1980-01-01

    Female mice of the NMRI-lineage were exposed to irradiation and, additionally, to an open wound in the back skin. The coagulation and the fibrinolysis were examined, comparing them with those of animals who had either been irradiated or had an open back skin wound, and the thrombocytes were counted. Here, no pathological values of the plasmatic coagulation system were found. In the first days, only after combined radiation damage, an increased coagulation potential could be found. Also indications to a reduction of the fibrinolytic activity were found. At the same time, the circulating thrombocytes were increased in most cases. With the radiation-induced thrombocytopenia, the coagulation was reduced; the thrombo-elasticity was reduced, the coagulation time was elongated. The significance and duration of the coagulation disturbances varied with the radiation dose of the combination hazards. During the haemorrhagic phase, in the animals with combined hazards the fibrinolytic potential was increased. The possible causes and the peculiarities of the elongations in the coagulation and fibrinolysis system by combined radiation hazards and possible therapies are discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Hill, R.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Norton, M.V.; Aaberg, R.L.; Stetar, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  18. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600 degrees C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 μg/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450 degrees C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process

  19. Combined feedforward and feedback control of end milling system

    OpenAIRE

    Čuš, Franc; Župerl, Uroš; Balič, Jože

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper. An intelligent control system is presented that uses a combination of feedforward and feedback for cutting force control in end milling.Design/methodology/approach: The network is trained by the feedback output that is minimized during training and most control action for disturbance rejection is finally performed by the rapid feedforward action of the network.Findings: The feedback controller corrects for errors caused by external disturbances. The feedforward...

  20. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, Eric; Walling, Gary; Brown, Robert C.; Pletka, Ryan; Radlein, Desmond; Johnson, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW e ; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  1. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  2. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  3. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M. J.; Gooi, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm...... algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected...

  4. Emission operational strategy for combined cooling, heating, and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumo, Nelson; Mago, Pedro J.; Chamra, Louay M.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES), as technology that use thermal activated components to recover waste heat, are energy systems that offer key solution to global warming and energy security through high overall energy efficiency and better fuel use. Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP) Systems are IES that use recovered thermal energy from the prime mover to produce heating and cooling for the building. The CCHP operational strategy is critical and it has to be considered in a well designed system since it defines the ultimate goal for the benefits expected from the system. One of the most common operational strategies is the cost-oriented strategy, which allows the system to operate at the lowest cost. A primary energy strategy (PES) optimizes energy consumption instead of cost. However, as a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have gained a lot of interest. Therefore, for a CCHP system, an emission strategy (ES) would be an operational strategy oriented to minimize emission of pollutants. In this study, the use of an ES is proposed for CCHP systems targeted to reduce emission of pollutants. The primary energy consumption (PEC) reduction and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission reduction obtained using the proposed ES are compared with results obtained from the use of a PES. Results show that lower emission of CO 2 is achieved with the ES when compared with the PES, which prove the advantage of the ES for the design of CCHP systems targeted to emissions reduction.

  5. A trial to combine heterogeneous computer systems in NIFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, M.; Watanabe, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Matsunami, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sudo, S.; Okumura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several computer systems in NIFS (the National Institute for Fusion Science) are involved in the operation of the LHD (Large Helical Device) for plasma experiments. Because these systems are independent of each other, it is burdensome to the programmers and the researchers to use several of them for one project. Currently, the programmers must write low-level data access routines for each system, then the researchers, after having learned these routines, can install the applications to retrieve the data on each system. In order to improve this situation, we have been developing a new system. This system employs two technologies, the signed applet and HORB, to combine the independent systems. These technologies were chosen for the following reasons: (1) The signed applet is an applet free from the general restrictions of applets, and can connect to any server and save the retrieved data to client machines; and (2) HORB is the Java-based ORB (Object Request Broker), the use of which makes it easy to build a Java-based, distributed environment. When the system is completed, it will allow users to obtain data from the above independent systems by means of ordinary Web browsers, without having to install additional applications

  6. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M.J.; Gooi, H.B.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Guerrero, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Applying colonial competitive algorithm to the problem of optimal dispatching. • Economic modeling of the residential integrated energy system. • Investigating differences of stand-alone and system-connected modes of fuel cell operation. • Considering uncertainty on the electrical load. • The effects of battery capacity and its efficiency on the system is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm is adopted to the hybrid energy system scheduling problem and different energy resources are optimally scheduled to have optimal operating cost of hybrid energy system. In order to show the effectiveness of the colonial competitive algorithm, the results are compared with the results of the harmony search algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected to be used effectively in a real hybrid energy system.

  7. The Ecology of Acidophilic Microorganisms in the Corroding Concrete Sewer Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete corrosion is one of the most significant problems affecting valuable sewer infrastructure on a global scale. This problem occurs in the aerobic zone of the sewer, where a layer of surface corrosion develops on the exposed concrete and the surface pH is typically lowered from around 11–10 (pristine concrete to pH 2–4. Acidophilic microorganisms become established as biofilms within the concrete corrosion layer and enhance the loss of concrete mass. Until recently, the acidophilic community was considered to comprise relatively few species of microorganisms, however, the biodiversity of the corrosion community is now recognized as being extensive and varying from different sewer environmental conditions. The diversity of acidophiles in the corrosion communities includes chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs. The activity of these microorganisms is strongly affected by H2S levels in the sewer gas phase, although CO2, organic matter, and iron in the corrosion layer influence this acidic ecosystem. This paper briefly presents the conditions within the sewer that lead to the development of concrete corrosion in that environment. The review focuses on the acidophilic microorganisms detected in sewer corrosion environments, and then summarizes their proposed functions and physiology, especially in relation to the corrosion process. To our knowledge, this is the first review of acidophilic corrosion microbial communities, in which, the ecology and the environmental conditions (when available are considered. Ecological studies of sewer corrosion are limited, however, where possible, we summarize the important metabolic functions of the different acidophilic species detected in sewer concrete corrosion layers. It is evident that microbial functions in the acidic sewer corrosion environment can be linked to those occurring in the analogous acidic environments of acid mine drainage and bioleaching.

  8. Interactive Rhythm Learning System by Combining Tablet Computers and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a percussion learning device that combines tablet computers and robots. This device comprises two systems: a rhythm teaching system, in which users can compose and practice rhythms by using a tablet computer, and a robot performance system. First, teachers compose the rhythm training contents on the tablet computer. Then, the learners practice these percussion exercises by using the tablet computer and a small drum set. The teaching system provides a new and user-friendly score editing interface for composing a rhythm exercise. It also provides a rhythm rating function to facilitate percussion training for children and improve the stability of rhythmic beating. To encourage children to practice percussion exercises, a robotic performance system is used to interact with the children; this system can perform percussion exercises for students to listen to and then help them practice the exercise. This interaction enhances children’s interest and motivation to learn and practice rhythm exercises. The results of experimental course and field trials reveal that the proposed system not only increases students’ interest and efficiency in learning but also helps them in understanding musical rhythms through interaction and composing simple rhythms.

  9. Hadronic energy reconstruction in the CALICE combined calorimeter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israeli, Yasmine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Future linear electron-positron colliders, ILC and CLIC, aim for precision measurements and discoveries beyond and complementary to the program of the LHC. For this purpose, detectors with the capability for sophisticated reconstruction of final states with energy resolutions substantially beyond the current state of the art are being designed. The CALICE collaboration develops highly granular calorimeters for future colliders, among them silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeters and hadronic calorimeters with scintillators read out by SiPMs. Such a combined system was tested with hadrons at CERN as well as at Fermilab. In this contribution, we report on the energy reconstruction in the combined setup, which requires different intercalibration factors to account for the varying longitudinal sampling of sub-detectors. Software compensation methods are applied to improve the energy resolution and to compensate for the different energy deposit of hadronic and electromagnetic showers.

  10. Hyperthermia system working in combination with an MR imaging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBihan, D.J.; Delannoy, J.; Levin, R.L.; Hoult, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors propose a hyperthermia device to be used for temperature monitoring. It consists of a modified miniannular phased array (MAPA) radio-frequency applicator designed for limb tumor treatment that works in combination with a whole-body MR imaging unit operating at 21 MHz. Highly accurate (0.5 0 c/0.8 cm 2 ) temperature images are obtained noninvasively throughout the heated volume from MR images of molecular diffusion, the relation of which with temperature is well known. The MAPA, electrically modified to be compatible with MR imagers, can be centered inside the MR head coil. The combined system was tested on a phantom in which the temperature distribution was confirmed by miniature thermocouples

  11. Solar System Symphony: Combining astronomy with live classical music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle; WorldWide Telescope

    2017-01-01

    Solar System Symphony is an educational outreach show which combines astronomy visualizations and live classical music. As musicians perform excerpts from Holst’s “The Planets” and other orchestral works, visualizations developed using WorldWide Telescope and NASA images and animations are projected on-stage. Between each movement of music, a narrator guides the audience through scientific highlights of the solar system. The content of Solar System Symphony is geared toward a general audience, particularly targeting K-12 students. The hour-long show not only presents a new medium for exposing a broad audience to astronomy, but also provides universities an effective tool for facilitating interdisciplinary collaboration between two divergent fields. The show was premiered at Northwestern University in May 2016 in partnership with Northwestern’s Bienen School of Music and was recently performed at the Colburn Conservatory of Music in November 2016.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  13. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  14. Gamma and beta logging of underground sewer and process lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, M.J.; Martz, D.E.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    The GammaSnake can be useful for locating uranium mill tailings used as backfill for sewer lines or storm drains where the lines can be readily accessed from a cleanout access port or other opening. The time required to determine if contamination is present using the GammaSnake method is considerably less than when using the delta gamma or drilling methods. There is, also, less potential hazard to the equipment operators when using the GammaSnake method. The GammaSnake method is generally limited to a distance of 100 feet or less. Used with the MAC-51B line locator, the GammaSnake method can provide useful information without extensive drilling or surveying. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Demand Controlled Ventilation in a Combined Ventilation and Radiator System

    OpenAIRE

    Hesaraki, Arefeh; Holmberg, Sture

    2013-01-01

    With growing concerns for efficient and sustainable energy treatment in buildings there is a need for balanced and intelligent ventilation solutions. This paper presents a strategy for demand controlled ventilation with ventilation radiators, a combined heating and ventilation system. The ventilation rate was decreased from normal requirements (per floor area) of 0.375 l·s-1·m-2 to 0.100 l·s-1·m-2 when the residence building was un-occupied. The energy saving potential due to decreased ventil...

  16. Open Drainage and Detention Basin Combined System Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Banihabib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since flooding causes death and economic damages, then it is important and is one of the most complex and destructive natural disaster that endangers human lives and properties compared to any other natural disasters. This natural disaster almost hit most of countries and each country depending on its policy deals with it differently. Uneven intensity and temporal distribution of rainfall in various parts of Iran (which has arid and semiarid climate causes flash floods and leads to too much economic damages. Detention basins can be used as one of the measures of flood control and it detains, delays and postpones the flood flow. It controls floods and affects the flood directly and rapidly by temporarily storing of water. If the land topography allows the possibility of making detention basin with an appropriate volume and quarries are near to the projects for construction of detention dam, it can be used, because of its faster effect comparing to the other watershed management measures. The open drains can be used alone or in combination with detention basin instead of detention basin solitarily. Since in the combined system of open and detention basin the dam height is increasing in contrast with increasing the open drainage capacity, optimization of the system is essential. Hence, the investigation of the sensitivity of optimized combined system (open drainage and detention basin to the effective factors is also useful in appropriately design of the combined system. Materials and Methods: This research aims to develop optimization model for a combined system of open drainage and detention basins in a mountainous area and analyze the sensitivity of optimized dimensions to the hydrological factors. To select the dam sites for detention basins, watershed map with scale of 1: 25000 is used. In AutoCAD environment, the location of the dam sites are assessed to find the proper site which contains enough storage volume of the detention

  17. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  18. Combination of evidence in recommendation systems characterized by distance functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L. M. (Luis Mateus)

    2002-01-01

    Recommendation systems for different Document Networks (DN) such as the World Wide Web (WWW), Digitnl Libarries, or Scientific Databases, often make use of distance functions extracted from relationships among documents and between documents and semantic tags. For instance, documents In the WWW are related via a hyperlink network, while documents in bibliographic databases are related by citation and collaboration networks.Furthermore, documents can be related to semantic tags such as keywords used to describe their content, The distance functions computed from these relations establish associative networks among items of the DN, and allow recommendation systems to identify relevant associations for iudividoal users. The process of recommendation can be improved by integrating associative data from different sources. Thus we are presented with a problem of combining evidence (about assochaons between items) from different sonrces characterized by distance functions. In this paper we summarize our work on (1) inferring associations from semi-metric distance functions and (2) combining evidence from different (distance) associative DN.

  19. Design Of A Laboratory Set-up For Evaluating Structural Strength Of Deteriorated Concrete Sewer Pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the

  20. Anticoagulant resistance: a relevant issue in sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus) control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    the resistant rats, had resistance-related mutations in the VKORC1 gene. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the genetic background of anticoagulant resistance may have to be redefined in respect of resistance-related changes in the VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......BACKGROUND: The majority of rat problems in cities are thought to be related to defective sewers, and the use of anticoagulant rodenticides in such places is often implemented as part of regular urban rodent control. Knowledge pertaining to the resistance status of sewer rat populations is non......-existent, which may be leading to control problems in cities. It has become crucial to provide knowledge on the prevalence of resistance and how different control strategies have affected its prevalence among sewer rat populations. The prevalence of resistance was investigated in six sewer locations in Copenhagen...

  1. Determination of an Optimal Trunk Sewer-line Route for Kikuyu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed route utilises the existing road reserves, which help in minimising the costs ... and industries and conveys it using sewer pipes to a treatment works where it is treated and ..... Automating Utility Route Design and Planning through.

  2. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  3. Investigation of the sources and fate of radioactive discharges to public sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, J.; Carey, A.; Crockett, G.

    2000-01-01

    The practise of disposing of small amounts of liquid radioactive waste from non-nuclear organisations to public sewer systems, is currently being reviewed by the Environment Agency, Scottish Environmental Protection Agency and the Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate. Changing sewage treatment and disposal practises, particularly the increasing use of incineration to treat sewage sludge in urban areas, have prompted this review. This study was undertaken as part of the review process to determine whether disposal into the public sewer system remains a safe disposal option. This report describes a study to investigate the sources and fates of authorised discharges of radionuclides into the sewer system. Sewage transport, treatment, discharge and incineration systems are described and the fate of radionuclides in the systems considered. A model (SMART) was developed to predict radionuclide behaviour through these systems and calculate the resulting doses. Case studies of two large urban sewerage systems were carried out in Leeds and Central London. Leeds is served by one sewage treatment works at Knostrop, which receives disposals of ten radionuclides from six disposers. Up to seven of the radionuclides were measurable in effluents, sludges or incinerator ash at the works. Naturally occurring and fallout radionuclides were also detected. Central London is served by one large works at Beckton which receives disposals of twenty radionuclides from 65 disposers. Up to ten of the disposed radionuclides, plus naturally occurring and fallout radionuclides were detected in effluents, sludges, incinerator cake or ash at Beckton. For both sites the largest authorised disposals were of Tc-99m, C-14, I-125, I-131 and H-3. The behaviour of radionuclides during incineration was assessed using measurements and literature values. The radiological implications of disposals in Leeds and Central London were assessed using the model SMART and by measuring dose rates

  4. Combined desalination and solar-assisted air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a new desalination process utilizing low grade thermal energy is presented. In this process, fresh water is distilled from saline water under near-vacuum pressures created by passive means, enabling low-temperature distillation with lower energy requirements. The energy for low-temperature distillation is provided by a thermal energy storage (TES) system maintained at 55 deg. C utilizing any low grade waste heat source. In this study, heat rejected by the condenser of a modified absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is evaluated as a possible source to drive this desalination process. The energy for the generator of the ARS is provided by a combination of solar collector system and grid power. Results of this study show that the thermal energy rejected by an ARS of cooling capacity of 3.25 kW (0.975 tons of refrigeration) along with an additional energy input of 208 kJ/kg of desalinated water is adequate to produce desalinated water at an average rate of 4.5 kg/h. This energy consumption is competitive with that of the multi-stage flash distillation process of similar capacity (338 kJ/kg). An integrated process model and performance curves of the proposed approach are presented in this paper. Effects of process parameters on the performance of the system are also presented

  5. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  6. Modernizing sewers and wastewater systems with new technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    After continuous problems and challenges with dead fish and oxygen depletion in the waters, Denmark initiated an action plan for Danish waters to reduce pollution in the late 1980s. The action plan puts focus on stricter criteria for wastewater treatment plants. Over the years, the plan has been ...... Danish technologies is one of the main contributions to this success. However, education of staff, improved legislation and good cooperation between several stakeholders played an important role as well....

  7. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality at monitoring wells installed for the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan System and nearby water-supply wells, Cook County, Illinois, 1995–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.

    2016-04-04

    Groundwater-quality data collected from 1995 through 2013 from 106 monitoring wells open to the base of the Silurian aquifer surrounding the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) System in Cook County, Illinois, were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, to assess the efficacy of the monitoring network and the effects of water movement from the tunnel system to the surrounding aquifer. Groundwater from the Silurian aquifer typically drains to the tunnel system so that analyte concentrations in most of the samples from most of the monitoring wells primarily reflect the concentration of the analyte in the nearby Silurian aquifer. Water quality in the Silurian aquifer is spatially variable because of a variety of natural and non-TARP anthropogenic processes. Therefore, the trends in analyte values at a given well from 1995 through 2013 are primarily a reflection of the spatial variation in the value of the analyte in groundwater within that part of the Silurian aquifer draining to the tunnels. Intermittent drainage of combined sewer flow from the tunnel system to the Silurian aquifer when flow in the tunnel systemis greater than 80 million gallons per day may affect water quality in some nearby monitoring wells. Intermittent drainage of combined sewer flow from the tunnel system to the Silurian aquifer appears to affect the values of electrical conductivity, hardness, sulfate, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, ammonia, and fecal coliform in samples from many wells but typically during less than 5 percent of the sampling events. Drainage of combined sewer flow into the aquifer is most prevalent in the downstream parts of the tunnel systems because of the hydraulic pressures elevated above background values and long residence time of combined sewer flow in those areas. Elevated values of the analytes emplaced during intermittent migration of combined sewer flow into the Silurian aquifer

  8. Design for micro-combined cooling, heating and power systems stirling engines and renewable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    ‘Design for Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating & Power Systems’ provides a manual for the technical and structural design of systems for supplying decentralised energy in residential buildings. It presents the micro-combined cooling, heating & power systems Stirling engines & renewable energy sources (mCCHP-SE-RES) systems in an accessible manner both for the public at large, and for professionals who conceive, design or commercialise such systems or their components.  The high performance levels of these systems are demonstrated within the final chapter by the results of an experiment in which a house is equipped with a mCCHP-SE-RES system. The reader is also familiarized with the conceptual, technical and legal aspects of modern domestic energy systems; the components that constitute these systems; and advanced algorithms for achieving the structural and technical design of such systems. In residential buildings, satisfying demands of durable development has gradually evolved from necessity to...

  9. Exhibits Recognition System for Combining Online Services and Offline Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve a more convenient and accurate digital museum navigation, we have developed a real-time and online-to-offline museum exhibits recognition system using image recognition method based on deep learning. In this paper, the client and server of the system are separated and connected through the HTTP. Firstly, by using the client app in the Android mobile phone, the user can take pictures and upload them to the server. Secondly, the features of the picture are extracted using the deep learning network in the server. With the help of the features, the pictures user uploaded are classified with a well-trained SVM. Finally, the classification results are sent to the client and the detailed exhibition’s introduction corresponding to the classification results are shown in the client app. Experimental results demonstrate that the recognition accuracy is close to 100% and the computing time from the image uploading to the exhibit information show is less than 1S. By means of exhibition image recognition algorithm, our implemented exhibits recognition system can combine online detailed exhibition information to the user in the offline exhibition hall so as to achieve better digital navigation.

  10. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance...... of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  11. CFD analysis of ejector in a combined ejector cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusly, E.; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Centre (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Charters, W.W.S.; Ooi, A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia)

    2005-11-01

    One-dimensional ejector analyses often use coefficients derived from experimental data for a set of operating conditions with limited functionality. In this study, several ejector designs were modelled using finite volume CFD techniques to resolve the flow dynamics in the ejectors. The CFD results were validated with available experimental data. Flow field analyses and predictions of ejector performance outside the experimental range were also carried out. During validation, data from CFD predicted the entrainment ratios with greater accuracy on definite area ratios, although no shock was recorded in the ejector. Predictions outside the experimental range-at operating conditions in a combined ejector-vapour compression system-and flow conditions resulting from ejector geometry variations are discussed. It is found that the maximum entrainment ratio happens in the ejector just before a shock occurs and that the position of the nozzle is an important ejector design parameter. (author)

  12. Event Processing and Variable Part of Sample Period Determining in Combined Systems Using GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strémy, Maximilián; Závacký, Pavol; Jedlička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with combined dynamic systems and usage of modern techniques in dealing with these systems, focusing particularly on sampling period design, cyclic processing tasks and related processing algorithms in the combined event management systems using genetic algorithms.

  13. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  14. Long forecast horizon to improve Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast....... However, such temporal horizon (1-2 hours) is relatively short when used for the operation of large storage facilities, which may require a few days to be emptied. This limits the performance of the optimization and control in reducing combined sewer overflow and in preparing for possible flooding. Based...

  15. Using ensemble weather forecast in a risk based real time optimization of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast....... However, such temporal horizon (1-2 hours) is relatively short when used for the operation of large storage facilities, which may require a few days to be emptied. This limits the performance of the optimization and control in reducing combined sewer overflow and in preparing for possible flooding. Based...

  16. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation. Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. (Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain)); Lopez, R. (Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain))

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  17. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation; Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. [Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, R. [Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  18. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  19. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    primarily tested for possible resistance to coumatetralyl, bromadiolone and difenacoum by Blood Clotting Response tests. Feeding test was used in tests for resistance to difethialone. A total of 24 rats trapped in sewers at 15 locations were tested. Resistance to bromadiolone was found among rats from all......Control of rats in sewers is, though of varying intensity, common practice in a majority of Danish municipalities and bromadiolone is the most preferred active ingredient. The results of sewer rat control is very difficult to register and very little is known about resistance among sewer rats...

  20. Combined Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.; Miller, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Besides providing position, velocity, and timing (PVT) for terrestrial users, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is also being used to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. In 2006, F. H. Bauer, et. al., defined the Space Service Volume in the paper GPS in the Space Service Volume , presented at ION s 19th international Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, and looked at GPS coverage for orbiting satellites. With GLONASS already operational, and the first satellites of the Galileo and Beidou/COMPASS constellations already in orbit, it is time to look at the use of the new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. This presentation extends GPS in the Space Service Volume by examining the coverage capability of combinations of the new constellations with GPS GPS was first explored as a system for refining the position, velocity, and timing of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers in the early eighties. Because of this, a new GPS utility developed beyond the original purpose of providing position, velocity, and timing services for land, maritime, and aerial applications. GPS signals are now received and processed by spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation, including signals that spill over the limb of the earth. Support of GPS space applications is now part of the system plan for GPS, and support of the Space Service Volume by other GNSS providers has been proposed to the UN International Committee on GNSS (ICG). GPS has been demonstrated to provide decimeter level position accuracy in real-time for satellites in low Earth orbit (centimeter level in non-real-time applications). GPS has been proven useful for satellites in geosynchronous orbit, and also for satellites in highly elliptical orbits. Depending on how many satellites are in view, one can keep time locked to the GNSS standard, and through that to Universal Time as long as at least one

  1. Definition the combined system parameters of photo transducer - thermoelectric transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunov, M.N.; Dyskin, V.G.; Dadamukhamedov, S.; Yuldoshev, I.A.; Turdiev, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the combined device for the conversion of solar radiation, consisting of solar cells and thermocouples is described. The results of measurements carried out the installation, on the basis of which it was concluded that the combined unit increases the conversion efficiency of solar radiation by 5% and such arrangements may be used in countries with very hot climates. (authors)

  2. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  3. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  4. Evidence for fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2011-05-15

    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary sewers. In this study, FOG deposits were formed under laboratory conditions from the reaction between free fatty acids and calcium chloride. The calcium and fatty acid profile analysis showed that the laboratory-produced FOG deposit displayed similar characteristics to FOG deposits collected from sanitary sewer lines. Results of FTIR analysis showed that the FOG deposits are metallic salts of fatty acid as revealed by comparisons with FOG deposits collected from sewer lines and pure calcium soaps. Based on the data, we propose that the formation of FOG deposits occurs from the aggregation of excess calcium compressing the double layer of free fatty acid micelles and a saponification reaction between aggregated calcium and free fatty acids.

  5. A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A rat in the sewer: How mental imagery interacts with object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpur, Harun; Hamburger, Kai

    2018-01-01

    The role of mental imagery has been puzzling researchers for more than two millennia. Both positive and negative effects of mental imagery on information processing have been discussed. The aim of this work was to examine how mental imagery affects object recognition and associative learning. Based on different perceptual and cognitive accounts we tested our imagery-induced interaction hypothesis in a series of two experiments. According to that, mental imagery could lead to (1) a superior performance in object recognition and associative learning if these objects are imagery-congruent (semantically) and to (2) an inferior performance if these objects are imagery-incongruent. In the first experiment, we used a static environment and tested associative learning. In the second experiment, subjects encoded object information in a dynamic environment by means of a virtual sewer system. Our results demonstrate that subjects who received a role adoption task (by means of guided mental imagery) performed better when imagery-congruent objects were used and worse when imagery-incongruent objects were used. We finally discuss our findings also with respect to alternative accounts and plead for a multi-methodological approach for future research in order to solve this issue.

  7. Managing sewer solids for the reduction of foul flush effects--Forfar WTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A G; Sakrabani, R; Ashley, R M; Johnstone, F M

    2002-01-01

    In times of high sewer flow, conditions can exist which enable previously deposited material to be re-entrained back into the body of the flow column. Pulses of this highly polluted flow have been recorded in many instances at the recently constructed wastewater treatment plant (WTP) in Forfar, Scotland. Investigations have been undertaken to characterise the incoming flows and to suggest remedial measures to manage the quality fluctuations. Initial visits to the works and incoming pipes indicated a high degree of sediment deposition in the two inlet pipes. Analyses were carried out and consequently, changes to the hydraulic regime were made. Measurements of sediment level, sediment quality, wall slime and bulk water quality were monitored in the period following the remedial works to observe any improvements. Dramatic alterations in each of the determinands measured were recorded. Analyses were then undertaken to determine long term sediment behaviour and to assess the future usefulness of existing upstream sediment traps. It was concluded that with proper maintenance of the traps, the new hydraulic regime is sufficient to prevent further significant build up of sediment deposits and reduce impacts on the WTP. Further investigations made by North of Scotland Water Authority highlighted trade inputs to the system which may also have contributed to the now managed foul flush problem.

  8. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude

    Test). Preliminary results based on one fourth of the captured rats indicate, that the prevalence of pathogenic leptospira infected sewer rats are relatively high, as 28 out 48 rats were positive by PCR. This suggests that the sewer could be an environment representing high prevalence of leptospira...... among rats and thus an environment with high risk of transmission....

  9. Design and Development of Vision Based Blockage Clearance Robot for Sewer Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Nesaian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is one of the advanced technologies, which is capable of completing tasks at situations where humans are unable to reach, see or survive. The underground sewer pipelines are the major tools for the transportation of effluent water. A lot of troubles caused by blockage in sewer pipe will lead to overflow of effluent water, sanitation problems. So robotic vehicle that is capable of traveling at underneath effluent water determining blockage using ultrasonic sensors and clearing by means of drilling mechanism is done. In addition to that wireless camera is fixed which acts as a robot vision by which we can monitor video and capture images using MATLAB tool. Thus in this project a prototype model of underground sewer pipe blockage clearance robot with drilling type will be developed

  10. Open Architecture Data System for NASA Langley Combined Loads Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Michael C.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    The Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) is a new structures test complex that is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test large curved panels and cylindrical shell structures. These structural components are representative of aircraft fuselage sections of subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft and cryogenic tank structures of reusable launch vehicles. Test structures are subjected to combined loading conditions that simulate realistic flight load conditions. The facility consists of two pressure-box test machines and one combined loads test machine. Each test machine possesses a unique set of requirements or research data acquisition and real-time data display. Given the complex nature of the mechanical and thermal loads to be applied to the various research test articles, each data system has been designed with connectivity attributes that support both data acquisition and data management functions. This paper addresses the research driven data acquisition requirements for each test machine and demonstrates how an open architecture data system design not only meets those needs but provides robust data sharing between data systems including the various control systems which apply spectra of mechanical and thermal loading profiles.

  11. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS......-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order...... in the aerobic wastewater....

  12. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  13. Simulating pH and hydrogen sulfide in a distributed collection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Le Guennec, Anne; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2013-01-01

    A concept for modeling the pH in distributed sewer systems is presented. The concept is an extension of the existing sewer process model WATS, which simulates physical, chemical and biological processes in wastewater, biofilms, sediments, and sewer headspace, as well as water flow, gas flow, and ....... The pH decreased from 7.80 of fresh wastewater entering the nodes to 7.30 at the treatment plant. This decrease could be attributed to the processes of anaerobic fermentation and hydrogen sulfide formation in the network.......A concept for modeling the pH in distributed sewer systems is presented. The concept is an extension of the existing sewer process model WATS, which simulates physical, chemical and biological processes in wastewater, biofilms, sediments, and sewer headspace, as well as water flow, gas flow...

  14. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  15. Symbol Stream Combining in a Convolutionally Coded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Swanson, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symbol stream combining has been proposed as a method for arraying signals received at different antennas. If convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding are used, it is shown that a Viterbi decoder based on the proposed weighted sum of symbol streams yields maximum likelihood decisions.

  16. Effects of multidose combination chemotherapy on the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, A; Lodewijk, ME; Klok, PA; Timens, W

    Patients receiving multidose combination chemotherapy are at risk for severe, life-threatening infections, caused by among others encapsulated bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae. The splenic marginal zone is essential in the initiation of immune responses to S. pneumoniae. We analyzed effects of

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  19. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.S. [Aqua Environmental Services, Inc., Bountiful, UT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  20. Seamless Guidance System Combining GPS, BLE Beacon, and NFC Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Shiang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Users rely increasingly on Location-Based Services (LBS and automated navigation/guidance systems nowadays. However, while such services are easily implemented in outdoor environments using Global Positioning System (GPS technology, a requirement still exists for accurate localization and guidance schemes in indoor settings. Accordingly, the present study proposes a system based on GPS, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons, and Near Field Communication (NFC technology. Through establishing graphic information and the design of algorithm, this study develops a guidance system for indoors and outdoors on smart phones, wishing to give user perfect smart life through this system. The proposed system is implemented on a smart phone and evaluated on a student campus environment. The experimental results confirm the ability of the proposed app to switch automatically from an outdoor mode to an indoor mode and to guide the user to requested target destination via the shortest possible route.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Alternate Water Supply System, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Newport News, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    sanitary sewer facilities at JBLE- FE. The existing water distribution system consists of approximately 50 miles of pipe, a water booster pumping station...layers consist of clay , silty clay , or silty clay loam. None of these soils are classified as Prime Farmland soils. Environmental Assessment for...ODUS owns and operates the sanitary sewer facilities at JBLE-FE. Newport News owns and operates the sanitary sewer facilities on the private land in

  2. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  3. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-12-01

    The project deals with the development and testing of a simple system for utilization of the summer excess heat from small solar air heating systems for preheating of fresh air. The principle of the system is to lead the heated air down around a domestic hot water tank letting the surface of the tank act as heat exchanger between the air and the water. In order to increase the heat transfer, coefficient fins into the air stream were mounted on the tank. A complete system with 3 m{sup 2} solar air collector, ductworks and a 85 litre storage were set up and extensively monitored. The air stream through the system was created by a fan connected directly to one or two PV-panels leading to a solar radiation dependent flow rate without the use of any other control. Based on monitoring results the system was characterized and a TRNSYS model of the system was developed and calibrated/validated. The monitoring and the simulations with the TRNSYS model revealed several interesting things about the system. The monitoring revealed that the system is capable of bringing the temperature of the water in the storage above 60 deg. C at warm days with clear sky conditions. The storage is very stratified, which is beneficial as usable hot water temperatures rather quickly are obtained. The performance was highly dependent on the airflow rate through the system. It can be concluded that the investigated system will have a performance in the order of 500 kWh during the winter, spring and autumn months and around 250 kWh during the four summer months - or in total a yearly performance of 750 kWh/m{sup 2}. A small traditional solar heating system for preheating of domestic hot water would have a higher performance during the four summer months, but no performance during the rest of the year if the system is installed in a summer house, which only is occupied during the summer. The parametric analysis further indicates that it is possible to further optimise the system when the thermal

  4. Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris; Nordlander, Svante

    2004-01-01

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary en...

  5. Applications of the automatic ultrasonic testing system ALOK combined with a phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanger, H.K.; Kappes, W.; Licht, R.; Bohn, H.; Barbian, O.A.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of the automatic testing system ALOK with a controlled probe in the form of a phased array device is a possibility to meet the high requirements on the test method with regard to the statements of the test as well as the requirements on the reduction of operation and preparation times. The system's applications are not limited to the testing of reactors in nuclear technology (basic tests and recurring tests of the RPV and other primary circuit components); they are also of great importance in the non-nuclear sector e.g. the testing of pipelines, of reactors in the chemical field and of offshore structures as well as tests of components in the field of production. The modularity of the system permits an adaptation to the particular testing task with the possibility of using different manipulation and hardware systems. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Solar heating systems for combined domestic hot water and space heating has a large potential especially in low energy houses where it is possible to take full advantage of low temperature heating systems. If a building integrated heating system is used – e.g. floor heating - the supply temperature...... from solid to liquid form (Fig. 1). Keeping the temperature as low as possible is an efficient way to reduce the heat loss from the storage. Furthermore, the PCM storage might be smaller than the equivalent water storage as more energy can be stored per volume. If the PCM further has the possibility...... systems through further improvement of water based storages and in parallel to investigate the potential of using storage designs with phase change materials, PCM. The advantage of phase change materials is that large amounts of energy can be stored without temperature increase when the material is going...

  7. A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang

    2014-01-01

    A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters

  8. Combination spindle-drive system for high precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1977-07-26

    A combination spindle-drive is provided for fabrication of optical quality surface finishes. Both the spindle-and-drive utilize the spindle bearings for support, thereby removing the conventional drive-means bearings as a source of vibration. An airbearing spindle is modified to carry at the drive end a highly conductive cup-shaped rotor which is aligned with a stationary stator to produce torque in the cup-shaped rotor through the reaction of eddy currents induced in the rotor. This arrangement eliminates magnetic attraction forces and all force is in the form of torque on the cup-shaped rotor.

  9. 40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141.551 Section 141.551 Protection of Environment... Effluent Requirements § 141.551 What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your system must meet two strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first...

  10. A review of best practice in relation to iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, A.; Kruse, P.; Smith, K

    2010-03-01

    This report was produced by Enviros Consulting Ltd under contract to the RPII. It presents a review of best practice in relation to the management of iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer and recommends a waste management strategy that could be adopted in the Republic of Ireland

  11. The use and disposal of greywater in the non-sewered areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the use and disposal of greywater in non-sewered areas in South Africa and this included developing options for the management thereof, both in terms of reducing health and environmental risks as well as possibly providing benefits through controlled reuse. This paper reports ...

  12. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR MITIGATION PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...

  13. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1,

  14. Identifying best practice in relation to Iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Fennell, Stepehn; McGarry, Ann; Punt, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In line with a commitment in Ireland's strategy on the implementation of the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) as well as recent developments in the provision of national oncology services, best practice in relation to Iodine-131 (I-131) ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland is under review. Preparatory to this review the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) commissioned a study of current practices in Ireland and associated doses as well as a review of international best practice and advice. Currently, there are three hospitals in Ireland at which thyroid ablation therapy procedures (large therapeutic administrations of I-131 for thyroid cancer treatment) are carried out. Only one facility has a limited capacity for delay and decay storage prior to discharge. Based on current administrations and discharges, the potentially most exposed workers comprises hospital plumbers dealing with specific incidents with estimated doses in the order of 50 to 70 μSv per incident. Doses to sewage workers and fishing communities are estimated at less than 4 μSv y -1 and 0.4 μSv y -1 respectively. Based on anticipated future service requirements in Ireland, a marginal increase in doses to some of these groups is estimated. Iodine-131 discharges to the environment and associated doses to workers and members of the public may be significantly reduced by the introduction of state-of-the-art delay and decay tanks using multi-tank vacuum systems. The justification for the introduction of a regulatory requirement to install such systems is examined taking account of: discharges to the environment, concentrations in the environment, doses to workers and members of the public, best available techniques (BAT), international best practice and advice as well as the financial implications for medical facilities. The case for retrofitting delay and decay tanks to existing medical facilities is also examined as well as the option of including such tanks in the

  15. COMBINING INDEPENDENT VISUALIZATION AND TRACKING SYSTEMS FOR AUGMENTED REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hübner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic requirement for the successful deployment of a mobile augmented reality application is a reliable tracking system with high accuracy. Recently, a helmet-based inside-out tracking system which meets this demand has been proposed for self-localization in buildings. To realize an augmented reality application based on this tracking system, a display has to be added for visualization purposes. Therefore, the relative pose of this visualization platform with respect to the helmet has to be tracked. In the case of hand-held visualization platforms like smartphones or tablets, this can be achieved by means of image-based tracking methods like marker-based or model-based tracking. In this paper, we present two marker-based methods for tracking the relative pose between the helmet-based tracking system and a tablet-based visualization system. Both methods were implemented and comparatively evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy. Our results show that mobile inside-out tracking systems without integrated displays can easily be supplemented with a hand-held tablet as visualization device for augmented reality purposes.

  16. Combined PACS and intranet information system in a University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, D.; Pfluger, T.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hahn, K.; Koenig, A.; Endres, S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The Department of Radiology at the University Hospital Innenstadt Munich provides all clinical departments of a large university hospital with several radiology units at different locations. During the last four years all units have been fully digitalized with a stepwise installation of a PACS. The PACS also processes images from the Nuclear Medicine Department. Methods: As image modalities, archive systems and review workstations, we use devices from multiple vendors, which are integrated into a consistent system using the DICOM standard. The hospital has developed its own RIS and an intranet information system, which provides access to all reports and images from radiology for all clinical departments inside the hospital. Additionally, other clinical information such as laboratory results or ECG examinations are available through the system. Results: After one year of operation, the system succeeded in the clinical routine work as the primary source for radiological reports and images as well as for laboratory values. Conclusion: The advantages of digitalization were, besides reduction of film cost, especially optimizations of work flow with access to digital images from every where at any time. (orig.) [de

  17. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  18. A combined system for 3D printing cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Previous work has discussed the impact of cybersecurity breaches on 3D printed objects. Multiple attack types that could weaken objects, make them unsuitable for certain applications and even create safety hazards have been presented. This paper considers a visible light sensing-based verification system's efficacy as a means of thwarting cybersecurity threats to 3D printing. This system detects discrepancies between expected and actual printed objects (based on an independent pristine CAD model). Whether reliance on an independent CAD model is appropriate is also considered. The future of 3D printing is projected and the importance of cybersecurity in this future is discussed.

  19. Magnetization behavior of nanocrystalline systems combining ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, J.; Wagner, W.; Svygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Meier, J.; Doudin, B.; Ansermet, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The magnetic properties of nanostructured materials on the basis of Fe and Ni have been investigated with a SQUID magnetometer, complementary to the small-angle neutron scattering study reported in the same volume. Measurements of the coercive field in a temperature range from 5 to 300 K confirm the validity of the random anisotropy model for our nanostructured systems. Furthermore, we obtain information about the presence and distribution of the antiferromagnetic oxides, joining the ferromagnetic grains. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  20. Magnetization behavior of nanocrystalline systems combining ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, J.; Wagner, W.; Svygenhoven, H. van; Meier, J.; Doudin, B.; Ansermet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic properties of nanostructured materials on the basis of Fe and Ni have been investigated with a SQUID magnetometer, complementary to the small-angle neutron scattering study reported in the same volume. Measurements of the coercive field in a temperature range from 5 to 300 K confirm the validity of the random anisotropy model for our nanostructured systems. Furthermore, we obtain information about the presence and distribution of the antiferromagnetic oxides, joining the ferromagnetic grains. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs

  1. Bifurcation characteristics in parametric systems with combined damping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    Vol.16, č. 3 (2009), s. 1-9 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/0884 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : non-linear dynamics * parametric systems * impact effects * linear and non-linear damping Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.im.fme.vutbr.cz/pdf/16_3_221.full.pdf

  2. Combined heat and power systems: always suitable? The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Clito Afonso; Tiago Moutinho

    2014-01-01

    The energy markets are currently under tremendous pressure caused by instability in fuel prices and environmental issues. Thecitizens are affected by the constant increase in fuel prices, threat to the security of energy supply and by climate change resultingfrom an environmental policy neglectedSo, cogeneration systems arise as a way of producing high efficiency energy, lower environmental impacts, and a decrease in theconsumption of primary energy. However, cogeneration, to date recognized ...

  3. Programmable combinational logic trigger system for high energy particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    A fast logic system designed to select predetermined combinations of three hits in three detectors is described. Central to this system is a random access memory IC that was especially designed for this application

  4. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  5. Uncertainty in return period analysis of combined sewer overflow effects using embedded Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum, M.; Aalderink, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The rerun periods of detrimental effects ate often used as design criteria in urban storm water management. Considerable uncertainty is associated with the models used. This is either ignored or pooled with the inherent event to event variation such as rainfall depth It is here argued that

  6. Microbial Character Related Sulfur Cycle under Dynamic Environmental Factors Based on the Microbial Population Analysis in Sewerage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Shi, Hanchang; Liu, Yanchen

    2017-01-01

    The undesired sulfur cycle derived by microbial population can ultimately causes the serious problems of sewerage systems. However, the microbial community characters under dynamic environment factors in actual sewerage system is still not enough. This current study aimed to character the distributions and compositions of microbial communities that participate in the sulfur cycle under the dynamic environmental conditions in a local sewerage system. To accomplish this, microbial community compositions were assessed using 454 high-throughput sequencing (16S rDNA) combined with dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that a higher diversity of microbial species was present at locations in sewers with high concentrations of H 2 S. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were dominant in the sewerage system, while Actinobacteria alone were dominant in regions with high concentrations of H 2 S. Specifically, the unique operational taxonomic units could aid to characterize the distinct microbial communities within a sewerage manhole. The proportion of sulfate-reducing bacteria, each sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were strongly correlated with the liquid parameters (DO, ORP, COD, Sulfide, NH 3 -N), while the Mycobacterium and Acidophilic SOB (M&A) was strongly correlated with gaseous factors within the sewer, such as H 2 S, CH 4 , and CO. Identifying the distributions and proportions of critical microbial communities within sewerage systems could provide insights into how the microbial sulfur cycle is affected by the dynamic environmental conditions that exist in sewers and might be useful for explaining the potential sewerage problems.

  7. A combined neutron scattering and simulation study on bioprotectant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires UMR 8024, Universite Lille I - 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires UMR 8024, Universite Lille I - 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires UMR 8024, Universite Lille I - 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Lerbret, A. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires UMR 8024, Universite Lille I - 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Magazu, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Messina, P.O. Box 55, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Migliardo, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires UMR 8024, Universite Lille I - 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Messina, P.O. Box 55, I-98166 Messina (Italy)], E-mail: fmigliardo@unime.it; Ramirez-Cuesta, A.J. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Telling, M.F.T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-31

    The present work shows quasi elastic neutron scattering, neutron spin echo and inelastic neutron scattering results on a class of bioprotectant systems, such as homologous disaccharides (i.e., trehalose and sucrose)/water solutions, as a function of temperature. The whole set of findings indicates a noticeable 'kosmotrope' character of the disaccharides, and in particular of trehalose, which is able to strongly modify both the structural and dynamical properties of water. This superior capability of trehalose can be linked to its higher bioprotective effectiveness in respect with the other disaccharides.

  8. Low Leakage Turbine Shaft Seals for Advanced Combined Cycle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Study of Shaft Face Seal With Self-Acting Lift Augmentation", N71- 11579, Nov. 1970 29p. Povinelli , V.P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of...34, N73-24086, May 1973, 28p. Povinelli , V. P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of Mainshaft Seals for Advanced Air Breathing Propulsion Systems... Povinelli , V. P., "Current Seal Designs and Future Requirements for Turbine Engine Seals and Bearings", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 12, No. 4, April 1975

  9. Ecological assessment of new CHP systems and their combination; Oekologische Bewertung neuer WKK-Systeme und Systemkombinationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primas, A.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on new developments in the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation area. The objective of this study is an ecological and technical evaluation of various CHP systems and system combinations. These also include suitable combinations with other technologies. Systems for five different temperature levels are quantified according to their environmental impact. Various possible applications are compared with a highly efficient reference system using separate heat and power generation - a combined-cycle plant and a heat pump. For chilled water production a combination of the CHP system with an absorption chiller is investigated. The results of the investigations are presented and commented on. Also, advantageous applications of CHP systems are noted.

  10. Combined electrophoretic-separation and electrospray method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.D.; Olivares, J.A.

    1989-06-27

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary zone electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., [+-]2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit. 10 figs.

  11. Suitable flow pattern increases the removal efficiency of nitrogen in gravity sewers: a suitable anoxic and aerobic environment in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Yin, Feixian; Li, Hong; Wang, Yinliang; Xu, Jingwei; Ai, Hainan

    2018-03-25

    The sewers have the function of carbon removal, which has been proven. But if the effect of nitrogen removal can be enhanced at the same time of carbon removal, it can lay a foundation for the realization of "sewer's working as a reactor." This paper investigated the effects of shear stress and C/N ratio on nitrogen removal through biofilms on the sewer inner wall and nitrogen transfer. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) nitrogen could be partially removed in sewers after a series of reactions; (2) the anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic environment and some bacteria related to nitrogen metabolism, which exist in the biofilm, promote the nitrification and denitrification; (3) a total of 722 functional genes involved in nitrogen metabolism were detected in the biofilm (C/N ratio of 10, shear stress of 1.4 Pa), accounting for 0.67% of all genes, and the functional genes related to denitrification were dominant. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  13. Sewer Networks Optimization by Particle Swarm Optimization with Abilities of Fly-Back Mechanism and Harmony Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محسن نفیسی

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of an efficient sewer network in urban areas threatens public health and may give rise to contagious diseases. Various optimization methods have been developed for use in designing sewers networks in response to a number of requirements such as the high costs of constructing sewer networks, financial limitations, the presence of both discrete and continuous decision variables, and the nonlinear time complexity of such design problems. In this study, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO with the capability of “fly-back” mechanism equipped with the harmony search (HPSO is used for the optimization of sewers network designs. The objective function consists of minimizing the excavation and embedding costs of commercial pipes. The fly-back mechanism and the harmony memory method are used to prevent leaving out variables from the feasible space of the problem in an attempt to enhance model efficiency. Model constraints are satisfied at two levels, which leads to the desirable convergence of the PSO algorithm as compared to the conventional penalty methods in alternative evolutionary algorithms. In order to determine the admissible decision variables, the Manning equation is used as a hydraulic model. The performance of the proposed algorithm is shown by presenting two examples of sewer networks. Compared to the PSO algorithm used in sewer network optimization models, the proposed model exhibits a tangible improvement in cost reduction and a higher computational stability.

  14. Investigations to identify organic pollutions in sewer slime. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Identifizierung organischer Schadstoffe in Sielhaeuten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, E.; Sauer, J.; Ripp, C.; Hahn, H.H.

    1997-07-31

    An analytical method to measure organic compounds in sewer slime and sewage sludge has been developed. The method needs no halogenated solvents. Furthermore, the sorption behavior of sewer slime has been investigated. Chlorophenols, as an example of more polar organic compounds, show a more stronger and faster desorption from sewer slime than for example PAH. pH-value and fat-content (resp. content of organic carbon) are the most important parameters affecting the sorption kinetic and sorption capacity of sewer slime. To get comparable results, all datas should be refered to the content of organic carbon of the sewer slime. By constructing pollutions-profiles of parameters like AOX, PCB, Flame Protection Agencies and PAH in the sewers of an industrial area, emissions could be localized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde eine analytische Methode entwickelt, die es erlaubt, ein breites Spektrum lipophiler organischer Schadstoffe in Sielhaut und Klaerschlamm zu identifizieren, als quantitativ zu bestimmen. Die Methode kommt ohne halogenierte Loesungsmittel aus. Verbindungen, die aufgrund ihrer Wasserunloeslichkeit nicht im Abwasser nachgewiesen werden konnten, koennen durch Sielhautanalyse verfolgt werden. Anhand von Schadstoffprofilen in Nebensammlern eines Industriegebietes konnte beispielhaft die Lokalisierung von punktfoermigen Schadstoffeinleitungen demonstriert werden. Erfolgreich verlief auch die Identifizierung eines AOX-Emittenten. Ebenso sind die Eintragspfade von Stoffen, die im Verdacht stehen, endokrine Wirkungen zu haben mit Sielhautanalyse aufklaerbar. Das Sorptionsverhalten der Sielhaut wird durch Faktoren, wie pH und Fettgehalt gepraegt. Bei der Auswertung der Proben muessen die Werte auf den organischen Kohlenstoffgehalt bezogen werden. (orig.)

  15. A configurable electrical capacitance tomography system using a combining electrode strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunjie; Peng, Lihui

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigation of a combining electrode strategy for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is carried out. A configurable digital and analogue mixed ECT system using a combining electrode strategy is presented. Compared to the traditional ECT system, the presented system can be configured flexibly as the traditional ECT sensor mode and the combining electrode mode by connecting a number of electrodes as a combined electrode. In particular, the combining electrode mode is increasing the number of capacitance measurement data and the amelioration of sensitivity distribution. An image reconstruction framework is proposed by configuring the presented ECT system as the corresponding sensor mode adaptive to the permittivity distribution to be reconstructed, which includes the traditional ECT sensor mode, the symmetric combining electrode mode, the asymmetric combining electrode mode and the mixed combining electrode mode. Both simulation and experimental results show that image reconstructions with better quality and robustness to measurement noise can be obtained under the proposed adaptive image reconstruction framework by using the presented configurable ECT system. (paper)

  16. Development of combined brake system on front and rear brakes for scooter; Scooter yo zenkorin rendo brake system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y; Itabashi, T; Shinohara, S; Honda, Y [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Scooters need appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution and each of front and rear brakes have been operated using right and left levers. This time, a low cost brakes with cable type combined brake system for small size scooter and a brakes with hydraulic type combined brake system for middle size scooter have been developed to obtain appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution. Both systems use convenient left lever to operate. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2018-06-15

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracking artificial sweeteners and pharmaceuticals introduced into urban groundwater by leaking sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Leif; Zwiener, Christian; Zemann, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    There is little quantitative information on the temporal trends of pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds, including artificial sweeteners, in urban groundwater and their suitability as tracers to inform urban water management. In this study, pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners were monitored over 6 years in a shallow urban groundwater body along with a range of conventional sewage tracers in a network of observation wells that were specifically constructed to assess sewer leakage. Out of the 71 substances screened, 24 were detected at above the analytical detection limit. The most frequent compounds were the iodinated X-ray contrast medium amidotrizoic acid (35.3%), the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (33.3%) and the artificial sweetener acesulfame (27.5%), while all other substances occurred in less than 10% of the screened wells. The results from the group of specifically constructed focus wells within 10 m of defective sewers confirmed sewer leaks as being a major entrance pathway into the groundwater. The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners corresponds well with predictions by pipeline leakage models, which operate on optical sewer condition monitoring data and hydraulic information. Correlations between the concentrations of carbamazepine, iodinated X-ray contrast media and artificial sweeteners were weak to non-existent. Peak concentrations of up to 4130 ng/l of amidotrizoic acid were found in the groundwater downstream of the local hospital. The analysis of 168 samples for amidotrizoic acid, taken at 5 different occasions, did not show significant temporal trends for the years 2002-2008, despite changed recommendations in the medical usage of amidotrizoic acid. The detailed results show that the current mass balance approaches for urban groundwater bodies must be adapted to reflect the spatially distributed leaks and the variable wastewater composition in addition to the lateral and horizontal groundwater fluxes. Crown

  19. Population ecology and movement of the American cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-07-01

    The population size, age-class structure, and movement of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), were studied in three sewers in Penang, Malaysia, from September 2008 to October 2009. Eighteen to 20 glass-jar traps (two per manhole) were deployed for a 24-h period during each sampling occasion at each sewer. Adults and nymphs were active throughout the study period, with an average monthly trap catch of 57-97 adults and 79-99 nymphs. The mean proportions of adults and nymphs at the three sewers ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. Of the 2177 male and 2717 female cockroaches marked and released over the three sewers, recapture rates were 29.4-45.8 and 30.8-47.0%, respectively. The proportion of marked males and females did not differ significantly from the proportion of recaptured marked males and females. However, the mean number of times a marked female was recaptured was significantly greater than that of males. Of the 783 males and 1,030 females that were marked and recaptured, 19.4 and 24.7%, respectively, had moved between manholes, and significantly more females than males moved between manholes. Of the 406 recaptured marked adults that moved between manholes, 90.4% moved a distance of 2-20 m from their initial release site; one male moved 192 m, the longest distance recorded. Trap catch on each sampling occasion was positively correlated with daily mean temperature. The number of cockroach movements between manholes also was correlated with the mean daily minimum temperature.

  20. USEPA CAPSTONE REPORT: CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), sanitary-sewer overflows and stormwater (SW) are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater trea...

  1. Theoretical and experimental study on dynamic responses of piping systems with combined dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, M.; Fridman, Ya.; Perelmiter, A.

    1996-01-01

    Vibrations of pipelines transporting fluids, gases, and granular materials are excited by the air flow, internal pressure pulsation, or seismic ground motion. The susceptibility of oil and gas pipelines to seismic damage has been demonstrated in earthquakes everywhere around the world. Devices for above-ground pipelines and piping systems vibration suppression with combination of dry friction and viscous energy dissipation are developed by AVIBRA, Shear deformation of viscous-elastic material in these devices occurs prior to interfacial slip. The way to account this phenomenon is to model the damper as an elastic-viscous element in series with an ideal Coulomb dry friction element. The harmonic balance method was applied to obtain an equivalent viscous damping constant for a combined damper. Iteration process was used to predict a dynamic response of a piping system with combined dampers subjected to sinusoidal excitation. Every iteration step was based on ANSYS procedures. Time integration of systems with hysteretic friction models presents computational difficulties. Some examples of dynamic responses of piping systems were analyzed by a time integration procedure for finite-element models. Combined dry friction-viscous dissipation dampers were tested on a piping model under harmonic excitation. It was clarified that combined dampers are very effective to reduce dynamic response. The seismic response of the piping system with combined dampers was calculated using time history finite-element analysis. The excellent effectiveness of AVIBRA combined dampers for aseismic design and retrofitting of pipelines and piping systems was confirmed by the analysis

  2. A combined modification of Newton`s method for systems of nonlinear equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, M.T.; Fernandes, E.M.G.P. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    1996-12-31

    To improve the performance of Newton`s method for the solution of systems of nonlinear equations a modification to the Newton iteration is implemented. The modified step is taken as a linear combination of Newton step and steepest descent directions. In the paper we describe how the coefficients of the combination can be generated to make effective use of the two component steps. Numerical results that show the usefulness of the combined modification are presented.

  3. New in vitro system to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy of drug combinations in fresh tumor samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Christian Kischkel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background To find the best individual chemotherapy for cancer patients, the efficacy of different chemotherapeutic drugs can be predicted by pretesting tumor samples in vitro via the chemotherapy-resistance (CTR-Test®. Although drug combinations are widely used among cancer therapy, so far only single drugs are tested by this and other tests. However, several first line chemotherapies are combining two or more chemotherapeutics, leading to the necessity of drug combination testing methods. Methods We established a system to measure and predict the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug combinations with the help of the Loewe additivity concept in combination with the CTR-test. A combination is measured by using half of the monotherapy’s concentration of both drugs simultaneously. With this method, the efficacy of a combination can also be calculated based on single drug measurements. Results The established system was tested on a data set of ovarian carcinoma samples using the combination carboplatin and paclitaxel and confirmed by using other tumor species and chemotherapeutics. Comparing the measured and the calculated values of the combination testings revealed a high correlation. Additionally, in 70% of the cases the measured and the calculated values lead to the same chemotherapeutic resistance category of the tumor. Conclusion Our data suggest that the best drug combination consists of the most efficient single drugs and the worst drug combination of the least efficient single drugs. Our results showed that single measurements are sufficient to predict combinations in specific cases but there are exceptions in which it is necessary to measure combinations, which is possible with the presented system.

  4. Generalized Combination Complex Synchronization for Fractional-Order Chaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuimei Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on two fractional-order chaotic complex drive systems and one fractional-order chaotic complex response system with different dimensions, we propose generalized combination complex synchronization. In this new synchronization scheme, there are two complex scaling matrices that are non-square matrices. On the basis of the stability theory of fractional-order linear systems, we design a general controller via active control. Additionally, by virtue of two complex scaling matrices, generalized combination complex synchronization between fractional-order chaotic complex systems and real systems is investigated. Finally, three typical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the schemes.

  5. Development of radiation oncology learning system combined with multi-institutional radiotherapy database (ROGAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Akihiro; Iinuma, Masahiro; Kou, Hiroko; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed and are operating a multi-institutional radiotherapy database ROGAD (Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database) since 1992. One of it's purpose is 'to optimize individual radiotherapy plans'. We developed Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD' which conforms to that purpose. Several medical doctors evaluated our system. According to those evaluations, we are now confident that our system is able to contribute to improvement of radiotherapy results. Our final target is to generate a good cyclic relationship among three components: radiotherapy results according to ''Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD.'; The growth of ROGAD; and radiation oncology learning system. (author)

  6. Using Agent-Based Modeling to Enhance System-Level Real-time Control of Urban Stormwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, S.; Mullapudi, A. M.; Kerkez, B.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to reduce combined-sewer overflow (CSO) events is an issue that challenges over 800 U.S. municipalities. When the volume of a combined sewer system or wastewater treatment plant is exceeded, untreated wastewater then overflows (a CSO event) into nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies causing localized urban flooding and pollution. The likelihood and impact of CSO events has only exacerbated due to urbanization, population growth, climate change, aging infrastructure, and system complexity. Thus, there is an urgent need for urban areas to manage CSO events. Traditionally, mitigating CSO events has been carried out via time-intensive and expensive structural interventions such as retention basins or sewer separation, which are able to reduce CSO events, but are costly, arduous, and only provide a fixed solution to a dynamic problem. Real-time control (RTC) of urban drainage systems using sensor and actuator networks has served as an inexpensive and versatile alternative to traditional CSO intervention. In particular, retrofitting individual stormwater elements for sensing and automated active distributed control has been shown to significantly reduce the volume of discharge during CSO events, with some RTC models demonstrating a reduction upwards of 90% when compared to traditional passive systems. As more stormwater elements become retrofitted for RTC, system-level RTC across complete watersheds is an attainable possibility. However, when considering the diverse set of control needs of each of these individual stormwater elements, such system-level RTC becomes a far more complex problem. To address such diverse control needs, agent-based modeling is employed such that each individual stormwater element is treated as an autonomous agent with a diverse decision making capabilities. We present preliminary results and limitations of utilizing the agent-based modeling computational framework for the system-level control of diverse, interacting

  7. Combination Antifungal Therapy in the Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum central nervous system (CNS infection typically consists of an azole in combination with surgical debridement. This approach requires prolonged treatment and carries a high associated mortality. We present two cases of the successful treatment of S. apiospermum CNS infections with the combination of voriconazole and terbinafine.

  8. Combining land use information and small stream sampling with PCR-based methods for better characterization of diffuse sources of human fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peed, Lindsay A; Nietch, Christopher T; Kelty, Catherine A; Meckes, Mark; Mooney, Thomas; Sivaganesan, Mano; Shanks, Orin C

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between human and other animal sources of fecal pollution making it difficult to identify diffuse pollution sources. Human-associated quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods in combination with low-order headwatershed sampling, precipitation information, and high-resolution geographic information system land use data can be useful for identifying diffuse source of human fecal pollution in receiving waters. To test this assertion, this study monitored nine headwatersheds over a two-year period potentially impacted by faulty septic systems and leaky sanitary sewer lines. Human fecal pollution was measured using three different human-associated qPCR methods and a positive significant correlation was seen between abundance of human-associated genetic markers and septic systems following wet weather events. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed with sanitary sewer line densities suggesting septic systems are the predominant diffuse source of human fecal pollution in the study area. These results demonstrate the advantages of combining water sampling, climate information, land-use computer-based modeling, and molecular biology disciplines to better characterize diffuse sources of human fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  9. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. Quarterly report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-06

    The General Electric Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  10. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  11. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  12. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the...

  13. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS...

  14. Adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization of uncertain real and complex nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shi-bing, E-mail: wang-shibing@dlut.edu.cn, E-mail: wangxy@dlut.edu.cn [School of Computer and Information Engineering, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang 236041 (China); Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Xing-yuan, E-mail: wang-shibing@dlut.edu.cn, E-mail: wangxy@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Xiu-you [School of Computer and Information Engineering, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang 236041 (China); Zhou, Yu-fei [College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2016-04-15

    With comprehensive consideration of generalized synchronization, combination synchronization and adaptive control, this paper investigates a novel adaptive generalized combination complex synchronization (AGCCS) scheme for different real and complex nonlinear systems with unknown parameters. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory and adaptive control, an AGCCS controller and parameter update laws are derived to achieve synchronization and parameter identification of two real drive systems and a complex response system, as well as two complex drive systems and a real response system. Two simulation examples, namely, ACGCS for chaotic real Lorenz and Chen systems driving a hyperchaotic complex Lü system, and hyperchaotic complex Lorenz and Chen systems driving a real chaotic Lü system, are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  15. Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of

  16. The failure combination method: presentation, application to a simple collection of systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

    1981-11-01

    The main advantages of this particular method for analyzing the reliability and safety of systems, the method of failure combinations, are presented. This is an inductive method of analysis; it makes it possible to pursue the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) until overall failures are obtained. In this manner, through an inductive approach all the combinations of failure modes leading to abnormal functioning of systems are obtained. It also makes it possible to carry out the overall study of complex systems in interaction and the systematic inventory of abnormal functioning of these systems, as from the failure modes of the components and their combinations. It can be used as from the design stages of systems and is an excellent dialogue tool between the various specialists concerned in problems of safety, operation and reliability [fr

  17. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro; Contreras, Edgardo M.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2

  18. Annual CO-emissions of combined pellet and solar heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Emissions are an important aspect of a pellet heating system. High carbon monoxide emissions are often caused by unnecessary cycling of the burner when the burner is operated below the lowest combustion power. Combining pellet heating systems with a solar heating system can significantly reduce cycling of the pellet heater and avoid the inefficient summer operation of the pellet heater. The aim of this paper was to study CO-emissions of the different types of systems and to compare the yearly...

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new combined cooling and power system is proposed. • Exergy destruction analysis is used to identify irreversibility of components in system. • Thermodynamic parameter analysis is performed for system. - Abstract: In order to achieve both power and cooling supply for users, a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture is proposed to utilizing low grade heat sources, such as industrial waste heat, solar energy and geothermal energy. The proposed system combines a Kalina cycle and an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration cycle, in which the ammonia–water turbine exhaust is delivered to a separator to extract purer ammonia vapor. The purer ammonia vapor enters an evaporator to generate refrigeration output after being condensed and throttled. Mathematical models are established to simulate the combined system under steady-state conditions. Exergy destruction analysis is conducted to display the exergy destruction distribution in the system qualitatively and the results show that the major exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchangers. Finally a thermodynamic sensitivity analysis is performed and reveals that with an increase in the pressure of separator I or the ammonia mass fraction of basic solution, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system increase, whereas with an increase in the temperature of separator I, the ammonia–water turbine back pressure or the condenser II pressure, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system drop.

  20. Sedimentology, stratigraphy and chronology of a decantation tank in the sewer network of Orléans (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jérémy; Thibault, Alexandre; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Le Milbeau, Claude; DiGiovanni, Christian; Sabatier, Pierre; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Ardito, Luigi; Morio, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Current debates on the status of the Anthropocene convey geologists and palaeoenvironmentalists toward new spatial and temporal targets. One of the most emblematic socio-ecosystem of the Anthropocene is urban areas in which the dynamics of materials are mainly controlled by human activities. This brings unprecedented elemental, molecular and isotopic concentrations and distributions that lead Norra (2009) to propose a new geological sphere: the Astysphere. Here we propose that sediments accumulated in sewer networks can provide original, integrated, and multi-thematic archives for the recent history of cities by considering urban systems as any catchment where materials are produced, transported and sedimented. The study site is a decantation tank that collects stormwater and wastewater from the north of Orléans city, upstream wastewater plants in Orléans. Sediments accumulated since 1942 over 17 m depth and were never cleaned out until 2015. Two sedimentary cores of 70 (A) and 250 cm long (B) were collected before clean out and then a third of 150 cm (C) after. Sediments are organized into layers constituted by sands and gravels alternating with silts and organic layers. Sharp contacts between those layers indicate evenemential sedimentation, as expected in sewer networks. We formulate the hypothesis that organic/mineral alternations result from a seasonal dynamic. 7Be presence in topmost sample from core A confirms it was deposited within the last 6 months. In core C, only the upper half core, mostly mineral, displays significant 7Be levels whereas 7Be is absent from the lower half, which is mostly organic. This would confirm that our hypothesis of a seasonal alternation, with organic facies deposited during spring- summer and mineral facies deposited during fall-winter. 30 14C dates measured on cores A and B by postbomb method are logically distributed with depth, the most ancient (beginning of the eighties) being recorder at 2.5m depth. This study shows that

  1. Development and application of remote video monitoring system for combine harvester based on embedded Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Yuehong; Hu, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Combine harvester usually works in sparsely populated areas with harsh environment. In order to achieve the remote real-time video monitoring of the working state of combine harvester. A remote video monitoring system based on ARM11 and embedded Linux is developed. The system uses USB camera for capturing working state video data of the main parts of combine harvester, including the granary, threshing drum, cab and cut table. Using JPEG image compression standard to compress video data then transferring monitoring screen to remote monitoring center over the network for long-range monitoring and management. At the beginning of this paper it describes the necessity of the design of the system. Then it introduces realization methods of hardware and software briefly. And then it describes detailedly the configuration and compilation of embedded Linux operating system and the compiling and transplanting of video server program are elaborated. At the end of the paper, we carried out equipment installation and commissioning on combine harvester and then tested the system and showed the test results. In the experiment testing, the remote video monitoring system for combine harvester can achieve 30fps with the resolution of 800x600, and the response delay in the public network is about 40ms.

  2. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  3. A control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, Vahab; Bloemendal, J.M.; Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Keviczky, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. In particular, we first provide a description of building operational systems together with control framework variables. We then focus on the derivation of an

  4. A digital combining-weight estimation algorithm for broadband sources with the array feed compensation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.

  5. Edge turbulence measurement in Heliotron J using a combination of hybrid probe system and fast cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, N.; Zang, L.; Takeuchi, M.; Mizuuchi, T.; Ohshima, S.; Kasajima, K.; Sha, M.; Mukai, K.; Lee, H.Y.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid probe system (a combination of Langmuir probes and magnetic probes), fast camera and gas puffing system were installed at the same toroidal section to study edge plasma turbulence/fluctuation in Heliotron J, especially blob (intermittent filament). Fast camera views the location of the probe head, so that the probe system yields the time evolution of the turbulence/fluctuation while the camera images the spatial profile. Gas puff at the same toroidal section was used to control the plasma density and simultaneous gas puff imaging technique. Using this combined system the filamentary structure associated with magnetic fluctuation was found in Heliotron J at the first time. The other kind of fluctuation was also observed at another experiment. This combination measurement enables us to distinguish MHD activity and electro-static activity

  6. arXiv Energy Reconstruction of Hadrons in highly granular combined ECAL and HCAL systems

    CERN Document Server

    Israeli, Yasmine

    2018-05-03

    This paper discusses the hadronic energy reconstruction of two combined electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter systems using physics prototypes of the CALICE collaboration: the silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (Si-W ECAL) and the scintillator-SiPM based analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL); and the scintillator-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) and the AHCAL. These systems were operated in hadron beams at CERN and FNAL, permitting the study of the performance in combined ECAL and HCAL systems. Two techniques for the energy reconstruction are used, a standard reconstruction based on calibrated sub-detector energy sums, and one based on a software compensation algorithm making use of the local energy density information provided by the high granularity of the detectors. The software compensation-based algorithm improves the hadronic energy resolution by up to 30% compared to the standard reconstruction. The combined system data show comparable energy resolutions to the one achieved for da...

  7. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Fat and Oil Deposits in Mashhad City Sewer Lines and the Solutions Developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi kamali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of oil, fat, and grease deposits in sewer pipelines is a major concern as they result in sewage overflow and pose health problems. Analysis of two sample deposits collected from the sewer lines of Imam Reza Street in the city of Mashhad suggested that the chemical reactions promoted by edible oils in the sewer lines lead to the formation of insoluble soap and deposits. Being sticky, the deposits accumulate over time to eventually block the lines. The analysis also showed that the moisture content of the samples ranged between 50‒62%, indicating that water does not play a main role in their formation. The samples were also found to contain 61.78% and 84.35% saturated fatty acids, with palmitic acid being the dominant one. Calcium was the main metal in the samples, which is due to both water hardness and corrosion of the sewer lines. Based on the results obtained, the origin of these deposits, and the relevant protocols for the management of oil and fat wastes, solutions were proposed to prevent deposit formation and sewer line clogging that suit the special cultural and environmental conditions of the city. These proposals are under consideration for implementation in the region.

  8. Sewerage Collection Lines - MO 2014 Springfield Sewer Dead Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set was prepared for the City of Springfield by the GIS Section of the Information Systems Department. This is a point file that shows manholes, lampholes,...

  9. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this ... structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form .... described by five fundamental equations, can be reduced to three equations.

  10. A combination of selected mapping and clipping to increase energy efficiency of OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Moo; Rim, You Seung

    2017-01-01

    We propose an energy efficient combination design for OFDM systems based on selected mapping (SLM) and clipping peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction techniques, and show the related energy efficiency (EE) performance analysis. The combination of two different PAPR reduction techniques can provide a significant benefit in increasing EE, because it can take advantages of both techniques. For the combination, we choose the clipping and SLM techniques, since the former technique is quite simple and effective, and the latter technique does not cause any signal distortion. We provide the structure and the systematic operating method, and show the various analyzes to derive the EE gain based on the combined technique. Our analysis show that the combined technique increases the EE by 69% compared to no PAPR reduction, and by 19.34% compared to only using SLM technique. PMID:29023591

  11. Novel local drug delivery system using thermoreversible gel in combination with polymeric microspheres or liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takao; Benny, Ofra; Joki, Tatsuhiro; Menon, Lata G; Machluf, Marcelle; Abe, Toshiaki; Carroll, Rona S; Black, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the application of thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) as a local drug delivery system for malignant glioma. Polymeric microspheres or liposomes loaded with doxorubicin (sphere-dox or lipo-dox) were combined with TGP to provide continuous drug delivery of doxorubicin (dox) for kinetic release studies and cell viability assays on glioma cell lines in vitro. For in vivo studies, TGP loaded with dox alone (TGP-dox) was combined with sphere-dox or lipo-dox. Their antitumor effects on subcutaneous human glioma xenografts were evaluated in nude mice. In vitro, TGP combined with sphere-dox or lipo-dox released dox for up to 30 days. In vivo, TGP-dox combined with sphere-dox or lipo-dox inhibited subcutaneous glioma tumor growth until day 32 and day 38, respectively. TGP in combination with microspheres or liposomes successfully prolonged the release of dox and its antitumor effects.

  12. A control oriental model for combined compression-ejector refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiapeng; Wang, Lei; Jia, Lei; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A control oriental model for combined compression-ejector refrigeration system is proposed. • The pressure pulsating phenomenon in the system is investigated based on the model. • The results show that the model can reflect the system performance under variable operating conditions. - Abstract: Combined compression-ejector refrigeration systems have attracted lots of attention in recent years. In order to improve the running stability of the complex refrigeration system, it is necessary to obtain a simple and accuracy mathematical model for system control. In this paper, a control oriental model for combined compression ejector system is proposed. By analyzing the inner relationship between compressor and ejector, a hybrid model is built based on thermodynamic principles and lumped parameter method. Comparing with traditional theoretical models, the model is more suitable for system control due to its simpler structure and less parameters. Then the pressure pulsating phenomenon inside the piping system between compressor and ejector is investigated based on the model. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by experimental data. It is shown that the model can reflect the system performance under variable operating conditions.

  13. Joint Adaptive Modulation and Combining for Hybrid FSO/RF Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we present and analyze a new transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on joint adaptive modulation and adaptive combining. Specifically, the data rate on the FSO link is adjusted in discrete manner according to the FSO link\\'s instantaneous received signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). If the FSO link\\'s quality is too poor to maintain the target bit-error-rate, the system activates the RF link along with the FSO link. When the RF link is activated, simultaneous transmission of the same modulated data takes place on both links, where the received signals from both links are combined using maximal ratio combining scheme. In this case, the data rate of the system is adjusted according to the instantaneous combined SNRs. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed adaptive hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the spectral and outage performances of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system with that of switch-over hybrid FSO/RF and FSO-only systems employing the same adaptive modulation schemes. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Investigations of combined used of cooling ponds with cooling towers or spraying systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farforovsky, V.B.

    1990-01-01

    Based on a brief analysis of the methods of investigating cooling ponds, spraying systems and cooling towers, a conclusion is made that the direct modelling of the combined use of cooling systems listed cannot be realized. An approach to scale modelling of cooling ponds is proposed enabling all problems posed by the combined use of coolers to be solved. Emphasized is the importance of a proper choice of a scheme of including a cooler in a general water circulation system of thermal and nuclear power plants. A sequence of selecting a cooling tower of the type and spraying system of the size ensuring the specified temperature regime in a water circulation system is exemplified by the water system of the Ghorasal thermal power plant in Bangladesh

  15. Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Terry G.; Lee, Kwan H.; Harris, Glen I.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2010-01-01

    A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The int...

  16. High efficiency pump combiner fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gongwen

    2018-02-01

    High power combiners are of great interest for high power fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers. With the advent of CO2 laser splicing system, power combiners are made possible with low manufacturing cost, low loss, high reliability and high performance. Traditionally fiber optical components are fabricated with flame torch, electrode arc discharge or filament heater. However, these methods can easily leave contamination on the fiber, resulting inconsistent performance or even catching fire in high power operations. The electrodes or filaments also degrade rapidly during the combiner manufacturing process. The rapid degradation will lead to extensive maintenance, making it unpractical or uneconomic for volume production. By contrast, CO2 laser is the cleanest heating source which provides reliable and repeatable process for fabricating fiber optic components including high power combiners. In this paper we present an all fiber end pumped 7x1 pump combiner fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system. The input pump fibers are 105/125 (core/clad diameters in μm) fibers with a core NA of 0.22. The output fiber is a 300/320 fiber with a core NA of 0.22. The average efficiency is 99.4% with all 7 ports more than 99%. The process is contamination-free and highly repeatable. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the literature on power combiners fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system. It also has the highest reported efficiency of its kind.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Combined Well and Open-Closed Loops Geothermal (CWG) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu-Chul

    2016-04-01

    Open-loop geothermal heat pump (GHP) system and closed-loop heat pump systems have been used in Korea to reduce emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). The GHP systems have the pros and cons, for example, the open-loop GHP system is good energy-efficient and the closed-loop GHP system requires minimum maintenance costs. The open-loop GHP system can be used practically only with large amount of groundwater supply. The closed-loop GHP system can be used with high costs of initial installation. The performance and efficiency of the GHP system depend on the characteristics of the GHP system itself in addition to the geologic conditions. To overcome the cons of open-loop or closed-loop GHP system, the combined well and open-closed loops geothermal (CWG) system was designed. The open-loop GHP system is surrounded with closed-loop GHP systems in the CWG system. The geothermal energy in closed-loop GHP systems is supplied by the groundwater pumped by the open-loop GHP system. In this study, 2 different types of the CWG systems (small aperture hybrid CWG system and large aperture CWG system) are estimated using numerical simulation models in the aspect of energy efficiency. This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (No.20153030111120).

  18. Development of a fluorescent microscope combined with a real-time autoradiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Hiroki; Kanno, Satomi; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Nihei, Naoto; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2008-01-01

    For combination with microscope, we developed real-time autoradiography system for micro-scale analysis with adjustment of the CsI(Ti) scintillator thickness for higher resolution and applying tapered fiber optic plate for magnification of autoradiograph image. We combined real-time autoradiography system with an inverted fluorescent microscope so that an autoradiograph image as well as fluorescent image, bright-field image can be acquired at the same time. In the case of observation of sliced soybean stalk traced 45 CaCl, the fluorescent and bright-field image was acquired which magnified to 50 times, the autoradiograph image of 45 Ca distribution in the tissue was acquired in almost same scale. The new microscopic system which can acquire autoradiograph image of labeled signals (low molecular weight) is expected to develop the signal transduction study and gene expression, combined with fluorescent protein techniques such as GFP etc. (author)

  19. Development of a combination detector system for simultaneous measurement of Alpha and Beta/Gamma radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Ashokkumar, P.; Rekha, A.K.; Jain, Amit; Rath, D.P.; Chaudhury, Probal; Chaudhari, L.M.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of various samples for α and β/γ radioactivity is carried out in radiological laboratories. Using independent α and β/γ counting systems such measurements are done separately for same sample. In order to address the requirement of simultaneous measurement of α and β/γ activity content of radioactive samples, a counting system using combination of two detectors has been developed. Activity deposited on a 2 mm deep 30 mm diameter aluminum planchette was counted under the detector combination consisting of a ZnS(Ag) and plastic scintillator for α and β/γ respectively. The design and fabrication of the combination detector, development of electronics associated with the system, its characterization and application are presented here

  20. Conceptual framework for sewer pump problems allowing for fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... 1Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa ... maintenance management systems: clogging and unwanted solid ... European Union (EU) framework for flood disaster manage- ... emergency response and recovery and lessons learned, provides.