WorldWideScience

Sample records for combined nuclear techniques

  1. Characterization of spent nuclear fuels by an online combination of chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther-Leopold, Ines; Wernli, Beat; Kopajtic, Zlatko

    2003-01-01

    The determination of the burn-up is one of the essential parts in post-irradiation examinations on nuclear fuel samples. In the frame of national and international research programs the analysis of the isotopic vectors of uranium, plutonium, neodymium and some other fission products and actinides was carried out in the Hot lab of the Paul Scherrer Institute in the last years by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled online with an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the meantime a multicollector ICP-MS, suitable for high precision isotope ratio measurements, was installed within the Hot lab and has been used now in combination with a chromatographic separation system for the first time for burn-up determinations of nuclear fuel samples. The results of these investigations, a comparison of both methods with the classical technique for burn-up analyses (thermal ionization mass spectrometry), the advantages and limitations of the methods and the accuracy and precision of this type of analyses are presented in the paper. (author)

  2. Demonstration of laser processing technique combined with water jet technique for retrieval of fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanari, Toshihide; Takebe, Toshihiko; Yamada, Tomonori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Ippei; Ohmori, Shinya; Kurosawa, Koichi; Sasaki, Go; Nakada, Masahiro; Sakai, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a retrieval process of fuel debris in the Primary Containment Vessel by a remote operation is one of the key issues. In this process, prevention of spreading radioactive materials is one of the important considerations. Furthermore, an applicable technique to the process requires keeping of reasonable processing-efficiency. We propose to use the combined technique including a laser light and a water jet as a retrieval technique of the fuel debris. The laser processing technique combined with a repetitive pulsed water jet could perform an efficient retrieval processing. Our experimental result encourages us to promote further development of the technique towards a real application at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  3. On the combination of delayed neutron and delayed gamma techniques for fission rate measurement in nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G.; Jordan, K. A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Novel techniques to measure newly induced fissions in spent fuel after re-irradiation at low power have been developed and tested at the Proteus zero-power research reactor. The two techniques are based on the detection of high energy gamma-rays emitted by short-lived fission products and delayed neutrons. The two techniques relate the measured signals to the total fission rate, the isotopic composition of the fuel, and nuclear data. They can be combined to derive better estimates on each of these parameters. This has potential for improvement in many areas. Spent fuel characterisation and safeguard applications can benefit from these techniques for non-destructive assay of plutonium content. Another application of choice is the reduction of uncertainties on nuclear data. As a first application of the combination of the delayed neutron and gamma measurement techniques, this paper shows how to reduce the uncertainties on the relative abundances of the longest delayed neutron group for thermal fissions in {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and fast fissions in {sup 238}U. The proposed experiments are easily achievable in zero-power research reactors using fresh UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel and do not require fast extraction systems. The relative uncertainties (1{sigma}) on the relative abundances are expected to be reduced from 13% to 4%, 16% to 5%, and 38% to 12% for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. (authors)

  4. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tiqi; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  5. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear techniques used in hydrology are usually tracer techniques based on the use of nuclides either intentionally introduced into, or naturally present in the water. The low concentrations of these nuclides, which must be detected in groundwater and surface water, require special measurement techniques for the concentrations of radioactive or of stable nuclides. The nuclear techniques can be used most fruitfully in conjunction with conventional methods for the solution of problems in the areas of hydrology, hydrogeology and glacier hydrology. Nuclear techniques are used in practice in the areas of prospecting for water, environment protection and engineering hydrogeology. (orig.) [de

  7. Detection of irradiated beef by nuclear magnetic resonance lipid profiling combined with chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Emanuela; Caligiani, Augusta; Padovani, Enrico; Mariani, Mario; Ghidini, Sergio; Palla, Gerardo; Ianieri, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    The combination of (1)H NMR lipid profiling with multivariate analysis was applied to differentiate irradiated and non-irradiated beef. Two pattern recognition chemometric procedures, stepwise linear discriminant analysis (sLDA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), provided a successful discrimination between the groups investigated. sLDA allowed the classification of 100% of the samples into irradiated or non-irradiated beef groups; the same result was obtained by ANNs using the 1 kGy irradiation dose as discriminant value suggested by the network. Furthermore, sLDA allowed the classification of 81.9% of the beef samples according to the irradiation dose (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 8 kGy). (1)H NMR lipid profiling, coupled with multivariate analysis may be considered a suitable and promising screening tool for the rapid detection of irradiated meat in official control of food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques in medicine has, also in South Africa, increased enormously, especially as regards diagnosis and reseach. In 1983 in vivo tests with radioisotopes were carried out and also in vitro tests, mainly by radioimmunoassay. Therapy with open and sealed radioactive sources was concentrated mainly on cancer treatments. In 1983 NUCOR supported 83 research projects in the life sciences. Imaging of organs or tissues in the body with nuclear techniques has developed into the most important application of nuclear medicine, with the development of even more specific labelled compounds as the main objective. Radioimmunoassay is at an exciting watershed, now that labelled monoclonal antibodies with high specificity for early diagnosis (also in cancer) and even localised radiotherapy have become available. The establishment of the 200 MeV open-sector cyclotron by the National Accelerator Centre also for medical purposes will, in addition to the large-scale production of the protonrich isotopes, also make a substantial contribution to radiotherapy with nuclear particles such as neutrons, protons and helium-3

  9. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  10. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, P.

    The long term development and successful utilization of the Tongonan geothermal field for electric power generation is ultimately a function of the response of the reservoir to extensive exploitation. A field drawdown test of several years duration has been planned to test this response. A number of nuclear chemical techniques have been incorporated into this to assist in quantitatively tracing the subsurface movements of both reservoir and reinjected fluids; and to provide an early warning of changes in the physical and chemical properties of the reservoir fluids with respect to natural recharge. The programme will be implemented by Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) under contract to Philippine National Oil Company - Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC). (author)

  11. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  12. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  14. Nuclear techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, J.; Saxena, R.K.

    1974-01-01

    Several types of sealed radioactive sources, stable isotopes and water soluble radioactive tracers, used by different investigators, have been listed for studying the dynamic behaviour of water in nature. In general, all the facets of hydrological cycle, are amenable to these isotopic techniques. It is recommended that environmental isotopes data collection should be started for studying the water balance and also the interrelationships between surface and subsurface water in various rivers catchments with changing physical, geological and climatic parameters. (author)

  15. Utilization of special computerized tomography and nuclear medicine techniques for quality control and for the optimization of combined precision chemotherapy and precision radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, A.L. Jr.; Wirtanen, G.W.; Chien, I.-C.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of precision (selective, intra-arterial) chemotherapy and precision radiotherapy can be used for advanced pancreatic, biliary tract, and sarcomatous malignancies. There were some remarkable responses, but also a few poor responses and even some morbidity. Accordingly, methods are developed of pre-selecting those patients whose tumors are likely to respond to such therapy, as well as methods for improving the therapeutic ratio by the rational optimization of combined therapy. Specifically, clinical tumor blood flow characteristics (monitored with nuclear medicine techniques) may provide useful criteria for such selection. The authors also evaluate qualitatively the drug distribution or exposure space with specialized color-coded computerized tomography images, which demonstrate spatially dependent enhancement of intra-arterial contrast in tumor and in adjacent normal tissues. Such clinical data can improve the quality control aspects of intra-arterial chemotherapy administration, as well as the possibility of achievement of a significant therapeutic ratio by the integration of precision chemotherapy and precision radiation therapy. (Auth.)

  16. Acoustic techniques in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Sinha, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic techniques can be employed to address many questions relevant to current nuclear technology needs. These include establishing and monitoring intrinsic tags and seals, locating holdup in areas where conventional radiation-based measurements have limited capability, process monitoring, monitoring containers for corrosion or changes in pressure, and facility design verification. These acoustics applications are in their infancy with respect to safeguards and nuclear material management, but proof-of-principle has been demonstrated in many of the areas listed

  17. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  18. Technique of nuclear reactors controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.

    1953-12-01

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author) [fr

  19. Nuclear techniques in food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, J.P.C.

    1975-01-01

    This study is divided into three parts. The first, devoted to the use of radiations in food production, deals especially with artificial mutagenesis, selectors taking advantage of altered hereditary features in plants from irradiated seed; sterilization of animals to eliminate harmful insects (male sterilization technique); the lethal power of radiations used for the production of animal vaccins, attenuated by irradiation, against organisms which infest or degrade food products. Part two shows that radioactive atoms used as tracers to reveal migrations and chemical transformations of products such as fertilizers and pesticides can speed up all kinds of agronomical research. Their possibilities in research on animal feeding and to detect poisonous substances in foodstuffs are also mentioned. The last part is devoted to the use of nuclear techniques in irrigation and more precisely in the study of underground water flows soil moisture and lastly the future of nuclear desalination [fr

  20. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  1. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  2. Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrada Remon, A.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1997-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

  3. Innovative health solutions using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Australian nuclear medicine is currently amongst the highest standard of anywhere in the world. Its origins here are firmly entrenched in Internal Medicine, with its emphasis on physiology and function, unlike many other countries such as the USA where a Radiology orientation dominates. In addition, Australia has been well served by extremely competent and innovative physical scientists working in universities, government research facilities (e.g., AAEC, ANSTO) and tertiary referral hospitals who have established their main affiliations as being within the highly multidisciplinary nuclear medicine community. Nuclear medicine in the past 10-15 years has experienced a massive shift towards 'hybrid' imaging - where two (or more) complementary imaging modalities, such as X-ray CT and a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) scanner, are combined into a functionally single device which provides high resolution spatial anatomical (form, or structure) and radionuclide distribution (function) images. In addition, the nuclear imaging techniques maintain their quantitative characteristics and thus combined structure-function imaging results in a significant improvement in diagnostic capability - looking beyond simple forms to quantifying degree of disease, e.g., malignancy of a cancer. Recently, PET scanners have been combined with NMR Imaging (MRI) and these will provide new areas of application, especially in magnetic resonance spectroscopy and radionuclide imaging. The techniques are extremely valuable in monitoring response to treatment, allowing treatments to be changed if proving ineffective. In addition, new techniques are emerging using radionuclides for therapy, combined with the improvements in imaging. This permits exquisite targeting and optimal patient selection. This talk will highlight a number of these achievements and ask the question as to what is holding back developments in Australia at present.

  4. Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125 I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 15 N and 32 P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

  5. The applications of nuclear techniques in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huiyang

    1986-01-01

    There are a great deal of advanced techniques in nuclear medicine imaging, because many recent achivements of nuclear techniques have been applied to medicine in recent years. This paper presents the effects of nuclear techniques in development of nuclear medicine imaging. The first part describes radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine imaging including commonly used 99m Tc labeled agents and cyclotron produced radionuclides for organ imaging. The second part describes nuclear medicine instrucments, including PECT, SPECT, MRI ect.; and discussions on the advantages, disadvantages and present status

  6. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  7. Communication techniques and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  8. Nuclear Medicine and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiharto, Kunto

    1996-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques medicine covers not only nuclear medicine and radiology in strict sense but also determination of body mineral content by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence technique either in vitro or in vivo, application of radioisotopes as tracers in pharmacology and biochemistry, etc. This paper describes the ideal tracer in nuclear medicine, functional and morphological imaging, clinical aspect and radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Nuclear technique offers facilities and chances related to research activities and services in medicine. The development of diagnostic as well as therapeutic methods using monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioisotope will undoubtedly play an important role in the disease control

  9. The nuclear controversy and nuclear safety techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarson, P.

    1979-09-01

    Survey interviews with 125 Swedish nuclear safety engineers are summarized and commented upon. A short historical background is given, claiming that the major safety issues of nuclear energy have been debated continously during the 50's and 60's in a way that could well have been watched and interpreted by a political, democratic system involving political parties, government departments, etc. With a few exceptions, these 125 engineers represent 10 - 20 years experience in nuclear research and development. By definition they belong to a professional group of about 800 in Sweden (1978). The main aim of the study is to find out if (how and why) a public debate can bring about changes in an industrially established technology by influencing the attitudes and technical judgements of the individuals and/or organizations involved. Examples are given in which the nuclear specialists themselves admit or claim that direct or indirect impacts from the public debate have been important. A common experience is that the scientists and engineers have been forced to broaden their professional scope through a time-consuming but - on the whole - 'positive' process. A year after the interviews started, a serious reactor accident occured near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The group has been used for a survey of the immediate reactions in order to see if it could cause sudden changes of attitudes among the experts. A minority demonstrated clear changes towards a more cautious attitude regarding nuclear risks. (author)

  10. Combination of behavioural and cognitive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Rotvejn Pajič

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive - behavioral approach in the treatment of behavioral disorders, emotional disorders and learning difficulties is not limited to a single theoretical principle or technique, but integrates different techniques. The variants techniques are derived from theoretical and empirical findings in different domains of developmental psychology (self-control, social cognition, memory, metacognitive and attritional processes. The aim of the article is to present some basic cognitive and behavioral techniques that are individually adapted during therapy and mutually complete each other. A practical case of combining techniques is presented.

  11. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  12. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

  13. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and nuclear physics. For the physicists it is a good introduction to all experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Nuclear engineers will appreciate the nuclear measurement techniques, while biomedical engineers can learn about measuring ionising radiation, the use of accelerators for radiotherapy. What's more, worked examples, end-of-chapter exercises, and appendices with key constants, properties and relationships supplement the textual material. (orig.)

  14. Radionanomedicine combined nuclear and nanomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book describes radionanomedicine as an integrated medicine using exogenous and endogenous This book describes radionanomedicine as an integrated approach that uses exogenous and endogenous nanomaterials for in vivo and human applications. It comprehensively explains radionanomedicine comprising nuclear and nanomedicine, demonstrating that it is more than radionanodrugs and that radionanomedicine also takes advantage of nuclear medicine using trace technology, in which miniscule amounts of materials and tracer kinetic elucidate in vivo biodistribution. It also discusses exogenous nanomaterials such as inorganic silica, iron oxide, upconversion nanoparticles and quantum dots or organic liposomes labelled with radioisotopes, and radionanomaterials used for targeted delivery and imaging for theranostic purposes. Further, it examines endogenous nanomaterials i.e. extracellular vesicles labelled with radioisotopes, known as radiolabelled extracellular vesicles, as well as positron emission tomography (PET) an...

  15. Nuclear security: strategies and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.K.

    2010-05-01

    The modern society, whether in developed or in developing countries, depend on the availability of nuclear energy and on the day-to-day use of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and for research. Before 9/11, these activities were mainly covered by safety rules regarding health and environment. Since 9/ 11, it is clear, that these activities also require adequate security. For the continued and expanded use of nuclear energy or radioactive materials, nuclear security is indispensable and an important prerequisite for successful and sustainable development. Many of our nuclear security services, expert assistance and training events, we have assisted Member States in their efforts to improve their preparedness and response capabilities and acquired a much better understanding of Member States prob and the need for further support. The end of the Cold War was marked by a shift from a bi-polar structure of global security into a more complex and unpredictable configuration of world affairs. It also brought about new security challenges, i.e. an increased probability for low-density regional, national or sub-national conflicts with new and more dispersed threats emanating from a larger number of actors, including non-state actors; terrorists or criminals. The audio-visual impact of modern media has enhanced the socio-psychological impact on a global scale of such conflicts. The number of cases of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials that were recorded since the 90's raised concern about the international physical protection regime and triggered an effort to enhance our capabilities for prevention, detection and responses regarding terrorist acts, as well as to strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

  16. Improving Farming With Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Soil erosion, land degradation, the excessive or inappropriate use of fertilisers in agriculture and poor water quality are threats to the environment and hamper development. IAEA projects apply nuclear technology to evaluate these risks and find ways to make better use of water and soil resources. Many countries have benefited from this programme, including Qatar, Chile, Kenya, Turkey, Vietnam and Bangladesh.

  17. The nuclear techniques and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The International atomic energy agency (IAEA) and its member states help hundred of development projects using nuclear science and technology. Specialists are sent in centers and research laboratories as counselors or speaker, activities of collective and personal training are organised with national institutes, material is supplied for research works or technical projects executed locally. (N.C.)

  18. Techniques of nuclear structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, R.D.

    1967-04-01

    The quasiparticle method for identical particles interacting through pairing forces has been extended by others for use with systems of neutrons and protons. The method is to project isospin from separately considered neutron and proton quasiparticle wavefunctions. This is discussed in detail, and it seems that the projection may not be important. Therefore unprojected quasiparticle wavefunctions are tried with some success as a basis of states in which to diagonalize a realistic nuclear Hamiltonian. Brief unrelated calculations on nuclei of mass 19 and the SU(3) classification of states in the p-f shell are also presented. (author)

  19. Powder metallurgy techniques in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear application of conventional powder metallurgy routes is centred on the fabrication of ceramic fuels. The stringent demands in terms of product performance required by the nuclear industry militate against the use of conventional powder metallurgy to produce metallic components such as the fuel cladding. However, the techniques developed in powder metallurgy find widespread application throughout nuclear technology. Illustrations of the use of these techniques are given in the fields of absorber materials, ceramic cladding materials, oxide fuels, cermet fuels, and the disposal of highly active waste. (author)

  20. Tracer techniques in estimating nuclear materials holdup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Residual inventory of nuclear materials remaining in processing facilities (holdup) is recognized as an insidious problem for safety of plant operations and safeguarding of special nuclear materials (SNM). This paper reports on an experimental study where a well-known method of radioanalytical chemistry, namely tracer technique, was successfully used to improve nondestructive measurements of holdup of nuclear materials in a variety of plant equipment. Such controlled measurements can improve the sensitivity of measurements of residual inventories of nuclear materials in process equipment by several orders of magnitude and the good quality data obtained lend themselves to developing mathematical models of holdup of SNM during stable plant operations

  1. Nuclear techniques in agriculture in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S. III; Medina, V.F.O.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques, both isotopic tracers and radiation have been utilized in the Philippine agricultural research and development to improve food production, reduce food losses and protect the environment. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), a government agency has been mandated to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy to accelerate national development. It takes the lead role in nuclear assisted agricultural research and development and has adopted a two-pronged approach for food and agricultural R and D by increasing productivity through crop improvement by mutation breeding, soil management and fertilizer uptake studies, livestock improvement; and reducing losses by pest control and food irradiation

  2. Nuclear technique for automotive tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masago; Kawamoto, Junichi

    1991-01-01

    In this report, the methods and the features are described on the measurement of wear, lubricating oil consumption, leakage of liquid, the behavior of rotating objects and so on related to engines by using radioisotopes as the tracer. The neutrons from nuclear reactors and the charged particles generated with high energy accelerators used for irradiation, and the method of measuring wear using residual radioactivity or the intensity of worn particles in lubricating oil are explained. For the measurement of oil consumption, the labeling with oleic acid sulfide (S-35) is utilized. The measurement of the rotating motion of piston rings is carried out by labeling both sides of the ring openings. The liquid leakage of very small quantity from seals and others can be measured by labeling working liquid with a tracer. (K.I.)

  3. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  5. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  6. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  7. Economics on nuclear techniques application in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masao

    1979-01-01

    The economics of the application of nuclear techniques to industry is discussed. Nuclear techniques were applied to gauging (physical measurement), analysis, a radioactive tracer method, electrolytic dissociation, and radiography and were found to be very economical. They can be applied to manufacturing, mining, oceano-engineering, environmental engineering, and construction, all of which have a great influence on economics. However, because the application of a radioactive tracer technique does not have a direct influence on economics, it is difficult to estimate how beneficial it is. The cost-benefit ratio method recommended by IAEA was used for economical calculations. Examples of calculations made in gauging and analysis are given. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Hyperfine interactions measured by nuclear orientation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenier, R.

    1982-01-01

    This report concerns the use of hyperfine interaction to magnetism measurements and to the determination of the nuclear structure of Terbium isotopes by the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. In the first part we show that the rhodium atom does not support any localized moment in the chromium matrix. The hyperfine magnetic field at the rhodium nuclear site follows the Overhauser distribution, and the external applied magnetic field supports a negative Knight shift of 16%. In the second part we consider the structure of neutron deficient Terbium isotopes. We introduce a coherent way of evaluation and elaborate a new nuclear thermometer. The magnetic moments allows to strike on the studied states configuration. The analysis of our results shows a decrease of the nuclear deformation for the lighter isotopes [fr

  9. Combining non-destructive nuclear techniques to study Roman leaded copper coins from Ilipa (II–I centuries B.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Suárez, A.I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Chaves, F.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M.Á.; Ager, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    A set of 32 bronze coins (II–I centuries B.C.) from the Roman city of Ilipa Magna (present-day Alcalá del Río, Seville) have been analyzed by means of non-destructive techniques. These coins are classified in different series according to their numismatic characteristics. They are very interesting from the archaeological point of view because a freshwater fish is depicted on the obverse (unusual in Mediterranean Cultures) and a spike on the reverse (also unusual but frequent in the South of the Iberian Peninsula). A comparative study has been made by PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) both corrected by GRT (Gamma Ray Transmission) in order to avoid the polishing of the coins. The results show that after the correction with GRT both independent methods give compatible concentrations for all of the coins that can be assumed as the actual bulk compositions . The average concentrations of the different series have been calculated and they could help to classify the series of coins chronologically.

  10. Active neutron technique for detecting attempted special nuclear material diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.W.; Rice, L.G. III.

    1979-01-01

    The identification of special nuclear material (SNM) diversion is necessary if SNM inventory control is to be maintained at nuclear facilities. (Special nuclear materials are defined for this purpose as either 235 U of 239 Pu.) Direct SNM identification by the detection of natural decay or fission radiation is inadequate if the SNM is concealed by appropriate shielding. The active neutron interrogation technique described combines direct SNM identification by delayed fission neutron (DFN) detection with implied SNM detection by the identification of materials capable of shielding SNM from direct detection. This technique is being developed for application in an unattended material/equipment portal through which items such as electronic instruments, packages, tool boxes, etc., will pass. The volume of this portal will be 41-cm wide, 53-cm high and 76-cm deep. The objective of this technique is to identify an attempted diversion of at least 20 grams of SNM with a measurement time of 30 seconds

  11. Nuclear analysis techniques and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    31 theses are collected in this book. It introduced molecular activation analysis micro-PIXE and micro-probe analysis, x-ray fluorescence analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry. The applications about these nuclear analysis techniques are presented and reviewed for environmental sciences

  12. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  13. Applications of nuclear techniques and research 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques, i.e. those techniques where use is made of isotopes and radiation, continues to contribute to progress in science, technology, agriculture, industry and medicine. Nuclear applications found their way into the IAEA's activities from the very beginning, and their promotion constitutes today a substantial fraction of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation and Research Contract Programmes. The 1990 selection is opened by a review of the role and function of the IAEA's Research Contract Programme, which is one of the Agency's most effective tools for promoting and developing nuclear applications. Applications in agriculture are covered in two articles dealing respectively with issues affecting the acceptance of food irradiation by governments, the food industry and consumers and with the use of radiation to induce plant mutation, a practical tool available to plant breeders in their effort to develop better quality crops. The following article deals with a typical nuclear application in medicine, i.e. the use of radionuclides in the diagnosis of lung diseases and in investigations related to the respiratory function. The use of environmental isotopes to assess the energy potential of geothermal fields is the next subject, a good example of nuclear methods applied to the evaluation of natural resources. The 1990 review concludes with a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme

  14. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozzi, G.L.; Dahl, C.C.; Gross, R.S.; Voeller, J.G. III

    1995-01-01

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  15. Improving animal productivity by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA and FAO have run a joint programme for 30 years to assist national agricultural research systems in member states to develop, test and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving the productivity of livestock. Applications of nuclear technologies for improving livestock productivity include: use of radioimmunoassay in animal nutrition researches, animal production, and evaluating feeding and management systems through reproductive performance in a field. Geographic coverage and the type of livestock studies are: grazing animals (cattle, goats and sheep) in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as buffalo production in Asia. 6 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Scintigraphic instruments and techniques in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornand, Bernard; Soussaline, Francoise; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1978-01-01

    A short survey of data processing techniques in medical scintigraphy is presented. Three lists of abstracts being firstly from reviews, secondly from proceedings, and thirdly of reports and thesis, are presented as an addendum to the bibliography CEA-BIB-214, for the period 1975 up to march 1977. An index of authors and subjects is included. Finally an appendix with 18 patents is attached. Several bibliographical reviews: Excerpta Medica (Nuclear Medicine) Abstract Journal, INIS Atomindex, Nuclear Science Abstracts, together with a number of special journals and documents, recently published, have been used for this work [fr

  17. Gas separation techniques in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, Hideaki; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ohno, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The literatures concerning the gas separation techniques which are applied to the waste gases generated from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment and the instrumentation of nuclear facilities are reviewed. The gas permeability and gas separation performance of membranes are discussed in terms of rare gas separation. The investigation into the change of the gas permeability and mechanical properties of membranes with exposure to radiation is reported. The theoretical investigation of the separating cells used for the separation of rare gas and the development of various separating cells are described, and the theoretical and experimental investigations concerning rare gas separation using cascades are described. The application of membrane method to nuclear facilities is explained showing the examples of uranium enrichment, the treatment of waste gases from nuclear reactor buildings and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, the monitoring of low level β-emitters in stacks, the detection of failed fuels and the detection of water leak in fast breeder reactors. (Yoshitake, I.)

  18. Nuclear techniques in coal and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbern, A.W.; Leal, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques for the determination of important parameters in industrial installations is exemplified; advantages of these techniques over other methods conventionally used are pointed out. The use of radiotracers in the study of physical and chemical phenomena occurring in the chemical industry is discussed. It is also shown that, using certain radioisotopes, it is possible to construct devices which enable, for example, the determination of the ash content in coal samples. These devices are economical and easy to be installed for the on-line control during coal transportation. (C.L.B.) [pt

  19. Environmental monitoring in Slovakia using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sivo, A.; Sykora, I.; Chudy, M.; Richtarikova, M.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.; Meresova, J.; Ondo-Estok, D.; Mankovska, B.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Ermakov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The contamination of the atmosphere of Slovakia by stable elements and also by-,radionuclides as 14 C, 7 Be, 210 Pb and 222 Rn were studied during the last decade using nuclear techniques. The main aims of this research were the better understanding of processes taking place in the atmosphere, the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend, as well as the evaluation of the health risk from this pollution

  20. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greany, Patrick D.; Carpenter, James E.

    2000-01-01

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  1. Scintigraphic instruments and techniques in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornand, B.; Soussaline, F.

    1977-03-01

    The development of new radiopharmaceuticals, cyclotron-produced radionuclides and improvement of detector, scanner and gamma camera characteristics have enable a remarkable recent progress in scintigraphic techniques for organ visualization and functional studies. Using a variety of techniques, positron cameras, section scanners, gamma holography, tomographic imaging appear to be playing an increasing important role. Data processing techniques, for example image processing and three dimensional reconstruction have significantly increased their impact. The principal research work and advances in technique achieved up to 1972 are summarized and the subjects which have been further exploited are outlined. The main section comprises references and abstracts of articles from scientific journals and conference proceedings (191 articles and 221 papers mentioned) for the period 1972-1975 to illustrate advances in this domain: Excerpta Medica (Nuclear Medicine) Abstract Journals and Nuclear Science Abstracts (1972-1975) were used as abstracting publications. This survey is completed with an index of authors and subject-matters. Eleven thesis are mentionned in an appendix [fr

  2. Nuclear activation techniques in the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-08-15

    The analysis of the elemental composition of biological materials is presently undertaken on a large scale in many countries around the world One recent estimate puts the number of such analyses at six thousand million single-element determinations per year, of which about sixteen million are for the so-called trace elements. Since many of these elements are known to play an important role in relation to health and disease, there is considerable interest in learning more about the ways in which they function in living organisms. Nuclear activation techniques, generally referred to collectively as 'activation analysis' constitute an important group of methods for the analysis of the elemental composition of biological materials. Generally they rely on the use of a research nuclear reactor as a source of neutrons for bombarding small samples of biological material, followed by a measurement of the induced radioactivity to provide an estimate of the concentrations of elements. Other methods of activation with Bremsstrahlung and charged particles may also be used, and have their own special applications. These methods of in vitro analysis are particularly suitable for the study of trace elements. Another important group of methods makes use of neutrons from isotopic neutron sources or neutron generators to activate the whole body, or a part of the body, of a living patient. They are generally used for the study of major elements such as Ca, Na and N. All these techniques have previously been the subject of two symposia organised by the IAEA in 1967 and 1972. The present meeting was held to review some of the more recent developments in this field and also to provide a viewpoint on the current status of nuclear activation techniques vis-a-vis other competing non-nuclear methods of analysis.

  3. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  4. Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Youxiang; Sun Zuxun

    1993-01-01

    The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc

  5. Safety prediction technique for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.D. III; Anderson, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a safety prediction technique (SPT) developed by Reliability Technology Associates (RTA) for nuclear power plants. It is based on a technique applied by RTA to assess the flight safety of US Air Force aircraft. The purpose of SPT is to provide a computerized technique for objective measurement of the effect on nuclear plant safety of component failure or procedural, software, or human error. A quantification is determined, called criticality, which is proportional to the probability that a given component or procedural-human action will cause the plant to operate in a hazardous mode. A hazardous mode is characterized by the fact that there has been a failure/error and the plant, its operating crew, and the public are exposed to danger. Whether the event results in an accident, an incident, or merely the exposure to danger is dependent on the skill and reaction of the operating crew as well as external influences. There are three major uses of SPT: (a) to predict unsafe situations so that corrective action can be taken before accidents occur, (b) to quantify the impact of equipment malfunction or procedural, software, or human error on safety and thereby establish priorities for proposed modifications, and (c) to provide a means of evaluating proposed changes for their impact on safety prior to implementation and to provide a method of tracking implemented changes

  6. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustgaard, J [Institute of Physiology, Endocrinology and Bloodgrouping, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1976-07-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel.

  7. Novel imaging techniques for the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint, A.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the developments of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been paralleled during the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe. Secondary electrons were used in the early development of both devices to provide specimen imaging due to the large numbers of secondaries produced per incident charged particle. Other imaging contrast techniques have also been developed on both machines. These include X-ray analysis, scattering contrast, transmission microscopy, channelling induced charge and others. The 'cross-section dependent' imaging techniques such as PIXE, RBS, NRA, etc., rely on the beam current on target for a given resolution. This has prompted research and development of brighter ion sources to maintain probe resolution at high beam current. Higher beam current bring problems with beam damage to the specimen. Low beam current techniques however rely on high countrate data collection systems, but this is only for spectroscopy. To produce an image we can increase beam currents to produce live-time images for specimen manipulation and observation. The work presented here will focus on some developments in live-time imaging with a nuclear micro probe that have taken place recently at the School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre (MARC), University of Melbourne

  8. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustgaard, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel

  9. Techniques for Combined Arms for Air Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    4-6 Figure 4-3. Football Field Technique: Jet aiming points...4-7 Figure 4-4. Football Field Technique: Helicopter aiming points............................................. 4-8 Figure 4-5. Firing positions...destroy it.  HOLD FIRE is an emergency fire control order to stop engagement of a specific target. Missiles already in flight must be prevented from

  10. Basic principles of applied nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The technological applications of radioactive isotopes and radiation in South Africa have grown steadily since the first consignment of man-made radioisotopes reached this country in 1948. By the end of 1975 there were 412 authorised non-medical organisations (327 industries) using hundreds of sealed sources as well as their fair share of the thousands of radioisotope consignments, annually either imported or produced locally (mainly for medical purposes). Consequently, it is necessary for South African technologists to understand the principles of radioactivity in order to appreciate the industrial applications of nuclear techniques [af

  11. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  12. Environmental pollutants monitoring network using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA), Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 60,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 μm particle diameter cut off and samples for 24 hours using a stretched Teflon filter for each day. Accelerator-based Ion Beam Analysis(IBA) techniques are well suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that originate from such a large scale aerosol sampling network. These techniques are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. This paper described the four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. Each analysis requires only a few minutes of accelerator running time to complete. 15 refs., 9 figs

  13. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  14. Quality system implementation for nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    techniques. The methodology provided is appropriate for: (a) Analysis of radionuclides as in alpha, beta, and gamma spectrometry for environmental and human-made radioactivity investigations; (b) Analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, PIXE, etc. This training guidebook can be used by staff of analytical laboratories as a starting kit to better understand the quality assurance and quality control principles as prescribed in the ISO 17025 standard. It follows a logical order related to practical laboratory work rather than the formal clauses as given by the standard. It can be used as a stand alone textbook. However, in some cases, cross-reference is given to the ISO 17025 clauses hence it is recommended to consult the ISO standard for exact wording of specific requirements

  15. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: During the last year, the activity of our department was spread over basic research in nuclear physics (standard spectroscopy, more exotic regions close to the elementary particle physics, theoretical studies of heavy ion interactions), high energy atomic physics, applications of and nuclear physics (environmental studies, effects of irradiation, ion production). Some effort was focused on teaching - actually, four Ph. D. students are working for their degrees. Some of us were involved in organisation and further activity of the ''Radioactive Waste'' exhibition in Swierk. Our research is performed on our facilities (C30 cyclotron, low background detection facility), and in close co-operation with the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the Warsaw University, Jagellonian University in Cracow, Military Technical Academy in Warsaw, Institute of Electronic Technology and Materials in Warsaw and some foreign centers like GSI in Darmstadt, MPI in Heidelberg and KFA in Juelich (Germany), PSI in Villigen (Switzerland), University of Notre Dame, Argonne National Lab., Lawrence Berkeley Lab. and Los Alamos National Lab. (USA). The reader is invited to find some of our recent results on the next pages; together with a list of publications. Nevertheless some activities are worth mentioning: Nuclear spectroscopic studies were concentrated on Z or N 50 nuclei - determination of excited level schemes of 182,183 Ir, 180,181,182 Os and 110 Sn and 132 Ce was continued and some new effects found. The most precise lifetime of the A hyperon in very heavy hypernuclei was measured(COSY-13 project). The search of muon number forbidden nuclear μ - e nuclear conversion was continued (SINDRUM II coll.). Heavy ion interactions leading to fusion or fission processes were studied theoretically, and the experiments are in preparation. The experimental studies of atomic effects in bare, H- and He- like very heavy atoms and X ray spectroscopy of heavy ion atomic collisions were continued at GSI

  16. Immunodiagnosis of parasitic infections using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This report documents the recommendations of the ''Advisory Group on Immunodiagnosis of Parasitic Infections Using Nuclear Techniques'' with a focus on malaria, schistosomiasis and filariasis. Radionuclide tracers are considered an important component of present and future immunological methods for the assessment of the host's humoral and cellular immunity to the parasite and the detection of parasite antigen(s) in human body fluids. The Advisory Group has concluded that there is a continuing need for the development and application of immunodiagnostic methods in parasitic diseases. This report concerns methods which are currently or potentially applicable to immunodiagnostic investigations in parasitic diseases. Reference is made, where appropriate, to recent developments in research which may lead to improvement and standardization of methods now available and the development of new methodology. Separate abstracts on various papers presented were prepared

  17. Nuclear techniques for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Highlights of the major IAEA programme for nuclear techniques and research which have direct contribution towards improvement of the environment are presented. These include topics in the areas of food and agriculture, hydrology, environmental monitoring, and marine sciences. Joint IAEA and FAO programmes in food and agriculture covers topics such as: control of insects and pests, monitoring of pesticides in ecosystem and food irradiation. In hydrology, development and management of water resources, water pollution assessment, cleaning of flue gases and sewage sludge, etc are being undertaken primarily in developing countries. Environmental monitoring is conducted with particular emphasis to when there is an accidental release of radioactivity into the environment, as happened to the Chernobyl accident

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di

    1999-01-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author)

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz R, O.; Griffith M, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  1. Learning curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, Jussi K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on actuarial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  2. Nuclear techniques in oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.; Orr, W.L.; Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of some of the most significant new developments that have occurred during the past three years in the area of nuclear techniques applied to the exploration for and production of oil and gas deposits. Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out aimed at improving pulsed neutron logging tools and upgrading interpretation of data from such tools. Pulsed neutron borehole generators and gamma-ray spectroscopy have been combined in carbon/oxygen logging to provide a means of determining formation oil saturation in cased holes that is independent of water salinity. Use of pulsed neutron logs in the log-inject-log technique has been tested and evaluated in several field studies. The combination of a gamma-gamma density log and a borehole gravimeter has been used to detect economically important gas accumulations at distances from a borehole that are well beyond the depth of investigation of conventional logging techniques. The depths of investigation of several commercial nuclear logging tools have been studied in laboratory investigations. Possible geological applications of natural gamma-ray spectral logs have been investigated through the study of large sample suites and in specific field applications. The extensive use of digital recording of logging data and well-site analysis by minicomputer are expected to have a significant influence on future logging programmes and logging sonde designs. The present status of stable isotope geochemistry and radioactive tracer surveys is reviewed. (author)

  3. Nuclear techniques in marine metal exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The growing concern about the future availability of raw materials has increasingly drawn attention to the extensive marine metalliferous mineral deposits. Nuclear techniques can provide powerful analytical tools for exploring these resources. The measurement of natural gamma radiation, X-ray fluorescence analysis and a variety of neutron techniques based on 252 Cf, (α,n) and (d,n) sources are now in use or appear to make progress. Improvement of the relevant cross sections could considerably advance the technical development both in the field and in the laboratory. Particular consideration should be given to a number of energy-dependent cross sections pertaining to neutron and gamma transport in field application of activation analysis or radiative capture, to neutron cross sections for production of gamma rays from inelastic collisions, to cross sections of threshold reactions which either ensure elemental selectivity or are the source of elemental interferences and, finally, to cross sections for quasi-prompt activation with 14 MeV neutrons. (orig.) [de

  4. Development of Measurement Techniques For Strengthening Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of nuclear safeguards is based on the accounting and control of nuclear materials, nuclear technologies and activities in a State in order to attain its ''Legal'' goals of the application of atomic energy. The present paper investigates the development in the measurement techniques used in the verification and control of NMs for the purpose of strengthening safeguards. Its focus is to review the recent nuclear measurement techniques used for the identification and verification of nuclear materials.The different levels of verification and the accuracy of these techniques are discussed. The implementation of stregthened safeguards; and nuclear materials verification and control in the world are mentioned. Also, the recently proposed measures to enhance the ability to detect undeclared nuclear materials, nuclear activities and facilities that would need advanced measurement techniques are indicated.

  5. Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia Salazar, Brunilda

    1997-01-01

    The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country [es

  6. Application of fieldbus techniques in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Chen Hang; Yu Shuxin; Zhang Xinli

    2012-01-01

    The successful application experience of fieldbus techniques in thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are outlined first. And then, the application of fieldbus techniques in domestic 3rd-generation nuclear power plant (NPP) project is discussed. After that, the solution to the potential problems of fieldbus techniques application in NPP is provided. (authors)

  7. Non destructive assay techniques applied to nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nondestructive assay is a suite of techniques that has matured and become precise, easily implementable, and remotely usable. These techniques provide elaborate safeguards of nuclear material by providing the necessary information for materials accounting. NDA techniques are ubiquitous, reliable, essentially tamper proof, and simple to use. They make the world a safer place to live in, and they make nuclear energy viable. (author)

  8. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  9. Nuclear techniques to address HAB concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Nhu Ngoc; Phan Son; Nguyen Ngoc Lam and Chu Van Thuoc

    2004-01-01

    In December, 1998, The Project Formulation meeting on application of Nuclear Techniques to address red tide (Harmful Algal Bloom concerns) was held in Manila Philippines. This is an IAEA/RCA project with the participation of Australia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, The Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The main objectives of this project (RAS/8/076) included: - Conduct of segmentation studies to gain information on the natural histories of sediments and to correlated these with Red Tide occurrences. - Development of descriptive and predictive of the behaviour of Algal Bloom as affected by the interplay of the causative organism with the environment parameters in the water column and sediments. - Development and field testing of a rapid assay technique based on tritium - labeled saxitoxin for toxin determination. The first phase has been completed in 2002 and the second phase will be completed in 2004. In the two years of 2001 - 2002 Ted Tide occurred in very larger area in Vietnam, for example, in the coast of Binh Thuan Province with the density of 39.10 9 cells/litre. The Ministry of science - technology environment of Vietnam has support 5.000 USD each years for sediment and algal sampling in Cam Ranh Bay (Nha Trang, 11 o 45N and 10 o 15E) and Ha Long Bay in the North - East of Vietnam (21 o 15 and 107 o 3E) and in 2003 in Tuy Phong Bay (Binh Thuan province) (10 o 15N, 108 o 45E). Three sediment core has been taken from Cam Ranh Bay, Ha Long Bay and Tuy Phong Bay. The volume of sediment core is Φ = 8 cm and h = 60 cm. The algal samples have been collected by Bongo nets in Cam Ranh, Ha Long Bay and Tuy Phong Bay. (author)

  10. Locating techniques for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    1983-01-01

    The basic thought in locating nuclear power stations is to examine carefully the suitability of sites and the safety of plants, and in the end, to perfect the safety of public. In Japan, effort is exerted to obtain the trust of local people by carrying out investigation, research and examination from respective standpoints of the government, institutes and industries. The author has engaged in the standardization of the investigation, test and analysis regarding the aseismatic capability of ground, the verifying project in Tadotsu of the coupled vibration of ground and structures, the evaluation of the performance of large vibration tables, the future concept of new locating procedure and so on in the last more than ten years. The technological classification of ground, the technological meaning of active faults, the procedure of the aseismatic design of plants, the difference of earthquake input force according to various locating methods, 12 rules regarding the attenuation of vibration of ground, and the concept of new locating method in the 21st century are explained. As the new locating techniques applicable to central Japan, diluvial ground location, floating location in tunnels, underground location, offshore location and so on must be promoted. (Kako, I.)

  11. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture: Status and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focused on the role of nuclear techniques and their applications in agriculture science for plant and animal production, and to study the relationships among soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. For example, carbon isotope discrimination 12 C/ 13 C can be used to select appropriate plant genotypes which are tolerant to drought and salinity stress. Using 15 N to study, symbiotic N 2 fixation, inorganic N dynamics in the soil, plant system, mineralization of organic N in soils, efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers and microbial protein production in ruminants. Neutron gauges are used for soil moisture measurements to assess crop water use efficiencies, crops water requirements, and irrigation scheduling for conventional and new methods of irrigation. The use of environmental isotopes ( 18 O, 2 H, 3 H and 14 C) in hydrology; and 137 Cs to study soil erosion. Using 32 P to study the fate of applied P fertilizers (chemical fractionation and availability), their use efficiency and phosphorus metabolism in animals. Ionizing radiation is used to improve the quality and productivity of major crops, to induce mutations, to improve the metabolisable and digestible energy of unconventional feeds and the nutritive value of agricultural residues, and to protect crops against agricultural pests and in food conservation. Radioimmunoassay is used in studies to improve the production and reproductive performance of indigenous small ruminants. (author)

  13. Nuclear techniques and professional education at InSTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; D’Alessandro Rodríguez, Katia; Gelen Rudnikas, Alina; López Pino, Neivy; Borroto Portela, Jorge; Domínguez Catasús, Judith; Abreu Díaz, Aida M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes the most relevant results obtained by InSTEC´s Group of Nuclear Applications in the last 25 years, in the development of nuclear techniques and its application in different social areas. The impact of applied research on graduated and post graduated education in nuclear careers as well as the social recognition of the university community are presented. (author)

  14. Contribution of nuclear techniques towards a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz Ugarte, O.

    1997-01-01

    The papers mentions the main nuclear techniques applied in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture, the technical support given to Cuba by the IAEA mainly in training and in the creation of a infrastructure (Laboratories) to enable the application of nuclear techniques to agricultural research related to soil fertility, plant nutrition and water usage

  15. Introduction to nuclear techniques in agronomy and plant biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: nature of isotopes and radiation; nuclear reactions; working with radioisotopes; detection systems and instrumentation; radioassay; radioisotopes and tracer principles; stable isotopes as tracers - mainly the use of 15 N; activation analysis for biological samples; x-ray fluorescence spectrography for plants and soils; autoradiography; isotopes in soils studies; isotopic tracers in field experimentation; nuclear techniques in plant science; nuclear techniques for soil water; radiation and other induced mutation in plant breeding. (author)

  16. Introduction to nuclear techniques in agronomy and plant biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A scientific textbook concerning the use of nuclear techniques in agricultural and biological studies has been written. In the early chapters, basic radiation physics principles are described including the nature of isotopes and radiation, nuclear reactions, working with radioisotopes, detection systems and instrumentation, radioassay and tracer techniques. The remaining chapters describe the applications of various nuclear techniques including activation analysis for biological samples, X-ray fluorescence spectrography for plants and soils, autoradiography, isotopes in soils studies, isotopic tracers in field experimentation, nuclear techniques in plant function and soil water studies and radiation-induced mutations in plant breeding. The principles and methods of these nuclear techniques are described in a straightforward manner together with details of many possible agricultural and biological studies which students could perform. (U.K.)

  17. Status and developing of nuclear emergency response techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangang, Zhang; Bing, Zhao; Rongyao, Tang; Xiaoxiao, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Emergency preparedness and response in China is consistent with international basic principle of nuclear safety and emergency response. Nuclear emergency response techniques in China developed with nuclear power from 1980s. The status of nuclear emergency techniques in China are: 1) China have plentiful experiences and abilities in the fields of nuclear facility emergency planning and preparedness, nuclear accident consequence assessment, emergency monitoring, and emergency advisory; 2) Emergency assistance ability in China has a foundation, however it cannot satisfy national requirement; 3) Emergency planning and preparedness is not based on hazard assessment; 4) Remote monitoring and robot techniques in not adaptable to the requirements of nuclear emergency response; 5) A consistent emergency assessment system is lack in China. In this paper, it is analyzed what is the developing focal points of nuclear emergency response techniques in China, and it is proposed that the main points are: a) To develop the research of emergency preparedness on the base of hazard analysis; b) To improve remote monitoring and robot ability during nuclear emergency; c) To develop the response technique research with anti-terrorism. (author)

  18. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of density and moisture gauge by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelaviraj, V.; Karasuddhi, P.; Banchornthevakal, V.; Punyachaiya, S.

    1981-08-01

    A combined soil moisture/density gauge using nuclear technique was developed. Simultaneous density and moisture measurements can take place by means of gamma and neutron sources which are attached to the moisture probe. Backscattered gamma radiation giving information on density is detected by a G.M. counter while slow neutron radiation containing moisture information is detected by a boron-lined proportional counter. The instrument makes use of a 30 mCi americium 241-beryllium neutron source and a 10 mCi cesium 137 gamma source. The instrument was calibrated using soil and sand filled in a 200 litre-barrel in laboratory and field work which was carried out to check the correctness of the calibration curves. (author)

  20. Dictionary of nuclear sciences and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, B.; Santarini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This reference book has been totally reworked in its fourth edition, in order to answer the needs of the numerous sectors of activity concerned by nuclear sciences and technologies: radiation protection, cancerology, neurology and pharmacology in the medical sector, power generation and more generally energy production, micro-electronics, quality control and on-line analysis in many industrial sectors, patrimony preservation, food safety, environmental and paleo-climate studies in relation with climate prospective, etc. This complete overview of the nuclear world integrates the regulatory aspects, necessary to shade light on it, and many other technological innovations. Elaborated with harmonization, clarification and exhaustiveness concerns, this dictionary is the result of a large consensus among the French-speaking nuclear community. It includes some 4800 entries with more than 250 color illustrations and an English-French glossary. Its aim is to offer to everyone a precise vocabulary, fully shared by everybody and necessary for exchanges and debates clarity. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J R; Hutton, J T; Habermehl, M A [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  4. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  5. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  6. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  7. A fermionic molecular dynamics technique to model nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantournhout, K.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: At sub-nuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 , nuclear matter arranges itself in a variety of complex shapes. This can be the case in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. These slab like and rod like structures, designated as nuclear pasta, have been modelled with classical molecular dynamics techniques. We present a technique, based on fermionic molecular dynamics, to model nuclear matter at sub-nuclear densities in a semi classical framework. The dynamical evolution of an antisymmetric ground state is described making the assumption of periodic boundary conditions. Adding the concepts of antisymmetry, spin and probability distributions to classical molecular dynamics, brings the dynamical description of nuclear matter to a quantum mechanical level. Applications of this model vary from investigation of macroscopic observables and the equation of state to the study of fundamental interactions on the microscopic structure of the matter. (author)

  8. Combined antegrade and retrograde ureteral stenting: the rendezvous technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macri, A.; Magno, C.; Certo, A.; Basile, A.; Scuderi, G.; Crescenti, F.; Famulari, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ureteral stenting is a routine procedure in endourology. To increase the success rate in difficult cases, it may be helpful to use the rendezvous technique, a combined antegrade and retrograde approach. We performed 16 urological rendezvous in 11 patients with ureteral strictures or urologic lesions. The combined approach was successful in all patients, without morbidity or mortality. In our experience the rendezvous technique increased the success rate of antegrade ureteral stenting from 78.6 to 88.09% (p>0.05). This procedure is a valid option in case of failure of conventional ureteral stenting

  9. Technique for simultaneous adjustment of large nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.R.; Wilson, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Adjustment of the nuclear data base to agree with integral observations in design work has been limited in part by problems in the required inversion of matrices. It is shown that this inversion problem can be circumvented and arbitrarily large nuclear data libraries can be adjusted simultaneously when the basic data are uncorrelated. The technique is illustrated by adjusting nuclear data to integral observations made on fast reactor benchmark critical assemblies. 3 tables

  10. The single chip microcomputer technique in an intelligent nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tieliu; Sun Punan; Wang Ying

    1995-01-01

    The authors present that how to acquire and process the output signals from the nuclear detector adopting single chip microcomputer technique, including working principles and the designing method of the computer's software and hardware in the single chip microcomputer instrument

  11. Robust control technique for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.V.; Bailey, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes the linear quadratic Guassian (LQG) design technique with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) for design of control systems. The concepts of return ratio, return difference, inverse return difference, and singular values are summarized. The LQG/LTR design technique allows the synthesis of a robust control system. To illustrate the LQG/LTR technique, a linearized model of a simple process has been chosen. The process has three state variables, one input, and one output. Three control system design methods are compared: LQG, LQG/LTR, and a proportional plus integral controller (PI). 7 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Program of nuclear techniques application (triennial 88-89-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A real analysis of the potentiality and the possibility from Nuclear Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) Sao Paulo, Brazil in realize the researches and developments for offering specialized services of nuclear techniques for using in bioengineering, industry, isotope production, IEA-R1 reactor irradiation and radiation detectors and sensors are described. (author)

  13. Graphite in Science and Nuclear Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, E. I.; Bubnenkov, I. A.; Dremov, V. V.; Samarin, S. I.; Pokrovsky, A. S.; Harkov, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. The structure and electrical properties, the technological aspects of production of high-strength synthetic graphites, the dynamics of the graphite destruction, traditionally used in the nuclear industry are discussed. It is focuses on the characteristics of graphitization and properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. The book is based, generally, on the original res...

  14. Industrial applications of nuclear techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1981-01-01

    Application of radioisotope techniques in a number of Polish industries was reviewed. Studies on the usage of radiotracer as an evaluation method for technological processes were carried out and the advantages of such application were discussed

  15. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  16. Recent advances in nuclear techniques for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity monitoring was first started in the late 1950s following the global fallout from testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Nuclear analytical techniques are generally classified into two categories: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive techniques are carried out through several analytical methods such as α-spectrometry, liquid Scintillation counting system, solid state nuclear track detector, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), chromatography techniques, electro-analytical techniques etc. However, nondestructive methods include gamma spectrometry, X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, neutron activation analysis (NAA) etc. The development of radiochemical methods and measurement techniques using alpha and gamma spectrometry have been described in brief

  17. Nuclear techniques and the fight against pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The picturesque city of Salzburg was the scene of an important symposium, called to discuss one of the most pressing problems of our civilization - environmental pollution. Industrialization and urbanization, prerequisites of modern life, have a reverse side: contamination of water resources, atmospheric deterioration, soils poisoned by industrial toxicants. Pollutants are dispersed every day, threatening the health of man, endangering other forms of life, and jeopardizing the equilibrium of the biosphere in the long-term. What can be done to solve the problems which have already been created? In particular, what can nuclear science contribute to diagnosis and therapy? (author)

  18. Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercaldo, E.L.

    1983-06-01

    The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

  19. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernicki, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text:Research activities in our Department in the last year were focused on traditional domains of nuclear physics: heavy-ion reactions and nuclear spectroscopy, but also on medium-energy elementary particle physics, neutrino physics, as well as atomic physics. Along with the group of nuclear and atomic physicists, our Department encompasses a team working on medical physics and another team engaged in ecology and environmental physics. We maintain our collaboration with FZ Juelich (Germany) continuing experiments on the COSY storage ring, aimed at studying heavy hyperons produced in pp collisions. Recently, evidence for a new hyperon has been obtained. At PSI Villigen (Switzerland) rare pion- and muon decays have been studied using the large PIBETA detector. The branching ratio for the pion beta decay was measured with six times better accuracy than previously. From the precise measurements of the radiative pion decay the pion axial form factor was evaluated (four times more precisely). Some anomaly, which can not be explained by the Standard Model, was observed in this process. In the field of neutrino physics, data collected with the T600 module of the cosmic ray detector ICARUS in Pavia (Italy) have been analysed. In collaboration with the Department of Nuclear Theory, conditions to observe the fascinating process of neutrino-less double electron capture were further examined from the point of view of the fundamental question of the neutrino nature and mass. Our involvement in the CHIMERA/ISOSPIN Collaboration resulted in interesting studies of semi-peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Fermi energy range. In particular, a new method of determination of the time scale of the emission of intermediate mass fragments was developed. We continued the collaboration with LBNL Berkeley (USA) and IEP Warsaw University on a theoretical model of the synthesis of super-heavy elements. A comprehensive description of the model with extensive predictions of the

  20. Methods and techniques of nuclear in-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, A.J. de.

    1992-04-01

    Review of methods of nuclear in-core fuel management (the minimal critical mass problem, minimal power peaking) and calculational techniques: reactorphysical calculations (point reactivity models, continuous refueling, empirical methods, depletion perturbation theory, nodal computer programs); optimization techniques (stochastic search, linear programming, heuristic parameter optimization). (orig./HP)

  1. Correlation techniques in nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1976-01-01

    Ever increasing effects are recently being made to monitor the mechanical behaviour of the nuclear power plants during operation. For technical as well as economical reasons one is forced to make do with the smallest number of sensors. In order to still obtain efficient control systems, an attempt is made on the one hand to make use of the already existing operational instrumentation, on the other hand to obtain a maximum of information by specific use of few additional sensors. In both cases, correlation analysis plays a large role because an optimum positioning of the sensor is seldom possible and thus, as a rule, the interesting information must be separated from very noisy signals. (orig./LH) [de

  2. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research activities of the Department in 1999 were concentrated on medium and low energy nuclear physics, atomic physics of the exotic bare or single electron atoms and on selected applications of nuclear physics. Experiments in the medium energy physics are carried out using large facilities: ANKE in KFA Juelich (Germany) and SINDRUM 2 at PSI Villigen (Switzerland). In the low energy our physicists continue collaboration with Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, and large international gamma multidetector facilities like GAMMASPHERE. The heavy ion beams of GSI in Darmstadt (Germany) and PSI are used for studies of atomic effects. Our C-30 proton cyclotron delivers beam to study modification of optical properties of laser crystals and our low background gamma detection facility is used to measure radioactive contamination of the environment. The theoretical work is devoted to study the fusion of the heavy nuclei with the particular interest in production of new isotopes with very small probabilities. The reader is invited to find some of our recent results on the next pages, together with a list of papers published this year. Nevertheless it is worthwhile to emphasize: Observation of helium like hole states in the ionized high Z atoms; Tests of the Langevin Dynamics of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Study of Radiative Electron Capture into bare U ions; First lifetime measurements using the DSAM method on Warsaw Cyclotron; Optimisation of the electron beam flue gas purification using the genetic controller. Some of us are also involved in teaching and in supervision of students and graduate students. Financial support received from the State Committee for Scientific Research and Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish-American Foundation is acknowledged. (author)

  3. Voltage switching technique for detecting nuclear spin polarization in a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Kono, Kimitoshi; Tarucha, Seigo; Ono, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    We have introduced a source-drain voltage switching technique for studying nuclear spins in a vertical double quantum dot. Switching the source-drain voltage between the spin-blockade state and the zero-bias Coulomb blockade state can tune the energy difference between the spin singlet and triplet, and effectively turn on/off the hyperfine interaction. Since the change in the nuclear spin state affects the source-drain current, nuclear spin properties can only be detected by transport measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in measuring the timescale of nuclear spin depolarization. Furthermore, combining this technique and an RF ac magnetic field, we successfully detected continuous-wave NMR signals of 75 As, 69 Ga, and 71 Ga, which are contained in a quantum dot. (author)

  4. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  5. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA, during the summer of 1983. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology, methods and procedures with up-to-date-references. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 chapters in this manual

  6. Nuclear techniques in the development of advanced ceramic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.; Hewat, A.W.; Maier, J.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Rauch, H.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of research, development and application of advanced materials is well understood by all developed and most developing countries. Amongst advanced materials, ceramics play a prominent role due to their specific chemical and physical properties. According to performance and importance, advanced ceramics can be classified as structural ceramics (mechanical function) and the so-called functional ceramics. In the latter class of materials, special electrical, chemical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties are of interest. The most valuable materials are multifunctional, for example, when structural ceramics combine beneficial mechanical properties with thermal and chemical sensitivity. Multifunctionality is characteristic of many composite materials (organic/inorganic composite). Additionally, properties of material can be changed by reducing its dimension (thin films, nanocrystalline ceramics). Nuclear techniques, found important applications in research and development of advanced ceramics. The use of neutron techniques has increased dramatically in recent years due to the development of advanced neutron sources, instrumentation and improved data analysis. Typical neutron techniques are neutron diffraction, neutron radiography, small angle neutron scattering and very small angle neutron scattering. Neutrons can penetrate deeply into most materials thus sampling their bulk properties. In determination of the crystal structure of HTSC, YBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 , XRD located the heavy metal atoms, but failed in finding many of the oxygen atoms, while the neutron diffraction located all atoms equally well in the crystal structure. Neutron diffraction is also unique for the determination of the magnetic structure of materials since the neutrons themselves have a magnetic moment. Application of small angle neutron scattering for the determination of the size of hydrocarbon aggregates within the zeolite channels is illustrated. (author)

  7. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F 1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F 1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  8. Animal science: Isotopes and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercoe, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    In many regions of the world, animal production is limited by poor growth, reproductive performance and milk output of livestock, thus limiting the availability of animal products such as meat, milk, leather, etc., for use by man. Reduced animal production results from inadequate or unbalanced nutrition, lack of adaptation to climatic conditions, and parasitic and other diseases The production from animals can be improved on the one hand by improving genotypes (the breeds and strains within a given species) to make them better suited to the environment to which they are exposed, and on the other hand by modifying the components of the environment which are limiting the production. In practice, a combination of these two strategies is usually desirable but the relative importance of each is determined by short- and long-term economic considerations and the likely environmental consequences. Isotopes and radiation play an important part in identifying and alleviating the genetic and environmental limitations to animal production

  9. Combining Breast Reduction Techniques to Treat Gigantomastia in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody F. Scheefer, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. In this presentation of 2 consecutive cases of symptomatic juvenile breast hypertrophy in Ghana, we review the patient presentation, workup, and discuss outcomes following a combined technique of inferior pedicle stump with free nipple graft reduction mammoplasty. Surgical goals for treatment of gigantomastia were 2-fold: to resect adequate tissue to obtain symptomatic relief with improved quality of life, while avoiding a flat, boxy-appearing breast shape.

  10. Nuclear techniques using radioactive beams for biophysical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Stachura, Monika Kinga

    Perturbed angular correlation of "-rays (PAC) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance measured by !-decay (betaNMR) spectroscopy are two very sensitive and, among life-scientists, infrequently encountered nuclear techniques. Both of them belong to the family of hyperfine techniques, which allow for measurements of the interactions of extra-nuclear electromagnetic fields with the nuclear moments. In this way - they can provide useful information about the local structure of the investigated systems. The first part of the work presented here focuses on investigating the fundamental chemistry of heavy metal ion - protein interactions mainly with PAC spectroscopy. A variety of questions concerning both the function of metal ions in natural systems and in synthetic biomolecules on the one hand and the toxic effects of some metal ions on the other were addressed, the results of which are described in four different papers. Paper I is a review article entitled ”Selected applications of perturbed angular correl...

  11. Nuclear techniques used in agricultural research in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear techniques that are in use in agricultural research in Turkey are : a.) techniques for monitoring and assessing the environmental pollution - such as monitoring the pesticides residues in food and soil using 14 C labelled pesticide's ; also plant root investigations using 32 P; b.) techniques for reducing the impact of increased plant productivity - such as the use of N tagged chemicals for optimizing the N fertilizer use and to determine the N 2 - fixation capacities of legumes. Also improving the water management practices - such as the determination of soil water , soil moisture characteristic cures and the leaching in soils by using the neutron probe; c.) techniques for agricultural resource development - such as the use of 60 Co and 137 Cs for obtaining new genotypes. The benefits and disadvantages of the application of nuclear techniques in agricultural research will be reviewed

  12. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    method for the `Pomorzany` coal power plant coordinated by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology under the supervision of the IAEA in Vienna. (author).

  13. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.

    1997-01-01

    coordinated by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology under the supervision of the IAEA in Vienna. (author)

  14. Estimating the Celestial Reference Frame via Intra-Technique Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddink, Andreas; Artz, Thomas; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2016-12-01

    One of the primary goals of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the determination of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Currently the third realization of the internationally adopted CRF, the ICRF3, is under preparation. In this process, various optimizations are planned to realize a CRF that does not benefit only from the increased number of observations since the ICRF2 was published. The new ICRF can also benefit from an intra-technique combination as is done for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Here, we aim at estimating an optimized CRF by means of an intra-technique combination. The solutions are based on the input to the official combined product of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), also providing the radio source parameters. We discuss the differences in the setup using a different number of contributions and investigate the impact on TRF and CRF as well as on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). Here, we investigate the differences between the combined CRF and the individual CRFs from the different analysis centers.

  15. Techniques for hot-press-bonding dissimilar metal combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1966-05-01

    High strength diffusionless bonds can be produced in a variety of dissimilar metal combinations by the hot press bonding technique covered by Canadian Patent application 904,548 June 6, 1964. Some of the combinations that can be joined successfully are Zircaloy-2 and 416 stainless steel, 416 stainless steel and mild steel, 1S aluminum and mild steel, Zircaloy-2 and M257 SAP, and Zircaloy-2 and 1S aluminum. Several other combinations were attempted but suitable joints could not be produced. The methods of producing the joints, the joint strength that can be developed and a discussion of some of the problems associated with making the joints are included in the report. (author)

  16. Improved biomass utilization through the use of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Biomass is a major by-product resource of agriculture and food manufacturing, but it is under-utilized as a source of food, fibre, and chemicals. Nuclear techniques provide unique tools for studies of the capabilities of micro-organisms in methane digestor operation and in the transformation of lignocellulosic materials to useful products. Nuclear techniques have also been effectively employed as mutagenic agents in the preparation of more efficient microbial strains for the conversion of biomass. This report reviews the variety and diversity of such applications with focus on the development of microbial processes to utilize agricultural wastes and by-products. The value of nuclear techniques is manifestly demonstrated in the production of efficient microbial mutant strains, in the tracing of metabolic pathways, in the monitoring of lignin degradation and also of fermenter operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Nuclear techniques for bulk and surface analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.D.; Kamykowski, E.A.; Kuehne, F.J.; Padawer, G.M.; Schneid, E.J.; Schulte, R.L.; Stauber, M.C.; Swanson, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented summarizing several nondestructive bulk and surface analysis nuclear techniques developed in the Grumman Research Laboratories. Bulk analysis techniques include 14-MeV-neutron activation analysis and accelerator-based neutron radiography. The surface analysis techniques include resonant and non-resonant nuclear microprobes for the depth profile analysis of light elements (H, He, Li, Be, C, N, O and F) in the surface of materials. Emphasis is placed on the description and discussion of the unique nuclear microprobe analytical capacibilities of immediate importance to a number of current problems facing materials specialists. The resolution and contrast of neutron radiography was illustrated with an operating heat pipe system. The figure shows that the neutron radiograph has a resolution of better than 0.04 cm with sufficient contrast to indicate Freon 21 on the inner capillaries of the heat pipe and pooling of the liquid at the bottom. (T.G.)

  18. Development of the fundamental techniques for nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongho; Song, Kyuseok; Ha, Younggeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Heedong

    2013-08-15

    The main goal of this project is to develop the fundamental techniques of physical and chemical analysis of the target materials, and data interpretation methods to identify the origin and the production attributions of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive materials. This also includes production of analytical data for domestic nuclear materials to be used in establishment of national nuclear material data library. As the result of the R and D of this project, we developed the analytical techniques for H and O isotopes to identify the origin of the target samples, the techniques of chemical treatments of water type and soil type samples, and the fundamental research on the gamma spectroscopy for nuclear forensics. We also performed the study on the national collaboration plan on nuclear forensics, and fundamental research and the target materials and analytical requirements for analytical data production of domestic nuclear materials to construct a national data library. Most of the R and D's in the schedule of this project have not been performed due to the early termination of the project by the decision of the government.

  19. Development of the fundamental techniques for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Song, Kyuseok; Ha, Younggeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Heedong

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this project is to develop the fundamental techniques of physical and chemical analysis of the target materials, and data interpretation methods to identify the origin and the production attributions of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive materials. This also includes production of analytical data for domestic nuclear materials to be used in establishment of national nuclear material data library. As the result of the R and D of this project, we developed the analytical techniques for H and O isotopes to identify the origin of the target samples, the techniques of chemical treatments of water type and soil type samples, and the fundamental research on the gamma spectroscopy for nuclear forensics. We also performed the study on the national collaboration plan on nuclear forensics, and fundamental research and the target materials and analytical requirements for analytical data production of domestic nuclear materials to construct a national data library. Most of the R and D's in the schedule of this project have not been performed due to the early termination of the project by the decision of the government

  20. Technical and economic benefits of nuclear techniques in ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This report is the outcome of an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the Agency and hosted by the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the technical and economic benefits of applying nuclear techniques in ore processing industry. Nucleonic control systems and nuclear on-line analytical techniques as well as radioisotope tracer tests and their applications in metallic ore-processing, coal production, and cement fabrication were discussed. This report contains a summary and the presentations dealing with nuclear techniques for process control made at this meeting. Using a number of case-histories as examples, it illustrates technical and economic benefits obtainable by the installation of nuclear process control instrumentation. It is expected to be useful for everybody dealing with ore and coal production, but especially for administrative personnel and engineers who plan and implement national development programmes related to mineral resources. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  2. Combining heuristic and statistical techniques in landslide hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Jose; Schwendtner, Barbara; Quan, Byron; Nadim, Farrokh; Diaz, Manuel; Molina, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    As a contribution to the Global Assessment Report 2013 - GAR2013, coordinated by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction - UNISDR, a drill-down exercise for landslide hazard assessment was carried out by entering the results of both heuristic and statistical techniques into a new but simple combination rule. The data available for this evaluation included landslide inventories, both historical and event-based. In addition to the application of a heuristic method used in the previous editions of GAR, the availability of inventories motivated the use of statistical methods. The heuristic technique is largely based on the Mora & Vahrson method, which estimates hazard as the product of susceptibility and triggering factors, where classes are weighted based on expert judgment and experience. Two statistical methods were also applied: the landslide index method, which estimates weights of the classes for the susceptibility and triggering factors based on the evidence provided by the density of landslides in each class of the factors; and the weights of evidence method, which extends the previous technique to include both positive and negative evidence of landslide occurrence in the estimation of weights for the classes. One key aspect during the hazard evaluation was the decision on the methodology to be chosen for the final assessment. Instead of opting for a single methodology, it was decided to combine the results of the three implemented techniques using a combination rule based on a normalization of the results of each method. The hazard evaluation was performed for both earthquake- and rainfall-induced landslides. The country chosen for the drill-down exercise was El Salvador. The results indicate that highest hazard levels are concentrated along the central volcanic chain and at the centre of the northern mountains.

  3. Industrial applications of radioisotopes: techniques and procedures of (NTIS) Nuclear Techniques Industrial Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.W.; Kruger, J.

    1985-06-01

    Radioisotope handling procedures followed by personnel of the Nuclear Techniques Industrial Service (NTIS) during the conduction of investigations in industry are described. Possible radiological implications as a result of the various measuring techniques and different types of plants are discussed. Conditions under which permanent authorization has been granted for the use of radioisotopes are mentioned

  4. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Gonon, P; Walker, R; Dooley, S; Bettiol, A; Pearce, J [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs

  7. Toshiba's developments on construction techniques of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Itoh, N.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable and economic energy supplies are fundamental requirements of energy policies in Japan. To accomplish these needs, nuclear power plants are being increased in Japan. In recent years, construction cost increases and schedule extensions have affected the capital cost of nuclear energy, compared with fossil power plants, due to lower costs of oil and coal. On the other hand, several severe regulations have been applied to nuclear power plant designs. High-quality and cooperative engineering and harmonized design of equipment and parts are strongly required. Therefore, reduced construction costs and scheduling, as well as higher quality and reliability, are the most important items for nuclear industry. Toshiba has developed new construction techniques, as well as design and engineering tools for control and management, that demonstrate the positive results achieved in the shorter construction period of 1100-MW(electric) nuclear power plants. The normal construction period so far is 64 months, whereas the current construction period is 52 months. (New construction techniques are partially applied). In future years, the construction period will be lowered to 48 months. (New construction techniques are fully applied). A construction period is defined as time from the start of rock inspection to the start of commercial operation

  8. Conference on Techniques of Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text : With their wide scope, particularly in the areas of environment, geology, mining, industry and life sciences; analysis techniques are of great importance in research as fundamental and applied. The Conference on Techniques for Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications (TANCA) are Registered in the national strategy of opening of the University and national research centers on their local, national and international levels. This conference aims to: Promoting nuclear and conventional analytical techniques; Contribute to the creation of synergy between the different players involved in these techniques include, Universities, Research Organizations, Regulatory Authorities, Economic Operators, NGOs and others; Inform and educate potential users of the performance of these techniques; Strengthen exchanges and links between researchers, industry and policy makers; Implement a program of inter-laboratory comparison between Moroccan one hand, and their foreign counterparts on the other; Contribute to the research training of doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars. Given the relevance and importance of the issues related to environment and impact on cultural heritage, this fourth edition of TANCA is devoted to the application of analytical techniques for conventional and nuclear Questions ied to environment and its impact on cultural heritage.

  9. Non-destructive analysis of archaeological bronzes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Tubio, B.M.; Sanchez del Junco, A.; Barranco, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies a method for overcoming the difficulty of corroded surfaces by means of nondestructive nuclear methods in the determination of the composition of archaeological bronzes. It consists of the combination of PIXE or XRF information with Gamma Ray Transmission (GRT) data. A wide range applicability of this combined method is established by comparison with profiles of concentrations along the bronzes' patina obtained by SEM-EDAX. (orig.)

  10. Using Combined SFTA and SFMECA Techniques for Space Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemos, F. G.; Lahoz, C. H. N.; Abdala, M. A. D.; Saotome, O.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the combined Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) and Software Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA) techniques applied to space critical software of satellite launch vehicles. The combined approach is under research as part of the Verification and Validation (V&V) efforts to increase software dependability and as future application in other projects under development at Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (IAE). The applicability of such approach was conducted on system software specification and applied to a case study based on the Brazilian Satellite Launcher (VLS). The main goal is to identify possible failure causes and obtain compensating provisions that lead to inclusion of new functional and non-functional system software requirements.

  11. Nuclear techniques in schistosomiasis: Towards a schistosome vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews recent advances in schistosome research achieved through the application of nuclear techniques and aimed at the development of a vaccine. Two principal areas are discussed: first, immune effector mechanisms; and secondly, the application of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technology to the problem of production of large quantities of parasite antigens suitable for inclusion in an experimental vaccine. (author)

  12. Nuclear techniques in agriculture and industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1993-01-01

    The presentation describes the application of nuclear techniques related to information acquisition by radiotracer and isotope-instrument getting physical parameters from measured substances, medical diagnostic information, evolution of novel substances or modification of materials through interaction of ionizing radiation with matter,mutation breeding in agriculture, cancer therapy in medicine, sterilization of medical products

  13. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig

  14. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  15. Optimizing Nuclear Reactor Operation Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entzinger, J.O.; Ruan, D.; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    The strict safety regulations for nuclear reactor control make it di±cult to implement new control techniques such as fuzzy logic control (FLC). FLC however, can provide very desirable advantages over classical control, like robustness, adaptation and the capability to include human experience into

  16. Robust techniques for polarization and detection of nuclear spin ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Müller, Samuel; Chen, Qiong; Dhand, Ish; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-11-01

    Highly sensitive nuclear spin detection is crucial in many scientific areas including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and quantum computing. The tiny thermal nuclear spin polarization represents a major obstacle towards this goal which may be overcome by dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) methods. The latter often rely on the transfer of the thermally polarized electron spins to nearby nuclear spins, which is limited by the Boltzmann distribution of the former. Here we utilize microwave dressed states to transfer the high (>92 % ) nonequilibrium electron spin polarization of a single nitrogen-vacancy center (NV) induced by short laser pulses to the surrounding 13C carbon nuclear spins. The NV is repeatedly repolarized optically, thus providing an effectively infinite polarization reservoir. A saturation of the polarization of the nearby nuclear spins is achieved, which is confirmed by the decay of the polarization transfer signal and shows an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. Hereby we introduce the polarization readout by polarization inversion method as a quantitative magnetization measure of the nuclear spin bath, which allows us to observe by ensemble averaging macroscopically hidden polarization dynamics like Landau-Zener-Stückelberg oscillations. Moreover, we show that using the integrated solid effect both for single- and double-quantum transitions nuclear spin polarization can be achieved even when the static magnetic field is not aligned along the NV's crystal axis. This opens a path for the application of our DNP technique to spins in and outside of nanodiamonds, enabling their application as MRI tracers. Furthermore, the methods reported here can be applied to other solid state systems where a central electron spin is coupled to a nuclear spin bath, e.g., phosphor donors in silicon and color centers in silicon carbide.

  17. Radiation safety in industrial applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The hazards associated with the use of industrial equipment is one of the undesirable by-products of advanced technology. The use of nuclear techniques is a good example. Due to the usefulness of such techniques, one may accept the risks involved if they can be brought down to manageable levels. Most of the nuclear techniques in use in industries in Malaysia require only minimal safety precautions as they make use of only small amounts of radioactive material. However, some large sources are also being used and safety precautions have to be strictly enforced. The management plays a critical role in these industries. The requirements for radiation safety include the monitoring of workers and work areas, the medical surveillance of workers and the provision of barriers and other safety precautions. The management should also look to the training of the workers and be prepared for any emergencies that may arise. (author)

  18. Radiation safety in industrial applications of nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, E S [Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1981-01-01

    The hazards associated with the use of industrial equipment is one of the undesirable by-products of advanced technology. The use of nuclear techniques is a good example. Due to the usefulness of such techniques, one may accept the risks involved if they can be brought down to manageable levels. Most of the nuclear techniques in use in industries in Malaysia require only minimal safety precautions as they make use of only small amounts of radioactive material. However, some large sources are also being used and safety precautions have to be strictly enforced. The management plays a critical role in these industries. The requirements for radiation safety include the monitoring of workers and work areas, the medical surveillance of workers and the provision of barriers and other safety precautions. The management should also look to the training of the workers and be prepared for any emergencies that may arise.

  19. Ultrasonic-resonator-combined apparatus for purifying nuclear aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Suxia; Zhang, Quanhu; Li, Sufen; Chen, Chen; Su, Xianghua [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2017-12-15

    The radiation hazards of radionuclides in the air arising from the storage room of nuclear devices to the operators cannot be ignored. A new ultrasonic-resonator-combined method for purifying nuclear aerosol particles is introduced. To remove particles with diameters smaller than 0.3 μm, an ultrasonic chamber is induced to agglomerate these submicron particles. An apparatus which is used to purify the nuclear aerosol particles is described in the article. The apparatus consists of four main parts: two filtering systems, an ultrasonic chamber and a high-pressure electrostatic precipitator system. Finally, experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the implementation of the ultrasonic resonators. The feasibility of the method is proven by its application to the data analysis of the experiments.

  20. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission ) a...

  1. Nuclear techniques used in soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear techniques, which include the usage of radioactive and stable isotopes, had been used in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant breeding, plant protection and food preservation research works after 1950s. Ultimately these nuclear techniques contributed greatly in increased plant production. In general, it is possible to separate the nuclear techniques used in soil fertility and plant nutrition into two groups. The first group is the use of radioactive and stable isotopes as a tracer in order to find out the optimum fertilization rate of plants precisely. The second group is the use of neutron probe in determining the soil moisture at different periods of the growing season and at various soil depths precisely without any difficulty. In research works where conventional techniques are used, it is not possible to identify how much of the nutrient taken up by the plant came from applied fertilizer or soil. However, when tracer techniques are used in research works it is possible to identify precisely which amount of the nutrient taken from fertilizer or from soil. Therefore, the nuclear techniques are very important in finding out which variety of fertilizer and how much of it must be used. The determination of the soil moisture is very important in finding the water needs of the plants for a good growth. Soil moisture contents changes often during the growth period, so it must be determined very frequently in order to determine the amount of irrigation that has to be done. Conventional soil moisture determination (gravimetric method) is very laborious especially when it has to be done frequently. However, by using neutron probe soil moisture determinations can be done very easily any time during the plant growth period. (author)

  2. Nuclear techniques used in soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear techniques, which include the usage of radioactive and stable isotopes, had been used in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant breeding, plant protection and food preservation research works after 1950s. Ultimately these nuclear techniques contributed greatly in increased plant production. In general, it is possible to separate the nuclear techniques used in soil fertility and plant nutrition into two groups. The first group is the use of radioactive and stable isotopes as a tracer in order to find out the optimum fertilization rate of plants precisely. The second group is the use of neutron probe in determining the soil moisture at different periods of the growing season and at various soil depths precisely without any difficulty. In research works where conventional techniques are used, it is not possible to identify how much of the nutrient taken up by the plant came from applied fertilizer or soil. However, when tracer techniques are used in research works it is possible to identify precisely which amount of the nutrient taken from fertilizer or from soil. Therefore, the nuclear techniques are very important in finding out which variety of fertilizer and how much of it must be used. The determination of the soil moisture is very important in finding the water needs of the plants for a good growth. Soil moisture contents changes often during the growth period, so it must be determined very frequently in order to determine the amount of irrigation that has to be done. Conventional soil moisture determination (gravimetric method) is very laborious especially when it has to be done frequently. However, by using neutron probe soil moisture determinations can be done very easily any time during the plant growth period

  3. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  4. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN 3 ). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using 51 Cr-EDTA and 125 I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come

  5. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Combination technique for improving natural convection cooling in electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, L.A.; Harnoy, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The combination of an appropriately placed cross-flow opening and a strategically positioned transversely vibrating plate is proposed as a means of augmenting pure natural convection in a vertical channel. This method is intended to provide a more efficient, reliable, and consumer conscious alternative to conventional techniques for lower power dissipating devices where standard natural convection cooling proves insufficient. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are employed to investigate this combination method using models consisting of a vertical channel containing two rectangular heat sources which are attached to a vertical mounting board, as well as a transversely oscillating plate and a cross-flow opening in the mounting board area between the two heat sources. Varied parameters and geometric configurations are studied. The results indicate the combined effects of the vibrating plate and the opening flow have the potential to cause significant improvement in the thermal conditions over pure natural convection. As much as a 70% improvement in the local heat transfer coefficient from that for a system with a board opening but without a vibrating plate was attained. (author)

  7. Combined backscatter and transmission method for nuclear density gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golgoun Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of nuclear density gauges, due to the ability to work in harsh industrial environments, is very common. In this study, to reduce error related to the ρ of continuous measuring density, the combination of backscatter and transmission are used simultaneously. For this reason, a 137Cs source for Compton scattering dominance and two detectors are simulated by MCNP4C code for measuring the density of 3 materials. Important advantages of this combined radiometric gauge are diminished influence of μ and therefore improving linear regression.

  8. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques; Medicion de fracciones de vacio por tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  9. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, B.M.; Linss, G.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.) [de

  10. Physical and measuring principles of nuclear well logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, U.; Winkler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the general task of nuclear geophysics as a special discipline of applied geophyscis, the essential physical problems of nuclear well logging techniques are considered. Particularly, the quantitative relationship between measured values and interesting geologic parameters to be determined are discussed taking into account internal and external perturbation parameters. Resulting from this study, the technological requirements for radiation sources and their shielding, for detectors, electronic circuits in logging tools, signal transmission by cable and recording equipment are derived, and explained on the basis of examples of gamma-gamma and neutron-neutron logging. (author)

  11. Nuclear techniques for on-line analysis in the mineral and energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Watt, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many on-line analysis systems which are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. Some of the systems developed by the CSIRO depend entirely on nuclear techniques; others use a combination of nuclear techniques and microwave, capacitance, or ultrasonic techniques. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these CSIRO systems has led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations, with increased productivity valued at A$50 million per year to Australia, and $90 million per year world wide. This paper reviews developments in nuclear on-line analysis systems by the On-Line Analysis Group in CSIRO at Lucas Heights. Commercialised systems based on this work analyse mineral and coal slurries and determine the ash and moisture contents of coal and coke on conveyors. This paper also reviews two on-line nuclear analysis systems recently developed and licensed to industry, firstly for the determination of the mass flow rates of oil/water/gas mixtures in pipelines, and secondly for determination of the moisture, specific energy, ash and fouling index in low rank coals. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  13. Moisture measurements in iron ores, in freight cars, through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Said, M.; Duarte, U.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility and the advantages of using a nuclear technique for measuring on the spot (in the freight cars) and the moisture content of iron ores are described. The measurements included the determination of the volumetric moisture content and the density. From this values, the moisture content in percentage by weight was calculated. Nuclear Chicago d/M Combination Density-Moisture Probe with a 5 mCi Ra/Be source, and a digital portable scaler, were used. The investigated techniques give good results when the measurements are made directly on the ore surface, and has economical advantages over the gravimetric method by sampling. The probable reasons for both, the aleatory scattering of points and the lack of linear correlation between the values of both methods, when the nuclear measurement is made across the car walls are analized

  14. Combination Base64 Algorithm and EOF Technique for Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Nurdiyanto, Heri; Hidayat, Rahmat; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Siregar, Dodi; Putera Utama Siahaan, Andysah; Faisal, Ilham; Rahman, Sayuti; Suita, Diana; Zamsuri, Ahmad; Abdullah, Dahlan; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Ikhsan Setiawan, Muhammad; Sriadhi, S.

    2018-04-01

    The steganography process combines mathematics and computer science. Steganography consists of a set of methods and techniques to embed the data into another media so that the contents are unreadable to anyone who does not have the authority to read these data. The main objective of the use of base64 method is to convert any file in order to achieve privacy. This paper discusses a steganography and encoding method using base64, which is a set of encoding schemes that convert the same binary data to the form of a series of ASCII code. Also, the EoF technique is used to embed encoding text performed by Base64. As an example, for the mechanisms a file is used to represent the texts, and by using the two methods together will increase the security level for protecting the data, this research aims to secure many types of files in a particular media with a good security and not to damage the stored files and coverage media that used.

  15. Concerning the application of the nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin Garcia, Luis Felipe

    1997-01-01

    The present work intends to describe briefly, some of the nuclear and connected techniques of greater application in the conditions of developing countries, which are employed in the Center of Studies Applied to the Nuclear Development, and that can be of interest for the Latin-American countries. Within those techniques we have: radiobiology, that consists of the employment of ionizing radiations to induce mutations oriented to the improvement of the cultivations. It mentions the atmospheric contamination generated by the industry of the exposition to metals and toxic waste, and of mortiferous parasites that adapt quickly to the unhealthy environmental conditions. It also enumerates some advantages of the utilization of instruments based on radioisotopic fountains. (S. Grainger) [es

  16. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  17. An investigation of tantalum and niobium contents by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patmasiriwat, N.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to find suitable nuclear techniques to determine the quantities of niobium and tantalum in columbite. The study has been performed by using radioisotope X-ray fluorescent technique (X RF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results showed a good agreement between these two techniques. Nevertheless, with NAA, if there is uranium in the sample, the spectrum of niobium will be interfered. So practically, on the basis of accuracy and speed of determination, X-ray fluorescence is more suitable than NAA to determine the quantity of niobium while tantalum is preferable to use NAA. The detection limit of niobium and tantalum using the above techniques are 0.661% and 0.1 mg respectively

  18. Advanced instrumentation and control techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Makino, Maomi

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba has been promoting the development and improvement of control and instrumentation (C and I) systems employing the latest technologies, to fulfill the requirements of nuclear power plants for increased reliability, the upgrading of functions, improved maintainability, and reasonable cost. Such development has been systematically performed based on a schematic view of integrated digital control and instrumentation systems, actively adopting state-of-the-art techniques such as the latest man-machine interfaces, digital and optical multiplexing techniques, and artificial intelligence. In addition, comprehensive feedback has been obtained from the accumulation of operating experience. This paper describes the purpose, contents and status of applications of representative newly-developed systems. (author)

  19. Determination of palladium in biological samples applying nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Q.; Sato, Ivone M.; Salvador, Vera L. R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2008-01-01

    This study presents Pd determinations in bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory, and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst materials of the Proficiency Test, using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. Solvent extraction and solid phase extraction procedures were also applied to separate Pd from interfering elements before the irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The results obtained by different techniques were compared against each other to examine sensitivity, precision and accuracy. (author)

  20. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  1. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Preliminary Study of Meteorite and Tektite using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Tangpitayakul, Pisarn; Pimjun, Surapong; Chongkum, Somporn; Sangsuriya, Sineenart; Wiseatsri, Pojanee

    2003-06-01

    The discoveries of suspicious meteorite or tektite around Chaiyapum province and surrounding area were sent to Physics Division, Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). Fourteen samples were analyzed by 3 nuclear techniques; the measurement of natural radiation, x-ray fluorescence analysis and neutron activation analysis. The result shows that the samples can be classified according to the level of natural radiation, the elemental composition and there quantity

  3. A novel experimental technique of nuclear lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuminov, O.A.; D'Arrigo, A.; Giardina, G.; Taccone, A.; Vannini, G.; Moroni, A.; Ricci, R.A.; Vannucci, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper a new experimental method to measure nuclear reaction time in the 10 -15 -10 -10 s region is presented. Measurements of the lifetimes of low-lying and long-lived states of 19 F and 20 Ne decaying via α-channel were carried out with the aim of checking the feasibility of the method. The results obtained in this way are compared with the lifetimes known from different techniques. ((orig.))

  4. Marine pollution studies in Pakistan by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Javed, T.; Tasneem, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive study on pollution aspects of Manora Channel-Karachi Coast, Pakistan. In addition to use of conventional non-nuclear pollution monitoring tools (Coliform population, electrical conductivity, turbidity etc.), we evaluate the role of environmental stable carbon isotope technique (delta /sup 13/C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon-TDIC) to establish marine pollution transport scenario for Manora Channel. Data shows that tidal fluctuations play a key role in distribution of contamination inventories in Manora Channel. (author)

  5. A Toast to Good Health: IAEA Promotes Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA promotes the use of nuclear techniques to help Member States achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by training scientists, providing experts, and helping to fund the purchase of essential equipment. The Agency focuses its nutrition efforts on MDG 4 reduce child mortality, MDG 5 improve maternal health, MDG 6 combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases, and MDG 8 global partnership for development

  6. Applications of nuclear technique in environmental and medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Shen Hao; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Yao Huiying; Zhou Shijun; Mi Yong

    2001-01-01

    The serious environmental pollution problem and application of the nuclear technique in environmental and medical sciences were discussed. The analysed results of the elemental distribution of particles in automobile exhaust, the aerosol particle of different size and the effect of Rare Earth on cells were reported. The authors can obtain some information related to element concentration. It offers a convenient method in inspecting the environmental pollution

  7. Simulation of land mine detection processes using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.

    2005-01-01

    A computer models were designed to study the processes of land mine detection using nuclear technique. Parameters that affect the detection were analyzed . Mines of different masses at different depths in the soil are considered using two types of sources , 252 C f and 14 MeV neutron source. The capability to differentiate between mines and other objects such as concrete , iron , wood , Aluminum ,water and polyethylene were analyzed and studied

  8. Attempt of application of prefabrication techniques to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangi, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Prefabrication can apply to nuclear civil engineering for the execution of complicated or tall shuttering or casing work, requiring shoring that one would wish to simplify or suppress. This technique saves on work hours and improves quality and safety. A few examples carried out on the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux and Chinon power stations are given as well as that which will be undertaken on the Belleville power station [fr

  9. Reliability Analysis Techniques for Communication Networks in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T. J.; Jang, S. C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, M. C.; Eom, H. S.; Lee, H. J.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for nuclear power plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of this study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  10. Modeling and numerical techniques for high-speed digital simulation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional computing methods are contrasted with newly developed high-speed and low-cost computing techniques for simulating normal and accidental transients in nuclear power plants. Six principles are formulated for cost-effective high-fidelity simulation with emphasis on modeling of transient two-phase flow coolant dynamics in nuclear reactors. Available computing architectures are characterized. It is shown that the combination of the newly developed modeling and computing principles with the use of existing special-purpose peripheral processors is capable of achieving low-cost and high-speed simulation with high-fidelity and outstanding user convenience, suitable for detailed reactor plant response analyses

  11. Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Commercial Applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Feng, S.; Yang, J.; Ouyang, H.; Feng, X.; Mao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first Chinese nuclear reactor and accelerator in 1958, the nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China have dramatically developed in past half century. Nowadays 10 research nuclear reactors and over 100 small accelerators are available in China. Roughly, about 50 % of the machine time is applied for commercial purpose at the moment. The versatile nuclear analytical methods, mainly NAA, PIXE, XRF, etc., in China have been and are being applied widely and extensively in the following three fields: scientific, training, and commercial. This paper will briefly describe the past experience and present status about NATs for commercial applications. Some practical examples to demonstrate the role of NATs in this aspect will be given as well. Basically, the NATs used for the commercial applications in China can be divided into two types, i.e. off-line and on-line. The former mainly includes instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for compositional determination, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) also for compositional analysis, accelerator-based mass-spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of C-14, Be-7, Cl-36 and other long-lived radioactive nuclides, solid state nuclear track detector

  12. Development of indigenous technology at CNEN in the fields of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra, O.

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of the program developed at CNEN in the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear technique are described. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovi, Vlado

    2006-01-01

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources ( 137 Cs and 60 Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is 'non-specific' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are 'blind' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as

  14. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovi, Vlado [Institute Ruder Boskovi, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-05-15

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is 'non-specific' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are 'blind' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential

  15. Application perspectives of simulation techniques CFD in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo G, I. F.

    2013-10-01

    The scenarios simulation in nuclear power plants is usually carried out with system codes that are based on concentrated parameters networks. However situations exist in some components where the flow is predominantly 3-D, as they are the natural circulation, mixed and stratification phenomena. The simulation techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have the potential to simulate these flows numerically. The use of CFD simulations embraces many branches of the engineering and continues growing, however, in relation to its application with respect to the problems related with the safety in nuclear power plants, has a smaller development, although is accelerating quickly and is expected that in the future they play a more emphasized paper in the analyses. A main obstacle to be able to achieve a general acceptance of the CFD is that the simulations should have very complete validation studies, sometimes not available. In this article a general panorama of the state of the methods application CFD in nuclear power plants is presented and the problem associated to its routine application and acceptance, including the view point of the regulatory authorities. Application examples are revised in those that the CFD offers real benefits and are also presented two illustrative study cases of the application of CFD techniques. The case of a water recipient with a heat source in its interior, similar to spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant is presented firstly; and later the case of the Boron dilution of a water volume that enters to a nuclear reactor is presented. We can conclude that the CFD technology represents a very important opportunity to improve the phenomena understanding with a strong component 3-D and to contribute in the uncertainty reduction. (Author)

  16. Role of nuclear techniques in oncological practice in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehan, A.H.; Karim, M.A.; Begum, S.M.F.; Khan, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Application of nuclear medicine techniques plays an integral part in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of cancer patients. Scintigraphic studies are able to detect primary and secondary malignant lesions in various organs e.g. bone, thyroid, breast, brain, lung, kidney, liver etc. Nuclear techniques are comparatively simple, non-invasive with minimum cost and radiation exposure. In recent years radio nuclide techniques are being widely accepted by the practicing oncologists especially for diagnosis, accurate assessment of the disease process and treatment planning. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission helped in establishing a Central Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound and 14 smaller sub centers in the periphery, equipped with SPECT Gamma camera, Ultrasound, RIA, and DEXA facilities. A retrospective analysis of data of clinically diagnosed cancer patients referred to the sub center for diagnosis showed a total of 117 cases, 62 (72.54 %) female and 55 (64.35 %) male in the age group 40-70 years. The incidence of malignancy was calculated based on the age and gender. The highest incidence among the women was of cancer breast (67.74%) followed by liver (11.29%) and thyroid (11.29%). Among the male population, the highest incidence was of cancer prostate (29.09%) followed by liver (9.09%) and renal cell carcinoma (9.09%). As far as therapy is concerned, only cancer thyroid cases were assessed and considered for I-131 therapy with successful results. Of these patients treated with radioiodine, 9 were for primary disease while one patient had bony metastasis also. No death or complication has yet been reported. There is no controlled program for screening cancer patients in Bangladesh, but with assistance from the Nuclear Oncologists it was possible to obtain a raw data on the incidence of different cancers in Bangladesh. This in future may help in the management strategy of various malignancies. (author)

  17. Nuclear techniques in the diagnosis of lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    Lung studies by nuclear techniques have been mostly neglected so far in the developing countries because ''total lung imaging'' was not possible. The availability of radioaerosols had now provided means to do complete lung studies in these countries. IAEA's effort to make radioaerosol techniques more widely available in the Asian countries has been most noteworthy. Pulmonary tuberculosis is still prevalent in the developing countries, scourge of smoking is becoming increasingly wide spread and atmospheric pollution is on the rise as these countries race towards industrialisation with insufficient technical and financial resources. These conditions would provide a fascinating backdrop of infective, cancerous and pollution-induced conditions of lungs where lung imaging techniques would have a large scope of providing useful service

  18. Nuclear techniques in the diagnosis of lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, T

    1993-12-31

    Lung studies by nuclear techniques have been mostly neglected so far in the developing countries because ``total lung imaging`` was not possible. The availability of radioaerosols had now provided means to do complete lung studies in these countries. IAEA`s effort to make radioaerosol techniques more widely available in the Asian countries has been most noteworthy. Pulmonary tuberculosis is still prevalent in the developing countries, scourge of smoking is becoming increasingly wide spread and atmospheric pollution is on the rise as these countries race towards industrialisation with insufficient technical and financial resources. These conditions would provide a fascinating backdrop of infective, cancerous and pollution-induced conditions of lungs where lung imaging techniques would have a large scope of providing useful service 11 figs, 1 tab

  19. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  20. Combined interpretation of multiple geophysical techniques: an archaeological case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, S.; Reichmann, S.; Tronicke, J.; Lück, E.

    2009-04-01

    In order to locate and ascertain the dimensions of an ancient orangery, we explored an area of about 70 m x 60 m in the Rheinsberg Palace Garden (Germany) with multiple geophysical techniques. The Rheinsberg Park, situated about 100 km northwest of Berlin, Germany, was established by the Prussian emperors in the 18th century. Due to redesign of the architecture and the landscaping during the past 300 years, buildings were dismantled and detailed knowledge about some original buildings got lost. We surveyed an area close to a gazebo where, after historical sources, an orangery was planned around the year 1740. However, today it is not clear to what extent this plan has been realized and if remains of this building are still buried in the subsurface. Applied geophysical techniques include magnetic gradiometry, frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and direct current (DC) resistivity mapping as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR). To get an overview of the site, we performed FDEM electrical conductivity mapping using an EM38 instrument and magnetic gradiometry with caesium magnetometers. Both data sets were collected with an in- and crossline data point spacing of ca. 10 cm and 50 cm, respectively. DC resistivity surveying was performed using a pole-pole electrode configuration with an electrode spacing of 1.5 m and a spacing of 1.0 m between individual readings. A 3-D GPR survey was conducted using 200 MHz antennae and in- and crossline spacing of ca. 10 cm and 40 cm, respectively. A standard processing sequence including 3-D migration was applied. A combined interpretation of all collected data sets illustrates that the magnetic gradient and the EM38 conductivity maps is are dominated by anomalies from metallic water pipes from belonging to the irrigation system of the park. The DC resistivity map outlines a rectangular area which might indicate the extension of a former building south of the gazebo. The 3-D GPR data set provides further insights about

  1. Management of gingiva hyperpigmentasi with combine of scalpel scraping technique and gingivo abrasion technique (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shek Wendy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic factor is an important factor in supporting the person's appearance, especially when a person smiles. Beautifull smiles form of harmonization between the teeth and gums as part of the oral cavity. One of overall aspect that has an important role in providing the overall aesthetic impression is normal gum color that pink coral. Brown or black gums are often become the complaint that interfere with appearance, especially in patients who have a habit of smoking. Pigmentation caused by melanin hyperpigmentation and usually does not present a medical problems, so patients are not aware of it. Surgical method with the scalpel scraping technique and gingivo abrasion technique using high speed carbide bur has been widely used as a method of gingival depigmentation. This method is easily done, simple and can be done in a relatively short time. In this case report presented regarding the management of patients with gingival hyperpigmentation of the maxilla and mandible were treated with surgical method using a scalpel scraping technique combined with gingivo abrasion technique using high speed carbide bur. The result, after 4 weeks follow up, color of the patient's gingival was pink and there is none recurrence of the pigmentation.

  2. Complex Archaeological Prospection Using Combination of Non-destructive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnová, M.; Pavelka, K.; Nový, P.; Šedina, J.

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the use of a combination of non-destructive techniques for the complex documentation of a fabulous historical site called Devil's Furrow, an unusual linear formation lying in the landscape of central Bohemia. In spite of many efforts towards interpretation of the formation, its original form and purpose have not yet been explained in a satisfactory manner. The study focuses on the northern part of the furrow which appears to be a dissimilar element within the scope of the whole Devil's Furrow. This article presents detailed description of relics of the formation based on historical map searches and modern investigation methods including airborne laser scanning, aerial photogrammetry (based on airplane and RPAS) and ground-penetrating radar. Airborne laser scanning data and aerial orthoimages acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre were used. Other measurements were conducted by our laboratory. Data acquired by various methods provide sufficient information to determine the probable original shape of the formation and proves explicitly the anthropological origin of the northern part of the formation (around village Lipany).

  3. Complex Archaeological Prospection Using Combination of Non-destructive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faltýnová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the use of a combination of non-destructive techniques for the complex documentation of a fabulous historical site called Devil’s Furrow, an unusual linear formation lying in the landscape of central Bohemia. In spite of many efforts towards interpretation of the formation, its original form and purpose have not yet been explained in a satisfactory manner. The study focuses on the northern part of the furrow which appears to be a dissimilar element within the scope of the whole Devil’s Furrow. This article presents detailed description of relics of the formation based on historical map searches and modern investigation methods including airborne laser scanning, aerial photogrammetry (based on airplane and RPAS and ground-penetrating radar. Airborne laser scanning data and aerial orthoimages acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre were used. Other measurements were conducted by our laboratory. Data acquired by various methods provide sufficient information to determine the probable original shape of the formation and proves explicitly the anthropological origin of the northern part of the formation (around village Lipany.

  4. Deposition techniques for the preparation of thin film nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1987-07-01

    This review commences with a brief description of the basic principles that regulate vacuum evaporation and the physical processes involved in thin film formation, followed by a description of the experimental methods used. The principle methods of heating the evaporant are detailed and the means of measuring and controlling the film thickness are elucidated. Types of thin film nuclear targets are considered and various film release agents are listed. Thin film nuclear target behaviour under ion-bombardment is described and the dependence of nuclear experimental results upon target thickness and uniformity is outlined. Special problems associated with preparing suitable targets for lifetime measurements are discussed. The causes of stripper-foil thickening and breaking under heavy-ion bombardment are considered. A comparison is made between foils manufactured by a glow discharge process and those produced by vacuum sublimation. Consideration is given to the methods of carbon stripper-foil manufacture and to the characteristics of stripper-foil lifetimes are considered. Techniques are described that have been developed for the fabrication of special targets, both from natural and isotopically enriched material, and also of elements that are either chemically unstable, or thermally unstable under irradiation. The reduction of metal oxides by the use of hydrogen or by utilising a metallothermic technique, and the simultaneous evaporation of reduced rare earth elements is described. A comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  5. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  6. Mobile Techniques for Rapid Detection of Concealed Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, W.; Koeble, T.; Risse, M.; Berky, W.

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the diversion of nuclear material as well as illicit production, transport and use of nuclear material we investigated in mobile techniques to detect and identify such material in the field as early as possible. For that purpose we use a highly sensitive gamma measurement system installed in a car. It consists of two large volume plastic scintillators, one on each side of the car, each scintillator with 12 l active volume, and two extreme sensitive high purity Germanium detectors with 57 cm 2 crystal diameter, cooled electrically. The measured data are processed immediately with integrated, appropriate analysis software for direct assessment including material identification and classification within seconds. The software for the plastic scintillators can differentiate between natural and artificial radioactivity, thus giving a clear hint for the existence of unexpected material. In addition, the system is equipped with highly sensitive neutron detectors. We have performed numerous measurements by passing different radioactive and nuclear sources in relatively large distances with this measurement car. Even shielded as well as masked material was detected and identified in most of the cases. We will report on the measurements performed in the field (on an exercise area) and in the lab and discuss the capabilities of the system, especially with respect to timeliness and identification. This system will improve the nuclear verification capabilities also. (author)

  7. The role of nuclear techniques in the long-term prediction of radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Duerden, P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems associated with the long-term prediction of the migration of radionuclides, and the role of natural analogues in reducing the inherent uncertainties are discussed. Particular reference is made to the evaluation of uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, as analogues of high-level radioactive waste repositories. A range of nuclear techniques has been used to identify the role of colloids, of alpha recoil and of mineralogy in transport. Specific mention is made of a method being developed which enables models of the migration of solute through fractured rock to be assessed via a combination of alpha track, fission track and PIXE/PIGME techniques

  8. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques; Analisis de piezas arqueologicas con tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio, D [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  9. Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouai, N M [Nuclear engineering department faculty of engineering Al-fateh universty, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs.

  10. Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouai, N. M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs

  11. Enhancement of crack detection in stud bolts of nuclear reactor by ultrasonic signal processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Oh, W.D.; Choi, S.W.; Park, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    'Full-text:' The stud bolts is one of the most critical parts for safety of reactor vessels in the nuclear power plants. However, in the application of ultrasonic technique for crack detection in stud bolt, some difficulties encountered are classification of crack signal from the signals reflected from threads part in stud bolt. In this study, shadow effect technique combined with new signal processing method is Investigated to enhance the detectability of small crack initiated from root of thread in stud bolt. The key idea of signal processing is based on the fact that the shape of waveforms from the threads is uniform since the shape of the threads in a bolt is same. If some cracks exist in the thread, the flaw signals are different to the reference signals. It is demonstrated that the small flaws are efficiently detected by novel ultrasonic technique combined with this new signal processing concept. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo techniques in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, H.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques have become one of the most popular tools in different areas of medical radiation physics following the development and subsequent implementation of powerful computing systems for clinical use. In particular, they have been extensively applied to simulate processes involving random behaviour and to quantify physical parameters that are difficult or even impossible to calculate analytically or to determine by experimental measurements. The use of the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport turned out to be the most accurate means of predicting absorbed dose distributions and other quantities of interest in the radiation treatment of cancer patients using either external or radionuclide radiotherapy. The same trend has occurred for the estimation of the absorbed dose in diagnostic procedures using radionuclides. There is broad consensus in accepting that the earliest Monte Carlo calculations in medical radiation physics were made in the area of nuclear medicine, where the technique was used for dosimetry modelling and computations. Formalism and data based on Monte Carlo calculations, developed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, were published in a series of supplements to the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, the first one being released in 1968. Some of these pamphlets made extensive use of Monte Carlo calculations to derive specific absorbed fractions for electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in organs of mathematical phantoms. Interest in Monte Carlo-based dose calculations with β-emitters has been revived with the application of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies to radioimmunotherapy. As a consequence of this generalized use, many questions are being raised primarily about the need and potential of Monte Carlo techniques, but also about how accurate it really is, what would it take to apply it clinically and make it available widely to the medical physics

  13. Design Techniques for Power-Aware Combinational Logic SER Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatme, Nihaar N.

    approaches are invariably straddled with overheads in terms of area or speed and more importantly power. Thus, the cost of protecting combinational logic through the use of power hungry mitigation approaches can disrupt the power budget significantly. Therefore there is a strong need to develop techniques that can provide both power minimization as well as combinational logic soft error mitigation. This dissertation, advances hitherto untapped opportunities to jointly reduce power consumption and deliver soft error resilient designs. Circuit as well as architectural approaches are employed to achieve this objective and the advantages of cross-layer optimization for power and soft error reliability are emphasized.

  14. South Africa improves exclusive breastfeeding monitoring using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Babies in South Africa that would once be at high risk of malnutrition, disease and even death, now have brighter futures as nuclear techniques help mothers become more diligent about exclusive breastfeeding for the baby’s first six months. Breastfed children are more resistant to disease and infection compared to formula-fed children, points out the World Health Organization, which recommends that from birth up to six months of age babies should drink only breast milk. Research indicates that breastfed babies are less likely to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer later in life.

  15. Alarm processing system using AI techniques for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1990-01-01

    An alarm processing system (APS) has been developed using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The alarms of nuclear power plants (NPP's) are classified into the generalized and special alarms. The generalized alarms are also classified into the global and local alarms. For each type of alarms, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The local processing are based on 'model-based reasoning.' The global and special alarms are processed by using the general cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to the plant state and the consistencies between them

  16. Development of nuclear microfilters using the fission tracks registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, I.M.; Geraldo, L.P.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear microfilters with mean pores diameter in the range from 1.9 to 10.6 μm have been produced using the fission tracks registration technique in Makrofol KG (8 μm thickness). Fluctuations around 11% and 10% were obtained respectively for the pores size and pores uniformity in the analysis of a typical sample of microfilter. The essential features of the microfilters were similar to those ones, commercially known as Nuclepore and thus they may be routinely employed in the several applications areas of the Industry and Biology. (author)

  17. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described.

  18. Monitoring of Corrientes facility using nuclear registers techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesquen L, S.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of fluid movement in the reservoir is a key to enhanced production management. Direct measurement of water and oil saturation variations with time, is the most reliable method in determining the depletion profile of reservoirs with ample range of permeabilities. This paper illustrates how nuclear logging techniques aids proper management in strong water drive reservoir named Cetico Corrientes Field, in east Peru. Important production increase was obtained with work over and drilling program, based on reservoir monitoring using thermal decay tool. (author). 7 figs

  19. Development of nuclear fuel microsphere handling techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.; Suchomel, R.R.; Angelini, P.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of microsphere handling techniques and equipment for nuclear applications. Work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with microspherical fuel forms dates back to the early sixties with the development of the sol-gel process. Since that time a number of equipment items and systems specifically related to microsphere handling and characterization have been identified and developed for eventual application in a remote recycle facility. These include positive and negative pressure transfer systems, samplers, weighers, a blender-dispenser, and automated devices for particle size distribution and crushing strength analysis. The current status of these and other components and systems is discussed

  20. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  1. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Several problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuanfu

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear technique that is developing at top speed in China is introduced. Several characteristics of recent international developments in nuclear techniques are discussed and a precise classification is suggested. Particularly the present problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China are explored

  3. The radiological safety in the use of nuclear technique -activities developed by Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, T.; Pereira, E.G.; Hirayama, T.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN supporting the users of nuclear techniques are described. The methodology used and future plans for the group are shown. (E.G.)

  4. New fabrication techniques for the nuclear fuels of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelot, J.F.; Bokelund, H.; Gerontopoulos, P.; Gueugnon, J.F.; Richter, K.

    1995-01-01

    The shift of the emphasis of the work at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) from the development of fuels based on uranium and plutonium to safety aspects concerning the use of plutonium and other of actinides, necessitates the production of targets containing appreciable amounts of minor actinides for irradiation experiments. The handling of minor actinides requires additional protective measures, combined with improved fuel fabrication techniques. The boundary conditions for a suitable process are flexibility, adaptability to remote control, and minimization of dust formation. A method based on the sol-gel fabrication technique meets these criteria, and was selected for the present developments at ITU. (author)

  5. Applying of USB interface technique in nuclear spectrum acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Huang Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces applying of USB technique and constructing nuclear spectrum acquisition system via PC's USB interface. The authors choose the USB component USB100 module and the W77E58μc to do the key work. It's easy to apply USB interface technique, when USB100 module is used. USB100 module can be treated as a common I/O component for the μc controller, and can be treated as a communication interface (COM) when connected to PC' USB interface. It's easy to modify the PC's program for the new system with USB100 module. The authors can smoothly change from ISA, RS232 bus to USB bus. (authors)

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given on nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples. Measurement of the inherent radioactivity of elements or radionuclides allows determination of natural radioelements (e.g. Ra), man-made radioelements (e.g. Pu) and radionuclides in the environment. Activation analysis, in particular instrumental neutron activation analysis, is a very reliable and sensitive method for determination of a great number of trace elements in environmental samples, because the most abundant main constituents are not activated. Tracer techniques are very useful for studies of the behaviour and of chemical reactions of trace elements and compounds in the environment. Radioactive sources are mainly applied for excitation of characteristic X-rays (X-ray fluorescence analysis). (author)

  7. Recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Sy An

    2008-01-01

    The author presented recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam. The author concentrated some valuable and helpful studies such as functional tests, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, bone, thyroid, lung, kidney and gastrointestinal tract scintigraphy for diagnosis. The results of RIA and IRMA concerning with thyroid diseases, cancer, microalbuminuria and TSH in blood spot on paper for screening of congenital hypothyroidism in new born babies were also given. The report also mentioned results of liver cancer and palliative bone metastasis treatments in Vietnam. A new technique using gamma probe in surgery for breast cancer was presented. The author introduced some modern teleradiotherapeutic modalities such as cyberknif, gamma knife, gamma rotating systeme and linac recently installed in Vietnam. (author)

  8. Development of nuclear power plant diagnosis technique using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Masahiro; Fukawa, Naohiro; Nishimura, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear power plant diagnosis technique has been developed, called transient phenomena analysis, which employs neural network. The neural networks identify malfunctioning equipment by recognizing the pattern of main plant parameters, making it possible to locate the cause of an abnormality when a plant is in a transient state. In a case where some piece of equipment shows abnormal behavior, many plant parameters either directly or indirectly related to that equipment change simultaneously. When an abrupt change in a plant parameter is detected, changes in the 49 main plant parameters are classified into three types and a characteristic change pattern consisting of 49 data is defined. The neural networks then judge the cause of the abnormality from this pattern. This neural-network-based technique can recognize 100 patterns that are characterized by the causes of plant abnormality. (author)

  9. USB technique and its application in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tong; Wei Yixiang; Wang Yuemin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the technique of communication of USB between computer and collection interface in nuclear instruments. Because Universal Serial Bus has many advantages such as high speed, low energy consuming and Plug and Play. It has been a universal interface of computer. The realization of communication by USB is a step to digital, modularization, and universality of instruments. The mainly content of this paper is the design of circuit and program of the USB intelligent interface, which include how to program a driver and how the software and the hardware interplay with each other. At the end, a testing result in a Multi-Channel Analyzer also is presented. This technique can also be used in other data acquisition instruments

  10. The application of statistical techniques to nuclear materials accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annibal, P.S.; Roberts, P.D.

    1990-02-01

    Over the past decade much theoretical research has been carried out on the development of statistical methods for nuclear materials accountancy. In practice plant operation may differ substantially from the idealized models often cited. This paper demonstrates the importance of taking account of plant operation in applying the statistical techniques, to improve the accuracy of the estimates and the knowledge of the errors. The benefits are quantified either by theoretical calculation or by simulation. Two different aspects are considered; firstly, the use of redundant measurements to reduce the error on the estimate of the mass of heavy metal in an accountancy tank is investigated. Secondly, a means of improving the knowledge of the 'Material Unaccounted For' (the difference between the inventory calculated from input/output data, and the measured inventory), using information about the plant measurement system, is developed and compared with existing general techniques. (author)

  11. Isotopic Determination of Nuclear Materials Using Nuclear Fission Track Registration Technique and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Sin; Pyo, Hyeong Yeol; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Won Ho; Jee, Kwang Yong

    2007-05-01

    It is very important to develope the technology for the determination of isotopic ratios of hot particles( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U etc.) detected from swipe samples of various nuclear facilities. This technology is highly competitive internationally and has to be established independently as long as our government maintains atomic energy and treats nuclear materials. In this text, sample pretreatment procedure, gamma-ray counting, alpha or fission track techniques, isotopic analysis of U and Pu, background problems and detection limits for mass determination, and their application to the real swipe sample were described with detailed procedure. This technology would contribute to the Korean economy's high growth rate as well as to superiority of government's leading research and development programs if successfully established

  12. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13 C a , chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  13. Nuclear material safeguards surveillance and accountancy by isotope correlation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Goleb, J.A.; Kroc, T.K.

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT) to the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycles for nuclear material accountancy and safeguards surveillance. The isotopic measurement of the inventory input to the reprocessing phase of the fuel cycle is the primary direct determination that an anomaly may exist in the fuel management of nuclear material. The nuclear materials accountancy gap which exists between the fabrication plant output and the input to the reprocessing plant can be minimized by using ICT at the dissolver stage of the reprocessing plant. The ICT allows a level of verification of the fabricator's fuel content specifications, the irradiation history, the fuel and blanket assemblies management and scheduling within the reactor, and the subsequent spent fuel assembly flows to the reprocessing plant. The investigation indicates that there exist relationships between isotopic concentration which have predictable, functional behavior over a range of burnup. Several cross-correlations serve to establish the initial core assembly-averaged composition. The selection of the more effective functionals will depend not only on the level of reliability of ICT for verification, but also on the capability, accuracy and difficulty of developing measurement methods. The propagation of measurement errors on the correlation functions and respective sensitivities to isotopic compositional changes have been examined and found to be consistent with current measurement methods

  14. NST and NST integration: nuclear science and technique and nano science and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Liu Yuanfang

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear science is considered as a big science and also the frontier in the 20 th century, it developed many big scientific facilities and many technique platforms (e.g., nuclear reactor, synchrotron radiation, accelerator, etc.) Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) provide us with many unique tools such as neutron beams, electron beams, gamma rays, alpha rays, beta rays, energetic particles, etc. These are efficient and essential probes for studying many technique and scientific issues in the fields of new materials, biological sciences, environmental sciences, life sciences, medical science, etc. Nano Science and Technology (NST) is a newly emerging multidisciplinary science and the frontier in the 21 st century, it is expected to dominate the technological revolution in diverse aspects of our life. It involves diverse fields such as nanomaterials, nanobiological sciences, environmental nanotechnology, nanomedicine, etc. nanotechnology was once considered as a futuristic science with applications several decades in the future and beyond. But, the rapid development of nanotechnology has broken this prediction. For example, diverse types of manufactured nanomaterials or nanostructures have been currently utilized in industrial products, semiconductors, electronics, stain-resistant clothing, ski wax, catalysts, other commodity products such as food, sunscreens, cosmetics, automobile parts, etc., to improve their performance of previous functions, or completely create novel functions. They will also be increasingly utilized in medicines for purposes of clinic therapy, diagnosis, and drug delivery. In the talk, we will discuss the possibility of NST-NST integration: how to apply the unique probes of advanced radiochemical and nuclear techniques in nanoscience and nanotechnology. (authors)

  15. Further contribution to the development of nuclear stethoscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Nemeth, L.; Kantor, E.; Kiss, J.; Bocsa, Z.; Sziberth, P.; Karman, M.

    1991-01-01

    After the introduction of radiocardiography (RCG) function analysis, the method has gradually been improved by applying scintillation probes, semiconductor detectors and computer evaluation. Miniature semiconductor detectors were fixed onto the chest, the detection efficiency and energy resolution was clarified to further improve the RCG technique. Various semiconductor devices were tested and compared. The RCG was combined with Holter monitoring and ECG. Photodiode RCG was extended to ergometric measurements. These new improvements were evaluated. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 8 figs

  16. Indentation techniques in nuclear applications: a review paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spino, J.; Goll, W.; Toscano, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Indentation testing, in particular micro-indentation tests, is a straightforward method to determine several properties of irradiated materials. In fact, with this type of tests, material constants and fracture properties can be deduced from measurements performed on a relatively small surface, which constitutes an important advantage when dealing with highly radioactive specimens. On the other hand, since the material response to indentation is complex, with the occurring elastic and plastic deformations being affected by radiation damage, impurities and temperature variations, careful analysis of the data is required. In the nuclear field, materials of direct interest range from carbide-, nitride- and oxide-fuels, to diverse ceramic and glasses utilized for the immobilization of high level nuclear waste, as well as simulated fuels and fuel-rod cladding materials, the later which are tested to analyze the loss of ductility after irradiation and its recovery after high temperature annealing. This paper describes the most common indentation techniques and the essential properties that can be determined by these techniques. A review of the main results obtained by indentation testing in fuels, waste glasses and cladding materials is also provided. (Author)

  17. Nuclear techniques to identify allergenic metals in orthodontic brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenobio, E.G.; Zenobio, M.A.F.; Menezes, M.A.B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determines the elementary alloy composition of ten commercial brands of brackets, especially related to Ni, Cr, and Co metals, confirmed allergenic elements. The nuclear techniques applied in the analyses were X-ray fluorescence (XRF) - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France (National Center of Scientific Research), and X-ray energy spectrometry (XRES), and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) - CDTN/CNEN, Brazil. The XRES and XRF techniques identified Cr in the 10 samples analyzed and Ni in eight samples. The INAA technique identified the presence of Cr (14% to 19%) and Co (42% to 2400 ppm) in all samples. The semi-quantitative analysis performed by XRF also identified Co in two samples. The techniques were effective in the identification of metals in orthodontic brackets. The elements identified in this study can be considered one of the main reason for the allergic processes among the patients studied. This finding suggests that the patients should be tested for allergy and allergenic sensibility to metals prior to the prescription of orthodontic device. (author)

  18. Coded Aperture Nuclear Scintigraphy: A Novel Small Animal Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and demonstrate the utility of coded aperture (CA nuclear scintigraphy for imaging small animals. CA imaging uses multiple pinholes in a carefully designed mask pattern, mounted on a conventional gamma camera. System performance was assessed using point sources and phantoms, while several animal experiments were performed to test the usefulness of the imaging system in vivo, with commonly used radiopharmaceuticals. The sensitivity of the CA system for 99mTc was 4.2 × 103 cps/Bq (9400 cpm/μCi, compared to 4.4 × 104 cps/Bq (990 cpm/μCi for a conventional collimator system. The system resolution was 1.7 mm, as compared to 4–6 mm for the conventional imaging system (using a high-sensitivity low-energy collimator. Animal imaging demonstrated artifact-free imaging with superior resolution and image quality compared to conventional collimator images in several mouse and rat models. We conclude that: (a CA imaging is a useful nuclear imaging technique for small animal imaging. The advantage in signal-to-noise can be traded to achieve higher resolution, decreased dose or reduced imaging time. (b CA imaging works best for images where activity is concentrated in small volumes; a low count outline may be better demonstrated using conventional collimator imaging. Thus, CA imaging should be viewed as a technique to complement rather than replace traditional nuclear imaging methods. (c CA hardware and software can be readily adapted to existing gamma cameras, making their implementation a relatively inexpensive retrofit to most systems.

  19. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of an advanced laboratory course in experimental nuclear and particle physics the author gave to physics majors at the University of Geneva during the years 1978- 1983. The course was offered to third and fourth year students, the latter of which had, at this point in their studies, chosen to specialize in experimental nuclear or particle physics. This implied that they would go on to do a 'diplome' thesis with one of the high- or intermediate-energy research groups in the physics department. The format of the course was such that the students were required to concentrate on only one experiment during the trimester, rather than perform a series of experiments as is more typical of a traditional course of this type. Their tasks thus included planning the experiment, learning the relevant techniques, setting up and troubleshooting the measuring apparatus, calibration, data-taking and analysis, as well as responsibility for maintaining their equipment, i.e., tasks resembling those in a real experiment. This more intensive involvement provided the students with a better understanding of the experimental problems encountered in a professional experiment and helped instill a certain independence and confidence which would prepare them for entry into a research group in the department. Teaching assistants were presented to help the students during the trimester and a series of weekly lectures was also given on various topics in experimental nuclear and particle physics. This included general information on detectors, nuclear electronics, statistics, the interaction of radiation in matter, etc., and a good deal of practical information for actually doing experiments. (orig.) With 254 figs

  20. Combined analysis of fourteen nuclear genes refines the Ursidae phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Marie; Calvignac, Sébastien; Klein, Catherine; Paris, Mathilde; Hughes, Sandrine; Hänni, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    Despite numerous studies, questions remain about the evolutionary history of Ursidae and additional independent genetic markers were needed to elucidate these ambiguities. For this purpose, we sequenced ten nuclear genes for all the eight extant bear species. By combining these new sequences with those of four other recently published nuclear markers, we provide new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of the Ursidae family members. The hypothesis that the giant panda was the first species to diverge among ursids is definitively confirmed and the precise branching order within the Ursus genus is clarified for the first time. Moreover, our analyses indicate that the American and the Asiatic black bears do not cluster as sister taxa, as had been previously hypothesised. Sun and sloth bears clearly appear as the most basal ursine species but uncertainties about their exact relationships remain. Since our larger dataset did not enable us to clarify this last question, identifying rare genomic changes in bear genomes could be a promising solution for further studies.

  1. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  2. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  3. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  4. Application of nuclear and allied techniques for the characterisation of forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Kayasth, S.R.; Pant, D.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Bhattacharyya, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Forensic science deals with the application of various techniques for physics, chemistry and biology for crime investigation. The legal implication of such analysis put considerable restriction on the choice of analytical techniques. Moreover, the unknown nature of the materials, the limited availability of samples and the large number of elements to be analysed put considerable strain on the analytical chemist on the selection of the appropriate technique. The availability of nuclear techniques has considerably enhanced the scope of forensic analysis. This paper deals with the recent results on the use of nuclear and allied analytical techniques for forensic applications. One of the important types of samples of forensic importance pertain to the identification of gunshot residues. The use of nuclear techniques has considerably simplified the interpretation of results through the use of appropriate elements like Ba, Cu, Sb, Zn, As and Sn etc. The combination of non-nuclear techniques for elements like Pb and Ni which are not easily amenable to be analysed by NAA and the use of appropriate separation procedure has led to the use of this method as a valid and versatile analytical procedure. In view of the presence of a large amounts of extraneous materials like cloth, body tissues etc in these samples and the limited availability of materials, the procedures for sample collection, dissolution and analysis have been standardized. Analysis of unknown materials like powders, metallic pieces etc. for the possible presence of nuclear materials or as materials in illicit trafficking is becoming important in recent years. The use of multi-technique approach is important in this case. Use of non-destructive techniques like XRF and radioactive counting enables the preliminary identification of materials and for the detection of radioactivity. Subsequent analysis by NAA or other appropriate analytical methods allows the characterization of the materials. Such

  5. Techniques for combining isotopic images obtained at different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Di Paola, R.; Bazin, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The technique described should be considered as a first step towards the classification of scintigraphic data where the energy is included. As in all such studies the interpretation of the resulting images is not necessarily at first evident, and certain experience needs to be established. This applies in particular to the images obtained with the higher factors. It is possible that the use of this technique may resolve, without requiring a priori information, the problem previously encountered using the other 'subtraction' type techniques [fr

  6. Water in agriculture: The roles of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.; Nguyen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for nearly seventy percent of the world's demand for fresh water. Improper management of this resource has contributed extensively to the current water scarcity and pollution problems in many parts of the world, and is a serious challenge to future food security and environmental sustainability. Addressing these issues requires an integrated approach to soilwater- plant-nutrient management at the plant-rooting zone, where water use for food and agriculture and farm management can significantly modify the quantity and quality of both surface and ground water. Nuclear technologies can contribute significantly to alleviate constraints/limitations to agricultural productivity and thus fight hunger and poverty by providing quantitative, precise, specific and dynamic information about the key components of productivity and sustainability (sources, availability, uptake and losses) of major nutrients and water. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition (SWMCN) sub-programme is assisting Member States to develop and promote the adoption of nuclear-based technologies for optimising water and nutrient management practices, which support intensification of crop production and the preservation of natural resources. To ensure food security and sustainable water management for agriculture, there is a need to produce more food per drop of water used in the agricultural sector. That is to increase both the Crop Water Productivity (CWP) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) without any negative impact on downstream water quantity and quality. The IAEA is currently conducting CWP studies in various parts of the world (China, Kenya, Turkey and Uzbekistan) using nuclear and associated techniques to assess soil and water management and water-saving technologies to increase crop productivity and reduce crop failure for the farmers. One of these technologies is fertigation, which is the direct application of water and nutrients to plants through a drip irrigation

  7. Conference on Nuclear and Conventional Analytical Techniques and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : A panoply analytic techniques methods has emerged in recent decades due to the challenges of society in quality of products and the increasing demand of chemical analysis services. The industrial progress which came along with an instrumental perfection of devices with analytical use, led to the development of new techniques more and more advanced in this field. These come as well, to answer the disturbing effects of this industrialization and the wishes of a public increasingly conscious and requiring globally. The leaders in this field of analysis and material characterization are more than ever confronted with problems of identification and quantification of different chemical forms of a multitude of products in varied circles; Industrial pollutants, soil, water, air, food, medicines, ceramics, concrete, plants etc. It was from that perspective that the unifying theme ''geomaterials: characterization to applications '' of the conference on nuclear and conventional analytical techniques and their applications (TANCA 2010) was chosen. It contributes to the debate of these subjects and builds relationships between stakeholders in this field, both technically and practically [fr

  8. Archaeometry: nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza L, R.; Cardenas G, E.

    2005-01-01

    The book that now is presented is formed by twelve articles that approach from different perspective topics as the archaeological prospecting, the analysis of the pre hispanic and colonial ceramic, the obsidian and the mural painting, besides dating and questions about the data ordaining. Following the chronological order in which the exploration techniques and laboratory studies are required, there are presented in the first place the texts about the systematic and detailed study of the archaeological sites, later we pass to relative topics to the application of diverse nuclear techniques as PIXE, RBS, XRD, NAA, SEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy and other conventional techniques. The multidisciplinary is an aspect that highlights in this work, that which owes to the great specialization of the work that is presented even in the archaeological studies including in the open ground of the topography, mapping, excavation and, of course, in the laboratory tests. Most of the articles are the result of several years of investigation and it has been consigned in the responsibility of each article. The texts here gathered emphasize the technical aspects of each investigation, the modern compute systems applied to the prospecting and the archaeological mapping, the chemical and physical analysis of organic materials, of metal artifacts, of diverse rocks used in the pre hispanic epoch, of mural and ceramic paintings, characteristics that justly underline the potential of the collective works. (Author)

  9. Use of nuclear techniques in food, agriculture and pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques used in agriculture are of two distinct types but both based on the special characteristics of radio-isotopes which give off radiation or on isotopes which are heavier than the normal element. One type of application uses the radiation given off by isotopes to enable the detection of individual atoms in infinitely small amounts of matter. With this technique it is possible to follow the travels of fertilizer elements in the soil, into and throughout the crop plant or the travels of animal nutrient atoms throughout the animal and their deposition in milk and meat. This has resulted in enormous advances in crop and livestock research. The other type of application makes use of the unique ability of ionizing radiation x-rays, gamma-rays, electrons and neutrons to penetrate all types of matter and produce changes within living cells. These changes in cells induced by radiation can do three things: (1) can kill the cell; (2) render it incapable of reproducing itself (sterile); or (3) cause changes in its genetic make-up, called induced mutations. This paper contains a discussion of the applications of each technique

  10. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED); optimization algorithms; power demand; Ant ... and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled.

  11. Technique of nuclear reactors controls; Technique des controles des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-12-15

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la ''Technique du Controle des reacteurs nucleaires'' dans le but de realiser le controle du reacteur de Saclay. C'est ainsi que nous avons ete amene a etudier le probleme dans son ensemble, tel qu'il se pose pour tout reacteur a uranium naturel. Ce travail traite principalement du domaine des mesures a caractere nucleaire et s'etend dans le domaine des mesures thermodynamque de niveaux, etc... mettant en relief les caracteristiques nouvelles exigees de la part des detecteurs du fait de leur utilisation dans le flux de neutrons thermiques. Dans le domaine de mesures nucleaires, nous indiquons principalement les realisations et les resultats obtenus pour les detecteurs de neutrons thermiques et pour la mesure de courants d'ionisations. Nous traitons egalement du probleme technique du demarrage d'un reacteur et du probleme de la mesure de la reactivite. Nous donnons les details necessaires a la comrehension de tous les schemas et plans de cablages essentiels mis au point, en particulier, pour le reacteur de Saclay. (auteur)

  12. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  13. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H S; Kim, J H; Lee, J C; Choi, Y R; Moon, S S

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  14. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S.

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system

  15. Nuclear reactor vessel surface inspecting technique applying electric resistance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Enami, K.; Yoshioka, M.

    1975-01-01

    A new technique for inspecting the inner surface of the PWR type nuclear reactor vessel by use of an electric resistance probe is introduced, centering on a data processing system. This system is composed of a mini-computer, a system typewriter, an interface unit, a D-A converter and controller, and X-Y recorder and others. Its functions are judging flaws and making flaw detection maps. In order to judge flaws by flaw detection signals, three kinds of flaw judging methods have been developed. In case there is a flaw, its position and depth are calculated and listed on the system typewriter. The flaw detection maps are expressed in four kinds of modes and they are displayed on the X-Y recorder. (auth.)

  16. Convergent engineering techniques for management of nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabulea, A.; Popa, I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents the concept of convergent arhemo-systematical engineering, its advantages in comparison with classical methods of research, design, manufacture. The convergent engineering application supposes the usage of the advanced methods, techniques and equipment corresponding to the domain and specific for the corresponding branch of computer science. Starting from the convergent engineering principles and concept, the paper proposes two models applicable for new products and also for improving and optimizing the existing ones. The models are based on two levels of feedback corresponding to two levels of control and they assume the utilization of expert and robot-expert systems. The economical efficiency of the application of the convergent engineering method is evaluated for the case of a nuclear power plant by calculation the main technical and economical indicators. (Author) 2 Figs., 5 Refs

  17. Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against economically important parasitic diseases of farm animals has met with mixed success. Examples are presented ranging from the highly effective and much used commercial vaccine against cattle lungworm to the almost completely unsuccessful attempts to immunize sheep against liver fluke. The results presented emphasize that this approach is likely to be successful only if there is evidence of a strong degree of acquired immunity to the natural infection. The extension of immunological control to those systems where the parasite provokes only a modest resistance by the host will probably depend on a much greater understanding of the mechanism of the immune response. Such fundamental studies are likely to rely heavily on nuclear techniques, e.g. in the labelling of antigens, antibodies and parasites with radioactive isotopes. (author)

  18. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  19. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed

  20. Learning-curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on acturial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year.

  1. Learning curve estimation techniques for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on actuarial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  2. Learning-curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on acturial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  3. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (Φ/Ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  4. Application of data mining techniques for nuclear data and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshniwal, Durga

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of previously unknown, valid, novel, potentially useful, and understandable patterns in large databases. It encompasses many different techniques and algorithms which differ in the kinds of data that can be analyzed and the form of knowledge representation used to convey the discovered knowledge. Patterns in the data can be represented in many different forms, including classification rules, association rules, clusters, etc. Data mining thus deals with the discovery of hidden trends and patterns from large quantities of data. The field of data mining is emerging as a new, fundamental research area with important applications to science, engineering, medicine, business, and education. It is an interdisciplinary research area and draws upon several roots, including database systems, machine learning, information systems, statistics and expert systems. Data mining, when performed on time series data, is known as time series data mining (TSDM). A time series is a sequence of real numbers, each number representing a value at a point of time. During the past few years, there has been an explosion of research in the area of time series data mining. This includes attempts to model time series data, to design languages to query such data, and to develop access structures to efficiently process queries on such data. Time series data arises naturally in many real-world applications. Efficient discovery of knowledge through time series data mining can be helpful in several domains such as: Stock market analysis, Weather forecasting etc. An important application area of data mining techniques is in nuclear power plant and related data. Nuclear power plant data can be represented in form of time sequences. Often it may be of prime importance to analyze such data to find trends and anomalies. The general goals of data mining include feature extraction, similarity search, clustering and classification, association rule mining and anomaly

  5. Nuclear medicine techniques in the assessment of alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjamuri, Sobhan; Ramesh, Chandakacharla N; Jarvis, Jonathan; Gallagher, Jim A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayana L

    2011-10-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to a lack of the enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase, leading to ochronosis, a process of accumulation of a melanin-like polymer of homogentisic acid in cartilage and other collagenous structures. Patients develop severe osteoarthropathy that resembles osteoarthritis. Although the diagnosis of alkaptonuria is not particularly challenging in view of the blue-black discolouration of visible connective tissue and the presence of homogentisic acid in urine, the natural history of alkaptonuria remains poorly understood. Patients would benefit immensely from an objective assessment of their disease status and from a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology and associated physical changes. Isotope bone scans, which are commonly used to identify the extent of involvement of bones in cancerous processes, have also been increasingly used for characterizing the extent of arthropathy in conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Semiquantitative scores based on the extent of involvement of joints have been used to describe the involvement of large joints in the context of symptomatic treatment for osteoarthritis. A similar semiquantitative isotope bone scan score depending on the involvement of the number of large joints in patients with alkaptonuria can be formulated and validated in a suitable cohort of patients. Bone densitometry measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning is an internationally accepted tool to assess the risk and extent of osteoporosis, and is increasingly used to assess the additional fracture risk in patients with arthropathy. We believe that, currently, nuclear medicine techniques can provide useful information, which can be incorporated into disease severity scores for alkaptonuria. Once the biological basis for alkaptonuria is better understood, it is feasible that nuclear medicine techniques of even greater sensitivity and specificity can be developed, thereby

  6. Nuclear Medicine Techniques in Haematological Research: Our Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maktouf, C.; Bounemra, A. B.; Elbedoui, J.; Bchir, F.; Louzir, H.; Karoui, M.; Dellagi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear diagnostic techniques have revolutionized medicine in its different specialties, among them hematology. This is, by the more relevant routine procedures of diagnostic as well as by future trends in this field, in-vivo research and clinical applications at the biochemical level. We report a part of our experience by the use in vitro and in vivo established nuclear medicine techniques, in evaluating hematological disease for clinical research that will lead to the basic research. The first study is megaloblastic anemia in which we report a prospective study from Tunisia, northern Africa, of 478 patients with megaloblastic anemia recruited over three years period. Etiologic investigation using cobalamin and folates measurements and the Schilling test revealed that folate deficiency was very uncommon and that 95% of patients had cobalamin deficiency that was the consequence of pernicious anemia (PA) in 87%. Patients with PA had a median age at presentation of 45.5 years with 21.5% of cases occurring in patients younger than 30 years. Patients less than 20 years old should be specifically investigated for genetic defect in cobalamin absorption. In the second study, the red cell mass was determined following labeling the red blood cells with either sodium radiochromate (51Cr) and the measurement of Plasma Volume is based on dilution of the injected radioiodine (125I)-labeled human serum albumin in the blood circulation (2,3). It is important to make this differentiation, thus our patients will fulfilled the criteria of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group, and therefore we will be able to evaluate serum VEGF levels in patients with Polycythemia Vera, secondary polycythemia and idiopatic polycythemia in an attempt to investigate the involvement and significance of this cytokine in these haematological disorders.

  7. Fields of progress: Nuclear techniques and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargie, J.

    2000-01-01

    Isotopes and ionizing radiation have been used throughout the past half century to provide practical solutions to many issues and challenges facing the world's food and agricultural development. Since the mid-1960s, the IAEA and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have worked together through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, using their combined technical and managerial expertise and experience to bring the benefits of nuclear technology to farmers and consumers. This article reviews results of selected projects of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division that have contributed to food and agriculture. development. In some areas, it updates previous reports on the work of the Division and the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, which supports the Joint Programme. The article specifically focuses on three of the key strategic issues earmarked for intergovernmental attention at the World Food Summit and earlier at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Each can be addressed effectively through nuclear technology that is supported by other technologies, national capacities, and an enabling political and economic environment

  8. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... guide, (RG) 1.218, ``Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants... of electric cables for nuclear power plants. RG 1.218 is not intended to be prescriptive, instead it...

  9. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Nuclear Physics and Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Binh; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Tran Kim Hung; Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The proceedings contains 130 papers of scientists from institutes, universities, enterprises nation-wide in Vietnam. Its subjects include: nuclear physics, theoretical physics, science and technology of nuclear reactor, application of nuclear techniques in industry, agriculture, biology, medicine, geo-hydrology, environmental protection, nuclear equipment, radiation technology, material technology, waste management, ect

  10. Combined neutron imaging techniques for cultural heritage purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the different new neutron techniques developed by the Ancient Charm collaboration to image objects of cultural heritage importance: Prompt-gamma-ray activation imaging (PGAI) coupled to cold/thermal neutron transmission tomography, Neutron Resonance Capture Imaging (NRCI) and Neutron Resonance Tomography.

  11. Application of advanced nuclear and instrumental analytical techniques for characterisation of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Pawaskar, P.B.; Kayasth, S.R.; Kumar, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Increasing realisation about the toxic effects of metal ions in environmental materials has given an impetus to research on analytical techniques for their characterization. The large number of analytes present at very low levels has necessitated the use of sensitive, selective and element specific techniques for their characterization. The concern about precision and accuracy on such analysis, which have socio-economic bearing, has emphasized the use of Certified Reference Materials and the use of multi-technique approach for the unambiguous characterization of analytes. The recent work carried out at Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC on these aspects is presented in this paper. Increasing use of fossil fuels has led to the generation of large quantities of fly ash which pose problems of safe disposal. The utilization of these materials for land filling is an attractive option but the presence of trace amounts of toxic metals like mercury, arsenic, lead etc may cause environmental problems. In view of the inhomogeneous nature of the material, efficient sample processing is an important factor, in addition to the validation of the results by the use of proper standards. Analysis was carried out on flyash samples received as reference materials and also as samples from commercial sources using a combination of both nuclear techniques like INAA and RNAA as well as other techniques like AAS, ICPAES, cold vapour AAS for mercury and hydride generation technique for arsenic. Similar analysis using nuclear techniques was employed for the characterization of air particulates. Biological materials often serve as sensitive indicator materials for pollution measurements. They are also employed for studies on the uptake of toxic metals like U, Th, Cd, Pb, Hg etc. The presence of large amounts of organic materials in them necessitate an appropriate sample dissolution procedure. In view of the possibility of loss of certain analytes like Cd, Hg, As, by high

  12. Quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Emanuelathor

    2001-01-01

    Test and analytical laboratories in East and Central European countries need to prove the reliability and credibility of their economic, environmental, medical and legal decisions and their capacity of issuing reliable, verifiable reports. These demands imposed by the European Union aimed at avoiding a possible barrier to trade for the developing countries. In June 1999, in order to help Member States to develop according to EU objectives and the overall situation of the European market, IAEA launched a new co-operation programme designed to help the nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States by training in the use of some Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NAT) that include: alpha, beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The Regional IAEA Project, named 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control of Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (NAT) aims at implementing the QA principles via a system of defined consecutive steps leading to a level on which the QA system is self-sustainable for formal accreditation or certification and satisfies the EU technical performance criteria; the requirements are in accordance with the new ISO/IEC 17025 Standard/Dec.1999 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories' - First edition. The Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, IFIN-HH, was admitted for participation in the IAEA Project in June 1999 account taken of its experience in the QA and metrology fields and its performance in the fields of beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, and radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, employed in both basic research and applications for external clients. Two working groups of specialists with the QA and Standardization and Metrology Departments and six analytical groups with the departments of Nuclear Applied Physics, Life Physics and Ionising Radiation Metrology are

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. Speciation, in the nuclear fuel cycle by spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, S.; Plancque, G.; Allain, F.; Lamouroux, C.; Steiner, V.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C.

    2000-01-01

    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. They have to be selective (since matrix encountered are very complex), sensitive (in order to work at representative concentration and below solubility limit), as well as non intrusive (in order to keep the image of the real solution). Among them, laser-based analytical techniques present these advantages together with the possibility to perform remote measurements via fiber optics. Hence, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices from the reprocessing to waste storage. Moreover, new ion detection methods such as Electro-Spray - Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Hence, it is the first time that it is possible to directly couple a liquid at atmospheric pressure to a mass detection working at reduced pressure with a soft mode of ionisation that should allow to give informations on chemical species present. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained with the use of TRLIF and ES-MS on different systems of interest including actinides, lanthanides, fission products in interaction with simple organic molecules to very complex structure will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  15. Speciation, in the nuclear fuel cycle by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, S.; Plancque, G.; Allain, F.; Lamouroux, C.; Steiner, V.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept, des Procedes d' Enrichissement (DPE), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. They have to be selective (since matrix encountered are very complex), sensitive (in order to work at representative concentration and below solubility limit), as well as non intrusive (in order to keep the image of the real solution). Among them, laser-based analytical techniques present these advantages together with the possibility to perform remote measurements via fiber optics. Hence, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices from the reprocessing to waste storage. Moreover, new ion detection methods such as Electro-Spray - Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Hence, it is the first time that it is possible to directly couple a liquid at atmospheric pressure to a mass detection working at reduced pressure with a soft mode of ionisation that should allow to give informations on chemical species present. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained with the use of TRLIF and ES-MS on different systems of interest including actinides, lanthanides, fission products in interaction with simple organic molecules to very complex structure will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  16. Characterisation and preservation of cultural heritage artefacts using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the studies performed for the identification and preservation of cultural heritage using nuclear analytical techniques (NAT). Within the context of the project financed by the IAEA, cultural articles from various excavation regions and from the Anatolian Civilizations Museum were analyzed and identified using the instruments at our Center and information was provided regarding their manufacturing techniques, past restoration history and socioeconomic indicators about the period within which these articles were used. The analysis of the articles which could not be removed from the museum were performed in-situ using portable instruments and support was provided to the experts for some articles from excavation regions for the evaluation of their originality. Within the framework the of this Project, five experts attended to the workshops and meetings organised by the IAEA and in the context of scientific visits and bilateral cooperation, one expert from Greece and three experts from Macedonia visited our Center and Anatolian Civilizations Museum and experimental studies were performed together

  17. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  18. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  19. Application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaohui

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are favourable for continuous on-line analysis, because they are fast, non-intrusive. They can be used in the adverse circumstances in coal industry. The paper reviews the application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality and economic benefits derived from such techniques in developed countries

  20. In-depth characterization of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides by a combination of analytical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Timmermans, J.; Richard, B.; Dool, R. van den; Haaksman, I.; Klarenbeek, B.; Slaghek, T.; Dongen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    A commercial prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide mixture (Vivinal GOS) was extensively characterized using a combination of analytical techniques. The different techniques were integrated to give complementary information on specific characteristics of the oligosaccharide mixture, ranging from global

  1. IAEA Activities on Application of Nuclear Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, P.; Zeman, A.; Mulhauser, F.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells can greatly contribute to a more sustainable less carbon-dependent global energy system. An effective and safe method for storage of hydrogen in solid materials is one of the greatest technologically challenging barriers of widespread introduction of hydrogen in global energy systems. However, aspects related to the development of effective materials for hydrogen storage and fuel cells are facing considerable technological challenges. To reach these goals, research efforts using a combination of advanced modeling, synthesis methods and characterization tools are required. Nuclear methods can play an effective role in the development and characterization of materials for hydrogen storage. Therefore, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project to promote the application of nuclear techniques for investigation and characterization of new/improved materials relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. This paper gives an overview of the IAEA activities in this subject. (author)

  2. Facility and application of nuclear and supplementary analytical techniques at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh; Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2006-01-01

    The main applications of the nuclear and supplementary analytical techniques (N and SATs) in the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) and the facilities for the techniques are presented. The NATs in DNRI include the neutron activation analysis (NAA) with instrumental, radiochemical and prompt gamma methods (INAA, RNAA, PGNAA), the X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) and the low-level counting and spectrometry. The sample irradiation sites for NAA, the automatic and manual pneumatic transfer systems, were installed at channels 7-1 and 13-2 and rotary rack on the Dalat research reactor. An ORTEC automatic sample changer (model ASC2) for γ-ray counting was equipped. A computer software for NAA based on the k 0 -standardization method for calculation of elemental concentration was developed. The low-level counting and spectrometry techniques have been setup. The devices required for sampling, sample preparation and data processing have also been equipped. The applications of N and SATs for determination of elemental composition, particularly important in providing data so-called trace elements, radionuclides and multi-element have been enlarged for objects of geology, archaeology, bio-agriculture, health-nutrition and environment. The implementation a quality system for N and SATs has been planned and initiated. (author)

  3. Aerobic Exercise Combined with Techniques Programe Can Be Increased Groundstroke Skill of Tennis Athlet

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrulloh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Professional tennis athletes should be able to master all the basic techniques of playing tennis and having physical fitness. Therefore, it is necessary to get an exercise that can give meaning to the skills and physical fitness. One of the proper exercises is with aerobic exercise combined with the technique.Aerobic exercise program combined with techniques is: (1) a number of players consisting of six to seven people with backward sequential formation techniques performing forehand and back...

  4. The Random-Map Technique: Enhancing Mind-Mapping with a Conceptual Combination Technique to Foster Creative Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malycha, Charlotte P.; Maier, Günter W.

    2017-01-01

    Although creativity techniques are highly recommended in working environments, their effects have been scarcely investigated. Two cognitive processes are often considered to foster creative potential and are, therefore, taken as a basis for creativity techniques: knowledge activation and conceptual combination. In this study, both processes were…

  5. Applicability of Operational Research Techniques in CANDU Nuclear Plant Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, and ICONE 9 in Niece, 2001, the use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. Innovative practices included greatly reducing Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is being put in place. Further cost refinement of the station preventive maintenance strategy whereby decisions are based on statistical analysis of historical failure data is being evaluated. A wide range of Operational Research (OR) literature was reviewed for implementation issues and several encouraging areas were found that will assist in the current effort of evaluating maintenance optimization techniques for nuclear power production. The road ahead is expected to consist first of resolving 25 years of data issues and preserving the data via appropriate knowledge system techniques while post war demographics permit experts to input into the system. Subsequent analytical techniques will emphasize total simplicity to obtain the requisite buy in from Corporate Executives who possibly are not trained in Operational Research. Case studies of containment airlock seal failures are used to illustrate the direct applicability of stochastic processes. Airlocks and transfer chambers were chosen as they have long been known as high maintenance items. Also, the very significant financial consequences of this type of failure will help to focus the attention of Senior Management on the effort. Despite substantial investment in research, improvement in the design of the seal material or configuration has not been achieved beyond the designs completed in the 1980's. Overall, the study showed excellent agreement of the relatively quick stochastic methods with the maintenance programs produced at

  6. Proceedings of VII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. XIII Workshop on Nuclear Physics. WONP-NURT 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This year the XIII Workshop on Nuclear Physics (WONP) and the VII Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques (NURT) are organized jointly, by Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas and Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. Both events gather scientists from several countries with top research work on nuclear physics and its applications. WONP has been carried out since 1994 promoting an ever-exchanging exchange between professionals of various nuclear and applied physics fields, those related to environmental and health care. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  7. Proceedings of VI International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics. WONP-NURT 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This year the XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics (WONP) and the VI Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques (NURT) are organized jointly, by Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas and Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. Both events gather scientists from several countries with top research work on nuclear physics and its applications. WONP has been carried out since 1994 promoting an ever-exchanging exchange between professionals of various nuclear and applied physics fields, those related to environmental and health care. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  8. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, Francesco, E-mail: f.torella@liverpool.ac.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); Chan, Tze Y., E-mail: tze.chan@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Shaikh, Usman, E-mail: usman.shaikh@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); England, Andrew, E-mail: a.england@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Department of Radiography (United Kingdom); Fisher, Robert K., E-mail: robert.fisher@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G., E-mail: richard.mcwilliams@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  9. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzini, Alberto C.

    2001-01-01

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed

  10. Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section

  11. Climate change adaptation: Boosting quinoa production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    In the battle to help developing countries overcome threats from declining food production caused by climate change, one species of edible grain-like crop has caught international attention because of its unique nutritional value. New and improved varieties of quinoa, historically grown in the highlands of South America, will be made available to farmers in mutations adapted to challenging environments in Bolivia and Peru. Increased genetic diversity is the result of the use of nuclear techniques in collaboration with the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), said L. Gomez-Pando, Principal Professor and Head of the Cereals and Native Grains Research programme at the National Agrarian University of La Molina in Peru. “There are 64 mutant lines of quinoa selected by yield potential and quality for the market,” he said. “These mutant lines will be further evaluated and the best lines will be released as new varieties in 2015–2016.”

  12. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Marques, A.P.; Reis, M.A.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Barros, L.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors - natives and transplants - are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal - the Setubal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon - where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10x15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5x2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50x50 km, using a 10x10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively

  13. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Castellanos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  14. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of austenitic and dissimilar welds in nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Homann, Tobias; Mitzscherling, Steffen; Prager, Jens; Pudovikov, Sergey; Schwender, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steel welds as well as dissimilar metal welds with nickel alloy filler material, used in safety relevant parts of nuclear power plants, still challenge the ultrasonic inspection. The weld material forms large oriented grains that lead, on the one hand, to high sound scattering and, on the other hand, to inhomogeneity and to the acoustic anisotropy of the weld structure. The ultrasonic wave fronts do not propagate linearly, as in ferritic weld joints, but along the curves, which depend on the specific grain structure of the weld. Due to the influence of these phenomena, it is difficult to analyze the inspection results and to classify the ultrasonic indications, which could be both from the weld geometry and from the material defects. A correct flaw sizing is not possible. In an ongoing research project, different techniques to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing at these kinds of welds are investigated. In a first step (in the previous research project) two ultrasonic inspection techniques were developed and validated on plane test specimens with artificial and realistic flaws. In the ongoing project, these techniques are applied to circumferential pipe welds with longitudinal and transverse flaws. The technique developed at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Germany uses a combination of ray tracing and synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). To investigate the unknown grain structure, the velocity distribution of weld-transmitting ultrasound waves is measured and used to model the weld by ray tracing. The second technique, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP) in Germany, uses Sampling Phased Array (Full Matrix Capture) combined with the reverse phase matching (RPM) and the gradient elastic constant descent algorithm (GECDM). This inspection method is able to estimate the elastic constants of the columnar grains in the weld and offers an improvement of the

  15. Combined techniques for network measurements at accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pschorn, I.

    1999-01-01

    Usually network measurements at GSi (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionen forschung) are carried out by employing the Leica tachymeter TC2002K etc. Due to time constraints and the fact that GSi possesses only one of these selected, high precision total-stations, it was suddenly necessary to think about employing a Laser tracker as the major instrument for a reference network measurement. The idea was to compare the different instruments and to proof if it is possible at all to carry out a precise network measurement using a laser tracker. In the end the SMX Tracker4500 combined with Leica NA3000 for network measurements at GSi, Darmstadt and at BESSY Il, Berlin (both located in Germany) was applied. A few results are shown in the following chapters. A new technology in 3D metrology came up. Some ideas of applying these new tools in the field of accelerator measurements are given. Finally aspects of calibration and checking the performance of the employed high precision instrument are pointed out in this paper. (author)

  16. The development of PSI, ISI technique for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Day-Young; Kwak, Kyung-Jin; Chang, Kee-Ok; Hong, Soon-Shin; Lee, Jong-Po; Chung, Tae-Eon

    1985-01-01

    The analysis and sizing of detect signal is the most essential in PSI/ISI technique. Ultrasonic testing is the most versatile technique, and the knowledge of ultrsonic attenuation of metal component examined by ultrasonic testing is important to evaluate the signal appeared and to size the flaw of the component. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements were made by using the specimens made of AISI 4140 Carbon Steel with different grain size. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were also taken. This report also describes about the principle of multifrequency eddy current test method using two or more operating frequencies simultaneously, and about the simple experiment to read and identify precisely the combined signal caused by more test parameters. It was found that ultrasonic attenuation was increased with increasing grain size and ultrasonic frequency, and yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were decreased with increasing grain size. The results are applicable for ultrasonic testing of carbon steel components as reactor vessel or pressured vessel. The complicated eddy current signal outputs caused by more test parameters and undesirables variables can be identified using multifrequency eddy current test method. It is intended to use multifrequency ECT method for ISI and PSI of steam generator tubes from 1985. (Author)

  17. Development of object-oriented software technique in field of high energy and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yanlin; Ying Jun; Chen Tao

    1997-01-01

    The background for developing object-oriented software technique in high energy and nuclear physics has been introduced. The progress made at CERN and US has been outlined. The merit and future of various software techniques have been commented

  18. Combinations of techniques that effectively change health behavior : evidence from meta-Cart analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Buuren, S. van; Genugten, L. van; Verheijden, M.W.; Empelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many health-promoting interventions combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) to maximize effectiveness. Although, in theory, BCTs can amplify each other, the available meta-analyses have not been able to identify specific combinations of techniques that provide synergistic

  19. Combining Techniques to Refine Item to Skills Q-Matrices with a Partition Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Michel C.; Xu, Peng; Beheshti, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The problem of mapping items to skills is gaining interest with the emergence of recent techniques that can use data for both defining this mapping, and for refining mappings given by experts. We investigate the problem of refining mapping from an expert by combining the output of different techniques. The combination is based on a partition tree…

  20. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  1. Utilization of analytical techniques in aid the implantation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.P.; Sabino, C.V.S.; Avelar, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear, physico-chemical and classic techniques developed and utilized by Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnicas Nucleares are presented, as back up to the implementation and operation of nuclear installations related with several parts of fuel cycle from uranium prospecting to waste treatment samples of soils, ores, alloys, plastics, paints, biological materials, air and water were analysed. (M.C.K) [pt

  2. Hardening techniques for nuclear generated EMPs: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This article is intended as an introduction to the protection of electronic equipment against the effects of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a nuclear explosion. For explosions at heights above 100 km the energy in the pulse is considerable over areas of many thousands of square metres. This constitutes a major threat to electronic equipments which have not been exposed to the consequences of closer nuclear explosions (namely blast, thermal and nuclear radiation)

  3. Nuclear techniques in flower production. Soil and irrigation fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Bad soil management; the nutrients and water used in ornamental cultivation are the cause for considerable reductions in productivity here in Ecuador. It's essential to take measures to reduce the accumulation of salts and the degeneration of soils to minimum, and to put back those nutrients that have been exported by the harvesting of ornamental crops. In this way we can maintain an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable flower industry. Nuclear techniques such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes are used to track the final destination of the fertilizers that have been applied to the soil and to determine the availability of these for plants. The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission (CEEA) in collaboration with the Central University of Ecuador have carried out studies using the isotopic tracers Nitrogen 15 (N-15), Phosforus 32 (P-32), Rubide-85 (Rb-85) as tracers for Potassium (K). These studies have shown that only a part of the nigrogenized fertilizer applied to the soil is useful in the growing of roses, and a large part of the nitrogen escapes in the the environment thereby contaminating the water table in the form of nitrites, depending on he way and the time of year that the fertilizer has been applied. The best form of fertilizer in rose growing for example is with the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients in fractioned from always using fertilized irrigation with a dose of 1300 kg of N, 200 Kg of P, 1600 kg of K per hectare/year. This differs form norm in plantations where a weekly-fertilized irrigation is used whilst on other days only watering is used. A 30% increase in production was achieved with a 50% increase in the absorption of nitrogen and a 40% increase in potassium. These studies have shown the tremendous cost saving in terms of the importing of fertilizers, as well as the decrease in the use of contaminating fertilizers. (The author)

  4. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  5. Analysis of Defective Pipings in Nuclear Power Plants and Applications of Guided Ultrasonic Wave Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Park, Chi Seung; Park, Jae Suck; Choi, H. R.; Jung, S. S.

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to the pipes in nuclear power plants, the cases of defective pipes of nuclear power plants, were investigated. It was confirmed that geometric factors of pipes, such as location, shape, and allowable space were impertinent for the application of guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. The quality of pipes, supports, signals analysis of weldment/defects, acquisition of accurate defects signals also make difficult to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. Thus, a piping mock-up representing the pipes in the nuclear power plants were designed and fabricated. The artificial flaws will be fabricated on the piping mock-up. The signals of guided ultrasonic waves from the artificial flaws will be analyzed. The guided ultrasonic techniques will be applied to the inspection of pipes of nuclear power plants according to the basis of signals analysis of artificial flaws in the piping mock-up

  6. Proceedings of firsts workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The book presents papers submitted to the first Workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health that was holder at the first International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques in Agriculture, held in Havana, Cuba, on October 28 th and 30 th, 1997

  7. Combined smoothing method and its use in combining Earth orientation parameters measured by space techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Čepek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 2 (2000), s. 347-359 ISSN 0365-0138 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : numerical method s * miscellaneous techniques * reference systems Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2000

  8. Bus-oriented digital control techniques in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, M.

    1987-01-01

    The author states the conservative principles which govern the authorization procedures for nuclear reactor control systems. Using the example of a feedwater supply regulator, employing a digital, bus-oriented control system, he describes how the stigma attached to the word nuclear can be alleviated. (G.T.H.)

  9. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: vasconv@cdtn.br; reissc@cdtn.br; aclc@cdtn.br; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: bete@feq.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  10. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Jordao, Elizabete

    2008-01-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  11. Monitoring Nuclear Facilities Using Satellite Imagery and Associated Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, Marc; Robin, Jean‑Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen) is “to support the decision making and actions of the European Union in the field of the CFSP and in particular the CSDP, including European Union crisis management missions and operations, by providing, at the request of the Council or the European Union High Representative, products and services resulting from the exploitation of relevant space assets and collateral data, including satellite and aerial imagery, and related services”. The SatCen Non‑Proliferation Team, part of the SatCen Operations Division, is responsible for the analysis of installations that are involved, or could be involved, in the preparation or acquisition of capabilities intended to divert the production of nuclear material for military purposes and, in particular, regarding the spread of Weapons of Mass destruction and their means of delivery. For the last four decades, satellite imagery and associated remote sensing and geospatial techniques have increasingly expanded their capabilities. The unprecedented Very High Resolution (VHR) data currently available, the improved spectral capabilities, the increasing number of sensors and ever increasing computing capacity, has opened up a wide range of new perspectives for remote sensing applications. Concurrently, the availability of open source information (OSINF), has increased exponentially through the medium of the internet. This range of new capabilities for sensors and associated remote sensing techniques have strengthened the SatCen analysis capabilities for the monitoring of suspected proliferation installations for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities, processes and activities. The combination of these remote sensing techniques, imagery analysis, open source investigation and their integration into Geographic Information Systems (GIS), undoubtedly improve the efficiency and comprehensive analysis capability provided by the SatCen to the EU stake‑holders. The

  12. Concealed nuclear material identification via combined fast-neutron/γ-ray computed tomography (FNGCT): a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, M.; Joyce, M. J.

    2018-02-01

    The potential of a combined and simultaneous fast-neutron/γ-ray computed tomography technique using Monte Carlo simulations is described. This technique is applied on the basis of a hypothetical tomography system comprising an isotopic radiation source (americium-beryllium) and a number (13) of organic scintillation detectors for the production and detection of both fast neutrons and γ rays, respectively. Via a combination of γ-ray and fast neutron tomography the potential is demonstrated to discern nuclear materials, such as compounds comprising plutonium and uranium, from substances that are used widely for neutron moderation and shielding. This discrimination is achieved on the basis of the difference in the attenuation characteristics of these substances. Discrimination of a variety of nuclear material compounds from shielding/moderating substances (the latter comprising lead or polyethylene for example) is shown to be challenging when using either γ-ray or neutron tomography in isolation of one another. Much-improved contrast is obtained for a combination of these tomographic modalities. This method has potential applications for in-situ, non-destructive assessments in nuclear security, safeguards, waste management and related requirements in the nuclear industry.

  13. Development of the decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ken-ichi; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Hara, Mitsuo; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Tobita, Hiroo; Enokido, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    Being developed the basement techniques such as measurement, decontamination, dismantling, remote handling and data base. For the elevating and systematizing the basement techniques, thinking over the application, forward to the facility decommissionings in the future, including the technique of waste treatment in WDF and the achievement using the dismantling and recycling technique in renewaling the research facilities. (author)

  14. Dictionary of the terms on nuclear scientific technique of France and Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-09-15

    This book is a dictionary of the terms on nuclear scientific technique, which defines 3,400 terms and phrases in detailed explanation and lists in order of French, Korean and English. The terms are in alphabetical order, which are collision, elastic collision, nuclear fusion, fusion energy, absorption analysis, absorption curve, neutron, nuclear, radiation, radioactivity, reactor, nuclear disintegration, and so on. This book has appendixes on a standard unit, radiation size and unit, and the table of elements.

  15. Dictionary of the terms on nuclear scientific technique of France and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This book is a dictionary of the terms on nuclear scientific technique, which defines 3,400 terms and phrases in detailed explanation and lists in order of French, Korean and English. The terms are in alphabetical order, which are collision, elastic collision, nuclear fusion, fusion energy, absorption analysis, absorption curve, neutron, nuclear, radiation, radioactivity, reactor, nuclear disintegration, and so on. This book has appendixes on a standard unit, radiation size and unit, and the table of elements.

  16. Assessment of suspected infection of hip or knee endoprosthesis by nuclear medicine techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Delank, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    Complications after hip endoprosthesis operation occur with a frequency of 1-2 % after primary operation and with 3-5 % after revision arthroplasty and are even more frequent after knee arthroplasty. The differentiation between aseptic loosening and bacterial infection is very important. In aseptic loosening a one-step revision is usually possible. In case of bacterial infection, all foreign material has to be removed first to allow cure from the infection. After healing and absence of bacteria a follow-up operation is possible with insertion of a new prosthesis. Diagnosis and therapy of a painful hip or knee endoprosthesis are difficult, because patient history, clinical examination, laboratory results including microbiological investigation of puncture material and results of radiological examinations may all be inconclusive. Quite a number of nuclear medicine procedures have been published in the past to help in the differentiation between aseptic loosening and bacterial infection of a painful hip or knee endoprosthesis. No single method can be regarded as excellent and without disadvantages. In the international literature the combined leucocyte-marrow imaging has been propageted as superior technique. In Germany, combined leucocyte-marrow imaging is not available in the published form. Moreover, this technique is time consuming, cost intensive and requires direct work with blood. Therefore, infection imaging with labelled antibodies or labelled fragments of antibodies may be regarded as the method of choice for most nuclear medicine physicians. With semiquantitative evaluation a comparative diagnostic accuracy may be achieved. 18 F-FDG-PET is not able to differentiate reliably between abacterial polyethylene abrasion and septic inflammation. However, with pattern recognition of the distribution of 18 F-FDG around a hip prosthesis an approach with clinically acceptable results has been published. A normal 18 F-FDG-PET can reliably exclude an infection

  17. Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via laser based microphotonic techniques coupled with chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatta, B.; Kalambuka, H.A.; Dehayem-Kamadjeu, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear forensics (NF) is an important tool for analysis and attribution of nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) in support of nuclear security. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid and minimally-invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Microphotonic techniques can achieve this task particularly when the materials are of limited size and under concealed condition. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the combined potential of chemometrics enabled LIBS and laser Raman spectromicroscopy (LRS) for rapid NF analysis and attribution. Using LIBS, uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures in uranium ore surrogates. A multivariate calibration strategy using artificial neural network was developed for quantification of trace uranium. Principal component analysis (PCA) of LIBS spectra achieved source attribution of the ores. LRS studies on UCl3, UO3(NO3)2.6H2O, UO2SO4.3H2O and UO3 in pellet state identified the bands associated with different uranium molecules as varying in the range of (840 to 867) ± 15 cm-1. Using this signature, we have demonstrated spectral imaging of uranium under concealed conditions (author)

  18. Review Article : Utilization of Environmental Radiochemistry Techniques for Selection and Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, E.R.; Madbouly, A.M.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research review puts necessary considerations on the available environmental radiochemistry techniques for selection and evaluation of a nuclear facility sites.The main bjective in site evaluation for nuclear facilities in terms of nuclear safety is to protect the site workers, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation release from nuclear facilities due to accidents. The extreme sensitivity and speed of radiochemical methods make their applications of considerable importance in several fields and they have found many uses. Information about the existed radioactivity in the different nuclear facilities is an essential requirement for their environmental assessment. It is necessary to estimate the various radioactivity levels in the environment through qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques and to assess the potential effects of the nuclear facility in the region by considering the characteristics of sites.The siting and site evaluation requirements are discussed. Emphasis was given to types of radiochemical techniques used for characterization of the site parameters which determine the potential hazards of the site on the facility and the facility on the site. Emphasis has been also given to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides for monitoring and control .There are some techniques employed such as radioactive tracer technique, liquid scintillation technique, gamma spectrometry technique, neutron activation analysis technique, fluorimetric technique and isotope hydrology technique.

  19. Nuclear steam turbines for power production in combination with heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilund, B.; Knudsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    The general operating conditions for nuclear steam turbines in district heating system are briefly outlined. The turbine plant can consist of essentially the same types of machines as in conventional district heating systems. Some possible arrangements of back-pressure turbines, back-pressure turbines with condensing tails, or condensing turbines with heat extraction are considered for nuclear power and heat stations. Principles of control for hot water temperature and electrical output are described. Optimization of the plant, considering parallel variations during the year between heat load, cooling water temperature, and required outgoing temperature is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Value impact analysis utilizing PRA techniques combined with a hybrid plant model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.; Stillwell, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A value impact analysis (VIA) has been performed by the INEL to support a NRC Regulatory Analysis for resolution of Generic Issue (GI) 29, Bolting Degradation or Failure in Nuclear Power Plants. A VIA for replacing the reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) bolts of BWRs and PWRs was previously prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratories in 1985 under instructions limiting the VIA to the potential for failure of primary pressure boundary bolting. Subsequently the INEL was requested to perform a VIA that included non primary systems and component support bolts to be compatible with the resolution of the broader issue. Because the initial list of systems and bolting applications that could be included in the VIA was very large, including them all in the VIA would likely result in analyzing some that have little if any effect on public risk. This paper discusses how PRA techniques combined with a hybrid plant model were used to determine which bolts have the potential to be significant contributors to public risk if they were to fail, and therefore were included in the VIA

  1. Nuclear pulse signal processing techniques based on blind deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Pengfei; Yang Lei; Qi Zhong; Meng Xiangting; Fu Yanyan; Li Dongcang

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method of measurement and analysis of nuclear pulse signal, the FPGA to control high-speed ADC measurement of nuclear radiation signals and control the high-speed transmission status of the USB to make it work on the Slave FIFO mode, using the LabVIEW online data processing and display, using the blind deconvolution method to remove the accumulation of signal acquisition, and to restore the nuclear pulse signal with a transmission speed, real-time measurements show that the advantages. (authors)

  2. Study on economic potential of nuclear-gas combined cycle power generation in Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhiwei; Bian Zhiqiang; Yang Mengjia

    2004-01-01

    Facing the challenges of separation of electric power plant and grid, and the deregulation of Chinese electricity supplying market in near future, nuclear power plants mainly operated as based load at the present regulated market should look for new operation mode. The economics of electric generation with nuclear-natural gas combined cycle is studied based on current conditions of natural gas and nuclear power plants in China. The results indicate that the technology development of nuclear-natural gas combined cycle for power generation is of potential prospects in Chinese electric market. (authors)

  3. Proceedings of XIV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. VIII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This year 2013, the XIV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and VIII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2013 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 5 to 8 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  4. Proceedings of XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This year 2015, the XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2015 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 9 to 13 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM.

  5. Applications of ultrasonic phased array technique during fabrication of nuclear tubing and other components for the Indian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic phased array technique has been applied in fabrication of nuclear fuel and structural at NFC. The integrity of the nuclear fuel and structural components is most crucial as they are exposed to severe environment during operation leading to rapid degradation of its properties during its lifecycle. Nuclear Fuel Complex has mandate for the fabrication of the nuclear fuel and core structurals for Indian PHWRs/BWR, sub-assemblies for the PFBR and steam generator tubing for PFBR and PHWRs which are the most critical materials for the Indian Nuclear Power program. NDE during fabrication of these materials is thus most crucial as it provides the confidence to the designer for safe operation during its lifetime. Many of these techniques have to be developed in-house to meet unique requirements of high sensitivity, resolution and shape of the components. Some of the advancements in the NDE during the fabrication include use of ultrasonic phased array which is detailed in this paper

  6. A methodology for semiautomatic taxonomy of concepts extraction from nuclear scientific documents using text mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a text mining method for semi-automatic extraction of taxonomy of concepts, from a textual corpus composed of scientific papers related to nuclear area. The text classification is a natural human practice and a crucial task for work with large repositories. The document clustering technique provides a logical and understandable framework that facilitates the organization, browsing and searching. Most clustering algorithms using the bag of words model to represent the content of a document. This model generates a high dimensionality of the data, ignores the fact that different words can have the same meaning and does not consider the relationship between them, assuming that words are independent of each other. The methodology presents a combination of a model for document representation by concepts with a hierarchical document clustering method using frequency of co-occurrence concepts and a technique for clusters labeling more representatives, with the objective of producing a taxonomy of concepts which may reflect a structure of the knowledge domain. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the conceptual mapping of scientific production of nuclear area and thus support the management of research activities in this area. (author)

  7. Monte Carlo Techniques for Nuclear Systems - Theory Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2016-01-01

    These are lecture notes for a Monte Carlo class given at the University of New Mexico. The following topics are covered: course information; nuclear eng. review & MC; random numbers and sampling; computational geometry; collision physics; tallies and statistics; eigenvalue calculations I; eigenvalue calculations II; eigenvalue calculations III; variance reduction; parallel Monte Carlo; parameter studies; fission matrix and higher eigenmodes; doppler broadening; Monte Carlo depletion; HTGR modeling; coupled MC and T/H calculations; fission energy deposition. Solving particle transport problems with the Monte Carlo method is simple - just simulate the particle behavior. The devil is in the details, however. These lectures provide a balanced approach to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulation codes. The first lectures provide an overview of Monte Carlo simulation methods, covering the transport equation, random sampling, computational geometry, collision physics, and statistics. The next lectures focus on the state-of-the-art in Monte Carlo criticality simulations, covering the theory of eigenvalue calculations, convergence analysis, dominance ratio calculations, bias in Keff and tallies, bias in uncertainties, a case study of a realistic calculation, and Wielandt acceleration techniques. The remaining lectures cover advanced topics, including HTGR modeling and stochastic geometry, temperature dependence, fission energy deposition, depletion calculations, parallel calculations, and parameter studies. This portion of the class focuses on using MCNP to perform criticality calculations for reactor physics and criticality safety applications. It is an intermediate level class, intended for those with at least some familiarity with MCNP. Class examples provide hands-on experience at running the code, plotting both geometry and results, and understanding the code output. The class includes lectures & hands-on computer use for a variety of Monte Carlo calculations

  8. Monte Carlo Techniques for Nuclear Systems - Theory Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications Group; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-11-29

    These are lecture notes for a Monte Carlo class given at the University of New Mexico. The following topics are covered: course information; nuclear eng. review & MC; random numbers and sampling; computational geometry; collision physics; tallies and statistics; eigenvalue calculations I; eigenvalue calculations II; eigenvalue calculations III; variance reduction; parallel Monte Carlo; parameter studies; fission matrix and higher eigenmodes; doppler broadening; Monte Carlo depletion; HTGR modeling; coupled MC and T/H calculations; fission energy deposition. Solving particle transport problems with the Monte Carlo method is simple - just simulate the particle behavior. The devil is in the details, however. These lectures provide a balanced approach to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulation codes. The first lectures provide an overview of Monte Carlo simulation methods, covering the transport equation, random sampling, computational geometry, collision physics, and statistics. The next lectures focus on the state-of-the-art in Monte Carlo criticality simulations, covering the theory of eigenvalue calculations, convergence analysis, dominance ratio calculations, bias in Keff and tallies, bias in uncertainties, a case study of a realistic calculation, and Wielandt acceleration techniques. The remaining lectures cover advanced topics, including HTGR modeling and stochastic geometry, temperature dependence, fission energy deposition, depletion calculations, parallel calculations, and parameter studies. This portion of the class focuses on using MCNP to perform criticality calculations for reactor physics and criticality safety applications. It is an intermediate level class, intended for those with at least some familiarity with MCNP. Class examples provide hands-on experience at running the code, plotting both geometry and results, and understanding the code output. The class includes lectures & hands-on computer use for a variety of Monte Carlo calculations

  9. A biofilm microreactor system for simultaneous electrochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Ewing, R. James; Ewing, Thomas; Mueller, Karl T.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    In order to fully understand electrochemically active biofilms and the limitations to their scale-up in industrial biofilm reactors, a complete picture of the microenvironments inside the biofilm is needed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are ideally suited for the study of biofilms and for probing their microenvironments because these techniques allow for non-invasive interrogation and in situ monitoring with high resolution. By combining NMR with simultaneous electrochemical techniques, it is possible to sustain and study live electrochemically active biofilms. Here, we introduce a novel biofilm microreactor system that allows for simultaneous electrochemical and NMR techniques (EC-NMR) at the microscale. Microreactors were designed with custom radiofrequency resonator coils, which allowed for NMR measurements of biofilms growing on polarized gold electrodes. For an example application of this system, we grew Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. NMR was used to investigate growth media flow velocities, which were compared to simulated laminar flow, and electron donor concentrations inside the biofilms. We use Monte Carlo error analysis to estimate standard deviations of the electron donor concentration measurements within the biofilm. The EC-NMR biofilm microreactor system can ultimately be used to correlate extracellular electron transfer rates with metabolic reactions and explore extracellular electron transfer mechanisms

  10. Relative conservatisms of combination methods used in response spectrum analyses of nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Kustu, O.; Jhaveri, D.P.; Blume, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents the conclusions of a comprehensive study that investigated the relative conservatisms represented by various combination techniques. Two approaches were taken for the study, producing mutually consistent results. In the first, 20 representative nuclear piping systems were systematically analyzed using the response spectrum method. The total response was obtained using nine different combination methods. One procedure, using the SRSS method for combining spatial components of response and the 10% method for combining the responses of different modes (which is currently acceptable to the U.S. NRC), was the standard for comparison. Responses computed by the other methods were normalized to this standard method. These response ratios were then used to develop cumulative frequency-distribution curves, which were used to establish the relative conservatism of the methods in a probabilistic sense. In the second approach, 30 single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems that represent different modes of hypothetical piping systems and have natural frequencies varying from 1 Hz to 30 Hz, were analyzed for 276 sets of three-component recorded ground motion. A set of hypothetical systems assuming a variety of modes and frequency ranges was developed. The responses of these systems were computed from the responses of the SDOF systems by combining the spatial response components by algebraic summation and the individual mode responses by the Navy method, or combining both spatial and modal response components using the SRSS method. Probability density functions and cumulative distribution functions were developed for the ratio of the responses obtained by both methods. (orig./HP)

  11. Pure nuclear reflexes and combined hyperfine interactions in YIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, H; Eisberg, R; Alp, E; Rueffer, R; Gerdau, E; Lauer, S; Trautwein, A X; Grodzicki, M; Vera, A

    1983-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of oriented YIG single crystals were taken and the numerical analysis using the transmission integral yielded a consistent set of hyperfine interaction parameters. They are in good agreement with theoretical values obtained by MO-calculations which included clusters up to 62 ions. Finally pure nuclear reflexes are predicted for single crystals and two theoretical spectra are given.

  12. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sae Rom [Dept of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Yeol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Nonproliferation System Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  13. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sae Rom; Choi, Sung Yeol; Ko, Wonil

    2017-01-01

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios

  14. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  15. Opportunities to reduce risk associated with nuclear logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, P.D.; Robinson, E.; de Fleurieu, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear logging provides petroleum exploration and production companies with data that are critical to their decisions and operations. Because this type data is so important, environmentally conscious well-logging and service companies are constantly reviewing the risks to people and environment associated with nuclear sources with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in mind. Opportunities to additionally reduce risks, which can be accomplished only with the active involvement of oil companies, are proposed in this paper

  16. Some applications of nuclear techniques in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Rubens Martins; Castro, Jose Olympio Nardelli Monteiro de; Nadvorny, Jerson; Melo, Maria Aparecida de; Lemos, Walter Petroni

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents some studies carried out jointly by Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS and Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN, of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, using radioactive tracers in secondary oil recovery operations as well as in process studies of fluidized catalyst cracking units. Some features of tracer selection and radiological safety are discussed. Preliminary results of laboratory and field work are presented. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine

  18. Da Lat Nuclear Research Reactor. Role and perspective in the development of radioisotope and nuclear technique application in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Ha Anh; Tran Khac An; Ngo Phu Khang; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1995-01-01

    The Da Lat Nuclear Research Reactor is playing a central role in the development of both the Nuclear Research Institute and nuclear application in our country. Thanks to this main scientific tool, the Nuclear Research Institute nearly 10 years after the completion of its renovation from the previous American-made TRIGA MARK 2 reactor is being able to implement numerous scientific and technological research projects and to develop significant applications of radioisotopes and various nuclear techniques. A general overview of the research and development activities of the Institute based on the Da Lat Nuclear Research Reactor is given as well as those aiming at ensuring its safe, reliable and efficient operation and at enlarging the perspectives of its utilisation in the future. (authors). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Combined laparoscopic and open technique for repair of congenital abdominal hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qinghuang; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Jinhui; Wang, Yuedong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital disorder among adults, and the way for repairing abdominal wall musculature has no unified standard. Materials and methods: We described combining laparoscopic and open technique in an adult male who presented with PBS. Physical examination and radiological imaging verified the case of PBS. The deficiency of abdominal wall musculature was repaired by combining laparoscopic and open technique using a double-deck complex patch. Results: The patient successfully underwent abdominal wall repair by combining laparoscopic and open technique. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and improvement in symptom was significant in follow-up after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Conclusions: Combining laparoscopic and open technique for repair of deficiency of abdominal wall musculature in PBS was an exploratory way to improve life quality. PMID:29049186

  20. TECHNIQUES FOR COMBINED PROCUREMENT OF HEARTS AND KIDNEYS WITH SATISFACTORY EARLY FUNCTION OF RENAL ALLOGRAFTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Byers W.; Rosenthal, J. Thomas; Griffith, Bartley F.; Haresty, Robert L.; Broznik, Brian; Hakala, Thomas; Bahnson, Henry T.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Methods for combination of donor nephrectomy with donor cardiectomy are outlined. The satisfactory early function of 29 of 34 transplanted kidneys harvested with these techniques supports their wider application and should encourage their wider acceptance. PMID:6351307

  1. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  2. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR

  3. Frontier of Advanced Accelerator Applications and Medical Treatments Using Nuclear Techniques. Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    To address the challenges of research-based practice, developing advanced accelerator applications, and medical treatments using nuclear tecniqoes, researchers from Rajamakala University of Technology Lanna, Office of Atoms for Peace, and Chiang Mai University have joined in hosting this conference. Nuclear medicine, amedical specialty, diagnoses and treats diseases in a safe and painless way. Nuclear techniques can determine medical information that may otherwise be unavailable, require surgery, or necessitate more expensive and invasive diagnostic tests. Advance in nuclear techniques also offer the potential to detect abnormalities at earlier stages, leasding to earlier treatment and a more successful prognosis.

  4. Shock absorber in combination with a nuclear reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to the provision of shock absorbers for use in blind control rod passages of a nuclear reactor core structure which are not subject to degradation. The shock absorber elements are made of a porous brittle carbonaceous material, a porous brittle ceramic material, or a porous brittle refractory oxide and have a void volume of between 30% and 70% of the total volume of the element for energy absorption by fracturing due to impact loading by a control rod. (UK)

  5. Combined development of international nuclear fusion test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Ambassadors of the four most important partners (Common Market, Japan, USA and USSR) in the IAEA sponsored INTOR project, met on the 15 and 16 March 1987 in Vienna under the auspices of the IAEA. A press release was issued acknowledging the considerable technical progress made in magnetic nuclear fusion research. Future design concepts, assistance in research and development work and other activities towards the provision of an international experimental thermonuclear reactor were discussed. (G.T.H.)

  6. Nuclear versus fossil power plants: evolution of economic evaluation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuesen, G.J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to document the evolution of methods used by an electric utility for comparing the economic attractiveness of nuclear versus fossil electric power generation. This process of change is examined as it took place within the Georgia Power Company (GPC), a company spending in the neighborhood of half a billion dollars annually for capital improvements. This study provides a look at the variety of richness of information that can be made available through the application of different methods of economic analysis. In addition, the varied presentations used to disclose relationships between alternatives furnish evidence as to the effectiveness of providing pertinent information in a simple, meaningful manner. It had been generally accepted throughout GPC that nuclear power was economically desirable as an alternative for the production of base-load power. With inflation increasing, its advantage over fossil power appeared to be significantly increasing as the large operating costs of fossil generation seemed to be more vulnerable to inflation than the costs of operating a nuclear facility. An early indication that the company should reevaluate this position was the experience gained with the installation of their first nuclear plant. Here, actual total costs were exceeding their original construction estimates by a factor of two. Thus the question arose ''Does the high capital cost of nuclear generation offset its operating advantages when compared to similar-sized coal-burning plants.'' To answer this question, additional analyses were undertaken

  7. Filtering techniques for efficient inversion of two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, V.; Brizi, L.; Fantazzini, P.; Landi, G.; Zama, F.

    2017-10-01

    The inversion of two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data requires the solution of a first kind Fredholm integral equation with a two-dimensional tensor product kernel and lower bound constraints. For the solution of this ill-posed inverse problem, the recently presented 2DUPEN algorithm [V. Bortolotti et al., Inverse Problems, 33(1), 2016] uses multiparameter Tikhonov regularization with automatic choice of the regularization parameters. In this work, I2DUPEN, an improved version of 2DUPEN that implements Mean Windowing and Singular Value Decomposition filters, is deeply tested. The reconstruction problem with filtered data is formulated as a compressed weighted least squares problem with multi-parameter Tikhonov regularization. Results on synthetic and real 2D NMR data are presented with the main purpose to deeper analyze the separate and combined effects of these filtering techniques on the reconstructed 2D distribution.

  8. Nuclear power plant monitoring and fault diagnosis methods based on the artificial intelligence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Saiki, A.; Ugolini, D.; Ozawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to develop an advanced diagnosis system based on the artificial intelligence technique to monitor the operation and to improve the operational safety of nuclear power plants. Three different methods have been elaborated in this study: an artificial neural network local diagnosis (NN ds ) scheme that acting at the component level discriminates between normal and abnormal transients, a model-based diagnostic reasoning mechanism that combines a physical causal network model-based knowledge compiler (KC) that generates applicable diagnostic rules from widely accepted physical knowledge compiler (KC) that generates applicable diagnostic rules from widely accepted physical knowledge. Although the three methods have been developed and verified independently, they are highly correlated and, when connected together, form a effective and robust diagnosis and monitoring tool. (authors)

  9. Application of nuclear techniques in improving agricultural productivity with particular reference to pasture management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid Ajorlo; Ramdzani Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are appropriate tools to settle problems for agriculture or natural resources which cannot be solved using conventional agricultural techniques. In this paper, the research activities carried out and the achievements so far obtained in the agricultural specialties -all by using nuclear techniques- with particular reference to pasture management are discussed. Insect pest control by Sterile Insect Techniques (SIT); soil and water management using neutron moisture probes; determining N-fixation capacity of legumes using N-15 isotope and nuclear methods; soil erosion measurement using of fallout radionuclide such as Cs-137; monitoring the movement of saline water in salt-affected land using isotopes of chlorine; livestock production and health by RIA and ELISA are some of achievements so far obtained in improving agricultural productivity. The ultimate goal of the nuclear technique investigation in agriculture is to use the resources efficiently in obtaining higher plant and livestock yields while increasing the quality and protecting them against insects, diseases and weeds. (Author)

  10. Use of nuclear medicine and imaging techniques in disorders of the bone system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Falcon, Daylin; Marrero Riveron, Luis Oscar; Ledea Lozano, Oscar E

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that deals with clinical diagnosis, treatment and research through the use of isotopes as open sources. Bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary bone cancer, bone metastases, arthrosis and arthritis are common among the population. The objective of this review was to present international and national statistics, and evaluate the incidence of these disorders. Additionally, a review was conducted of various clinical studies to identify the radiopharmaceuticals most frequently used to diagnose and treat bone disease, and their combination with the most common imaging techniques. A presentation was made of the usefulness of bone gammagraphy and the confirmation of the disorders studied. Reference was also made to the use of new techniques such as single photon emission tomography or positron emission tomography. It was found that the radioisotope most commonly used to diagnose diseases of the bone system was 99m Tc, due to its physical and chemical characteristics, whereas 186 Re, 188 Re, 153 Sm, 177 Lu, 32 P, 89 Sr, 85 Sr, 117m Sn are used for therapeutic purposes, depending on the type, location and magnitude of the lesions and the availability of the radioisotope. At present, radiopharmaceutical development centers on combining these radioisotopes with various biomolecules to improve their properties and broaden their field of application

  11. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ``Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke``, was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  12. Nuclear pulse signal processing technique based on blind deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Pengfei; Yang Lei; Fu Tingyan; Qi Zhong; Li Dongcang; Ren Zhongguo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for measurement and analysis of nuclear pulse signal, with which pile-up signal is removed, the signal baseline is restored, and the original signal is obtained. The data acquisition system includes FPGA, ADC and USB. The FPGA controls the high-speed ADC to sample the signal of nuclear radiation, and the USB makes the ADC work on the Slave FIFO mode to implement high-speed transmission status. Using the LabVIEW, it accomplishes online data processing of the blind deconvolution algorithm and data display. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate advantages of the method. (authors)

  13. Application of thermo-analytical techniques in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Ghonge, Darshana K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium nitrate solution is the byproduct of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. It is produced during the neutralization of nitric acid received through purex process and stored in tanks or immobilized in bitumen/cement at site as waste packets. In order to minimize the environmental impact due to these waste packets, it is desirable to reduce nitrate ion to harmless gases like nitrogen. Biodegradation, ion exchange, electrodialysis and chemical treatment are the methods for nitrate reduction in the case of non nuclear industrial waste. Chemical treatment seems to be the most viable process to treat the waste from nuclear reprocessing plant in comparison to the other methods used for the non nuclear industrial waste. During chemical treatment, the nitrate ions can be converted to nitrogen by using a suitable reductant in presence of a catalyst. Formaldehyde has been chosen as the reducing agent for the nitrate - nitrogen conversion and in the process, formaldehyde gets converted to formic acid. In order to optimize the reduction process, it is essential to determine the formaldehyde and formic acid content in the waste feed solution and no direct analytical methodology is available for the same. Present work describes the attempts made to apply evolved gas analysis for understanding the mechanism of conversion of formaldehyde to formic acid. The developed method can be applied for the qualitative/quantitative determination of formaldehyde and formic acid in the waste feed solution. Waste feed samples were received from PSDD, BARC

  14. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services...

  15. Determination of boron in aqueous solutions by solid state nuclear track detectors technique, using a filtered neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1985-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique has been used for determination of boron in aqueous solutions, using a filtered neutron beam. The particles tracks from the 10 B(n,α)Li 7 reaction were registered in the CR-39 film, chemically etched in a (30%) KOH solution 70 0 C during 90 minutes. The obtained results showed the usefulness of this technique for boron determination in the ppm range. The inferior detectable limit was 9 ppm. The combined track registration efficiency factor K has been evaluated in the solutions, for the CR-39 detector and its values is K= (4,60 - + 0,06). 10 -4 cm. (Author) [pt

  16. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Communication techniques and nuclear energy; Tecnicas de comunicacion y energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  18. Time-series-analysis techniques applied to nuclear-material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Downing, D.J.

    1982-05-01

    This document is designed to introduce the reader to the applications of Time Series Analysis techniques to Nuclear Material Accountability data. Time series analysis techniques are designed to extract information from a collection of random variables ordered by time by seeking to identify any trends, patterns, or other structure in the series. Since nuclear material accountability data is a time series, one can extract more information using time series analysis techniques than by using other statistical techniques. Specifically, the objective of this document is to examine the applicability of time series analysis techniques to enhance loss detection of special nuclear materials. An introductory section examines the current industry approach which utilizes inventory differences. The error structure of inventory differences is presented. Time series analysis techniques discussed include the Shewhart Control Chart, the Cumulative Summation of Inventory Differences Statistics (CUSUM) and the Kalman Filter and Linear Smoother

  19. Guidebook on nuclear techniques in hydrology. 1983 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guidebook serves as an introduction to the range of isotope techniques that are applicable in hydrology. The basic principles of each application are described followed by examples of case studies. This method of treatment should enable hydrologists to identify and assess the possible use of isotope techniques to their particular problems, although hydrologists having no prior experience in the use of isotope techniques will need to collaborate with isotope hydrologists. Isotope techniques may provide an independent approach for solving a hydrological problem. However, it should be realised that these techniques are only one of a number of tools now available to the hydrologist and their use in conjunction with other hydrological methods is likely to be most productive. Isotope hydrology may be considered under three headings: (1) the use of variations in the environmental isotopic composition of water; (2) the use of artificial radioactive tracers; (3) the use of radioisotope instruments. The following sections summarise the elements of radioactivity and interaction of radiation with matter considered necessary for an understanding of the use of isotope techniques in hydrology. Other sections in this introduction deal with the reasons for the variations in the environmental isotopic composition of water, the precautions in sampling of water, the use and choice of artificial radioactive tracers and precautions in their use, and the principles of tracer techniques

  20. Experimental thin-target and thick-target yields for natOs(α, xn)Pt, natOs(α, X)Os, Ir and natMo(p, xn)Tc nuclear reactions from threshold up to 38 and 45 MeV, by combined single and stacked foil techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, Claudio; Bonardi, Mauro; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia; Menapace, Enzo

    2002-01-01

    The experimental values of thin-target excitation functions for the nuclear reactions: nat Os(α, X) 188,189,191 Pt, 192g,194m Ir in the energy range 11 - 38 MeV and nat Mo(p, xn) 94g,95g,95m,96(m+g) Tc in the energy range 5 - 44 MeV are presented. The experimental values were obtained by cyclotron activation followed by off-line HPGe γ-spectrometry and corrected at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment, EOIB. In different cases use was made of single foil and stacked foil techniques, which present significantly different advantages and disadvantages. The thin-target yield values can be easily either numerically or analytically integrated, as a function of both incoming particle energy and energy loss in target itself, in order to calculate apriori the thick-target yield of various radionuclides under any different experimental condition. Moreover, the thin-target yields are directly related to the effective cross-sections of various nuclear reaction channels involved. The data are of relevant interest for optimizing cyclotron production of platinum and technetium radionuclides to be used as radiotracers for metallo-biochemical, biomedical, toxicological and environmental studies. (author)

  1. Achievements obtained in agricultural research by using nuclear techniques in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M. B.

    2002-01-01

    Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences (ANRCAAS) is one of the four unique research centers belonging to Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. ANRCAAS is unique because it is the only center in Turkey which uses nuclear techniques as a tool to solve problems for agriculture or animal sciences which cannot be solved using conventional techniques. Training and Research in the areas of agriculture, animal science, food preservation and sterilization via nuclear techniques are among the objectives of the Center. In this paper, the research activities carried out and the achievements so far obtained in the agricultural specialties of Plant Breeding, Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, Plant Protection and Pesticide Residues -all by using nuclear techniques- are provided

  2. Nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document includes 10 final reports on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Project 'Use of nuclear techniques in investigation, conservation and management of the cultural historical patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, Sonnia

    2000-12-01

    This project is aimed at solving problems of conservation of the cultural historical patrimony through the active participation of the member countries of ARCAL by the application of Analytic Nuclear Techniques [es

  4. Nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document includes 10 final reports on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs.

  5. The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine

  6. Techniques for data compression in experimental nuclear physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byalko, A.A.; Volkov, N.G.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques and ways for data compression during physical experiments are estimated. Data compression algorithms are divided into three groups: the first one includes the algorithms based on coding and which posses only average indexes by data files, the second group includes algorithms with data processing elements, the third one - algorithms for converted data storage. The greatest promise for the techniques connected with data conversion is concluded. The techniques possess high indexes for compression efficiency and for fast response, permit to store information close to the source one

  7. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers and stakeholders are becoming increasingly dependent on reliable chemical measurements that serve as a basis for decisions related to health, consumer safety, commerce, environment protection and compliance to regulations. Several millions of analytical results are produced annually, thus consuming appreciable amounts of resources. Reliability of these data is of major concern if cost-benefit figures are applied. Nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques (NATs) have been supported by the IAEA as part of their mandate to foster the peaceful use of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through Technical Co-operation assistance in many Member State laboratories. These techniques, including INAA, XRF, PIXE, stable and radioisotopes, spectrometroscopy, etc. have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to cross-check critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible to a great extent. The International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment was held 10-13 June 2003 in Vienna, Austria. The main purpose of this Conference was to bring together scientists, technologists, representatives of industry and regulatory authorities to exchange information and review the status of current developments and applications of isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques, and to discuss future trends and developments. A further objective is to identify potential opportunities for developing countries for applying isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques in health and environmental studies, and to consider the promotion and transfer of such technology. International developments and trends in health care, nutrition, and environmental monitoring

  8. The development of computer industry and applications of its relevant techniques in nuclear research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Guiliang

    1988-01-01

    The increasing needs for computers in the area of nuclear science and technology are described. The current status of commerical availabe computer products of different scale in world market are briefly reviewed. A survey of some noticeable techniques is given from the view point of computer applications in nuclear science research laboratories

  9. Papers of All-Polish Conference on Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings comprise papers presented at All-Polish Conference on nuclear techniques in industry, medicine, agriculture and environmental protection. Most of the papers are in the field of uses of radiation sources and particle beams in industry, radiation chemistry, nuclear medicine and dosimetry, environmental sciences

  10. Nuclear-derived techniques improve cattle productivity and milk quality in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Increasing agricultural production and improving the quality of milk and meat are key to combating poverty and increasing food security in Africa. Countries such as Cameroon are increasingly turning to innovative, nuclear and nuclear-derived techniques to control and prevent diseases among livestock, and boost cattle and milk production.

  11. Water in Brain Edema : Observations by the Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; Edzes, HT

    The state of water in three types of brain edema and in normal brain of the rat was studied by the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. In cold-induced edema and in osmotic edema both in cortex and in white matter, the water protons have longer nuclear magnetic relaxation times than in

  12. Human-centred radiological software techniques supporting improved nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoeke, Istvan; Johnsen, Terje

    2013-01-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) is an international research foundation for energy and nuclear technology. IFE is also the host for the international OECD Halden Reactor Project. The Software Engineering Department in the Man Technology Organisation at IFE is a leading international centre of competence for the development and evaluation of human-centred technologies, process visualisation, and the lifecycle of high integrity software important to safety. This paper is an attempt to give a general overview of the current, and some of the foreseen, research and development of human-centred radiological software technologies at the Software Engineering department to meet with the need of improved radiological safety for not only nuclear industry but also other industries around the world. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle optimization - methods and modelling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting methods applicable in the analysis of fuel cycle logistics and optimization as well as in evaluating the economics of different reactor strategies. After a succinct introduction to the phases of a fuel cycle, uranium cost trends are assessed in a global perspective and subsequent chapters deal with the fuel cycle problems faced by a power utility. A fundamental material flow model is introduced first in the context of light water reactor fuel cycles. Besides the minimum cost criterion, the text also deals with other objectives providing for a treatment of cost uncertainties and of the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons. Methods to assess mixed reactor strategies, comprising also other reactor types than the light water reactor, are confined to cost minimization. In the final Chapter, the integration of nuclear capacity within a generating system is examined. (author)

  14. Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques; Investigaciones acuicolas con tecnicas de energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia Salazar, Brunilda [Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP), (CIAE), Estacion Experimental Guanapito, Guarico (Venezuela)

    1997-07-01

    The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country. [Spanish] El cultivo de organismos

  15. Combined nuclear and digital subtraction contrast arthrography in painful knee prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namasivayam, J.; Forrester, A.; Poon, F.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; McKillop, J.H.; Bryan, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of a painful knee prosthesis remains a difficult problem for both orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists. We have compared digital subtraction arthrography with nuclear-arthrography in 7 patients with a painful knee prosthesis. Three patients showed a loose tibial component, demonstrated by both digital subtraction and nuclear arthrography. All 3 underwent revision of their prosthesis. One patient had an equivocal digital subtraction arthrogram and negative nuclear arthrogram, while both studies were negative in the 3 remaining patients. Nuclear arthrography is a simple procedure and can provide useful additional information when combined with digital subtraction arthrography. (orig.)

  16. Environmental study of the use of biomonitors and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, Sonnia

    2000-06-01

    In June of 1999, the National Nuclear Energy Commission has begun the Project of Investigation Environmental Studies by the employment of biomonitors, summoning and integrating a multidisciplinary team. In the first stage, the Area Sampling of Asuncion area was defined including 16 intersections of important avenues and an area of reference. The criteria in this case has been that the main source of pollution is constituted by vehicular traffic. The pollution studies have been done by means of field measurements [es

  17. The study of cultural objects by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of the techniques that are used at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina for the characterization and study of cultural and archaeological specimens. A short history of these activities is also given. (author)

  18. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques for on-line elemental analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of an advisory group meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 1-5 June, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status and development of nuclear analytical techniques used for industrial process control. The report gives an overview of the different nuclear techniques used for process control and the most important applications. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  1. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  2. Nuclear material safeguards surveillance and accountancy by isotope correlation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Goleb, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the initial phase of the US study program and involves the computation of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR fuel cycle. The LWR fuel cycle phase of the study is currently in progress. The selection of the more safeguards effective functionals will depend not only on the level of reliability of isotope correlation technique (ICT) for verification, but also on the capability and difficulty of developing measurement methods. Performance characteristics of existing and proposed isotopic measurement techniques cover the general areas including assay and isotopic wet chemistry and NDA: (1) simultaneous multicomponent analysis techniques, (2) mass spectrometry, (3) x-ray fluorescence or densitometry with high flux monochromatic x-ray sources and high dispersion spectrometers, (4) passive and active neutron interrogation, (5) high level gamma-ray spectroscopy, (6) coulometry, and (7) potentiometry. The measurement capabilities and inherent limitations of these systems are to be evaluated in terms of total systems, operational mode, sample preparation requirements and consequent effect on dissolver solution representation, accuracy and precision estimates (if available), development status of the technique, and development requirements. The isotopic correlation technique shows considerable promise for use in verifying the initial isotopic composition and burnup of discharged assemblies based on the measured ratios of several key isotopes, obtained probably at the dissolver stage in reprocessing. This technique should, for example, easily be capable of indicating the exchange of a blanket assembly for a fuel assembly

  3. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  4. Combined 30-degree bevel up and down technique against 0-degree phaco tip for phacoemulsification surgery of hard cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi RS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajesh Subhash Joshi, Sonal Jayant Muley Department of Ophthalmology, Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India Purpose: To evaluate the effective phaco time (EPT, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE and nucleus emulsification time (NET as phaco parameters with 0- and 30-degree phaco tip. Patients and methods: This prospective, interventional and observational case series included 294 patients scheduled for cataract removal by phacoemulsification technique. Patients with nuclear cataracts of grade 4 and 5 nuclear opalescence of Lens Opacities Classification System III were included in the study. Patients were consecutively allocated to phaco chop technique with 0-degree (0-degree group, n=147 and combined bevel up and down position using 30-degree phaco tip (combined bevel up/down group, n=147. The 0-degree group had phacoemulsification with 0-degree phaco tip, while the 30-degree group had chopping of the nucleus with bevel down phaco tip and emulsification of nuclear fragments was accomplished with bevel up tip. EPT, CDE, NET and intraoperative complications were noted and compared between the groups using analysis of variance. Results: Average EPT, CDE and NET were lower in the 30-degree group than in the 0-degree group. However, no statistically significant difference was found in EPT (P=0.0733, CDE (P=0.0663 and NET (P=0.0633 between the two groups. No serious intraoperative complications were noted. The anterior chamber was maintained throughout the procedure in both groups. No patients had wound burn and miosis during the procedure. None of the patients developed bullous keratopathy, uveitis and cystoid macular edema during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Combined bevel up and down 30-degree tip can yield effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification. Bevel down tip of 30-degree helps in effective chopping and bevel up tip assists in emulsification of the nuclear fragments. Although combined bevel up and down 30

  5. Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The continuous series of food shortages in many parts of the world have led scientists to consider the possibilities of using the new techniques to develop better varieties of plants. The basis for plant breeding is suitable genetic variability and mutation induction as the means to create additional variation. In vitro techniques are a relatively new tool in practical plant breeding. These Proceedings contain 62 papers and posters presented at the symposium, as well as excerpts from the discussions. The Symposium presentations are divided into the following sessions: Genetic variation from in vitro culture; Genetic stability of in vitro cultures; In vitro culture with application of mutagens; Haploids; In vitro mutant selection; Use of genetic variation derived by in vitro culture; In vitro techniques as aids in mutation breeding and Genetic engineering. A separate abstract is prepared for each of these papers and posters

  6. Hierarchical control of a nuclear reactor using uncertain dynamics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, L.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in the nonlinear optimal control area are opening new possibilities towards its implementation in process control. Algorithms for multivariate control, hierarchical decomposition, parameter tracking, model uncertainties actuator saturation effects and physical limits to state variables can be implemented on the basis of a consistent mathematical formulation. In this paper, good agreement is shown between a centralized and a hierarchical implementation of a controller for a hypothetical nuclear power plant subject to multiple demands. The performance of the hierarchical distributed system in the presence of localized subsystem failures is analyzed. 4 refs., 13 figs

  7. Review of nuclear techniques in South African agricultural research: 1963-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, P.G.; Kotze, W.A.G.; Joubert, M.E.; Huismans, H.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques in agriculture research in the RSA was reviewed at a National Conference on Nuclear Energy in 1963. Since then, 573 publications on the use of nuclear techniques in agriculture have appeared, which can be classified as follows: zoology; botany; food irradiation; soil and plant relations; soil moisture and ground water studies; and other radiation and tracer applications. A survey of literature on the use of radioactive isotopes in agriculture published between 1973 and 1980, including South African publications, was compiled by the Atomic Energy Board in 1980 but did not include any review of the scientific material

  8. Application of nuclear techniques on environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1998-01-01

    Radioanalysis and tracer techniques that can be used on environmental pollution problems. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are the two methods that are used frequently on such problems. These methods are used for metal analysis. Tracer technique with radioactive labeled compounds are used to study the fate of the pollution substances in environmental systems. It is very important to validate every new developed analysis method, due to the environmental pollution problem closely related to the low enforcement. (author)

  9. Performances of nuclear power plants for combined production of electricity and hot water for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzen, S.

    The possibilities for using nuclear power plants for combined production of heat and power seem to be very good in the future. With the chosen 600 MWsub (e) BWR plant a heat output up to 1200 MW can be arranged. An alternative, consisting of steam extractions from the low-pressure turbine, offers a flexible solution for heat and power generation. With this alternative the combined plant can use components from normal condensing nuclear power plants. The flexible extraction design also offers a real possibility for using the combined plant in electric peak generation. However, urban siting requires long distance heat transmission and the pipe design for this transmission is a major problem when planning and optimizing the whole nuclear combined heat and power plant. (author)

  10. Use of multiple radiographic techniques for nuclear shielding development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S., E-mail: dayse@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., McMaster Nuclear Reactor, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    The McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) is a medium-sized research reactor located on the campus of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. The largest nuclear reactor on a Canadian university campus, MNR is an open-pool, light water research reactor, Equipped with both in-core and ex-core irradiation facilities, MNR serves research, education, and industrial needs while producing radioisotopes for medical applications. Presently the University is preparing for the installation of a positron beam line facility at one of the MNR beam ports. One of five such facilities worldwide, the McMaster Intense Positron Beam Facility (MIPBF) will provide orders of magnitude more positrons than a standard bench-top arrangement, making possible experiments not previously feasible. Funded by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the Ontario Research Foundation, the MIPBF project is a collaborative effort between positron groups at McMaster, Western, and York universities and researchers and staff at MNR, The project has involved design and fabrication of both the positron production and transport system and custom biological shielding. The MIPBF shielding fabrication is scheduled to be complete by fall 2015 followed shortly by installation and commissioning testing at MNR. Positron beam availability is planned for later in 2016. Applications include defect characterization and surface analysis of advanced engineering materials and fundamental science experiments on antimatter properties, The MIPBF will be the latest addition to the extensive array of materials-related facilities at McMaster University. (author)

  11. Innovative training techniques in the Canadian nuclear regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the contributors to the safety of nuclear installations is properly-trained personnel. This applies equally to the staff of a regulatory agency, as they are charged with the task of evaluating the safety of installations and operations involving radioactive materials. In 1990, the nuclear regulatory agency of Canada, the Atomic Energy Control Board, set up a Training Center to train AECB staff and to provide assistance to foreign regulatory agencies who had asked for such assistance. In setting up the Training Centre, the authors considered factors which adversely affect the efficacy of training courses. The technical content must, of course, be of sufficiently high quality, but there are other, significant factors which are independent of the content: consider a presentation in which the lecturer shows a slide which is unreadable from the back of the room. The training value of this slide is zero, even though the content may be sound. Pursuing this thought, they decided to examine the mechanics of presentations and the form of training materials, with a view to optimizing their effectiveness in training. The results of this examination were that they decided to use three technologies as the basis for production of training, support and presentation materials. This paper briefly describes these technologies and their advantages. The technologies are: desktop publishing, video and multimedia

  12. Use of multiple radiographic techniques for nuclear shielding development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, S.

    2016-01-01

    The McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) is a medium-sized research reactor located on the campus of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. The largest nuclear reactor on a Canadian university campus, MNR is an open-pool, light water research reactor, Equipped with both in-core and ex-core irradiation facilities, MNR serves research, education, and industrial needs while producing radioisotopes for medical applications. Presently the University is preparing for the installation of a positron beam line facility at one of the MNR beam ports. One of five such facilities worldwide, the McMaster Intense Positron Beam Facility (MIPBF) will provide orders of magnitude more positrons than a standard bench-top arrangement, making possible experiments not previously feasible. Funded by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the Ontario Research Foundation, the MIPBF project is a collaborative effort between positron groups at McMaster, Western, and York universities and researchers and staff at MNR, The project has involved design and fabrication of both the positron production and transport system and custom biological shielding. The MIPBF shielding fabrication is scheduled to be complete by fall 2015 followed shortly by installation and commissioning testing at MNR. Positron beam availability is planned for later in 2016. Applications include defect characterization and surface analysis of advanced engineering materials and fundamental science experiments on antimatter properties, The MIPBF will be the latest addition to the extensive array of materials-related facilities at McMaster University. (author)

  13. Study on condition monitoring techniques for low voltage electrical cables in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Hideo; Sakai, Takeshi; Kajimura, Yuusaku

    2017-01-01

    Low voltage electrical cables installed in nuclear power plants are required to maintain its function in a design basis accident environment and they are qualified to that environment. The cables degrade also in normal operating conditions due to ageing and they must maintain integrity until the end of their qualified life. Demands for the condition monitoring technique for low voltage electrical cables have therefore been increasing as nuclear power plants operate longer. A single perfect method for this purpose is not available yet, but the possibility to use two different types of methods which can complement with each other has been examined. The combination of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Indenter Modulus (IM) method was found highly effective. FT-IR is a method that determines chemical properties (changes in molecular bindings) of cables by using infrared rays, while IM is a method that determines mechanical properties (changes in hardness) of cables by indenters. Both methods are non-destructive and can be applied in-situ to the same material. Reliability of the evaluation can be assured by applying two different types of measurement principles that complement with each other. In this study, various cable samples with different kinds of insulation material (cross-linked polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, silicone rubber etc.) were aged with a special accelerated ageing technique which applies simultaneous thermal and radiation ageing to simulate ageing phenomena in a more realistic manner, and the degree of ageing was evaluated with FT-IR and IM. The evaluation result shows good correlation with ageing time and other ageing properties for most material types and the effectiveness of these methods were demonstrated. (author)

  14. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to the Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu F, J.A.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Montero M, E.; Villasenor S, P.

    2001-01-01

    It is applied the PIXE technique for to measure the ratio Sr/Ca in different stages of the stalactite growth. As the ratio depends of the temperature, information about the variations of atmospheric temperature along thousand of years is obtained. (Author)

  15. Dictionary of nuclear sciences and techniques; Dictionnaire des sciences et techniques nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigot, B.; Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay (HC), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    This reference book has been totally reworked in its fourth edition, in order to answer the needs of the numerous sectors of activity concerned by nuclear sciences and technologies: radiation protection, cancerology, neurology and pharmacology in the medical sector, power generation and more generally energy production, micro-electronics, quality control and on-line analysis in many industrial sectors, patrimony preservation, food safety, environmental and paleo-climate studies in relation with climate prospective, etc. This complete overview of the nuclear world integrates the regulatory aspects, necessary to shade light on it, and many other technological innovations. Elaborated with harmonization, clarification and exhaustiveness concerns, this dictionary is the result of a large consensus among the French-speaking nuclear community. It includes some 4800 entries with more than 250 color illustrations and an English-French glossary. Its aim is to offer to everyone a precise vocabulary, fully shared by everybody and necessary for exchanges and debates clarity. (J.S.)

  16. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destouches Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  17. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been supporting nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques as part of its mandate to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through technical co-operation assistance in many laboratories of Member States. These techniques, including INAA, CRF, PIXE, stable isotopes and radioisotopes, α, β, γ spectrometry, Moessbauer spectrometry, etc., have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to crosscheck critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible. In light of its continued commitment and support, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment. Out of 220 from 61 countries who applied for participation, 155 official participants and five observers from 47 countries were in attendance, with 67 from 32 developing countries and 21 from international organizations, including the World Health Organization. Eleven plenary sessions were held. Also conducted was a panel discussion on Human Capacity Development Needs in the Areas of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS), Radiochemistry and Nutrition. The scientific sessions were divided into several topics, which reflect some of the important activities of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA): - Isotopic and nuclear techniques (general); - Metrology and quality assurance in nuclear measurements; - Nuclear analytical techniques for environmental monitoring; - Radioecology; - Environmental monitoring; - Radiological safety of food and water; - Methodological aspects of stable isotope techniques in health and environment; - Applications of isotopic techniques in health and environment; - New

  18. A New Image Encryption Technique Combining Hill Cipher Method, Morse Code and Least Significant Bit Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofriansyah, Dicky; Defit, Sarjon; Nurcahyo, Gunadi W.; Ganefri, G.; Ridwan, R.; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Rahim, Robbi

    2018-01-01

    Cybercrime is one of the most serious threats. Efforts are made to reduce the number of cybercrime is to find new techniques in securing data such as Cryptography, Steganography and Watermarking combination. Cryptography and Steganography is a growing data security science. A combination of Cryptography and Steganography is one effort to improve data integrity. New techniques are used by combining several algorithms, one of which is the incorporation of hill cipher method and Morse code. Morse code is one of the communication codes used in the Scouting field. This code consists of dots and lines. This is a new modern and classic concept to maintain data integrity. The result of the combination of these three methods is expected to generate new algorithms to improve the security of the data, especially images.

  19. [Exploration of acupoint combination and needling techniques in the reinforcing and reducing manipulation at different acupoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing; Sheng, Xiesun; Chen, Feng

    2017-04-12

    The reinforcing and reducing manipulation at different acupoints is a kind of acupuncture manipulations and has satisfactory clinical therapeutic effects, combined with a proper needling techniques. The reinforcing needling method is used in the upper and the reducing one in the lower, the distal acupoints are combined with the nearby acupoints. The local acupoints or adjcant acupoints of the affected area are regarded as the nearby acupoints, e.g. the acupoints in the upper. The distant acupoints and the acupoints on the hand and foot are named as distal acupoints, e.g. the acupoint in the lower. In the reinforcing manipulation, the needle is inserted shallowly along the running direction of meridian. In the reducing manipulation, the needle is inserted deeply and against the running direction of meridian. The yin - yang couple needling technique is used with the combination of the front- mu and back- shu points. In the first option, the reinforcing and reducing needling method with rotating technique is predominated at the front- mu points, while that with lifting and thrusting technique is at the back- shu points. In the second option, when needling the back- shu points, the needling sensation is transmitted along the transverse segment and far to the chest and abdomen. These two kinds of integration of acupoint combination and needling techniques display a certain clinical significance in improving the therapeutic effects of acupuncture.

  20. Effect of platelet-rich plasma and microfracture reparative technique combined in chondral lesions treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Zedde; Sebastiano Cudoni; Pietro Lisai; Mario Fadda; Andrea Fabio Manunta

    2015-01-01

    The microfracture surgery introduced by Stedman despite limitations still represents the most common procedure to repair chondral defects. In recent years other regeneration techniques, such as the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), have been adopted in combination to boost and promote successful outcomes. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and functional results in 60 patients affected by chondral lesions and treated only using the microfracture procedure or in combination with...

  1. Application of nuclear techniques in Poland; Perspektywy wykorzystania atomistyki w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Owczarczyk, A.; Urbanski, P. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Warsaw (Poland); Romanowski, M. [Biuro Studiow i Projektow Techniki Jadrowej `Proatom`, Warsaw (Poland); Stegowski, Z. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, K. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Pachan, A. [Instytut Problemow Jadrowych, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tanczyk, R. [Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, R. [Zaklad Techniki Izotopowej `Polon-Izot`, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial applications of nuclear techniques in Poland have been presented. The special attention have been paid at: radiation technologies, application of radiometric gages in different branches of industry, tracer techniques, production and application of radiation sources in medicine, industry and material testing. 10 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  2. Nuclear-fuel-cycle optimization: methods and modelling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1982-01-01

    This book present methods applicable to analyzing fuel-cycle logistics and optimization as well as in evaluating the economics of different reactor strategies. After an introduction to the phases of a fuel cycle, uranium cost trends are assessed in a global perspective. Subsequent chapters deal with the fuel-cycle problems faced by a power utility. The fuel-cycle models cover the entire cycle from the supply of uranium to the disposition of spent fuel. The chapter headings are: Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Uranium Supply and Demand, Basic Model of the LWR (light water reactor) Fuel Cycle, Resolution of Uncertainties, Assessment of Proliferation Risks, Multigoal Optimization, Generalized Fuel-Cycle Models, Reactor Strategy Calculations, and Interface with Energy Strategies. 47 references, 34 figures, 25 tables

  3. Advanced computer graphics techniques as applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.J.; Koontz, A.S.

    1985-08-01

    Computer graphics is a rapidly advancing technological area in computer science. This is being motivated by increased hardware capability coupled with reduced hardware costs. This paper will cover six topics in computer graphics, with examples forecasting how each of these capabilities could be used in the nuclear industry. These topics are: (1) Image Realism with Surfaces and Transparency; (2) Computer Graphics Motion; (3) Graphics Resolution Issues and Examples; (4) Iconic Interaction; (5) Graphic Workstations; and (6) Data Fusion - illustrating data coming from numerous sources, for display through high dimensional, greater than 3-D, graphics. All topics will be discussed using extensive examples with slides, video tapes, and movies. Illustrations have been omitted from the paper due to the complexity of color reproduction. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Advanced Instrumentation and control techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Makino, Maomi; Naito, Norio

    1992-01-01

    Toshiba has been promoting the development of an advanced instrumentation and control system for nuclear power plants to fulfill the requirements for increased reliability, improved functionality and maintainability, and more competitive economic performance. This system integrates state-of-the-art technologies such as those for the latest man-machine interface, digital processing, optical multiplexing signal transmission, human engineering, and artificial intelligence. Such development has been systematically accomplished based on a schematic view of integrated digital control and instrumentation systems, and the development of whole systems has now been completed. This paper describes the purpose, design philosophy, and contents of newly developed systems, then considers the future trends of advanced man-machine systems. (author)

  5. Reference materials for micro-analytical nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Zeisler, R.; Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Direct application of many existing reference materials in micro-analytical procedures such as energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), particle induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and ion probe techniques for the determination of trace elements is often impossible or difficult because: 1) other constituents present in large amounts interfere with the determination; 2) trace components are not sufficiently homogeneously distributed in the sample. Therefore specific natural-matrix reference materials containing very low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity are required for many micro-analytical procedures. In this report, selection of the types of environmental and biological materials which are suitable for micro-analytical techniques will be discussed. (author)

  6. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Pyrovan, H.; Raoffi, N.J.; Taherpoor, H.

    1985-01-01

    This work is part of project with the IAEA in a coordinated program on 'Trace Elements in Human and Bio-environmental Systems' to evaluate their nutritional requierements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism, etc. Cow's milk is regarded to be one of the most important and most nutritious foodstuffs of mankind. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out: a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of the project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. AAS, PIXE and NAA are presented here. The latter was applied both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is, however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. PIXE analysis is very fast and rather routine, but the technique for trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and improvement. (author)

  7. Hydrological balance of Chicu River basin, using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos P, R.T.; Valderrama B, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis made part of the ARCAL X III Project, referring to the groundwater study en the Bogota Plain (Sabana de Bogota, Colombia). In the Bogota plain, is found located the Chicu River basin, in such basin are located two towns Tabio and Tenjo, in this zone have been taken advantage the groundwater in the last years. The objective of this work was determined by means of isotopic techniques, the determination of the groundwater origin and its quality using physical and chemical parameters

  8. Nuclear techniques for the determination of protein content in plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    Elemental analysis for nitrogen has gained in importance over the last decade, as protein improvement and protein control in food and feed has come to be recognized as one of the most promising ways of overcoming deficiencies in food production and distribution. The need for fast and reliable screening methods has stimulated the improvement and automation of classic chemical methods for protein and nitrogen determination and, on the other hand, the development and adaptation of physical and nuclear analysis procedures. After about ten years of work this process has come to a stage where a critical evaluation of the existing methods seems necessary and justified. The present review describes and compares nuclear techniques for nitrogen determination in plant material. These include activation analysis techniques, based on various nuclear reactions, initiated by fast and thermal neutrons, energetic photons, protons, deuterons and α-particles. Other nuclear methods have been applied for nitrogen or protein determination, like ESCA, PIXE, NMR, NQR and Moessbauer spectroscopy, some of which possess good potential as screening methods. Depending on the needs, such as sample size, analysis rate and postulated accuracy, different nuclear techniques may be selected today for nitrogen screening. Some of the techniques discussed have additional potential for carbon or oxygen determination, for measuring depth or lateral N distribution, or for the recognition of the type of chemical N binding. Though most if not all techniques need further development for routine application, they are able to compete with chemical techniques in cost, rate and accuracy. (author)

  9. Use of nuclear technique in samples for agricultural purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley A. P. de; Sperling, Eduardo Von, E-mail: kerley@ufmg.br, E-mail: kerleyfisica@yahoo.com.br [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Menezes, Maria Angela B. C.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The concern related to environment is growing. Due to this, it is needed to determine chemical elements in a large range of concentration. The neutron activation technique (NAA) determines the elemental composition by the measurement of artificial radioactivity in a sample that was submitted to a neutron flux. NAA is a sensitive and accurate technique with low detection limits. An example of application of NAA was the measurement of concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in waste samples of phosphogypsum (PG) and cerrado soil samples (clayey and sandy soils). Additionally, a soil reference material of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also analyzed. The REE concentration in PG samples was two times higher than those found in national fertilizers, (total of 4,000 mg kg{sup -1}), 154 times greater than the values found in the sandy soil (26 mg kg{sup -1}) and 14 times greater than the in clayey soil (280 mg kg{sup -1}). The experimental results for the reference material were inside the uncertainty of the certified values pointing out the accuracy of the method (95%). The determination of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in the samples and reference material confirmed the versatility of the technique on REE determination in soil and phosphogypsum samples that are matrices for agricultural interest. (author)

  10. Use of nuclear technique in samples for agricultural purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Kerley A. P. de; Sperling, Eduardo Von; Menezes, Maria Angela B. C.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The concern related to environment is growing. Due to this, it is needed to determine chemical elements in a large range of concentration. The neutron activation technique (NAA) determines the elemental composition by the measurement of artificial radioactivity in a sample that was submitted to a neutron flux. NAA is a sensitive and accurate technique with low detection limits. An example of application of NAA was the measurement of concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in waste samples of phosphogypsum (PG) and cerrado soil samples (clayey and sandy soils). Additionally, a soil reference material of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also analyzed. The REE concentration in PG samples was two times higher than those found in national fertilizers, (total of 4,000 mg kg -1 ), 154 times greater than the values found in the sandy soil (26 mg kg -1 ) and 14 times greater than the in clayey soil (280 mg kg -1 ). The experimental results for the reference material were inside the uncertainty of the certified values pointing out the accuracy of the method (95%). The determination of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in the samples and reference material confirmed the versatility of the technique on REE determination in soil and phosphogypsum samples that are matrices for agricultural interest. (author)

  11. Nuclear analytical techniques with neutron beams at the Univ. of Texas at Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenlue, K.; Wehring, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron beams produced by nuclear research reactors can be used for analytical chemical analysis by measuring nuclear radiation produced by neutron capture. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) are two such analytical techniques. For the last three decades, these techniques have been applied at a number of research reactors around the world. Within the last 4 yr, we have developed NDP and PGAA facilities at The University of Texas at Austin research reactor, a 1-MW TRIGA Mark II reactor. Brief descriptions of the facilities and summaries of activities for these analytical techniques at the University of Texas at Austin are provided in this paper

  12. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the main, general-perspective themes of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's leadership and long and varied work are: the effect of present and future nuclear energy projects on society, not only in the United States but throughout the world; analysis, comparison, and combination of various sources of energy; extensive multiple use of nuclear energy complexes (so-called NUPLEX, for nuclear complex) for various areas of the world; and use of ''Big Technology'' and ''Big Science'' for solving, or helping to solve, political problems. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production is discussed, as well as two other energy-related engineering projects. Some of the projects originated or were inspired by work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the leadership of Dr. Alvin Weinberg. Also reported are the technical characteristics and interrelationships of the three components of the envisaged hydronuclear-solar project

  13. Planting on the slope of Yangjiang nuclear power plant by spraying combined materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ning

    2010-01-01

    During the development and construction of nuclear power projects, in order to prevent ecological degradation and soil erosion of slope hazards, taking practical measures in the works or plant is particularly important. through the main high slope green field application of Yangjiang nuclear power plant, introducing mixed vegetation spraying techniques and characteristics of the construction process, for similar projects it is also a good guide. (author)

  14. Status and trends in nuclear techniques in the mineral industry in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Rao, S.M.; Murthy, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    The status and use of nuclear techniques in the various parts of the mineral industry in India are reviewed. The techniques and applications include nucleonic level control in ore hoppers; radiometric density gauges; coal ash monitoring using x-ray backscattering; mineral analysis by x-ray fluorescence and radioisotope analysis; neutron and gamma logging of oil wells; radiotracer techniques in bauxite processing and in the oil industry. (UK)

  15. 76 FR 79228 - Combined Licenses at William States Lee III Nuclear Station Site, Units 1 and 2; Duke Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-018 and 52-019; NRC-2008-0170] Combined Licenses at William States Lee III Nuclear Station Site, Units 1 and 2; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Army Corps...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant...

  17. Application of Nuclear Techniques in Industry and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masinza, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Major radiotracer techniques are now in routine service industry to optimize processes, solve problems improve product quality, save energy and reduction pollution. The benefit to cost ratios of radiotracers, sealed sources and nucleonic gauges applications are considerably high; between 10:1 and 4000:1. The number of services for troubleshooting carried out worldwide per year is in excess of tens of thousands (out of them greater than 5000 are gamma scans). The number of nucleonic gauges worldwide could be estimated to be greater that 250,000 (Author)

  18. Testing of reactor fuel materials using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The tests presented here apply to: the quantitative determination of uranium in the core of fuel element plates by the detection of the number of neutrons produced in photo induced reactions in uranium; the determination of 235 U proportion in uranium dioxide samples, in the form of uranyl nitrate, by the technique of the detection of tracks produced by fission fragments and in pellet samples by passive gamma spectrometry and the checking of uranium homogenization distribution in fuel plates and uranium dioxide pellets. (Author) [pt

  19. Pulse Sign Separation Technique for the Received Bits in Wireless Ultra-Wideband Combination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A. Fayadh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When receiving high data rate in ultra-wideband (UWB technology, many users have experienced multiple-user interference and intersymbol interference in the multipath reception technique. Structures have been proposed for implementing rake receivers to enhance their capabilities by reducing the bit error probability (Pe, thereby providing better performances by indoor and outdoor multipath receivers. As a result, several rake structures have been proposed in the past to reduce the number of resolvable paths that must be estimated and combined. To achieve this aim, we suggest two maximal ratio combiners based on the pulse sign separation technique, such as the pulse sign separation selective combiner (PSS-SC and the pulse sign separation partial combiner (PSS-PC to reduce complexity with fewer fingers and to improve the system performance. In the combiners, a comparator was added to compare the positive quantity of positive pulses and negative quantities of negative pulses to decide whether the transmitted bit was 1 or 0. The Pe was driven by simulation for multipath environments for impulse radio time-hopping binary phase shift keying (TH-BPSK modulation, and the results were compared with those of conventional selective combiners (C-SCs and conventional partial combiners (C-PCs.

  20. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  1. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''trace elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk is regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is very fast and rather routine, the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments.

  2. Minilaparoscopic technique for inguinal hernia repair combining transabdominal pre-peritoneal and totally extraperitoneal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo L; Loureiro, Marcelo P; Bonin, Eduardo A; Claus, Christiano P; Silva, Frederico W; Cury, Antonio M; Fernandes, Flavio A M

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic surgical repair of inguinal hernia is currently conducted using 2 techniques: the totally extraperitoneal (TEP) and the transabdominal (TAPP) hernia repair. The TEP procedure is technically advantageous, because of the use of no mesh fixation and the elimination of the peritoneal flap, leading to less postoperative pain and faster recovery. The drawback is that TEP is not performed as frequently, because of its complexity and longer learning curve. In this study, we propose a hybrid technique that could potentially become the gold standard of minimally invasive inguinal hernia surgery. This will be achieved by combining established advantages of TEP and TAPP associated with the precision and cosmetics of minilaparoscopy (MINI). Between January and July 2011, 22 patients were admitted for endoscopic inguinal hernia repair. The combined technique was initiated with TAPP inspection and direct visualization of a minilaparoscopic trocar dissection of the preperitoneum space. A10-mm trocar was then placed inside the previously dissected preperitoneal space, using the same umbilical TAPP skin incision. Minilaparoscopic retroperitoneal dissection was completed by TEP, and the surgical procedure was finalized with intraperitoneal review and correction of the preperitoneal work. The minilaparoscopic TEP-TAPP combined approach for inguinal hernia is feasible, safe, and allows a simple endoscopic repair. This is achieved by combining features and advantages of both TAPP and TEP techniques using precise and sophisticated MINI instruments. Minilaparoscopic preperitoneal dissection allows a faster and easier creation of the preperitoneal space for the TEP component of the procedure.

  3. Effect of platelet-rich plasma and microfracture reparative technique combined in chondral lesions treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Zedde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The microfracture surgery introduced by Stedman despite limitations still represents the most common procedure to repair chondral defects. In recent years other regeneration techniques, such as the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, have been adopted in combination to boost and promote successful outcomes. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and functional results in 60 patients affected by chondral lesions and treated only using the microfracture procedure or in combination with intra-articular PRP infiltration. Patients were sub-divided in 2 groups: 30 were treated with microfracture reparative technique and the remaining 30 microfractures were treated with 3 platelet-rich plasma intra-articular injections. All patients were postoperatively evaluated based on the visual along scale, International Knee Documentation Committee, subjective knee function, and Lysholm knee scoring scale. The evaluation results for each follow-up showed an improvement of all evaluation scores compared to the preoperative phase and a variable and progressive deterioration registered at 24, 36 and 48-month follow-up visits, more pronounced in patients treated with microfracture alone. Instead, more successful outcomes in terms of pain symptomatology and functional recovery were reported during all follow-up visits and based on all scoring scales for the 30 patients treated with a combination of both techniques. The combination of the micro fracture reparative technique and the platelet-rich plasma implantation favoured a faster resolution of pain symptomatology and a quicker functional recovery with favourable results maintained over time.

  4. Lifetimes of organic photovoltaics: Combining chemical and physical characterisation techniques to study degradation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, K.; Larsen, N.B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms of a photovoltaic device with an Al/C-60/C-12-PSV/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass geometry was studied using a combination of in-plane physical and chemical analysis techniques: TOF-SIMS, AFM, SEM, interference microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. A comparison was made between...

  5. Combined rock-physical modelling and seismic inversion techniques for characterisation of stacked sandstone reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, Y.; Diephuis, G.; Veenhof, R.; Pringle, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to characterise the Triassic massive stacked sandstone deposits of the Main Buntsandstein Subgroup at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The

  6. Combining Acceleration Techniques for Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, image quality in low-dose computed tomography has been greatly improved by various compressive sensing- (CS-) based reconstruction methods. However, these methods have some disadvantages including high computational cost and slow convergence rate. Many different speed-up techniques for CS-based reconstruction algorithms have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to propose a fast reconstruction framework that combines a CS-based reconstruction algorithm with several speed-up techniques. First, total difference minimization (TDM) was implemented using the soft-threshold filtering (STF). Second, we combined TDM-STF with the ordered subsets transmission (OSTR) algorithm for accelerating the convergence. To further speed up the convergence of the proposed method, we applied the power factor and the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm to OSTR and TDM-STF, respectively. Results obtained from simulation and phantom studies showed that many speed-up techniques could be combined to greatly improve the convergence speed of a CS-based reconstruction algorithm. More importantly, the increased computation time (≤10%) was minor as compared to the acceleration provided by the proposed method. In this paper, we have presented a CS-based reconstruction framework that combines several acceleration techniques. Both simulation and phantom studies provide evidence that the proposed method has the potential to satisfy the requirement of fast image reconstruction in practical CT.

  7. Techniques of the snubber testing in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Sin; Kim, Byung Chul

    1994-05-01

    The performance of PSI/ISI is one of the important inspections which improve the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plant. Therefore, KAERI has performed the inspections for the safety-related piping systems, pressure vessel and support components of NPP by the NDT methods in accordance with the related technical codes and standards. ASME Sec.XI of 1989 requires to perform the visual inspection and functional test of snubbers in accordance with ASME/ANSI OM-Part 4 additionally. Especially, the inspection and functional test of heavy duty hydraulic snubbers attached to the steam generator and RC pump have also been added. The main role of snubbers protects the piping system and pressure vessel from the transient events such as water hammer and earthquake during operation. Throughout the analysis of the status of snubbers in NPP, the snubber failure cases in domestic and foreign countries, the requirements and technical standards of the inspection and test, problems of snubbers in NPP, and snubber reduction program, this report requires to follow the technical codes and standards for the inspection and functional test of snubbers now being insufficient in Korean NPP. As a following action, the safety verification analysis for the reliability of piping systems and components of NPP due to snubber failure causes will be studied, and also the snubber reduction program of NPP will simplify the control and maintenance of the expensive snubbers. The objective of this report is to provide the problems of snubber in Korean NPP and contribute to the integrity assurance of the piping systems and components by the inspection and test of snubbers. 17 figs., 9 tabs., 19 refs. (Author)

  8. Application of nuclear microlocalization techniques to biomedical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.

    1980-10-01

    Ion beams at the Brookhaven 3.5 MV Research Van de Graaff accelerator have been used for elemental analysis and distribution in biomedical samples. Results from several collaborations are presented. Both collimated and uncollimated charged particle beams are used for elemental analysis by measurement of characteristic x-rays (PIXE). A collimated proton beam, using a pinhole collimator (approx. 20 μm) has been used as a particle microprobe in the laboratory ambient. Thick, essentially unprepared, samples can be measured with general elemental sensitivities of 2 H( 3 H,n) 4 He reaction initiated by the triton beam at the accelerator. Alpha particles from the reaction register the deuterium distribution in a plastic track detector. This technique suggests that 3 H may be replaced by the stable isotope 2 H in tracer studies. Studies have included the detection of nonexchangeable 2 H in oocytes and the uptake of deuterated thymidine in blood cells

  9. Life-assessment technique for nuclear power plant cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, B.; Hnat, V.; Placek, V.

    1998-01-01

    The condition of polymer-based cable material can be best characterized by measuring elongation at break of its insulating materials. However, it is not often possible to take sufficiently large samples for measurement with the tensile testing machine. The problem has been conveniently solved by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry technique. From the tested cable, several microsamples are taken and the oxidation induction time (OIT) is determined. For each cable which is subject to the assessment of the lifetime, the correlation of OIT with elongation at break and the correlation of elongation at break with the cable service time has to be performed. A reliable assessment of the cable lifetime depends on accuracy of these correlations. Consequently, synergistic effects well known at this time - dose rate effects and effects resulting from the different sequence of applying radiation and elevated temperature must be taken into account

  10. Nuclear techniques for food and agricultural development: 1964-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Vose, P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades

  11. Protection of the cultural environment by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1982-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation in the preservation of the cultural environment, and in particular art objects, is examined. In each branch, the present status of research on, and its application to, the treatment of art objects is described. Two major applications - disinfection and consolidation - are reviewed: (1) Disinfection: The destruction by gamma irradiation of xylophagous insects and of fungi which contaminate paintings, pictorial documents and mummies, is discussed. The effect of gamma-rays on the constituent materials of the infected objects is examined. (2) Consolidation: this process represents an extrapolation to the preservation of cultural objects of research performed over the last 20 years with the aim of improving the mechanical properties of porous materials (by impregnation of the material in a vacuum by a liquid plastic substance which is polymerized by radiation in situ). This technique is currently being used to treat ''uncoated'' wooden objects and, to a more limited extent, ''coated'' wood (polychromy and gilt wood), depending on the fragility of the covering. With regard to stone materials, the enhancement of the mechanical properties of a limestone impregnated with a styrene-polyester resin is described; this resin has been used to treat several sculptures. The use of acrylics and methacrylics has caused some samples to crack during radiation polymerization; theories put forward to explain this phenomenon are discussed. The consolidation of terracotta and bone has also been studied. The consolidation of waterlogged wood (archaeological wood) requires a different impregnation technique (diffusion in liquid). This preservation method has already been used to treat archaeological artifacts. (author)

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle cost analysis using a probabilistic simulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Il Ko; Jong, Won Choi; Chul, Hyung Kang; Jae, Sol Lee; Kun, Jai Lee

    1998-01-01

    A simple approach was described to incorporate the Monte Carlo simulation technique into a fuel cycle cost estimate. As a case study, the once-through and recycle fuel cycle options were tested with some alternatives (ie. the change of distribution type for input parameters), and the simulation results were compared with the values calculated by a deterministic method. A three-estimate approach was used for converting cost inputs into the statistical parameters of assumed probabilistic distributions. It was indicated that the Monte Carlo simulation by a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique and subsequent sensitivity analyses were useful for examining uncertainty propagation of fuel cycle costs, and could more efficiently provide information to decisions makers than a deterministic method. It was shown from the change of distribution types of input parameters that the values calculated by the deterministic method were set around a 40 th ∼ 50 th percentile of the output distribution function calculated by probabilistic simulation. Assuming lognormal distribution of inputs, however, the values calculated by the deterministic method were set around an 85 th percentile of the output distribution function calculated by probabilistic simulation. It was also indicated from the results of the sensitivity analysis that the front-end components were generally more sensitive than the back-end components, of which the uranium purchase cost was the most important factor of all. It showed, also, that the discount rate made many contributions to the fuel cycle cost, showing the rank of third or fifth of all components. The results of this study could be useful in applications to another options, such as the Dcp (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In Candu reactors) cycle with high cost uncertainty

  13. Air Pollution in Shanghai Studied by Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Tan, M.; Chen, J.; Jin, C.; Lin, J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper PIXE, μ-PIXE, XAFS, Moessbauer effect and radioisotope labelling method are briefly introduced. Those methods were used to study the pollution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai. The speciation of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the PM10 and PM2.5 and different character of vehicle exhausted particles from other emission sources were studied. Source apportionment of the atmospheric lead was calculated with a combined method of lead isotope ratios and lead mass balance, along with μ-PIXE analysis of single particles and pattern recognition of the spectra. The fabricated ultrafine particles to simulate aerosol particle was used to study the translocation from alveolus into circulation across the air blood barrier

  14. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2012-01-01

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response.

  15. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2012-07-01

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Materials of All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection is cyclic (in 3 year period) conference being a broad review of state of art and development of all nuclear branches cooperated with industry and other branches of national economy and public life in Poland. The conference has been divided in one plenary session and 8 problem sessions as follow: Radiation technologies of flue gas purification; radiation technologies in food and cosmetic industry; application of nuclear techniques in environmental studies and earth science; radiometric methods in material engineering; isotope tracers in biological studies and medical diagnostics; radiometric industrial measuring systems; radiation detectors and device; nuclear methods in cultural objects examination. The poster section as well as small exhibition have been also organised

  17. Harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the particular strengths of nuclear methods is in analytical quality assurance, including the validation of analytical methods and the development of new analytical reference materials. These methodologies are therefore helping to harmonize the data produced not only by nuclear techniques themselves, but also by other non-nuclear methods of analysis. The aim of this symposium was to provide an international forum for discussion of these topics. Its programme covered a wide variety of applications of nuclear (and related) analytical techniques (mainly neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive X ray fluorescence, particle induced X ray emission and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as used in the study of air particulates, solid waste products, sediments, food, water, human tissues, biomonitors and other kinds of environmental samples

  18. State of the art report: Underwater examination techniques for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    In these days, much efforts are being put to increase the final discharge burnup of PWR fuels. Therefore, the necessity of the inspection of irradiated nuclear fuels assembly during the the refueling outage is greatly increased to evaluate the safe operation and soundness of fuel assemblies in their next cycles in core, and apply the results for safe operation and effective core management. The necessity to evaluate the irradiation performance of indigenous nuclear fuels pushes the relative researchers to the development of on-site fuel inspection techniques and devices which can perform the underwater inspection and measurement of irradiated nuclear fuels during refueling outage. To ensure the technologies, the status of in situ underwater fuel inspection techniques and equipment were investigated and reviewed. Those information provides the fuel inspection capability to evaluate and certificate the performance and integrity of nuclear fuels which leads to the safe operation of NPP. (author). 49 refs., 52 figs

  19. Nonlinear analysis techniques of block masonry walls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.A.; Harris, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Concrete masonry walls have been used extensively in nuclear power plants as non-load bearing partitions serving as pipe supports, fire walls, radiation shielding barriers, and similar heavy construction separations. When subjected to earthquake loads, these walls should maintain their structural integrity. However, some of the walls do not meet design requirements based on working stress allowables. Consequently, utilities have used non-linear analysis techniques, such as the arching theory and the energy balance technique, to qualify such walls. This paper presents a critical review of the applicability of non-linear analysis techniques for both unreinforced and reinforced block masonry walls under seismic loading. These techniques are critically assessed in light of the performance of walls from limited available test data. It is concluded that additional test data are needed to justify the use of nonlinear analysis techniques to qualify block walls in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  20. Application of ultrasonic phased array technique for inspection of stud bolts in nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Ho; Park, Min Su; Cho, Youn Ho; Park, Moon Ho

    2004-01-01

    The stud bolt is one of crucial parts for safety of reactor vessels in nuclear power plants. Cracks initiation and propagation were reported in stud bolts using closure of reactor vessel and head. Stud bolts are inspected by ultrasonic technique during overhaul periodically for the prevention of stud bolt failure and radioactive leakage from nuclear reactor. In conventional ultrasonic testing for inspection of stud bolts, crack was detected by using shadow effect. It take too much time to inspect stud bolt by using conventional ultrasonic technique. In addition, there were numerous spurious signal reflected from every thread. In this study, the advanced ultrasonic phased array technique was introduced for inspect stud bolts. The phased array technique provide fast inspection and high detectability of defects. There are sector scanning and linear scanning method in phased array technique, and these scanning methods were applied to inspect stud bolt and detectability was investigated.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Surrogate Glasses Aimed to Validate Nuclear Forensic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the glass formed during a nuclear event, trinitite [14]. The SiO2 composition is generally greater than 50% for trinitite and can vary appreciably...CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO VALIDATE NUCLEAR FORENSIC TECHNIQUES by Ken G. Foos December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Claudia...December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO

  2. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  3. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  4. Application of nuclear microlocalization techniques to biomedical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.

    1980-10-01

    Ion beams at the Brookhaven 3.5 MV Research Van de Graaff accelerator have been used for elemental analysis and distribution in biomedical samples. Results from several collaborations are presented. Both collimated and uncollimated charged particle beams are used for elemental analysis by measurement of characteristic x-rays (PIXE). A collimated proton beam, using a pinhole collimator (approx. 20 ..mu..m) has been used as a particle microprobe in the laboratory ambient. Thick, essentially unprepared, samples can be measured with general elemental sensitivities of < 10 ppM. The spatial resolution and elemental sensitivity have proven adequate for many samples of tissue secthons and cell clusters. Specimen damage by charged particle beams is discussed and results of cell irradiations by triton beams are presented. Deuterium localization has been carried out in cell uptake studies using the /sup 2/H(/sup 3/H,n)/sup 4/He reaction initiated by the triton beam at the accelerator. Alpha particles from the reaction register the deuterium distribution in a plastic track detector. This technique suggests that /sup 3/H may be replaced by the stable isotope /sup 2/H in tracer studies. Studies have included the detection of nonexchangeable /sup 2/H in oocytes and the uptake of deuterated thymidine in blood cells.

  5. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelhaphunt, N.; Chueinta, W.

    1994-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry are used in a study of the concentrations of Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, V, Zn and Pb in airborne particulate matter collected from 7 permanent and 9 temporary air quality monitoring stations. The location of the stations are urban residential, suburban residential, mixed (commercial and residential), commercial and industrial areas and near major roads in Bangkok Metropolitan areas. Air sampling is performed once a month for 24 hours continuously using the high volume air sampler (GMW 2000 H) and for 5, 10, and 15 days continuously using an Anderson Air Sampler (SIBATA AN-200). The elements As, Cd and Cu are determined destructively using ion exchange chromatography while Hg and Se are determined by the dry combustion technique. The determination of Pb was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of Pb concentrations in airborne particulate matters, collected during 1987 to 1991, were reported by the Office of the National Environment Board. Levels of Pb content were found to be lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  6. Safeguarding crop plant production with the aid of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The international symposium on induced mutations was organized jointly by IAEA, FAO and the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA). The participants discussed primarily the methodology and problems related to the use of radiation and tracer techniques for breeding crop varieties with improved disease resistance. Scientists from 41 countries and international organizations participated. But not only were problems, methodology and various approaches discussed, some scientists were able to report positive and practically useful results. Rice mutants with better resistance against blast, leaf blight and sclerotic disease were reported (India, Japan, Korea, France). Improved tolerance to septoria in wheat and to crown rust in oats has been found (Switzerland, USA) and convincing evidence was given that non-specific, medium-level resistance to mildew can be induced in barley (FRG). A potato mutant resistant to wart disease was found in the USSR, and a wheat mutant with improved resistance to stem and stripe rust has been released to farmers in Greece. Among the economically important positive results is the selection of spearmint resistant to Verticillium wilt. (USA). This success follows a similar one in peppermint achieved several years ago, which now represents a gain of about one million dollars per year to growers in the USA

  7. The role of nuclear techniques in the control of agricultural pests and stored grains insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture in general, and pest control specifically, are very numerous. Although this field of science is over a century old, its rapid developments occurred only in the last few decades. In fact, the contribution of nuclear techniques to insect pest control during the last half century is one of the most important developments in this science. This article is devoted to discuss the most important and widely used applications of nuclear techniques, particularly ionizing radiation, in insect pest control. In particular, it deals with the subject of sterilizing insects for the purpose of insect pest control and/or eradication in the field and storage, irradiation disinfestation of sorted products, particularly cereals and pulses, facilitating international trade by avoiding quarantine barriers and its role in biological control of insect pests. (author)

  8. Nuclear Techniques for Coronary Heart Disease Therapy after Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila-Z

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear techniques studies of the heart represent one of the fastest growing areas of research. Several years ago, nuclear medicine cardiac studies were limited for the evaluation and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Development in radiopharmaceutical-chemistry and instrumentation have made possible advances in nuclear medicine for restenosis cardiovascular therapy after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.The radionuclide as radiation source can be delivered to the target basically by two techniques, those are catheter-based systems and radioactive stents. For this purpose,it can be use the γ and β emitter radionuclides, in which the β emitter radionuclides is an ideal radionuclide for endovascular therapy. Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty can be prevented by using the radioactive stent. This review discusses several techniques which could be used for restenosis cardiovascular therapy. Furthermore, several types of radiopharmaceutical and kinds of radionuclides as well as doses of the compounds for this purpose are also reviewed. (author)

  9. Development of programming techniques for behaviors of nuclear robot in real environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Hirukawa, Hirohisa; Kitagaki, Kosei; Onda, Hiromu; Nakamura, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of synthetic autonomous technique on nuclear robot for a basic technique to realize remote control and automation of works in a nuclear plant by means of development on action programming function under actual environment. Before 1997 fiscal year, development of manipulation description system due to contact state transition series, development of mechanical assembly work instruction system using contact actuating system, development of new manipulator system with excellent controllability, development of quasi contact point monitoring method, and development of environmental model construction method using range finder and instruction tree, had been conducted. In 1997 fiscal year, probability of nuclear robot, on synthetic autonomous technique was shown by synthesis of many results on action programming planning function into a prototype system under an actual environment obtained by those developments. (G.K.)

  10. Calculational techniques for estimating population doses from radioactivity in natural gas from nuclearly stimulated wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Moore, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for estimating radiation doses from exposure to combustion products of natural gas obtained from wells created by use of nuclear explosives were first developed in the Gasbuggy Project. These techniques were refined and extended by development of a number of computer codes in studies related to the Rulison Project, the second in the series of joint government-industry efforts to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing natural gas production from low-permeability rock formations by use of nuclear explosives. These techniques are described and dose estimates that illustrate their use are given. These dose estimation studies have been primarily theoretical, but we have tried to make our hypothetical exposure conditions correspond as closely as possible with conditions that could exist if nuclearly stimulated natural gas is used commercially. (author)

  11. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Saerom Yoon; Sungyeol Choi; Wonil Ko

    2017-01-01

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-makin...

  12. Characterization of PE-g-HEMA films prepared by gamma irradiation through nuclear microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.M.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Falcao, A.N.; Leal, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The functional success of a copolymer as biomaterial depends fundamentally on their mechanical properties (stemming from the material matrix) and on the characteristics of its surface. For biomedical applications, among all the other important properties, the biocompatibility of the surface acquires extreme importance and can dictate its rejection. One of the issues regarding biocompatibility is cytotoxicity which strongly depends on the contamination level at surface. Ion beam analysis techniques associated to Nuclear Microprobe (PIXE, RBS and STIM) allows a rigorous and precise analysis of the concentration (ppm) and distribution of elements contamination, and may also provide information on its near-surface structure. In this work PE-g-HEMA films with different grafting yields were prepared by mutual gamma irradiation at a 60 Co source and were analyzed through nuclear microprobe. Data collected allowed the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of contaminants distribution observed in the different samples as well as the clarification of some processes occurred during the copolymerization reaction. Qualitative analysis showed a random and no homogeneous distribution of the contaminant elements, independent of the grafting degree, suggesting the existence of several sources of contamination at different stages of their preparation. Results also suggest that this 'phased' contamination occurs simultaneously with mechanisms of agglomeration/entrapment of impurities during the gamma induced copolymerization reaction. Moreover, quantitative data showed that all contaminants found in the copolymeric films are natural contaminants of their reagents of preparation, although at concentrations without toxicological hazard, which points to a low cytotoxic potential. The combined analysis of these data with data from SEM and AFM allowed a better understanding of the surface structure and other properties already observed in these

  13. Application of nuclear techniques in agriculture and medicine: the TRNC experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senvar, C.; Korkut, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    As a small island State in the Eastern corner of the Mediterranean, better known for its potential in academia and tourism, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) is not a country which produces or uses nuclear energy. Nevertheless, in order to safeguard against the biological effects of radiation, the TRNC benefits from nuclear sciences and techniques. In order to ensure the safety of agricultural produce, apart from utilizing nuclear medicine and Co60 (cobalt 60) therapy and similar applications, gamma spectrometric measurements are also undertaken by the State Laboratories which is attached to the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Similar techniques are used to measure radioactive content in environmental (sea water, soil, rocks, etc.) samples. All facilities in the TRNC which utilize nuclear agents in the field of medicine, including the X-Ray Screening centers, are subject to control and supervision in accordance with relevant regulations and waste disposal is carried out in cooperation with the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK). Just as nuclear techniques can be used for peaceful purposes in such fields as agriculture, control of food-borne diseases, medicine and industry, it can also be abused. In awareness of the global threat of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources and given its geo-strategic location at the crossroads of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, the TRNC has taken all the necessary measures, within the context of combating terrorism, to prevent illicit trafficking as such

  14. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  15. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan

    2001-01-01

    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  16. Materials of All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection is cyclic (in 3 year period) conference being a broad review of state of art and development of all nuclear branches cooperated with industry and other branches of national economy and public life in Poland. The conference has been divided in one plenary session and 6 problem sessions as follow: Environmental protection, earth sciences, protection of cultural objects; Industrial applications; applications in medicine, medical apparatus; measurement methods, simulations, experiment planning; radiation techniques; laboratories, metrology

  17. The selection of probabilistic safety assessment techniques for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, J.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology of choice is the well known event tree/fault tree inductive technique. For reactor facilities is has stood the test of time. Some non-reactor nuclear facilities have found inductive methodologies difficult to apply. The stand-alone fault tree deductive technique has been used effectively to analyze risk in nuclear chemical processing facilities and waste handling facilities. The selection between the two choices suggest benefits from use of the deductive method for non-reactor facilities

  18. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan [Sichuan Province Institute of Nuclear Technology Application, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2001-03-01

    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  19. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon

  20. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  1. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  2. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  3. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ''Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed

  4. A comparison of LOD and UT1-UTC forecasts by different combined prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, W.; Kalarus, M.; Johnson, T. J.; Wooden, W. H.; McCarthy, D. D.; Popiński, W.

    Stochastic prediction techniques including autocovariance, autoregressive, autoregressive moving average, and neural networks were applied to the UT1-UTC and Length of Day (LOD) International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Servive (IERS) EOPC04 time series to evaluate the capabilities of each method. All known effects such as leap seconds and solid Earth zonal tides were first removed from the observed values of UT1-UTC and LOD. Two combination procedures were applied to predict the resulting LODR time series: 1) the combination of the least-squares (LS) extrapolation with a stochastic predition method, and 2) the combination of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) filtering and a stochastic prediction method. The results of the combination of the LS extrapolation with different stochastic prediction techniques were compared with the results of the UT1-UTC prediction method currently used by the IERS Rapid Service/Prediction Centre (RS/PC). It was found that the prediction accuracy depends on the starting prediction epochs, and for the combined forecast methods, the mean prediction errors for 1 to about 70 days in the future are of the same order as those of the method used by the IERS RS/PC.

  5. Combined use of ultrasonic liposuction with the pull-through technique for the treatment of gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Dennis C; Arnold, Jame F; Simon, Amy M; Capraro, Philippe A

    2003-09-01

    The authors present a method of treatment for gynecomastia that combines the use of two techniques of soft-tissue contouring. This method uses ultrasonic liposuction in conjunction with the pull-through technique of direct excision to effectively remove the fibrofatty tissue of the male breast and the fibrous breast bud through a single 1-cm incision. Fifteen patients were treated in this fashion, and each patient demonstrated a smooth, masculine breast contour with a well-concealed scar, which eliminates the stigma of breast surgery. The procedure is technically straightforward and provides consistent results. It is offered as an additional option for the treatment of gynecomastia.

  6. Passive and active correlation techniques for the detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyglun, Clement; Carasco, Cedric; Perot, Bertrand; Eleon, Cyrille; Sannie, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenole; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against CBRN-E threats, CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique (APT). Coincidences including at least 3 fission neutrons or gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons are used to detect and distinguish SNM from benign materials in which lower multiplicity events of 1 or 2 particles are produced by (n, 2n) or (n, n'γ) reactions. Coincidence are detected by fast plastic scintillators and correlated with tagged neutrons to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Dedicated data acquisition electronics (DAQ) has been developed with independent FPGA cards associated to each detector, so that the acquisition window can be opened by any of the plastic scintillators. DAQ tests in passive mode are presented, in which acquisition is triggered by the sum signal of all detectors. The system time and energy calibration and resolution are reported, as well as the qualification of numerical simulations thanks to experimental data acquired with simple setups using a 252 Cf source. Numerical studies for the design and performance of cargo container inspection are also performed with the MCNP-PoliMi computer code and the ROOT data analysis package. SNM detection in iron cargo is quite straightforward but in organic matrix, data processing will need to combine more information to evidence SNM. (authors)

  7. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Abdul Ghani, B.; Ahmad, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations. - Highlights: • Apply fuzzy analysis technique on the nuclear and electrical well logging data of Kodana well in Southern Syria. • Determine and differentiate between four kinds of basalt. • Establish the lithological section of the studied well.

  8. Simplification of Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer by Application of a Zona-Free Manipulation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian; Reipurth, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods. The techni......Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods....... The technique comprises the bisection of zona-free oocytes and the reconstruction of embryos comprising two half cytoplasts and a somatic cell by adherence using phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA) followed by an electropulse and subsequent culture in microwells (termed WOWs--well of the well). The development......-intact zygotes were not different in either blastocyst yield (44.6 +/- 2.4% versus 51.8 +/- 13.5% [mean +/- SEM]) or quality (126.3 +/- 48.4 versus 119.9 +/- 32.6 total cells), and exposure of zygotes to PHA-P did not reduce blastocyst yields compared to vehicle control (40.8 +/- 11.6% versus 47.1 +/- 20...

  9. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations

  10. A Dataset and a Technique for Generalized Nuclear Segmentation for Computational Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Verma, Ruchika; Sharma, Sanuj; Bhargava, Surabhi; Vahadane, Abhishek; Sethi, Amit

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear segmentation in digital microscopic tissue images can enable extraction of high-quality features for nuclear morphometrics and other analysis in computational pathology. Conventional image processing techniques, such as Otsu thresholding and watershed segmentation, do not work effectively on challenging cases, such as chromatin-sparse and crowded nuclei. In contrast, machine learning-based segmentation can generalize across various nuclear appearances. However, training machine learning algorithms requires data sets of images, in which a vast number of nuclei have been annotated. Publicly accessible and annotated data sets, along with widely agreed upon metrics to compare techniques, have catalyzed tremendous innovation and progress on other image classification problems, particularly in object recognition. Inspired by their success, we introduce a large publicly accessible data set of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue images with more than 21000 painstakingly annotated nuclear boundaries, whose quality was validated by a medical doctor. Because our data set is taken from multiple hospitals and includes a diversity of nuclear appearances from several patients, disease states, and organs, techniques trained on it are likely to generalize well and work right out-of-the-box on other H&E-stained images. We also propose a new metric to evaluate nuclear segmentation results that penalizes object- and pixel-level errors in a unified manner, unlike previous metrics that penalize only one type of error. We also propose a segmentation technique based on deep learning that lays a special emphasis on identifying the nuclear boundaries, including those between the touching or overlapping nuclei, and works well on a diverse set of test images.

  11. Virtual reality techniques in the aid to population awareness around a nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Erica Cotelli; Mól, Antônio Carlos A.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Machado, Daniel Mol; Chelles, Daniel; Santo, André C. E.; Legey, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear energy has proved to be an extremely important source of energy for today's society. However, these achievements, even present in people's daily lives, often go unnoticed and suffer rejection by the same society that enjoys such contributions. Rejection, mainly due to the lack of information. In this context, this work used Virtual Reality technology to inform and make the population aware of the benefits and disadvantages of nuclear energy. For this purpose, an interactive virtual environment was produced that allowed the exploration of a nuclear waste repository. Subsequently, an educational video was developed to provide end-user information support. Finally, an educational game was also created with the aim of raising public awareness and demystifying the nuclear area by bringing knowledge, in a clear and engaging way, to the population around a nuclear repository. The developed environment allowed the user to walk through the virtual representation of the reject repository, and also enabled the creation of a video capable of transmitting the initial information and improving the spatial comprehension of the model as a whole. In conclusion, the tool developed in the present work has the capacity to assist in the production of nuclear projects before even entering the construction phase. In addition, it is possible to apply this technique to inform the population about the nuclear practices that will be applied, providing a greater involvement of the people and, consequently, a better assimilation of knowledge about nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Virtual reality techniques in the aid to population awareness around a nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Erica Cotelli; Mól, Antônio Carlos A.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Machado, Daniel Mol; Chelles, Daniel, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: Erica.cotelli.2017@gmail.com, E-mail: machado.mol@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santo, André C. E.; Legey, Ana Paula, E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com [Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear energy has proved to be an extremely important source of energy for today's society. However, these achievements, even present in people's daily lives, often go unnoticed and suffer rejection by the same society that enjoys such contributions. Rejection, mainly due to the lack of information. In this context, this work used Virtual Reality technology to inform and make the population aware of the benefits and disadvantages of nuclear energy. For this purpose, an interactive virtual environment was produced that allowed the exploration of a nuclear waste repository. Subsequently, an educational video was developed to provide end-user information support. Finally, an educational game was also created with the aim of raising public awareness and demystifying the nuclear area by bringing knowledge, in a clear and engaging way, to the population around a nuclear repository. The developed environment allowed the user to walk through the virtual representation of the reject repository, and also enabled the creation of a video capable of transmitting the initial information and improving the spatial comprehension of the model as a whole. In conclusion, the tool developed in the present work has the capacity to assist in the production of nuclear projects before even entering the construction phase. In addition, it is possible to apply this technique to inform the population about the nuclear practices that will be applied, providing a greater involvement of the people and, consequently, a better assimilation of knowledge about nuclear energy. (author)

  13. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  14. Measurement and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plutonium and uranium particulates released from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of this work has been an analysis and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of measurement and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plutonium and uranium particulates released from nuclear facilities. The occurrence of plutonium and uranium in the nuclear fuel cycle, the corresponding potential for releases, associated radiological protection standards and monitoring objectives are discussed. Techniques for monitoring via decay radiation from plutonium and uranium isotopes are presented in detail, emphasizing air monitoring, but also including soil sampling and survey methods. Additionally, activation and mass measurement techniques are discussed. The availability and prevalence of these various techniques are summarized. Finally, possible improvements in monitoring capabilities due to alterations in instrumentation, data analysis, or programs are presented

  15. On-line Monitoring and Calibration Techniques in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Years of research, testing and experience in the field of sensor diagnostics have yielded many technologies which offer financial as well as operational benefits to the nuclear industry. Among these technologies are On-Line Monitoring (OLM) and On-Line Calibration of critical process monitoring sensors such as resistance temperature detectors (RTD), thermocouples, and pressure transmitters to name a few. The remote access and verification of these sensors have been shown to limit the exposure of maintenance personnel to harsh environments while at the same time effectively and efficiently diagnosing the health and performance of these sensors. In addition to sensors, technologies exist in determining not only the health of instrumentation and control (I and C) cabling that carries the signals from these sensors, but also these same cable testing techniques can be used in the remote evaluation of many end devices used in safety related operations as well. Given these advances in sensor system monitoring techniques it would seem to follow that nuclear utilities from around the world would be applying these tried and true techniques to optimize up time and to provide additional confidence in the output of processing sensors. However, although several of the world's regulatory bodies have approved of the concept of these techniques, few utilities have undertaken to fully embrace on-line monitoring and on-line calibration of nuclear process sensors. In the United States efforts are now underway, with representatives of the U.S. nuclear industry and nuclear power plant vendors to obtain generic NRC licensing for the use of OLM in nuclear power plants. If approved, generic licensing will help pave the way toward greater implementation of OLM and its related calibration techniques. (author)

  16. Multiple and high-throughput droplet reactions via combination of microsampling technique and microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-11-20

    Microdroplets offer unique compartments for accommodating a large number of chemical and biological reactions in tiny volume with precise control. A major concern in droplet-based microfluidics is the difficulty to address droplets individually and achieve high throughput at the same time. Here, we have combined an improved cartridge sampling technique with a microfluidic chip to perform droplet screenings and aggressive reaction with minimal (nanoliter-scale) reagent consumption. The droplet composition, distance, volume (nanoliter to subnanoliter scale), number, and sequence could be precisely and digitally programmed through the improved sampling technique, while sample evaporation and cross-contamination are effectively eliminated. Our combined device provides a simple model to utilize multiple droplets for various reactions with low reagent consumption and high throughput. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Combined amplification and hybridization techniques for genome scanning in vegetatively propagated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, G; Ramser, J; Terauchi, R [Biocentre, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Lopez-Peralta, C [IRGP, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico, Texcoco (Mexico); Asemota, H N [Biotechnology Centre, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston (Jamaica); Weising, K [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1998-10-01

    A combination of PCR- and hybridization-based genome scanning techniques and sequence comparisons between non-coding chloroplast DNA flanking tRNA genes has been employed to screen Dioscorea species for intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. This methodology detected extensive polymorphisms within Dioscorea bulbifera L., and revealed taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Guinea yams varieties and their potential wild progenitors. Finally, screening of yam germplasm grown in Jamaica permitted reliable discrimination between all major cultivars. Genome scanning by micro satellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in combination with the novel random amplified micro satellite polymorphisms (RAMPO) hybridization technique has shown high potential for the genetic analysis of yams, and holds promise for other vegetatively propagated orphan crops. (author) 46 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Combined amplification and hybridization techniques for genome scanning in vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, G.; Ramser, J.; Terauchi, R.; Lopez-Peralta, C.; Asemota, H.N.; Weising, K.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of PCR- and hybridization-based genome scanning techniques and sequence comparisons between non-coding chloroplast DNA flanking tRNA genes has been employed to screen Dioscorea species for intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. This methodology detected extensive polymorphisms within Dioscorea bulbifera L., and revealed taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Guinea yams varieties and their potential wild progenitors. Finally, screening of yam germplasm grown in Jamaica permitted reliable discrimination between all major cultivars. Genome scanning by micro satellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in combination with the novel random amplified micro satellite polymorphisms (RAMPO) hybridization technique has shown high potential for the genetic analysis of yams, and holds promise for other vegetatively propagated orphan crops. (author)

  19. Determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method in combination with magnetic spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doncel, M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Salamanca (Spain); Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gadea, A. [CSIC-University of Valencia, Istituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Quintana, B. [Universidad de Salamanca, Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Salamanca (Spain); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Mengoni, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Moeller, O.; Pietralla, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Dewald, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The current work presents the determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method, in combination with spectrometers for ion identification, normalizing the intensity of the peaks by the ions detected in the spectrometer as a valid technique that produces results comparable to the ones obtained by the conventional shifted-to-unshifted peak ratio method. The technique has been validated using data measured with the γ-ray array AGATA, the PRISMA spectrometer and the Cologne plunger setup. In this paper a test performed with the AGATA-PRISMA setup at LNL and the advantages of this new approach with respect to the conventional Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Mutation breeding on dueruem wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cereals provide 50 % of protein and calorie essential for nutrition. Cereals contribution to total daily food consumption can go up to 3/4, if their role in animal feeding has also been considered. Of the 41 % of crop plants are cereals and their share in food production is as high as 98 %. Combination of high yielding cultivars and adequate management techniques is primary to increase yield in unit area. Crossing is the most common breeding method to develop new cultivars. Mutation has been important as a direct or complemental technique to crossing in plant breeding. Mutation is an effective method to expand existent gene pools for breeding purposes. It has been proved as a successful and effectual method by widely grown mutant cereal varieties. Considering these successful examples, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center started a durum wheat mutation breeding program in 2002. Main goal of the program is to develop durum wheat lines/varieties with high adaptation to drought and cold, high yield and quality, and short length. Kunduru 1149 has been used as parent cultivar. Kunduru 1149 had 11 % seed moisture content and 98 % germination rate. Seeds were irradiated with 50, 150, 250 Gy of gamma rays from a 6 0Co source and 0,002-0,004 EMS doses of individual and bulk applications for growth rooms and field experiments, respectfully. M1 plants of field experiment had been transplanted to the several field days after the treatment. M2 generation seeds were harvested from fertile spikes of M1 plants and planted to field in the next growing season in 2003. Selections based on the program goals were made throughout M3-M6 generations in 2004-2008. Preliminary field yield trials have been in progress with selected mutant lines of M6 generation based on their quality analysis.

  1. Development of high-sensitivity ultrasonic techniques for in-service inspection of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linzer, M.

    1977-01-01

    The principal objective of the program is to develop techniques to enhance the sensitivity of ultrasonic signals which are below the random noise of the system. A secondary objective is to develop instrumentation for improved discrimination of flaw signals from background ''clutter'' and for characterization of failure-related material properties through measurements of ultrasonic parameters such as velocity and attenuation. The improved techniques will be applied to detect flaws in nuclear reactor materials and components

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a hyphenated technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria

    2003-01-01

    A general overview of the advancements and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) hyphenated with other analytical techniques is given from a practical point of view. Details on the advantages and disadvantages of the hyphenation of NMR with liquid chromatography as LC-NMR and also with mass spectrometry as LC-MS-NMR are demonstrated with two examples. Current developments of NMR with other analytical separation techniques, especially with capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) are discussed

  3. Database 'catalogue of techniques applied to materials and products of nuclear engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, E.E.; Golovanov, V.N.; Podkopayeva, I.A.; Temnoyeva, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The database 'Catalogue of techniques applied to materials and products of nuclear engineering' (IS MERI) was developed to provide informational support for SSC RF RIAR and other enterprises in scientific investigations. This database contains information on the techniques used at RF Minatom enterprises for reactor material properties investigation. The main purpose of this system consists in the assessment of the current status of the reactor material science experimental base for the further planning of experimental activities and methodical support improvement. (author)

  4. ETRAN 2002: Society for Electronics,Telecommunications, Computers, Automation and Nuclear Engineering. Section for Nuclear Techniques and Technology. Proceedings of the XLVI Conference. Vol IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Jaksic, Z.; Bozic, D.; Potkonjak, V.

    2002-01-01

    The XLVI ETRAN Conference of the Society for Electronic, Telecommunications, Computers, Automation and Nuclear Engineering was held on 4-7 June, 2002. In the Proceedings of the Conference The Commission of the Nuclear Technique and Technology has 14 papers presented in three following sessions: 1. Actual problems in nuclear technologies; 2. Accelerator and reactor systems; and 3. Radiation protection and ionizing radiation uses

  5. Combined neutron activation analysis techniques for multiple purposes at Portuguese research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Beasley, D.; Almeida, S.M.; Dionisio, I; Canha, N.H.; Galinha, C.; Marques, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Developments of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques using Compton suppression system (CSS), fast pneumatic irradiation facility (SIPRA), epithermal neutron and automatic sample changers (ASCs) associated with the traditional NAA for trace element determination in various sample types are described with reference to specific conditions at the 1 MW Portuguese research reactor (RPI). Experiences in application of k o -IAEA software for data processing in order to deduce the results are also discussed. A selected number of sample types which are intended to the application in biological and environmental areas as well as industrial and material samples are demonstrated which provide challenges in the irradiation, measurement and the interpretation of data to which in most cases a combined solution should be made. The role that each NAA technique can play in the combined scheme along with their optimized characteristics has been studied and shown. The combined NAA techniques at RPI established for on-going and potential projects as well as analysis service with respect to the element scope (48), typically Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, CI, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, I, In, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Vb, Zn and Zr along with detection limits, accuracies and precision's have been evaluated as a trace analysis method meeting the requirements of the intended applications

  6. Effects of Vinification Techniques Combined with UV-C Irradiation on Phenolic Contents of Red Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaz, Hande; Söylemezoğlu, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    Red wines are typically high in phenolic and antioxidant capacity and both of which can be increased by vinification techniques. This study employed 3 vinification techniques to assess the increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Wines were obtained from Boğazkere grape cultivar by techniques of classical maceration, cold maceration combined with ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, and thermovinification combined with UV irradiation and changes in phenolic contents were examined. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of wines were measured spectrophotometrically and phenolic contents (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and cis-resveratrol were measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). As a result of the study, the highest phenolic content except for quercetin was measured in the wines obtained by thermovinification combined with UV irradiation. We demonstrated that the highest phenolic compounds with health effect, total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity were obtained from thermovinification with UV-C treatment than classical wine making. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Crop improvement for salinity and drought tolerance using nuclear and related techniques (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.; Lagoda, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    complex interactions among the traits involved in tolerance to both drought and salinity, pyramiding using marker-assisted breeding, induced mutation and other biotechnologies, combined with a multidisciplinary approach and the participation of farmers, is likely to provide the best strategy to accelerate the progress towards the development of adapted tolerant crop germplasm. The joint FAO/IAEA division is investing considerable effort in evaluating opportunities for using nuclear and related technologies to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. The division has a long-standing experience in developing and coordinating collaborative research programs (CRP) on abiotic stresses, involving NARs in developing countries, international IARCs and expert scientists. Similarly, several technical cooperation projects (TCP) were carried out on crop improvement for tolerance to drought and salinity, at national, regional and interregional levels. The Soil and Biotechnology laboratories at Seibersdorf also have the experience and facilities for developing, testing and applying new isotope and nuclear-related techniques for the improvement of crop productivity and stress tolerance. An important project is currently being implemented by the joint FAO/IAEA division for the identification and development of crop germplasm with superior resource use efficiency and nutritional value and adapted to harsh environments. Two CRPs have been recently launched under this project dealing respectively with (i) the identification and pyramiding of mutated genes, and novel approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought, and (II) the selection for greater agronomic water-use efficiency in wheat and rice using carbon isotope discrimination under drought and saline environments. This paper will review the recent progress made at the joint FAO/IAEA division in deciphering the complexity of drought and salinity problems and developing drought and salt

  8. Applications of nuclear techniques in agronomy as a contribution to the integral formation of agronomical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez Meireles, Mónica; Hernández Martínez, Asiel; Charbonet Martell, Miguel Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, nuclear research applied to agriculture and food is a reality, and is being supported by institutions like the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Stable and radioactive isotopes are used in different ways in agricultural research mainly in the determination of required conditions to optimize efficiency in the use of fertilizers and water, the development of high yield agricultural and horticultural varieties, reduction of diseases due to contaminated food, and soil erosion studies among others. Accordingly to the study carried out, there is not much knowledge about nuclear phenomena applied to agronomy. Nevertheless there is a positive criterion about the introduction of these topics in Agronomical Engineers education, by mean of implementing an optional subject, aimed at explaining different spheres of action of nuclear techniques in Agriculture. Consequently, it would be possible achieving the linkage of agronomical engineers with the nuclear techniques, though respecting at the same time the professional model of this career. Moreover, it is also proposed to include laboratory practices in the curriculum of this career, using nuclear techniques and showing their proper linkage with Agronomy. (author)

  9. Innovative techniques for image-guided ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Combined ethanol and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, ethanol ablation (EA), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been suggested for cystic and solid thyroid nodules, respectively. Although combining these ablation techniques may be effective, no guidelines for or reviews of the combination have been published. Currently, there are three ways of combining EA and RFA: additional RFA is effective for treatment of incompletely resolved symptoms and solid residual portions of a thyroid nodule after EA. Additional EA can be performed for the residual unablated solid portion of a nodule after RFA if it is adjacent to critical structures (e.g., trachea, esophagus, and recurrent laryngeal nerve). In the concomitant procedure, ethanol is injected to control venous oozing after aspiration of cystic fluid prior to RFA of the remaining solid nodule.

  10. Application of acoustic emission, as non destructive testing technique, to nuclear components inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Miro, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A panorama of actual state of acoustic emission as non destructive testing technique, from stand point of its safety applications to nuclear reactor is offered. In first place the physic grounds of acoustic emission phenomenon is briefly exposed. After we speak about the experimental methods for detection, and overall is made an explanation of the problems which are found during the application of this technology to on-line inspection of nuclear oower plants. It is hoped that this repport makes a contribution in the sense of to create a favourable atmosphere toward the introduction in our country of this important technique, and concretely within the nuclear power industry. In this last field the employ of acoustic emission is overcoming the experimental stage. (author)

  11. Proceedings of Fifth International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques NURT 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The Cd-Rom presents papers submitted to the Fifth International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques NURT 2006 held in Havana, Cuba, on April, 2006. The NURT Symposia are one of the key Cuban scientific meetings dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in all domains of the society. They are arranged with a two-year frequency and provide a unique opportunity for the international scientific community to meet outstanding researches and to discuss current trends and task in several areas of applied, nuclear related topics. The first editions of the NURT were organized under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1997, 1999, 200, 2003 and hosted delegates and invited scientific from more than 40 countries from all over the world. The join several workshops, each one devoted to an specific field research

  12. Technology transfer of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    Among the many beneficial applications of radiation and radioisotopes in industry which are now well established in advanced countries, the applications of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry have great potential for developing Member States. The use of nucleonic on-stream analyzers in the coal industry has resulted in enormous technical and economic benefits in addition to minimization of environmental pollution. Large savings have also resulted from the use of such analyzers in the processing of other minerals. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have demonstrated great potential in oil and gas evaluation. Radiotracer investigations have led to process optimisation and trouble shooting in various stages in ore processing and metallurgy. Though the technical and economic benefits of applications of nuclear techniques in the mineral industry are well recognised, technology transfer in these areas has been hampered by a variety of factors. In order to review the status and trends in nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry and the problems and considerations in their technology transfer to developing Member States, the IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting in Bombay, India, 15-19 January 1990. The present publication is based on the 7 contributions presented at this meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Proceedings of the 8. Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts or extended abstracts of 72 out of 77 presentations. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume

  14. Proceedings of the 8. Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    These proceedings contain the abstracts or extended abstracts of 72 out of 77 presentations. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  15. Proceedings of the 8. Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    These proceedings contain the abstracts or extended abstracts of 72 out of 77 presentations. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  16. National symposium: nuclear technique in industry, medicine, agriculture and environment protection. Abstracts of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The National Symposium 'Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection' has been held in Rynia near Warsaw from 24 to 27 April 1995. Totally 94 lectures have been presented. The actual state of art in Polish investigations have been shown in all branches of applied nuclear sciences. The plenary session devoted to general topics has began the symposium. Further conference has been divided into 18 subject sessions. There were: 1) radiation technologies in environment protection; 2) radiation technologies in materials engineering; 3) radiation preservation in food; 4) radiation techniques for medical use; 5) radiotracers in industrial investigations; 6) radiotracers in water and sewage management and leak control; 7) tracers in hydrology; 8) radiotracers in materials testing; 9) instruments for environment protection, 10) radiometric industrial gages; 11) diagnostic and testing instruments; 12) application of nuclear techniques in materials testing; 13) applications of nuclear techniques in geology and hydrogeology; 14) radioanalytical methods; 15) radiation detectors; 16) radiation measurements; 17) data processing from radiometric experiments; 18) accelerators, isotopes manufacturing, INIS

  17. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Rice - azolla - fish culture - use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Iwao.

    1991-01-01

    The primary aim of the expert mission was to provide advice on the use of nuclear techniques to study rice-azolla-fish culture. Results of the work performed so far show that basal application of azolla gives similar or better yields of rice than basal application of urea. Fish productivity was also found to be significantly higher when azolla is present. 2 tabs

  18. Nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the analysis of Purhepecha metals of the Pareyon collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, U.; Tenorio C, D.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Lopez, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to determine the composition and microstructure of 13 metallic devices by means of the nuclear techniques of PIXE, RBS and conventional; which were elaborated starting from copper and gold, and they were in the offering of a tarasc personage located in the 'Matamoros' porch in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. (Author)

  19. Nuclear techniques in plant pathology 1. Plant disease control and physiology of parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are advantageously used in several areas of plant pathology. Among them are: induction of mutation for disease resistance, studies with pesticides, disease control through pathogen inactivation, induction of variability and stimulation in pathogens and natural enemies, studies of microorganism physiology and diseased plant physiology, effect of gamma radiation on pesticides, technology of pesticides application, etc. (Author) [pt

  20. Status report on the application of process noise technique in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espefaelt, R.; Aakerhielm, F.

    1979-09-01

    The report gives a survey of applications of noise technique reported for nuclear power plants. The scope has been limited to areas of interest for BWR and PWR plants of the types found in Sweden and with an emphasis on cases where the practical applicability has been clearly demonstrated. (author)