WorldWideScience

Sample records for combined local current

  1. Local structure of the magnetotail current sheet: 2001 Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty rapid crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by the Cluster spacecraft during July-October 2001 at a geocentric distance of 19 RE are examined in detail to address the structure of the current sheet. We use four-point magnetic field measurements to estimate electric current density; the current sheet spatial scale is estimated by integration of the translation velocity calculated from the magnetic field temporal and spatial derivatives. The local normal-related coordinate system for each case is defined by the combining Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA and the curlometer technique. Numerical parameters characterizing the plasma sheet conditions for these crossings are provided to facilitate future comparisons with theoretical models. Three types of current sheet distributions are distinguished: center-peaked (type I, bifurcated (type II and asymmetric (type III sheets. Comparison to plasma parameter distributions show that practically all cases display non-Harris-type behavior, i.e. interior current peaks are embedded into a thicker plasma sheet. The asymmetric sheets with an off-equatorial current density peak most likely have a transient nature. The ion contribution to the electric current rarely agrees with the current computed using the curlometer technique, indicating that either the electron contribution to the current is strong and variable, or the current density is spatially or temporally structured.

  2. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Current concepts and local experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aging population in our country, symptomatic osteoporotic compression fractures are increasingly common. Osteolytic compression fractures from spinal metastasis are also becoming more frequently seen because of the longer life expectancy from improvements in chemotherapy. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with PMMA has been shown to be an efficient procedure to treat pain due to these fractures. It is a minimally invasive procedure performed under local anesthesia and sedation. Injection of PMMA provides immediate stability when it hardens, and permits the patient to ambulate without pain. Appropriate patient selection is the key to clinical success. However, this procedure must be treated with respect, and has to be performed by physicians with the necessary training. Otherwise, increased pain, paralysis, and even death may occur from this seemingly innocuous procedure. In this article, I will deal with the background issues of osteoporotic and osteolytic vertebral compression fractures, patient selection, surgical technique, complications, and review of current literature on vertebroplasty. Key areas of development in this field include the use of kyphoplasty, defining the role of prophylactic augmentation, and improvements in biomaterials.

  3. Controlling local currents in molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yadalam, Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of non-equilibrium constraints and dephasing on the circulating currents in molecular junctions are analyzed. Circulating currents are manifestations of quantum effects and can be induced either by externally applied bias or an external magnetic field through the molecular system. In symmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring, bond currents have two contributions, bias driven and magnetic field driven. We analyze the competition between these two contributions and show that, as a consequence, current through one of the branches can be completely suppressed. We then study the effect of asymmetry (as a result of chemical substitution) on the current pathways inside the molecule and study asymmetry induced circulating currents (without magnetic field) by tuning the coupling strength of the substituent (at finite bias).

  4. Current management of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Laurberg, Søren; Holm, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web...

  5. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

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    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  6. Invariant currents and scattering off locally symmetric potential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalozoumis, P. A.; Morfonios, C. V.; Diakonos, F. K.; Schmelcher, P.

    2015-11-01

    We study the effect of discrete symmetry breaking in inhomogeneous scattering media within the framework of generic wave propagation. Our focus is on one-dimensional scattering potentials exhibiting local symmetries. We find a class of spatially invariant nonlocal currents, emerging when the corresponding generalized potential exhibits symmetries in arbitrary spatial domains. These invariants characterize the wave propagation and provide a spatial mapping of the wave function between any symmetry related domains. This generalizes the Bloch and parity theorems for broken reflection and translational symmetries, respectively. Their nonvanishing values indicate the symmetry breaking, whereas a zero value denotes the restoration of the global symmetry where the well-known forms of the two theorems are recovered. These invariants allow for a systematic treatment of systems with any local symmetry combination, providing a tool for the investigation of the scattering properties of aperiodic but locally symmetric systems. To this aim we express the transfer matrix of a locally symmetric potential unit via the corresponding invariants and derive quantities characterizing the complete scattering device which serve as key elements for the investigation of transmission spectra and particularly of perfect transmission resonances.

  7. Current update on combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Maximin

    2014-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma tends to present with an more aggressive behavior and a poorer prognosis than either hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. An accurate preoperative diagnosis and aggressive treatment planning can play crucial roles in appropriate patient management.

  8. Combined Digital Electronic Current and Voltage Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段雄英; 邹积岩; 等

    2002-01-01

    A high-performance current and voltage measurement system has been developed in power system.The system is composed of two parts:one current measurement element and one voltage measurement element.A Rogowski coil and a capacitive voltage divider are used respectively for the line current and voltage measurements.Active electronic components are used to modulate signal,and power supply for these components is drawn from power line via an auxiliary current transformer,Measurement signal is transmitted y optical fibers,which is resistant to electromagnetic induction and noise,With careful design and the use of digital signal processing technology,the whole system can meet 0.5% accuracy for metering and provides large dynamic range coupled with good accuracy for protective relaying use.

  9. Current status of combined chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer%局部晚期非小细胞肺癌同期放化疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕冬婕; 韩春; 王澜

    2009-01-01

    放化综合治疗是局部晚期非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)的基本治疗策略.近期研究表明同期放化疗在生存率等方面优于序贯治疗,已成为局部晚期NSCLC的标准治疗模式,但是尚无具体放化结合模式指导临床治疗.为了进一步提高治疗疗效,目前临床研究主要集中于以下几个方面:同期放化治疗加入诱导或巩固化疗、同期放化疗中放疗分割方式的改变、同期放化疗中化疗方式及方案的选择、同期放化疗加入分子靶向治疗.%Combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is foundational treatment approach for locally advanced non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy have been demons-trated to be better than sequential chemoradiotherapy in survival rate, and it is considered as a standard approach in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. However, the chemo-radiotherapy regimens remain uncert-ain. The main clinical researches aiming at improving the survival rate of locally advanced NSCLC patients are the addition of induction or consolidation, the alteration of radiation fractionation, the alteration of chemo schema and the inte- gration of molecularly targeted therapies combining with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy.

  10. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  11. Learning Human Actions by Combining Global Dynamics and Local Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guan; Yang, Shuang; Tian, Guodong; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of human action recognition through combining global temporal dynamics and local visual spatio-temporal appearance features. For this purpose, in the global temporal dimension, we propose to model the motion dynamics with robust linear dynamical systems (LDSs) and use the model parameters as motion descriptors. Since LDSs live in a non-Euclidean space and the descriptors are in non-vector form, we propose a shift invariant subspace angles based distance to measure the similarity between LDSs. In the local visual dimension, we construct curved spatio-temporal cuboids along the trajectories of densely sampled feature points and describe them using histograms of oriented gradients (HOG). The distance between motion sequences is computed with the Chi-Squared histogram distance in the bag-of-words framework. Finally we perform classification using the maximum margin distance learning method by combining the global dynamic distances and the local visual distances. We evaluate our approach for action recognition on five short clips data sets, namely Weizmann, KTH, UCF sports, Hollywood2 and UCF50, as well as three long continuous data sets, namely VIRAT, ADL and CRIM13. We show competitive results as compared with current state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Non-local currents and the structure of eigenstates in planar discrete systems with local symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röntgen, M., E-mail: mroentge@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Morfonios, C.V., E-mail: christian.morfonios@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Diakonos, F.K., E-mail: fdiakono@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Physics, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Schmelcher, P., E-mail: pschmelc@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Local symmetries are spatial symmetries present in a subdomain of a complex system. By using and extending a framework of so-called non-local currents that has been established recently, we show that one can gain knowledge about the structure of eigenstates in locally symmetric setups through a Kirchhoff-type law for the non-local currents. The framework is applicable to all discrete planar Schrödinger setups, including those with non-uniform connectivity. Conditions for spatially constant non-local currents are derived and we explore two types of locally symmetric subsystems in detail, closed-loops and one-dimensional open ended chains. We find these systems to support locally similar or even locally symmetric eigenstates. - Highlights: • We extend the framework of non-local currents to discrete planar systems. • Structural information about the eigenstates is gained. • Conditions for the constancy of non-local currents are derived. • We use the framework to design two types of example systems featuring locally symmetric eigenstates.

  13. Local Hubble Expansion: Current State of the Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief qualitative overview of the current state of the problem of Hubble expansion at the sufficiently small scales (e.g., in planetary systems or local intergalactic volume). The crucial drawbacks of the available theoretical treatments are emphasized, and the possible ways to avoid them are outlined. Attention is drawn to a number of observable astronomical phenomena that could be naturally explained by the local Hubble expansion.

  14. Current options in local anesthesia for groin hernia repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacoglu, Hakan; Alptekin, Alp

    2011-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common procedures in general surgery. All anesthetic methods can be used in inguinal hernia repairs. Local anesthesia for groin hernia repair had been introduced at the very beginning of the last century, and gained popularity following the success reports from the Shouldice Hospital, and the Lichtenstein Hernia Institute. Today, local anesthesia is routinely used in specialized hernia clinics, whereas its use is still not a common practice in general hospitals, in spite of its proven advantages and recommendations by current hernia repair guidelines. In this review, the technical options for local anaesthesia in groin hernia repairs, commonly used local anaesthetics and their doses, potential complications related to the technique are evaluated. A comparison of local, general and regional anesthesia methods is also presented. Local anaesthesia technique has a short learning curve requiring simple training. It is easy to learn and apply, and its use is in open anterior repairs a nice way for health care economics. Local anesthesia has been shown to have certain advantages over general and regional anesthesia in inguinal hernia repairs. It is more economic and requires a shorter time in the operating room and shorter stay in the institution. It causes less postoperative pain, requires less analgesic consumption; avoids nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention. Patients can mobilize and take oral liquids and solid foods much earlier. Most importantly, local anesthesia is the most suitable type of anesthesia in elder, fragile patients and patients with ASA II-IV scores.

  15. Combined tidal and wind driven flows and residual currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmedal, Lars Erik; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The effect of a residual current on the combined tidal and wind driven flow and the resulting bedload sediment transport in the ocean has been investigated, using a simple one dimensional two-equation turbulence closure model. Predictions of the combined tidal and wind driven flow with given residual currents are presented, showing that the residual current has a substantial effect on both the depth averaged mass transport and the mean bedload transport directions; in some cases the effect of the residual current is to almost reverse the mean bedload transport direction. The residual current affects the rotation of the flow due to the Coriolis effect in the lower part of the water column (the near-surface flow is wind dominated), causing a larger or smaller clockwise rotation of the depth averaged mass transport, depending on the direction of the residual current.

  16. Invariant currents in lossy acoustic waveguides with complete local symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kalozoumis, P A; Diakonos, F K; Theocharis, G; Schmelcher, P

    2015-01-01

    We implement the concept of complete local symmetry in lossy acoustic waveguides. Despite the presence of losses, the existence of a spatially invariant current is shown theoretically and observed experimentally. We demonstrate how this invariant current leads to the generalization of the Bloch and parity theorems for lossy systems defining a mapping of the pressure field between symmetry related spatial domains. Using experimental data we verify this mapping with remarkable accuracy. For the performed experiment we employ a construction technique based on local symmetries which allows the design of setups with prescribed perfect transmission resonances in the lossless case. Our results reveal the fundamental role of symmetries in restricted spatial domains and clearly indicate that completely locally symmetric devices constitute a promising class of setups, regarding the manipulation of wave propagation.

  17. Adjuvants to local anesthetics: Current understanding and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Amlan; Nag, Deb Sanjay; Sahu, Seelora; Samaddar, Devi Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Although beneficial in acute and chronic pain management, the use of local anaesthetics is limited by its duration of action and the dose dependent adverse effects on the cardiac and central nervous system. Adjuvants or additives are often used with local anaesthetics for its synergistic effect by prolonging the duration of sensory-motor block and limiting the cumulative dose requirement of local anaesthetics. The armamentarium of local anesthetic adjuvants have evolved over time from classical opioids to a wide array of drugs spanning several groups and varying mechanisms of action. A large array of opioids ranging from morphine, fentanyl and sufentanyl to hydromorphone, buprenorphine and tramadol has been used with varying success. However, their use has been limited by their adverse effect like respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting and pruritus, especially with its neuraxial use. Epinephrine potentiates the local anesthetics by its antinociceptive properties mediated by alpha-2 adrenoreceptor activation along with its vasoconstrictive properties limiting the systemic absorption of local anesthetics. Alpha 2 adrenoreceptor antagonists like clonidine and dexmedetomidine are one of the most widely used class of local anesthetic adjuvants. Other drugs like steroids (dexamethasone), anti-inflammatory agents (parecoxib and lornoxicam), midazolam, ketamine, magnesium sulfate and neostigmine have also been used with mixed success. The concern regarding the safety profile of these adjuvants is due to its potential neurotoxicity and neurological complications which necessitate further research in this direction. Current research is directed towards a search for agents and techniques which would prolong local anaesthetic action without its deleterious effects. This includes novel approaches like use of charged molecules to produce local anaesthetic action (tonicaine and n butyl tetracaine), new age delivery mechanisms for prolonged bioavailability (liposomal

  18. Measurement Combination for Acoustic Source Localization in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Pertilä

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of time delay estimation (TDE is well understood and therefore attractive to apply in acoustic source localization (ASL. A time delay between microphones maps into a hyperbola. Furthermore, the likelihoods for different time delays are mapped into a set of weighted nonoverlapping hyperbolae in the spatial domain. Combining TDE functions from several microphone pairs results in a spatial likelihood function (SLF which is a combination of sets of weighted hyperbolae. Traditionally, the maximum SLF point is considered as the source location but is corrupted by reverberation and noise. Particle filters utilize past source information to improve localization performance in such environments. However, uncertainty exists on how to combine the TDE functions. Results from simulated dialogues in various conditions favor TDE combination using intersection-based methods over union. The real-data dialogue results agree with the simulations, showing a 45% RMSE reduction when choosing the intersection over union of TDE functions.

  19. Measurement Combination for Acoustic Source Localization in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertilä Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of time delay estimation (TDE is well understood and therefore attractive to apply in acoustic source localization (ASL. A time delay between microphones maps into a hyperbola. Furthermore, the likelihoods for different time delays are mapped into a set of weighted nonoverlapping hyperbolae in the spatial domain. Combining TDE functions from several microphone pairs results in a spatial likelihood function (SLF which is a combination of sets of weighted hyperbolae. Traditionally, the maximum SLF point is considered as the source location but is corrupted by reverberation and noise. Particle filters utilize past source information to improve localization performance in such environments. However, uncertainty exists on how to combine the TDE functions. Results from simulated dialogues in various conditions favor TDE combination using intersection-based methods over union. The real-data dialogue results agree with the simulations, showing a 45% RMSE reduction when choosing the intersection over union of TDE functions.

  20. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  1. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  2. A Matheuristic Approach Combining Local Search and Mathematical Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lagos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel matheuristic approach is presented and tested on a well-known optimisation problem, namely, capacitated facility location problem (CFLP. The algorithm combines local search and mathematical programming. While the local search algorithm is used to select a subset of promising facilities, mathematical programming strategies are used to solve the subproblem to optimality. Proposed local search is influenced by instance-specific information such as installation cost and the distance between customers and facilities. The algorithm is tested on large instances of the CFLP, where neither local search nor mathematical programming is able to find good quality solutions within acceptable computational times. Our approach is shown to be a very competitive alternative to solve large-scale instances for the CFLP.

  3. Local current mapping and patterning of reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Treossi, Emanuele; Orgiu, Emanuele; Melucci, Manuela; Veronese, Giulio Paolo; Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2010-10-13

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has been used to correlate the detailed structural and electrical characteristics of graphene derived from graphene oxide. Uniform large currents were measured over areas exceeding tens of micrometers in few-layer films, supporting the use of graphene as a transparent electrode material. Moreover, defects such as electrical discontinuities were easily detected. Multilayer films were found to have a higher conductivity per layer than single layers. It is also shown that a local AFM-tip-induced electrochemical reduction process can be used to pattern conductive pathways on otherwise-insulating graphene oxide. Transistors with micrometer-scale tip-reduced graphene channels that featured ambipolar transport and an 8 order of magnitude increase in current density upon reduction were successfully fabricated.

  4. Topical local anesthesia: focus on lidocaine–tetracaine combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Davide Giordano,1 Maria Gabriella Raso,2 Carmine Pernice,1 Vanni Agnoletti,3 Verter Barbieri1 1Otorhinolaryngology Unit, Department of Surgery, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova – IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, 2Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, 3Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Department of Cardiology, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, and Critical Care Medicine, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova – IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy Abstract: In recent years, the popularity of aesthetic and cosmetic procedures, often performed in outpatient settings, has strongly renewed interest in topical anesthetics. A number of different options are widely used, alone or in combination, in order to minimize the pain related to surgery. Moreover, interest in local anesthetics in the treatment of some painful degenerative conditions such as myofascial trigger point pain, shoulder impingement syndrome, or patellar tendinopathy is increasing. Numerous clinical trials have shown that lidocaine–tetracaine combination, recently approved for adults aged 18 or older, is effective and safe in managing pain. The present paper gives an overview of the recent literature regarding the efficacy and safety of lidocaine–tetracaine combination use. Keywords: lidocaine, tetracaine, local anesthetics, efficacy, safety

  5. Orthogonal combination of local binary patterns for dynamic texture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Guo, Xuejun; Klein, Dominik

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic texture (DT) is an extension of texture to the temporal domain. Recognizing DTs has received increasing attention. Volume local binary pattern (VLBP) is the most widely used descriptor for DTs. However, it is time consuming to recognize DTs using VLBP due to the large scale of data and the high dimensionality of the descriptor itself. In this paper, we propose a new operator called orthogonal combination of VLBP (OC-VLBP) for DT recognition. The original VLBP is decomposed both longitudinally and latitudinally, and then combined to constitute the OC-VLBP operator, so that the dimensionality of the original VLBP descriptor is lowered. The experimental results show that the proposed operator significantly reduces the computational costs of recognizing DTs without much loss in recognizing accuracy.

  6. Detection of localized damage by eddy currents technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoukili A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non destructive evaluation techniques based on eddy currents (EC are largely used for quality control of the castings in a lot of industries. The principle of detection by EC consists in using an adequate inductive coil to generate them by a variable magnetic field, and measuring their effects by using one or several sensors. These effects result from the interaction between the induced magnetic field and the excited conductive material. A local variation of the physical properties or geometry of the tested sample, due to a singularity or a flaw, causes a modification of the EC distribution, enabling thus detection. In order to optimize the capacity of defect revealing by means of EC based probes, an accurate modelling of the problem is essential. This can be used to perform simulation of the EC distribution under different circumstances and to analyze the EC sensitivity to the various implicated parameters. In this work, the modelling of EC is made by using the finite element method. Using a B-scan strategy was used, detection of a small defect having the shape of an open cavity is shown to be correctly indicated via monitoring variations of the induced voltage in the receiver coil.

  7. LOCAL ANAESTHETIC SYSTEMIC TOXICITY: CURRENT CONCEPTS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetics are one of the most commonly used drugs in the field of medicine. Local anesthetics are widely used to induce anesthesia and analgesia for surgical procedures and pain management. Local an aesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST is a rare but potentially fatal complication of regional anesthesia and has been recognized and reported since the late1800s. This narrative review summarizes the pharmacology of local anesthetics, clinical manifestations of systemic toxicity associated with these agents, necessary preventive measures and recent treatment strategies

  8. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  9. Parental Photography at School Events: Current Local Authority Best Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bessant, Claire

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of local authority policy and guidance on parental photography at school events considering possible policy content and approaches to informing parents of policy/obtaining parental consent.

  10. Modelling combined chemotherapy and particle therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDurante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the only cancer for which deaths are predicted to increase in 2014 and beyond. Combined radiochemotherapy protocols using gemcitabine and hypofractionated X-rays are ongoing in several clinical trials. Recent results indicate that charged particle therapy substantially increases local control of resectable and unresectable pancreas cancer, as predicted from previous radiobiology studies considering the high tumour hypoxia. Combination with chemotherapy improves the overall survival. We compared published data on X-ray and charged particle clinical results with or without adjuvant chemotherapy calculating the biological effective dose. We show that chemoradiotherapy with protons or carbon ions results in 1-year overall survival significantly higher than those obtained with other treatment schedules. Further hypofractionation using charged particles may result in improved local control and survival. A comparative clinical trial using the standard X-ray scheme vs. the best current standard with carbon ions is crucial and may open new opportunities for this deadly disease.

  11. Time scale of scour around a pile in combined waves and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    The time scale of the scour process around a circular vertical pile is studied in combined waves and current. A series of tests were carried out in a flume with pile diameters 40 mm and 75 mm, in both steady current, waves and combined waves and current. In the combined wave and current flow regime...

  12. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  13. Local Helioseismology of Sunspots: Current Status and Perspectives (Invited Review)

    CERN Document Server

    Kosovichev, A G

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of formation and stability of sunspots are among the longest-standing and intriguing puzzles of solar physics and astrophysics. Sunspots are controlled by subsurface dynamics hidden from direct observations. Recently, substantial progress in our understanding of physics of the turbulent magnetized plasma has been made by numerical simulations and local helioseismology. Both, the simulations and helioseismic measurements, are extremely challenging, but it becomes clear that the key to understanding the enigma of sunspots is a synergy between models and observations. Recent observations and radiative MHD numerical simulations have provided a convincing explanation to the Evershed flows in sunspot penumbra. Also, they lead to the understanding of sunspots as self-organized magnetic structures in the turbulent plasma of the upper convection zone, which are maintained by a large-scale dynamics. Local helioseismic diagnostics of sunspots still have many uncertainties, some of which are discussed in this ...

  14. Direct observation of current in type-I edge-localized-mode filaments on the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasmas in the high confinement regime are regularly subjected to relaxation oscillations, termed edge localized modes (ELMs), leading to large transport events. Present ELM theories rely on a combined effect of edge current and the edge pressure gradients which result in in...

  15. Current concepts in combination antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR bacterial pathogens is a problem of global dimension. MDR infections are difficult to treat and frequently associated with high mortality. More than one antibiotic is commonly used to treat such infections, but scientific evidence does not favor use of combination therapy in most cases. However, there are certain subgroups where combination therapy may be beneficial, e.g. sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, and patients with multiple organ failure. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to clearly define the role of combination therapy in these subgroups.

  16. Current concepts in combination antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Ahmed; Afzal Azim; Mohan Gurjar; Arvind Kumar Baronia

    2014-01-01

    Widespread emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is a problem of global dimension. MDR infections are difficult to treat and frequently associated with high mortality. More than one antibiotic is commonly used to treat such infections, but scientific evidence does not favor use of combination therapy in most cases. However, there are certain subgroups where combination therapy may be beneficial, e.g. sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), bacteremic ...

  17. LOCAL AIR: Local Aerosol monitoring combining in-situ and Remote Sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Caggiano, Rosa; Donvito, Angelo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Sarli, Valentina; Trippetta, Serena

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosols have effects on climate, environment and health. Although the importance of the study of aerosols is well recognized, the current knowledge of the characteristics and their distribution is still insufficient, and there are large uncertainties in the current understanding of the role of aerosols on climate and the environment, both on a regional and local level. Overcoming these uncertainties requires a search strategy that integrates data from multiple platforms (eg, terrestrial, satellite, ships and planes) and the different acquisition techniques (for example, in situ measurements, remote sensing, modeling numerical and data assimilation) (Yu et al., 2006). To this end, in recent years, there have been many efforts such as the creation of networks dedicated to systematic observation of aerosols (eg, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme-EMEP, European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork-EARLINET, MicroPulse Lidar Network- MPLNET, and Aerosol Robotic NETwork-AERONET), the development and implementation of new satellite sensors and improvement of numerical models. The recent availability of numerous data to the ground, columnar and profiles of aerosols allows to investigate these aspects. An integrated approach between these different techniques could be able to provide additional information, providing greater insight into the properties of aerosols and their distribution and overcoming the limits of each single technique. In fact, the ground measurements allow direct determination of the physico-chemical properties of aerosols, but cannot be considered representative for large spatial and temporal scales and do not provide any information about the vertical profile of aerosols. On the other hand, the remote sensing techniques from the ground and satellite provide information on the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols both in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), mainly characterized by the presence of aerosols originating from

  18. Intracochlear drug delivery in combination with cochlear implants : Current aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, S K; Götze, G; Rahne, T; Liebau, A

    2017-01-01

    Local drug application to the inner ear offers a number of advantages over systemic delivery. Local drug therapy currently encompasses extracochlear administration (i. e., through intratympanic injection), intracochlear administration (particularly for gene and stem cell therapy), as well as various combinations with auditory neurosensory prostheses, either evaluated in preclinical or clinical studies, or off-label. To improve rehabilitation with cochlear implants (CI), one focus is the development of drug-releasing electrode carriers, e. g., for delivery of glucocorticosteroids, antiapoptotic substances, or neurotrophins to the inner ear. The performance of cochlear implants may thus be improved by protecting neuronal structures from insertion trauma, reducing fibrosis in the inner ear, and by stimulating growth of neuronal structures in the direction of the electrodes. Controlled drug release after extracochlear or intracochlear application in conjunction with a CI can also be achieved by use of a biocompatible, resorbable controlled-release drug-delivery system. Two case reports for intracochlear controlled release drug delivery in combination with cochlear implants are presented. In order to treat progressive reduction in speech discrimination and increased impedance, two cochlear implant patients successfully underwent intracochlear placement of a biocompatible, resorbable drug-delivery system for controlled release of dexamethasone. The drug levels reached in inner ear fluids after different types of local drug application strategies can be calculated using a computer model. The intracochlear drug concentrations calculated in this way were compared for different dexamethasone application strategies.

  19. Combined modality therapy for locally advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick, T J; Wheeler, W; Riemenschneider, H

    1993-12-01

    We report here a patient who presented with locally advanced Jackson Stage IV penile squamous cell carcinoma who was managed with preoperative 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C chemotherapy, and concurrent radiation therapy. He experienced an excellent partial response which allowed more limited surgery than would otherwise be indicated. He is still alive and well 5 years after completion of his treatment without side effects, local recurrence, or distant metastatic disease.

  20. Combining Local Scoring and Global Aggregation to Rank Entities for Deep Web Queries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Kou; De-Rong Shen; Ge Yu; Tie-Zheng Nie

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Web databases, it is necessary to extract and integrate large-scale data available in Deep Web automatically. But current Web search engines conduct page-level ranking, which are becoming inadequate for entity-oriented vertical search. In this paper, we present an entity-level ranking mechanism called LG-ERM for Deep Web queries based on local scoring and global aggregation. Unlike traditional approaches, LG-ERM considers more rank influencing factors including the uncertainty of entity extraction, the style information of the entities and the importance of the Web sources, as well as the entity relationship. By combining local scoring and global aggregation in ranking, the query result can be more accurate and effective to meet users' needs. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the key techniques of LG-ERM.

  1. Health content in local television news: a current appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Gantz, Walter

    2010-04-01

    While local television news remains an important channel for the dissemination of health information, there has been little systematic examination of health content on those newscasts. This study, designed to update and expand upon earlier efforts, examined 1,382.5 hours of newscasts that aired on seven channels in four markets between December 2004 and June 2005. The four markets were a major-, a large-, a medium-, and a small-size market in the Midwestern United States. In total, 40,112 news stories were coded. About 8.1% of the news stories were devoted to health content. Health stories covered a large array of topics. Physical illnesses/diseases and healthy living issues received the most frequent coverage, while mental health and aging-related content were covered least frequently. Most health stories were neutral in tone and rather brief, with an average duration of less than 1 minute. One in eight (12.4%) health stories provided follow-up options. This is primarily due to an increase in the number of health news stories presented with a website URL compared to previous findings. Market differences emerged, although, interestingly, stations in the larger markets were not the leaders in health coverage.

  2. Current Trends in Local Policing Provision in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Krulík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the current trends of national police forces as they increasingly often pull back from their positions, and the consequences which many municipal councils in the Czech Republic are now facing. In the last couple of years, some municipalities chose relatively unconventional ways to deal with increased levels of crime and other forms of antisocial behaviour on their territories. This created space – for example – for signing public agreements with other municipalities, hiring private security companies to perform the role of municipal police or various forms of sponsoring the Police of the Czech Republic.

  3. Current clinical trials testing combinations of immunotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Marka; Kohrt, Holbrook; Levy, Ronald; Jones, Jennifer; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam; Demaria, Sandra; Formenti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation. Subsequent clinical availability of vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has triggered a wave of enthusiasm for testing them in combination with radiotherapy. Examples of ongoing clinical trials are described in this report. Importantly, most of these trials include careful immune monitoring of the patients enrolled and will generate important data about the proimmunogenic effects of radiation in combination with a variety of immune modulators, in different disease settings. Results of these studies are building a platform of evidence for radiotherapy as an adjuvant to immunotherapy and encourage the growth of this novel field of radiation oncology.

  4. Requirements on localized current drive for the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, N.; De Lazzari, D.; Westerhof, E.

    2011-10-01

    A heuristic criterion for the full suppression of an NTM was formulated as ηNTM ≡ jCD,max/jBS >= 1.2 (Zohm et al 2005 J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 25 234), where jCD,max is the maximum in the driven current density profile applied to stabilize the mode and jBS is the local bootstrap current density. In this work we subject this criterion to a systematic theoretical analysis on the basis of the generalized Rutherford equation. Taking into account only the effect of jCD inside the island, a new criterion for full suppression by a minimum applied total current is obtained in the form of a maximum allowed value for the width of the driven current, wdep, combined with a required minimum for the total driven current in the form of wdepηNTM, where both limits depend on the marginal and saturated island sizes. These requirements can be relaxed when additional effects are taken into account, such as a change in the stability parameter Δ' from the current driven outside the island, power modulation, the accompanying heating inside the island or when the current drive is applied preemptively. When applied to ITER scenario 2, the requirement for full suppression of either the 3/2 or 2/1 NTM becomes wdep ~ 5 cm in agreement with (Sauter et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 025002). Optimization of the ITER ECRH Upper Port Launcher design towards minimum required power for full NTM suppression requires an increase in the toroidal injection angle of the lower steering mirror of several degrees compared with its present design value, while for the upper steering mirror the present design value is close to the optimum.

  5. Education and BBC Local Radio: A Combined Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Hal

    Education has been a significant preoccupation of the British Broadcasting Company's (BBC) Local Radio since its outset in 1967. Several features are noteworthy. First, there is an educator on every station's staff. Five hundred series a year, involving 4000 various programs, are offered, and audiences are large and educational efforts still…

  6. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  7. Current trends in local antibacterial therapy of periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bozhkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of antibiotics in the treatment of orthopedic infection still presents a significant problem. Local antibiotic delivery systems enable to achieve effective concentrations of drugs in the focus of bone infection without the development of toxicity. It is the important accompaniment to systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis. The data collected through the PubMed and eLIBRARY databases (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed, 1995-2015; http://elibrary.ru, 2005-2015 years present the information about bone substitutes used for local antibiotic therapy in scientific investigations and in clinical practice. The information is submitted in accordance with the groups of materials: cements based on polymethylmethacrylate, bone grafts, demineralized bone matrix, bioceramics, natural and synthetic polymers, combined antibiotic delivery systems. The majority of these materials have only been studied experimentally and only a limited range of them is registered for use in clinical practice. Informing orthopedic surgeons about current methods of local antibiotic use is the key to the development of a modern integrated approach to the therapy of infectious complications after orthopedic surgery.

  8. 24 CFR 1000.320 - How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1000.320 How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs? There are two adjustment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs? 1000.320 Section 1000.320 Housing and Urban Development...

  9. Reconstruction of biofilm images: combining local and global structural parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resat, Haluk; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-10-20

    Digitized images can be used for quantitative comparison of biofilms grown under different conditions. Using biofilm image reconstruction, it was previously found that biofilms with a completely different look can have nearly identical structural parameters and that the most commonly utilized global structural parameters were not sufficient to uniquely define these biofilms. Here, additional local and global parameters are introduced to show that these parameters considerably increase the reliability of the image reconstruction process. Assessment using human evaluators indicated that the correct identification rate of the reconstructed images increased from 50% to 72% with the introduction of the new parameters into the reconstruction procedure. An expanded set of parameters especially improved the identification of biofilm structures with internal orientational features and of structures in which colony sizes and spatial locations varied. Hence, the newly introduced structural parameter sets helped to better classify the biofilms by incorporating finer local structural details into the reconstruction process.

  10. Nonlocal discrete continuity and invariant currents in locally symmetric effective Schr\\"odinger arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Morfonios, C V; Diakonos, F K; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    A nonlocal discrete continuity formalism is developed which relates spatial symmetries in subparts of Hermitian or non-Hermitian lattice systems to the properties of adapted nonlocal currents. Broken local symmetries thereby act as current sources or sinks, and the time evolution of the associated nonlocal charge is governed by the nonlocal currents at the boundaries of domains with local symmetry. We apply the framework to locally inversion-(time-) and translation-(time-) symmetric one-dimensional photonic waveguide arrays effectively described by Schr\\"odinger's equation with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The nonlocal currents of stationary states are shown to be translationally invariant within local symmetry domains for arbitrary wavefunction profiles, and cases of complete, overlapping, and gapped local symmetry are demonstrated for model setups. Two distinct versions of the nonlocal invariant currents enable a mapping between wave amplitudes of symmetry-related sites, thereby generalizing the global Bloc...

  11. Combined low dose local anesthetics and opioids versus single use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... it allows early recognition of symptoms caused by ... postoperative pain score, less demand for analgesics ... Combined low dose LA and opioids for transurethral surgery. 257 ..... blocks after the intrathecal administration of an LA. .... organ blood volume during spinal anesthesia in elderly men with cardiac.

  12. [Current optimization of combined therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E N

    2015-01-01

    Testing the new combined bronchodilator Anoro Ellipta in different clinical trials gives to its high clinical efficacy and safety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The drug contains the molecules of sustained-release selective β2-adrenergic receptor agonist (vilanterol) and a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (umeclidinium bromide). The bronchodilating mechanisms of umeclidinium bromide are in the competitive inhibition of the binding of acetylcholine with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of airway smooth muscles whereas in those of vilanterol are in that with the stimulation of intracellular adenylate cyclase. On days 1 and 24 after inhalation of the first dose of vilanterol and umeclidinium bromide, there was a significant increase in the forced expiratory volume in one second as compared to placebo. No clinical effects on QT interval on an electrocardiogram and cardiac rhythm were found. The benefits of an inhalation device (Ellipta) are its innovation design ensuring the effective delivery of an aerosol dose into the airway, convenience, and simplicity.

  13. Current use of imaging and electromagnetic source localization procedures in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Brian E; Rados, Matea; Barsi, Péter; Boon, Paul; Carmichael, David W; Carrette, Evelien; Craiu, Dana; Cross, J Helen; Diehl, Beate; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Francione, Stefano; Gaskin, Vladislav; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Grigoreva, Elena; Guekht, Alla; Hirsch, Edouard; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Jung, Julien; Kalviainen, Reetta; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios; Kobulashvili, Teia; Krsek, Pavel; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Larsson, Pål G; Leitinger, Markus; Lossius, Morten I; Luzin, Roman; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Marusic, Petr; Metin, Baris; Özkara, Cigdem; Pecina, Hrvoje; Quesada, Carlos M; Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Rydenhag, Bertil; Ryvlin, Philippe; Scholly, Julia; Seeck, Margitta; Staack, Anke M; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Stepanov, Valentin; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Uzan, Mustafa; Vogt, Viola L; Vos, Sjoerd B; Vulliémoz, Serge; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Leijten, Frans S S; Van Eijsden, Pieter; Braun, Kees P J

    2016-05-01

    In 2014 the European Union-funded E-PILEPSY project was launched to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. We aimed to investigate the current use of neuroimaging, electromagnetic source localization, and imaging postprocessing procedures in participating centers. A survey on the clinical use of imaging, electromagnetic source localization, and postprocessing methods in epilepsy surgery candidates was distributed among the 25 centers of the consortium. A descriptive analysis was performed, and results were compared to existing guidelines and recommendations. Response rate was 96%. Standard epilepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols are acquired at 3 Tesla by 15 centers and at 1.5 Tesla by 9 centers. Three centers perform 3T MRI only if indicated. Twenty-six different MRI sequences were reported. Six centers follow all guideline-recommended MRI sequences with the proposed slice orientation and slice thickness or voxel size. Additional sequences are used by 22 centers. MRI postprocessing methods are used in 16 centers. Interictal positron emission tomography (PET) is available in 22 centers; all using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Seventeen centers perform PET postprocessing. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is used by 19 centers, of which 15 perform postprocessing. Four centers perform neither PET nor SPECT in children. Seven centers apply magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, and nine apply electroencephalography (EEG) source localization. Fourteen combinations of inverse methods and volume conduction models are used. We report a large variation in the presurgical diagnostic workup among epilepsy surgery centers across Europe. This diversity underscores the need for high-quality systematic reviews, evidence-based recommendations, and harmonization of available diagnostic presurgical methods. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Underwater Localization by combining Time-of-Flight and Direction-of-Arrival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleunen, van Wouter A.P.; Blom, Koen C.H.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Kokkeler, André B.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a combined ToF and DoA localization approach suitable for shallow underwater monitoring applications such as harbor monitoring. Our localization approach combines one-way ranging and DoA estimation to calculate both position and time-synchronization of the blind-node. We wil

  15. Determining the true polarity and amplitude of synaptic currents underlying gamma oscillations of local field potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate

  16. Direct mapping of local redox current density on a monolith electrode by laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Lopez, Jeffrey; Saraf, Ravi F

    2013-09-15

    An optical method of mapping local redox reaction over a monolith electrode using simple laser scanning is described. As the optical signal is linearly proportional to the maximum redox current that is measured concomitantly by voltammetry, the optical signal quantitatively maps the local redox current density distribution. The method is demonstrated on two types of reactions: (1) a reversible reaction where the redox moieties are ionic, and (2) an irreversible reaction on two different types of enzymes immobilized on the electrode where the reaction moieties are nonionic. To demonstrate the scanning capability, the local redox behavior on a "V-shaped" electrode is studied where the local length scale and, hence, the local current density, is nonuniform. The ability to measure the current density distribution by this method will pave the way for multianalyte analysis on a monolith electrode using a standard three-electrode configuration. The method is called Scanning Electrometer for Electrical Double-layer (SEED).

  17. Localized persistent spin currents in defect-free quasiperiodic rings with Aharonov–Casher effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, R.Z.; Chen, C.H.; Cheng, Y.H.; Hsueh, W.J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw

    2015-06-26

    We propose strongly localized persistent spin current in one-dimensional defect-free quasiperiodic Thue–Morse rings with Aharonov–Casher effect. The results show that the characteristics of these localized persistent currents depend not only on the radius filling factor, but also on the strength of the spin–orbit interaction. The maximum persistent spin currents in systems always appear in the ring near the middle position of the system array whether or not the Thue–Morse rings array is symmetrical. The magnitude of the persistent currents is proportional to the sharpness of the resonance peak, which is dependent on the bandwidth of the allowed band in the band structure. The maximum persistent spin currents also increase exponentially as the generation order of the system increases. - Highlights: • Strongly localized persistent spin current in quasiperiodic AC rings is proposed. • Localized persistent spin currents are much larger than those produced by traditional mesoscopic rings. • Characteristics of the localized persistent currents depend on the radius filling factor and SOI strength. • The maximum persistent current increases exponentially with the system order. • The magnitude of the persistent currents is related to the sharpness of the resonance.

  18. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi;

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a ventilated mattress (VM) used as a bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with air cleaning fabric (acid-treated activated carbon fibre (ACF) fabric) was developed and studied. The separate and combined effect of the VM and the local air cleaning for reducing...... micro-environment was exhausted. Two modes of operation were studied: 1) the exhausted polluted air was discharged out of the room and 2) the polluted air was cleaned by the ACF material installed inside the mattress and recirculated back into the room. Both modes of operation efficiently reduced...

  19. Range-based underwater vehicle localization in the presence of unknown ocean currents: Theory and experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bayat, M.; Crasta, N.; Aguiar, A.P.; Pascoal, A.M.

    This paper addresses the problem of range-based autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) localization in the presence of unknown ocean currents. In the setup adopted, the AUV is equipped with an attitude and heading reference system, a depth sensor...

  20. OBSERVATION ON THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF LOCAL SELECTION OF POINTS COMBINED WITH ABDOMINAL ACUPUNCTURE FOR FACIAL SPASM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-yang

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of local selection of points combined with abdominal acupuncture in the treatment of facial spasm. Methods Eighty cases of facial spasm were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 40 cases in each group, treated respectively by abdominal acupuncture combined with local selected points and local points simply. After 30 sessions of treatment, the therapeutic effect was evaluated. Results In the treatrnent group, the total effective rate reached 92.5%,the curative rate 75.0%; while in the control group, the total effective rate was 80.0%, the curative rate 55.0% with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion The therapeutic effect of abdominal acupuncture combined with local points is superior to that of simple local selection of points in the treatment of facial spasm.

  1. Definition of current density in the presence of a non-local potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Wan, Langhui; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian

    2008-04-16

    In the presence of a non-local potential arising from electron-electron interaction, the conventional definition of current density J(c) = (e/2m)([(p-eA)ψ](*)ψ-ψ(*)[(p-eA)ψ]) cannot satisfy the condition of current conservation, i.e., [Formula: see text] in the steady state. In order to solve this problem, we give a new definition of current density including the contribution due to the non-local potential. We show that the current calculated based on the new definition of current density conserves the current and is the same as that obtained from the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Examples are given to demonstrate our results.

  2. Structural Health Monitoring Based on Combined Structural Global and Local Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parameter estimation method for Structural Health Monitoring based on the combined measured structural global frequencies and structural local frequencies. First, the global test is experimented to obtain the low order modes which can reflect the global information of the structure. Secondly, the mass is added on the member of structure to increase the local dynamic characteristic and to make the member have local primary frequency, which belongs to structural local frequency and is sensitive to local parameters. Then the parameters of the structure can be optimized accurately using the combined structural global frequencies and structural local frequencies. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are verified by the experiment of a space truss.

  3. Radiation plus local hyperthermia versus radiation plus the combination of local and whole-body hyperthermia in canine sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, D E; Prescott, D M; Samulski, T V; Rosner, G L; Denman, D L; Legorreta, R L; Dodge, R K; Page, R L; Cline, J M; Lee, J; Case, B C; Evans, S M; Oleson, J R; Dewhirst, M W

    1996-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of increasing intratumoral temperatures by the combination of local hyperthermia (LH) and whole body hyperthermia (WBH) on the radiation response of canine sarcomas. Dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas and no evidence of metastasis were randomized to be treated with radiation combined with either LH alone or LH + WBH. Dogs were accessioned for treatment at two institutions. The radiation dose was 56.25 Gy, given in 25 2.25 Gy daily fractions. Two hyperthermia treatments were given; one during the first and one during the last week of treatment. Dogs were evaluated after treatment for local recurrence, metastasis, and complications. Sixty-four dogs were treated between 1989 and 1993. The use of LH+WBH resulted in statistically significant increases in the low and middle regions of the temperature distributions. The largest increase was in the low temperatures with median CEM 43 T90 values of 4 vs. 49 min for LH vs. LH + WBH, respectively (p<0.001). There was no difference in duration of local tumor control between hyperthermia groups (p = 0.59). The time to metastasis was shorter for dogs receiving LH + WBH (p = 0.02); the hazard ratio for metastatic disease for dogs in the LH + WBH group was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.4) with respect to dogs in the LH group. Complications were greater in larger tumors and in tumors treated with LH + WBH, CONCLUSION: The combination of LH + WBH with radiation therapy, as described herein, was not associated with an increase in local tumor control in comparison to use of LH with radiation therapy. The combination of LH + WBH also appeared to alter the biology of the metastatic process and was associated with more complications than LH. We identified no rationale for further study of LH + WBH in combination with radiation for treatment of solid tumors.

  4. Localization of defects in steam generator tubes using a multi-coil eddy current probe dedicated to high speed inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, P.-Y.; Le Bihan, Y.; Placko, D. [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan (France). Laboratoire d' Electricite Signaux et Robotique

    2002-07-01

    Steam generator (SG) tubing of pressurized water reactor in nuclear plants must be rapidly and accurately checked in order to detect defects in their early stages. In this paper, the authors present a multi-coil eddy current (EC) probe allowing both high speed inspection and circumferential localization of defects in the tube wall. A method of multi-coil EC signal processing, based on a continuous wavelet transform combined with a maximum likelihood diagnosis, is elaborated in order to enhance the detection performances and to provide automatic localization of defects. The inspection of SG tube samples shows good localization performances for defects as small as 10% deep, 15 mm long and 100 {mu}m wide outer diameter notches, of both circumferential and axial orientations. (author)

  5. Localized persistent spin currents in defect-free quasiperiodic rings with Aharonov-Casher effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, R. Z.; Chen, C. H.; Cheng, Y. H.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    We propose strongly localized persistent spin current in one-dimensional defect-free quasiperiodic Thue-Morse rings with Aharonov-Casher effect. The results show that the characteristics of these localized persistent currents depend not only on the radius filling factor, but also on the strength of the spin-orbit interaction. The maximum persistent spin currents in systems always appear in the ring near the middle position of the system array whether or not the Thue-Morse rings array is symmetrical. The magnitude of the persistent currents is proportional to the sharpness of the resonance peak, which is dependent on the bandwidth of the allowed band in the band structure. The maximum persistent spin currents also increase exponentially as the generation order of the system increases.

  6. Localized excitations in nonlinear complex systems current state of the art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri; Karachalios, Nikos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Palmero-Acebedo, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear localized excitations is a long-standing challenge for research in basic and applied science, as well as engineering, due to their importance in understanding and predicting phenomena arising in nonlinear and complex systems, but also due to their potential for the development and design of novel applications. This volume is a compilation of chapters representing the current state-of-the-art on the field of localized excitations and their role in the dynamics of complex physical systems.

  7. Fast wave current drive modeling using the combined RANT3D and PICES codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E.F.; Murakami, M.; Stallings, D.C. [and others

    1995-07-01

    Two numerical codes are combined to give a theoretical estimate of the current drive and direct electron heating by fast waves launched from phased antenna arrays on the DIII-D tokamak. Results are compared with experiment.

  8. Fast wave current drive modeling using the combined RANT3D and PICES Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Murakami, M.; Stallings, D. C.; Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Galambos, J. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Baity, F. W.; Bell, G. L.; Wilgen, J. B.; Chiu, S. C.; DeGrassie, J. S.; Forest, C. B.; Kupfer, K.; Petty, C. C.; Pinsker, R. T.; Prater, R.; Lohr, J.; Lee, K. M.

    1996-02-01

    Two numerical codes are combined to give a theoretical estimate of the current drive and direct electron heating by fast waves launched from phased antenna arrays on the DIII-D tokamak. Results are compared with experiment.

  9. Assessing the ability of current climate information to facilitate local climate services for the water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of ECLISE EU FP6 project researchers, in close cooperation with local users of the water sector from the area of Crete, Greece, explored the ability of current climate information to develop and support local climate services water resources management and climate adaption policies. A wealth of climate modeling output ranging from event scale to decadal and centennial experiments, at temporal scales ranging from hourly to monthly, and at spatial scales from very high resolution regional climate models (2 km) to typical GCMs, were used in order to practically assess climate change impacts on water resources. Water resources availability issues analysed and facilitated within the project, focusing on estimates of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with seven "state of the art" CMIP5 simulations within COMBINE framework (under RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to estimate water resources availability, during 21st century. The ability of decadal GCM prediction experiments to reproduce basic hydrometeorological variables like precipitation and temperature for local impact studies, was also examined. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model for a range of different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. A robust signal of temperature increase and precipitation decrease is projected for all the pathways. Several messages could be extracted from this provider - user interaction such as the communication of basic concepts and uncertainties, user skepticism and feedback. The main user concern was the coarse spatial scale of climate information and in order to cope with this feedback a special case was framed in collaboration with the project modeling groups for demonstrating a high resolution climate modeling application of an extreme precipitation-flood event over the study area. This effort provided a realistic reproduction of the

  10. Combined Loadings and Cross-Dimensional Loadings Timeliness of Presentation of Financial Statements of Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, I.; Dharsuky, A.; Siregar, H. S.; Sadalia, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the pattern of readiness dimensional accuracy of financial statements of local government in North Sumatra with a routine pattern of two (2) months after the fiscal year ends and patterns of at least 3 (three) months after the fiscal year ends. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample used is of local government officials serving local government financial reports. Combined Analysis And Cross-Loadings Loadings are used with statistical tools WarpPLS. The results showed that there was a pattern that varies above dimensional accuracy of the financial statements of local government in North Sumatra.

  11. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS RESPONSE OF CASING PIPE UNDER COMBINED WAVE-CURRENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG You-gang; GU Jia-yang; ZUO Jian-li; MIN Jian-qin

    2005-01-01

    The vortex-induced nonlinear vibration of casing pipes in the deep water was studied considering the loads of current and combined wave-current. The vortex-induced vibration equation of a casing pipe was set up considering the beam mode and Morison's nonlinear fluid loads as well as the vortex-excited loads. The approach of calculating vortex-excited nonlinear vibration by Galerkin's method was proposed. The natural vibration frequencies and modes were obtained, and the response including primary resonance induced by current and the composite resonance under combined wave-current for the 170 m long casing pipe in the 160 m depth of water were investigated. The results show that the dynamics response of casing pipe obviously increases, and the complicated response behaviors of casing pipe are described under combined wave-current.

  12. Measurement of local current density of all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Yen; Leu, Chih-Hsing; Wu, Chun-Hsing; Chen, Yong-Song

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a preliminary study of the measurement of local current density in all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Two batteries are designed and manufactured in this study, and the experimental results are compared. In the first cell, the current collector is divided into 25 segments, and the flow field plate is not segmented, whereas in the other cell, the flow field plate is segmented. The effects of the electrolyte flow rate on the battery efficiencies and the local current density variation are investigated. The experimental results show that the current density near the outlet significantly decreases when the discharge capacity approaches zero. In addition, the battery has a larger discharge depth at a higher electrolyte flow rate.

  13. Modified Bean Model and FEM Method Combined for Persistent Current Calculation in Superconducting Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, Christine; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Field variations in the LHC superconducting magnets, e. g. during the ramping of the magnets, induce magnetization currents in the superconducting material, the so-called persistent currents that do not decay but persist due to the lack of resistivity. This paper describes a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors, which has been developed for the computation of the total field errors arising from persistent currents. Since the superconducting coil is surrounded by a ferromagnetic yoke structure, the persistent current model is combined with the finite element method (FEM), as the non-linear yoke can only be calculated numerically. The used finite element method is based on a reduced vector potential formulation that avoids the meshing of the coil while calculating the part of the field arising from the source currents by means of the Biot-Savart Law. The combination allows to determine persistent current induced field errors as function of the excitation and for arbitrarily shaped iron yoke...

  14. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON LOCAL FINANCIAL AUTONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezure Oana Sabina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Financing of local authorities is currently at the Centre of the political discourse is a daily concern. Romania faces, usually with an attempt to offset the need for control and reduction of public spending with greater financial autonomy of local authorities. At the time, it was searched and searches for a path, a means to achieve a fair distribution of financial resources between the various levels of administration, budget reductions to all of them. If strengthening democracy means to strengthen local autonomy, then it means you have created a system for financing local authorities to be efficient, fair and pointing towards the economic needs of States. In other words, decentralization and local financing and the principle of subsidiarity are mutually dependent. Rightly, the decentralisation of financial management is considered to be the "backbone" of the administrative system of decentralisation, the financial resources being those which are operational link between the needs of local communities and the rules necessary to satisfy them. Thus, the lack of financial resources of the local self-government can result in failure to meet the needs of its members, which at the same time failure of administrative decentralization. The decentralisation of financial management can also be seen as the Government of some specific functions on the line of management authority and the tax revenue to the local public authorities.

  15. Efficient stopping of current-driven domain wall using a local Rashba field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Gen; Saarikoski, Henri; Mitsumata, Chiharu

    2016-10-01

    We show theoretically that a locally embedded Rashba interaction acts as a strong pinning center for current-driven domain walls and demonstrate efficient capturing and depinning of the wall using a weak Rashba interaction of the order of 0.01 eV Å. Our discovery is expected to be useful for highly reliable control of domain walls in racetrack memories.

  16. A note on the horizontal momentum exchange in combined waves and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf; Okayasu, Akio; Frederiksen, Jørgen Hansgaard

    1998-01-01

    The horizontal exchange of momentum due to the organized motion in combined waves and current has been analyzed. The combination of the vertical orbital wave motion and the mean current gives a periodic variation in the horizontal velocity in addition to the wave orbital motion. This periodic var....... It is demonstrated that the new contribution changes the resulting momentum exchange considerably. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... variation, combined with the wave orbital motion, gives a significant contribution to the momentum exchange. Two examples are considered, the interaction of a pure wave motion and a current normal to the direction of wave propagation, and a wave driven longshore current with an undertow velocity profile...

  17. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Han [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m{sup 2} as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted.

  18. Usage of Local Fuel for Combined Generation of Thermal and Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhihar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals that it is necessary to ensure interaction of the various concerned ministries and institutions involved in storage and transportation of local fuel in order to increase its portion in the power balance of Belarus. Nowadays there is a problem to determine the most efficient and reliable designs of electric power plants for usage of local fuel while executing a combined generation of thermal and electric power on a large scale in respect of Belarus

  19. Enhancement of Local Photovoltaic Current at Ferroelectric Domain Walls in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Min; Bhatnagar, Akash; Luo, Zheng-Dong; Alexe, Marin

    2017-02-01

    Domain walls, which are intrinsically two dimensional nano-objects exhibiting nontrivial electronic and magnetic behaviours, have been proven to play a crucial role in photovoltaic properties of ferroelectrics. Despite this recognition, the electronic properties of domain walls under illumination until now have been accessible only to macroscopic studies and their effects upon the conduction of photovoltaic current still remain elusive. The lack of understanding hinders the developing of nanoscale devices based on ferroelectric domain walls. Here, we directly characterize the local photovoltaic and photoconductive properties of 71° domain walls on BiFeO3 thin films with a nanoscale resolution. Local photovoltaic current, proven to be driven by the bulk photovoltaic effect, has been probed over the whole illuminated surface by using a specially designed photoelectric atomic force microscopy and found to be significantly enhanced at domain walls. Additionally, spatially resolved photoconductive current distribution reveals a higher density of excited carriers at domain walls in comparison with domains. Our measurements demonstrate that domain wall enhanced photovoltaic current originates from its high conduction rather than the internal electric field. This photoconduction facilitated local photovoltaic current is likely to be a universal property of topological defects in ferroelectric semiconductors.

  20. Micromagnetic model for studies on Magnetic Tunnel Junction switching dynamics, including local current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankowski, Marek, E-mail: mfrankow@agh.edu.pl; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Skowronski, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2014-02-15

    We present a model introducing the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation with a Slonczewski's Spin-Transfer-Torque (STT) component in order to take into account spin polarized current influence on the magnetization dynamics, which was developed as an Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework extension. We implement the following computations: magnetoresistance of vertical channels is calculated from the local spin arrangement, local current density is used to calculate the in-plane and perpendicular STT components as well as the Oersted field, which is caused by the vertical current flow. The model allows for an analysis of all listed components separately, therefore, the contribution of each physical phenomenon in dynamic behavior of Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) magnetization is discussed. The simulated switching voltage is compared with the experimental data measured in MTJ nanopillars.

  1. Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Localization in Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Erin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Timothy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jarman, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Sean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Seattle, WA (United States); Wittman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Detecting shielded special nuclear material (SNM) in a cargo container is a difficult problem, since shielding reduces the amount of radiation escaping the container. Radiography provides information that is complementary to that provided by passive gamma-ray detection systems: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions that may mask a passive radiological signal. Combining these measurements has the potential to improve SNM detection, either through improved sensitivity or by providing a solution to the inverse problem to estimate source properties (strength and location). We present a data-fusion method that uses a radiograph to provide an estimate of the radiation-transport environment for gamma rays from potential sources. This approach makes quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present results for this method for a modeled test case of a cargo container passing through a plastic-scintillator-based radiation portal monitor and a transmission-radiography system. We find that a radiograph-based inversion scheme allows for localization of a low-noise source placed randomly within the test container to within 40 cm, compared to 70 cm for triangulation alone, while strength estimation accuracy is improved by a factor of six. Improvements are seen in regions of both high and low shielding, but are most pronounced in highly shielded regions. The approach proposed here combines transmission and emission data in a manner that has not been explored in the cargo-screening literature, advancing the ability to accurately describe a hidden source based on currently-available instrumentation.

  2. Combined local application of tetracycline and bisphosphonate reduces alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, A; Herman, A; Bahar, H; Binderman, I

    2003-07-01

    Recent animal studies have shown that a combination of chemically-modified tetracyclines together with bisphosphonates, when delivered systemically, are synergistically effective in suppressing periodontal bone loss. In the present study, we explored the combined efficacy of local delivery of alendronate and tetracyclines in reducing alveolar bone loss. Eighty-six (86) male Wistar rats were used in these experiments. The flap was elevated using a special periosteal elevator, on both sides of the mandible, as described previously. A gelfoam pellet containing the drugs was applied between the alveolar bone and the mucoperiosteal flap, according to the experimental protocol. The rats were divided into 5 treatment groups: 1) alendronate; 2) doxycycline hyclate 10% (DOXY); 3) tetracycline hydrochloride 1% (TET); 4) alendronate + DOXY; and 5) alendronate + TET. In the operated control sites (C), saline was applied. The rats were sacrificed 21 days following the flap procedure. Sections of the mandibles (1.5 mm), in a buccal-lingual direction, underwent microradiography and were analyzed for bone loss. DOXY alone was most effective in reducing bone loss. Alendronate was also effective in reducing bone loss as shown in previous reports. TET did not reduce bone loss significantly when used alone. In combination with alendronate TET was synergistically effective. The combined local treatment of alendronate + DOXY showed no additive effect. In the present study, we found that tetracyclines can be most effective in reducing alveolar bone loss when applied locally. The combined local treatment of alendronate and tetracycline may have a synergistic effect.

  3. Quasi-steady multiple flux tubes induced by localized current perturbation in toroidal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gunsu

    2015-11-01

    Quasi-steady helical modes with dual, triple, or more flux tubes are easily produced by localized current drive in the core of sawtoothing plasma on the KSTAR tokamak. Individual flux tubes have m / n = 1 / 1 helicity, co-rotate around the magnetic axis, and later merge into a single m = 1 mode. The merged mode eventually crashes with rapid collapse of the core pressure and the next cycle repeats the same pattern, exhibiting sawtooth-like oscillations in the core pressure. The generation mechanism of multiple flux tubes (MFTs) has been studied in two different approaches to understand the observed trend that the number of flux tubes increases as the current drive location moves away from the magnetic axis up to about the magnetic surface of the safety factor q = 1 at the mode collapse: (1) nonlinear reduced MHD simulation with a localized current source modeling the time-varying interaction between the current source and flux tubes and (2) linear MHD simulation with a prescribed q profile with a radially localized current blip. Both studies show that MFTs can be produced only in plasmas with nearly flat q profile close to unity, suggesting the collapse of the m = 1 mode (i.e., sawtooth crash) is complete. Recent observation of long-lived MFTs induced by localized current drive in non-sawtoothing plasma suggests that q profile evolution toward lower- m instability is required for the merging and crash of MFTs. Work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, US D.O.E., and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  4. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs

  5. Prospective Analysis of the Current Demand of the Local Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinina Viktoriya V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in forecasting tendencies of the current demand of the local labour market on the basis of the method of statistical equations of dependencies and correlation and regression analysis for prolongation of relevant processes at the meso-level. The article considers a forecast model for co-ordination of dynamics of vacancies depending on socio-economic indicators of city development, which is formed on the basis of the method of statistical equations. This method requires identification of parameters of equations of single-factor dependencies and ratios of communication stability. On the basis of calculated values of these parameters and on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling of certain macro-economic indicators, the article builds equations of multiple regression, use of which would allow forecasting the current demand in the local labour market in the middle-term perspective. The prospect of further studies is forecasting the level of current balance of the local labour market, using the provided methods for forecasting the current supply.

  6. Drain current local variability from linear to saturation region in 28 nm bulk NMOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsori, T. A.; Theodorou, C. G.; Haendler, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the impact of the source - drain series resistance mismatch on the drain current variability in 28 nm bulk MOSFETs. For the first time, a mismatch model including the local fluctuations of the threshold voltage (Vt), the drain current gain factor (β) and the source - drain series resistance (RSD) in both linear and saturation regions is presented. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the influence of the source - drain series resistance mismatch is attenuated in the saturation region, due to the weaker sensitivity of the drain current variability on the series resistance variation. The experimental results were further verified by numerical simulations of the drain current characteristics with sensitivity analysis of the MOSFET parameters Vt, β and RSD.

  7. Local Simulations of Instabilities in Relativistic Jets I: Morphology and Energetics of the Current-Driven Instability

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Sean M; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of current-driven instability in magnetized jets. Utilizing the well-tested, relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Athena, we construct an ensemble of local, co-moving plasma columns in which initial radial force balance is achieved through various combinations of magnetic, pressure, and rotational forces. We then examine the resulting flow morphologies and energetics to determine the degree to which these systems become disrupted, the amount of kinetic energy amplification attained, and the non-linear saturation behaviors. Our most significant finding is that the details of initial force balance have a pronounced effect on the resulting flow morphology. Models in which the initial magnetic field is force-free deform, but do not become disrupted. Systems that achieve initial equilibrium by balancing pressure gradients and/or rotation against magnetic forces, however, tend to shred, mix, and develop turbulence. In all cases, the linear growth of current-drive...

  8. COMBINATION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL APPROXIMATION SCHEMES FOR HARMONIC MAPS INTO SPHERES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S(o)ren Bartels

    2009-01-01

    It is well understood that a good way to discretize a pointwise length constraint in partial differential equations or variational problems is to impose it at the nodes of atriangulation that defines a lowest order finite element space. This article pursues thisapproach and discusses the iterative solution of the resulting discrete nonlinear system of equations for a simple model problem which defines harmonic maps into spheres. An iterative scheme that is globally convergent and energy decreasing is combined with a locally rapidly convergent approximation scheme. An explicit example proves that the local approach alone may lead to ill-posed problems; numerical experiments show that it may diverge or lead to highly irregular solutions with large energy if the starting value is not chosen carefully. The combination of the global and local method defines a reliable algorithm that performs very efficiently in practice and provides numerical approximations with low energy.

  9. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Horst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Animals were mechanically ventilated and under ICU-monitoring for 48 h. Blood and fracture hematoma samples were collected during the time course of the study. Local and systemic levels of serum cytokines and diverse alarmins were measured by ELISA kit. Results. A statistical significant difference in the systemic serum values of IL-6 and HMGB1 was observed when compared to the sham. Moreover, there was a statistical significant difference in the serum values of the fracture hematoma of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HMGB1 when compared to the systemic inflammatory response. However a decrease of local proinflammatory concentrations was observed while anti-inflammatory mediators increased. Conclusion. Our data showed a time-dependent activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. Indeed it is the first study focusing on the local and systemic inflammatory response to multiple-trauma in a large animal model.

  10. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Roger L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation (MI provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed datasets are each analysed using standard prognostic modelling techniques to obtain the estimates of interest. The estimates from each imputed dataset are then combined into one overall estimate and variance, incorporating both the within and between imputation variability. Rubin's rules for combining these multiply imputed estimates are based on asymptotic theory. The resulting combined estimates may be more accurate if the posterior distribution of the population parameter of interest is better approximated by the normal distribution. However, the normality assumption may not be appropriate for all the parameters of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies, such as predicted survival probabilities and model performance measures. Methods Guidelines for combining the estimates of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies are provided. A literature review is performed to identify current practice for combining such estimates in prognostic modelling studies. Results Methods for combining all reported estimates after MI were not well reported in the current literature. Rubin's rules without applying any transformations were the standard approach used, when any method was stated. Conclusion The proposed simple guidelines for combining estimates after MI may lead to a wider and more appropriate use of MI in future prognostic modelling studies.

  11. [Efficacy of whole body gamma-knife radiotherapy combined with thermochemotherapy on locally advanced pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Nie, Qing; Kang, Jing-Bo; Wang, Bin; Cai, Chang-Lan; Li, Jian-Guo; Qi, Wen-Jie

    2008-11-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are major therapies for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. This study was to evaluate the efficacy of three-dimensional conformal gamma-knife radiotherapy combined with thermochemotherapy on locally advanced pancreatic cancer. From December 2001 to January 2006, 75 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were divided into radiotherapy group (37 patients) and combination group (38 patients). All patients received gamma-knife radiotherapy using Stereotactic Radiotherapy Gamma Rays System, with iso-dose curves of 50%-60%, tumor encircling dose of 3.0-4.5 Gy per fraction, 8-11 fractions. The patients in combination group received simultaneous thermotherapy at 41.5-43.5 celsius (1 h/fraction, twice a week for 6 times), and chemotherapy with venous administration of tegafur (0.5-1.0 g) and calcium folinate (CF, 0.2 g) for 4-6 times, or venous administration of gemcitabine (0.6-1.0 g/m2) on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin (DDP) (20-30 mg/m2) on Days 1-3, repeated every 28 days for 3-6 cycles. At 3 months after treatment, the total response (complete remission and partial remission) rate was 70.7% (53/75); the response rate was 73.7% in combination group and 67.5% in radiotherapy group. The 1-year survival rate was 48.3%, and the 2-year survival rate was 22.1%. The 1-and 2-year survival rates were 51.2% and 26.5% in combination group, and 45.2% and 17.6% in radiotherapy group. No serious complications, such as perforation, bleeding and high fever, were seen during treatment and follow-up. 3-D conformal gamma-knife radiotherapy combined with thermochemotherapy is well tolerated and is relatively effective for most patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  12. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method. In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP to compensate for a lack of drug flow in the HFT method. In another case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced lower gingival cancer. The Seldinger method was applied to metastatic lymph nodes. In both cases, additional administration of CDDP using the Seldinger method resulted in a complete response. The combination of the HFT and Seldinger methods was useful to eradicate locally advanced oral cancer because each method compensated for the defects of the other.

  13. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masataka; Ohya, Ryouichi; Kodama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Asahina, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method). In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP) to compensate for a lack of drug flow in the HFT method. In another case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced lower gingival cancer. The Seldinger method was applied to metastatic lymph nodes. In both cases, additional administration of CDDP using the Seldinger method resulted in a complete response. The combination of the HFT and Seldinger methods was useful to eradicate locally advanced oral cancer because each method compensated for the defects of the other.

  14. Fast wave current drive modeling using the combined RANT3D and PICES Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E.F.; Murakami, M.; Stallings, D.C.; Carter, M.D.; Wang, C.Y.; Galambos, J.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Bell, G.L.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States); Chiu, S.C.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Forest, C.B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States); Kupfer, K. [ORISE Postdoctoral Fellow at General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States); Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.T.; Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States); Lee, K.M. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024-1597 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Two numerical codes are combined to give a theoretical estimate of the current drive and direct electron heating by fast waves launched from phased antenna arrays on the DIII-D tokamak. Results are compared with experiment. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Current drive with combined electron cyclotron wave and high harmonic fast wave in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, X. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, N.; Zheng, P. W.; Yin, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The current driven by combined electron cyclotron wave (ECW) and high harmonic fast wave is investigated using the GENRAY/CQL3D package. It is shown that no significant synergetic current is found in a range of cases with a combined ECW and fast wave (FW). This result is consistent with a previous study [Harvey et al., in Proceedings of IAEA TCM on Fast Wave Current Drive in Reactor Scale Tokamaks (Synergy and Complimentarily with LHCD and ECRH), Arles, France, IAEA, Vienna, 1991]. However, a positive synergy effect does appear with the FW in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. This positive synergy effect can be explained using a picture of the electron distribution function induced by the ECW and a very high harmonic fast wave (helicon). The dependence of the synergy effect on the radial position of the power deposition, the wave power, the wave frequency, and the parallel refractive index is also analyzed, both numerically and physically.

  16. Local leakage current behaviours of BiFeO3 films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Cheng; Chen Bin; Zhu Xiao-Jian; Zuo Zheng-Hu; Liu Yi-Wei; Chen Yuan-Fu; Zhan Qing-Feng; Li Run-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The leakage current behaviours of polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films are investigated by using both conductive atomic force microscopy and current-voltage characteristic measurements.The local charge transport pathways are found to be located mainly at the grain boundaries of the films.The leakage current density can be tuned by changing the post-annealing temperature,the annealing time,the bias voltage and the light illumination,which can be used to improve the performances of the ferroelectric devices based on the BiFeO3 films.A possible leakage mechanism is proposed to interpret the charge transports in the polycrystalline BiFeO3 films.

  17. COMBINED MEDICATIONS OF LOCAL ACTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PAIN AND SORE THROAT SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For relief symptoms of pain and sore throat the prescription of combined topical preparations containing antiseptic and analgesic components is the most appropriate from the pathogenetic point of view. This article discusses the use of local therapy for the treatment of acute inflammatory diseases associated with pain, feeling a tickle in throat. The author introduces the local action drug, which has antiseptic and analgesic effects and is safe and effective in the symptomatic treatment of pharyngitis, tonsillitis and laryngitis in children older than 4 years.

  18. Combined oral and local therapy for the dissolution of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, F; Frang, D; Hübler, J; Nagy, Z

    1982-01-01

    The factors underlying the formation of Ca-phosphate and struvite calculi, as well as the present possibilities for oral and local therapy, their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in the light of published evidence. In this context a clinical case of multiple injuries is reported in which practically complete chemolitholysis has been achieved by combined oral and local therapy. The rapid growth of the calculi and their alarming tendency to recurrence in case of inadequate treatment is emphasized. The therapeutic method used in this case is regarded as suitable for practical purposes.

  19. Combination of cross-sectional and molecular imaging studies in the localization of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpanakis, Christos; Kim, Michelle K; Rinke, Anja; Bergestuen, Deidi S; Thirlwell, Christina; Khan, Mohid S; Salazar, Ramon; Oberg, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging modalities exploit aspects of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) pathophysiology for both diagnostic imaging and therapeutic purposes. The characteristic metabolic pathways of NET determine which tracers are useful for their visualization. In this review, we summarize the diagnostic value of all available molecular imaging studies, present data about their use in daily practice in NET centers globally, and finally make recommendations about the appropriate use of those modalities in specific clinical scenarios. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) continues to have a central role in the diagnostic workup of patients with NET, as it is also widely available. However, and despite the lack of prospective randomized studies, many NET experts predict that Gallium-68 ((68)Ga)-DOTA positron emission tomography (PET) techniques may replace SRS in the future, not only because of their technical advantages, but also because they are superior in patients with small-volume disease, in patients with skeletal metastases, and in those with occult primary tumors. Carbon-11 ((11)C)-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) PET and (18)F-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET are new molecular imaging techniques of limited availability, and based on retrospective data, their sensitivities seem to be inferior to that of (68)Ga-DOTA PET. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor imaging seems promising for localization of the primary in benign insulinomas, but is currently available only in a few centers. Fluorine-18 ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET was initially thought to be of limited value in NET, due to their usually slow-growing nature. However, according to subsequent data, (18)F-FDG PET is particularly helpful for visualizing the more aggressive NET, such as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and well-differentiated tumors with Ki67 values >10%. According to limited data, (18)F-FDG-avid tumor lesions, even in slow-growing NET, may indicate a more

  20. User Localization in Complex Environments by Multimodal Combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID, and Pedometer Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Trung-Kien Dao; Hung-Long Nguyen; Thanh-Thuy Pham; Eric Castelli; Viet-Tung Nguyen; Dinh-Van Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Many user localization technologies and methods have been proposed for either indoor or outdoor environments. However, each technology has its own drawbacks. Recently, many researches and designs have been proposed to build a combination of multiple localization technologies system which can provide higher precision results and solve the limitation in each localization technology alone. In this paper, a conceptual design of a general localization platform using combination of multiple localiz...

  1. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tringali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β-cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate. Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  2. Systemic and localized scleroderma in children: current and future treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Margalit E; Agle, Lucila M A; Efthimiou, Petros; Lehman, Thomas J A

    2006-01-01

    Scleroderma is a group of rare and complex diseases with varied clinical manifestations. The most obvious manifestation of the diseases is skin hardening and sclerosis. Scleroderma can be divided into two main subgroups: systemic and localized. The systemic form, also known as systemic sclerosis, involves diffuse skin involvement and potentially severe visceral involvement. Localized scleroderma on the other hand is more common in children and usually confined to a specific region of the body with no internal organ involvement. The juvenile forms of systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma are important conditions in children because of the clinical severity and substantial mortality of systemic scleroderma and the major growth defects associated with childhood-onset localized disease even if the active disease itself is self-limited. The pathogenic pathways of the various forms of scleroderma are only partially defined, but the main defect in scleroderma is abnormal collagen deposition leading to eventual fibrosis in the skin as well as multiple organ systems such as the heart and lungs in juvenile systemic sclerosis. Therapeutics are divided into three main subgroups for systemic sclerosis: antifibrotics, anti-inflammatories, and vasodilators. For localized disease, anti-inflammatories, vitamin D analogs, and UV irradiation have been investigated. However, the infrequency of scleroderma in the pediatric population plus the fact that this disease is very often self-limiting makes randomized controlled trials very difficult. It is for this reason that most data on treatment modalities for this disease have been extrapolated from studies in adult patients. There is no one therapy for systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma that has proven to be very effective or significantly disease modifying. However, current therapeutic strategies must be initiated early in the disease course for maximum beneficial clinical effects. New interventions such as autologous

  3. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Luo

    Full Text Available Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins.In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC, based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID, of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification.Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC.LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods.

  4. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiawei; Qi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins. Method In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC), based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID), of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification. Results Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction) networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC). Conclusions LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods. PMID:26125187

  5. A Local Texture-Based Superpixel Feature Coding for Saliency Detection Combined with Global Saliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfei Nan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because saliency can be used as the prior knowledge of image content, saliency detection has been an active research area in image segmentation, object detection, image semantic understanding and other relevant image-based applications. In the case of saliency detection from cluster scenes, the salient object/region detected needs to not only be distinguished clearly from the background, but, preferably, to also be informative in terms of complete contour and local texture details to facilitate the successive processing. In this paper, a Local Texture-based Region Sparse Histogram (LTRSH model is proposed for saliency detection from cluster scenes. This model uses a combination of local texture patterns and color distribution as well as contour information to encode the superpixels to characterize the local feature of image for region contrast computing. Combining the region contrast as computed with the global saliency probability, a full-resolution salient map, in which the salient object/region detected adheres more closely to its inherent feature, is obtained on the bases of the corresponding high-level saliency spatial distribution as well as on the pixel-level saliency enhancement. Quantitative comparisons with five state-of-the-art saliency detection methods on benchmark datasets are carried out, and the comparative results show that the method we propose improves the detection performance in terms of corresponding measurements.

  6. Effect of Distortion Ratio on Local Scour Under Tidal Currents and Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦希萍; 董凤舞

    2004-01-01

    Five generalized physical models of different distortion ratios were built according to DOU Guo-ren' s similarity theory of total sediment transport modeling for estuarine and coastal regions. Experiments on local scour in front of groins were made under the actions of tidal currents and waves with clear and sediment entraining water. The scour depths under different dynamic actions are compared. The effect of the distortion ratio on the depth of scour hole is discussed. A relationship between scour depths for distorted and undistorted models is given.

  7. Combined Heart Lung Transplantation: An Updated Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupneti, Shravani; Dhillon, Gundeep; Reitz, Bruce; Khush, Kiran

    2017-10-01

    Heart lung transplantation is a viable treatment option for patients with many end-stage heart and lung pathologies. However, given the complex nature of the procedure, it is imperative that patients are selected appropriately, and the clinician is aware of the many unique aspects in management of this population. This review seeks to describe updated organ selection policies, perioperative and postoperative management strategies, monitoring of graft function, and clinical outcomes for patients after combined heart-lung transplantation in the current era.

  8. Testing a combined radiation protection modality: chemical protector and local shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkova, M; Baldzhijska, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of combined radiation protection upon damage to critical organs-spleen, small intestine, and bone marrow was studied in adult rat males 3 days after whole-body exposure to 9.5 Gy gamma-ray dose. Adeturone, the chemical radioprotector used, was administered intraperitoneally at 1/17 of its LD50 dose. Local shielding of the abdomino-lumbal region was accomplished using a lead ring providing on average 28-30% attenuation of radiation exposure. This degree of physical abdomino-lumbal protection combined with adeturone (50 mg/kg) pretreatment resulted in mutual enhancement of the components' action, expansion of the chemical agent's therapeutic range, providing a combination with improved overall antiradiation properties.

  9. A More Accurate Measure of Local Public Goods: Overlapping Government Combinations as Units of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study posits and tests the viability of a new unit of analysis for local public goods in metropolitan areas: overlapping government combinations (OGCs. Counties, municipalities, school districts, and other special districts operate simultaneously within the same space, each providing their own set of local public goods. Residents of the same city can live within the boundaries of different counties, school districts and other special districts and thus receive (and pay for very different quantities and qualities of public goods. Though there is a great deal of literature devoted to the variation of local public goods in a fragmented metropolitan region, there is none that cumulates the different local government types into units that represent the true bundles of local public goods that are provided to citizens and property owners. This study tackles this problem through the application of geographic information systems (GIS to stack counties, municipalities, and school districts in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington CMSA into unique OGCs. The unique OGCs are compared to their underlying component governments with respect to property tax rates and school performance and are found to be statistically distinct.

  10. Technological insights: Combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing-current results and further implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on current aspects of the novel technology of combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing. It presents methodological features, summarizes current results and discusses implications for further research. The combined technique assesses simultaneously bolus transport and associated peristalsis, thus allowing detailed analysis of the relationships between bolus transit and esophageal motility. Recent studies demonstrate that combined impedance manometry provides important additional information about esophageal motility as compared to conventional manometry: (1) monitoring of bolus transport patterns, (2) calculation of bolus transit parameters, (3) evaluation of bolus clearance,(4) monitoring of swallow associated events such as air movement and reflux, and (5) investigation of the relationships between bolus transit and LES relaxation.Studies with healthy subjects have identified several useful parameters for comprehensive assessment of eosphageal function. These parameters were found to be pathological in patients with classical achalasia,mild GERD, and ineffective esophageal motility. The technology of combined impedance manometry provides an important new tool for esophageal function testing,advancing both clinical and basic research. However,several important issues remain to be standardized to make the technique suitable for widely clinical use.

  11. Instability of current sheets with a localized accumulation of magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    2015-06-01

    The longstanding problem of whether a current sheet with curved magnetic field lines associated with a small "normal" Bz component is stable is investigated using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations, employing closed boundary conditions analogous to those normally assumed in energy principle calculations. Energy principle arguments [Sitnov and Schindler, Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L08102 (2010)] have suggested that an accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of a thin current sheet could produce a tearing instability. Two classes of such current sheet configurations are probed: one with a monotonically increasing Bz profile and the other with a localized Bz "hump." The former is found to be stable (in 2D) over any reasonable time scale, while the latter is prone to an ideal-like instability that shifts the hump peak in the direction of the curvature normal and erodes the field on the opposite side. The growth rate of this instability is smaller by an order of magnitude than previous suggestions of an instability in an open system. An example is given that suggests that such an unstable hump configuration is unlikely to be produced by external driving of a current sheet with no Bz accumulation even in the presence of open boundary conditions.

  12. Direct evidence for local oscillatory current sources and intracortical phase gradients in turtle visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtl, J C; Bullock, T H; Kleinfeld, D

    2000-01-18

    Visual stimuli induce oscillations in the membrane potential of neurons in cortices of several species. In turtle, these oscillations take the form of linear and circular traveling waves. Such waves may be a consequence of a pacemaker that emits periodic pulses of excitation that propagate across a network of excitable neuronal tissue or may result from continuous and possibly reconfigurable phase shifts along a network with multiple weakly coupled neuronal oscillators. As a means to resolve the origin of wave propagation in turtle visual cortex, we performed simultaneous measurements of the local field potential at a series of depths throughout this cortex. Measurements along a single radial penetration revealed the presence of broadband current sources, with a center frequency near 20 Hz (gamma band), that were activated by visual stimulation. The spectral coherence between sources at two well-separated loci along a rostral-caudal axis revealed the presence of systematic timing differences between localized cortical oscillators. These multiple oscillating current sources and their timing differences in a tangential plane are interpreted as the neuronal activity that underlies the wave motion revealed in previous imaging studies. The present data provide direct evidence for the inference from imaging of bidirectional wave motion that the stimulus-induced electrical waves in turtle visual cortex correspond to phase shifts in a network of coupled neuronal oscillators.

  13. Regional estimation of geomagnetically induced currents based on the local magnetic or electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field vector (dH/dt and geomagnetically induced currents (GIC at a nearby location in a power grid. Similarly, a high correlation exists between GIC and the local horizontal geoelectric field (E, typically modelled from a measured magnetic field. Considering GIC forecasting, it is not feasible to assume that detailed prediction of time series will be possible. Instead, other measures summarising the activity level over a given period are preferable. In this paper, we consider the 30-min maximum of dH/dt or E as a local activity indicator (|dH/dt|30 or |E|30. Concerning GIC, we use the sum of currents through the neutral leads at substations and apply its 30-min maximum as a regional activity measure (GIC30. We show that |dH/dt|30 at a single point yields a proxy for GIC activity in a larger region. A practical consequence is that if |dH/dt|30 can be predicted at some point then it is also possible to assess the expected GIC level in the surrounding area. As is also demonstrated, |E|30 and GIC30 depend linearly on |dH/dt|30, so there is no saturation with increasing geomagnetic activity contrary to often used activity indices.

  14. Systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma--current concepts and novel targets for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Oliver; Cozzio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Skin and organ fibrosis are key manifestations of SSc, for which no generally accepted therapy is available. Thus, there is a high unmet need for novel anti-fibrotic therapeutic strategies in SSc. At the same time, important progress has been made in the identification and characterization of potential molecular targets in fibrotic diseases over the recent years. In this review, we have selected four targeted therapies, which are tested in clinical trials in SSc, for in depths discussion of their preclinical characterization. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators such as riociguat might target both vascular remodeling and tissue fibrosis. Blockade of interleukin-6 might be particularly promising for early inflammatory stages of SSc. Inhibition of serotonin receptor 2b signaling links platelet activation to tissue fibrosis. Targeting simultaneously multiple key molecules with the multityrosine kinase-inhibitor nintedanib might be a promising approach in complex fibrotic diseases such as SSc, in which many partially independent pathways are activated. Herein, we also give a state of the art overview of the current classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and treatment options of localized scleroderma. Finally, we discuss whether the novel targeted therapies currently tested in SSc could be used for localized scleroderma.

  15. Combined transperineal radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer (PC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakami, Shinji; Gonda, Nobuko; Kikuno, Nobuyuki [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)] (and others)

    2001-05-01

    Hyperthermia has been used effectively as a radiation sensitizer. Interstitial hyperthermoradiotherapy has been therefore utilized as a minimal invasive therapy in attempts to improve local tumor control for various cancers, but not for urological cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of transperineal hyperthermoradiotherapy for localized PC. Based on our basic study of hyperthermoradiotherapy, we devised the procedure of combined transperineal RF interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Two patients with localized PC underwent transperineal RF interstitial hyperthermia combined with brachytherapy operation the 192-Ir remote after-loading system (RALS). Under transrectal ultrasound guidance, a total number of 12-18 stainless steel needles for 192-Ir RALS were implanted into the prostatic gland and seminal vesicles (SV) in an optimized pattern. Eight of the needles were used as electrodes for hyperthermia, and were electrically insultated using the vinyl catheter along the length of the subdermal fatty tissue to protect from overheating. Three other needles were utilized for continuous temperature mapping in the prostate. Rectal temperature was also monitored. Total radiation doses of 70 Gy to the prostate and SV were planned as a combination of brachytherapy (24 Gy/4 fraction) and external irradiation using a four-field box technique (46 Gy/23 fraction). Hyperthermic treatment (goal of 42 to 43 deg C for 60 minutes) was performed twice following the 1st and 4th brachytherapy at an interval of more than 48 hours for the recovery of cancer cells from thermotolerance. Both patients reached the treatment goal of all intraprostatic temperatures >43.0 deg C, which was considered favorable for hyperthermia, and the rectal temperatures of both patients remained <38 deg C during hyperthermia. In serial PSA measurements of both patients, serum PSA was less than 1.0 ng/ml within 3 months and has since

  16. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dakun; Liu, Chenguang; Eggen, Michael D.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; He, Bin

    2011-07-01

    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 ± 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  17. Combining partial liver resection and local ablation of liver tumours: a preliminary Dutch experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gulik Thomas M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of partial liver resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA is a novel concept in the treatment of unresectable liver malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of this combined strategy in the Netherlands. Methods Thirty-five patients treated with a combination of partial liver resection and RFA were identified from a prospectively registered pooled multicentre database. All patients were operated between June 1999 and November 2003 in 8 medical centres in the Netherlands. Main outcome parameters were morbidity, mortality, local success rate, and survival. Results Thirty-seven operations were performed in 35 patients. The group consisted of 20 male and 15 female patients with a median age of 59 years (range 41–76. Seventy-six lesions were resected and RFA was performed to ablate 82 unresectable liver tumours. Twelve patients developed a total of 24 complications, resulting in an overall perioperative morbidity rate of 32%. In two patients major complications resulted in postoperative death (postoperative mortality rate 5.4%. Local success rate after RFA was 88% and the estimated 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates were 84%, 70% and 43%, respectively. Conclusion This strategy should only be performed following strict patient selection and within the context of prospective clinical trials.

  18. Online 3D Ear Recognition by Combining Global and Local Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Bob; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional shape of the ear has been proven to be a stable candidate for biometric authentication because of its desirable properties such as universality, uniqueness, and permanence. In this paper, a special laser scanner designed for online three-dimensional ear acquisition was described. Based on the dataset collected by our scanner, two novel feature classes were defined from a three-dimensional ear image: the global feature class (empty centers and angles) and local feature class (points, lines, and areas). These features are extracted and combined in an optimal way for three-dimensional ear recognition. Using a large dataset consisting of 2,000 samples, the experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of fusing global and local features, obtaining an equal error rate of 2.2%. PMID:27935955

  19. Systemic but no local effects of combined zoledronate and parathyroid hormone treatment in experimental autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresten Krarup Keller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. RESULTS: Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. CONCLUSIONS: No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated.

  20. Safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab combined with chemoradiotherapy in Chinese patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Fa; Tang, Wu-Bin; Pan, Xin-Xi; Wu, Chu-Rong; Cao, Yang; Yang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. Women with locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IIB, III, or IVA) who experienced relapse after first-line chemoradiotherapy and one or more lines of palliative chemotherapy were enrolled. All patients received nimotuzumab weekly at 200 mg/m(2) as single agent for 4 weeks (induction phase), then concurrent with 6 cycles (21-day per cycle) of gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2)) or cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) for 18 weeks (concurrent phase) and then once every 2 weeks (maintenance phase). Overall response rate (ORR) was assessed after 4 weeks of induction therapy and then every 3 months according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors version 1.1 (primary end point). Secondary end points include progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and drug toxicity. Descriptive statistics was used for ORR, and Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for OS and PFS. A total of 80 women with locally advanced cervical cancer were enrolled and evaluated for safety and efficacy. Our results demonstrated that none of the patients had a complete response (0%), 11 patients had a partial response (14%), and 10 patients had progressive disease (13%), giving a tumor response rate of 14%. A total of 59 patients had stable disease (74%), giving a disease control rate of 88% (70/80). Median PFS was 8.21 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.09-12.45). Median OS was 11.96 months (95% CI: 8.11-23.95). The most common adverse events were mucositis, myelosuppression, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Our study results suggested that nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy is well tolerated, and could be a better treatment alternative in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  1. Quasi-1D van der Waals materials as high current-density local interconnects (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolyarov, Maxim; Aytan, Ece; Bloodgood, Matthew; Salguero, Tina T.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2016-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of interconnect dimensions in combination with the introduction of low-k dielectrics has increased the number of heat dissipation, integration and reliability challenges in modern electronics. As a result, there is a strong need for new materials that have high current-carrying capacity for applications as nanoscale interconnects. In this presentation, we show that quasi-one-dimensional (1D) van der Waals metals such as TaSe3 have excellent breakdown current density exceeding that of 5 MA/cm2. This value is above that currently achievable in conventional copper or aluminum wires. The quasi-1D van der Waals materials are characterized by strong bonds along one dimension and weak van der Waals bonds along two other dimensions. The material for this study was grown by the chemical vapor transport (CVT) method. Both mechanical and chemical exfoliation methods were used to fabricate nanowires with lateral dimensions below 100 nm. The dimensions of the quasi-1D nanowires were verified with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The metal (Ti/Au) contacts for the electrical characterization were deposited using electron beam evaporation (EBE). The measurements were conducted on a number of prototype interconnects with multiple electric contacts to ensure reproducibility. The obtained results suggest that quasi-1D van der Waals metals present a feasible alternative to conventional copper interconnects in terms of the current-carrying capacity and the breakdown current-density. This work was supported, in part, by the SRC and DARPA through STARnet Center for Function Accelerated nanoMaterial Engineering (FAME).

  2. Local gravity measurement with the combination of atom interferometry and Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Charrière, Renée; Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    We present a local measurement of gravity combining Bloch oscillations and atom interferometry. With a falling distance of 0.8 mm, we achieve a sensitivity of 2x10-7 g with an integration time of 300 s. No bias associated with the Bloch oscillations has been measured. A contrast decay with Bloch oscillations has been observed and attributed to the spatial quality of the laser beams. A simple experimental configuration has been adopted where a single retro-reflected laser beam is performing atoms launch, stimulated Raman transitions and Bloch oscillations. The combination of Bloch oscillations and atom interferometry can thus be realized with an apparatus no more complex than a standard atomic gravimeter.

  3. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mazzoleni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.

  4. [The clinical effectiveness of the application of interferential currents for the combined treatment of onychopathies associated with psoriasis and eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchaninova, O B; Lykova, S G; Pozdnyakova, O N; Reshetnikova, T B; Makhnovets, E N; Simonova, E P; Spitsyna, A V

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of the development of clinically significant changes in the nail plates was estimated in the present study that included 454 patients presenting with psoriasis and 140 patients with eczema characterized by the localization of the pathological process on the skin of the wrists and/or feet. The changes in the nail plates were shown to occur in 56,2% of the patients with psoriasis and in 90,7% of those suffering from eczema. The capillaroscopy of the microvessels feeding the affected nails was carried out to determine the type of the capillaroscopic picture. The patients with onychopathies were largely characterized by the spastic-atonic type of the changes in the microcirculatory bed. The changes of this type were documented in 86,5% of the patients with psoriatic onychopathy and in 83,9% of those presenting with onychodystrophy associated with eczema. The effectiveness of the combined treatment including the application of interferential currents was estimated in comparison with that of standard therapy. It was shown that the use of interferential currents for the treatment of the patients with psoriasis results in a decrease of the severity index of nail damage by 47,8% in comparison with 18,1% in the case of standard medicamentous therapy. Similarly, a 77,2 and 51,3% decrease of the index of severity was documented in the patients with eczema after their treatment with the use of interferential currents and standard medicamentous therapy, respectively.

  5. Combination of the transurethral resection and prostate HIFU ablation at treatment of the localized cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-09-01

    26 patients were included into HIFU and 74 group in group of the combined treatment (TURP+HIFU. Selection criteria for HIFU ablation were the localized cancer of a prostate concerning which earlier it wasn't carried out treatments, and level of a PSA at the time of statement of the diagnosis 15 ng/ml. All patients corresponding to these by criteria, were considered as candidates for treatment and inclusion in the analysis. The nadir and stability of PSA, the histologic conclusion, IPSS, quality of life and complication were estimated at time of postoperative supervision. Results: Statistically significant influence of a combination TURP+HIFU for the term of transurethral drainage of a bladder (a median of 40 days against 7 days, incontience frequency (15.4% against 6.9%, infections of urinary ways (47.9% against 11.4% and IPSS change during the postoperative period (on the average 8.91 against 3.37 is noted. During the short period of supervision it wasn't observed considerable changes in relation to efficiency: in HIFU group the frequency of repeated sessions made 25%, in TUR/HIFU group 4%. Conclusion: HIFU therapy is modern, minimum invasive method of a cancer therapy of a prostate. The combination of a transurethral resection and HIFU ablation significantly reduces the frequency of the complications connected with treatment. Maintaining the patient after combined TURP and HIFU ablation is comparable with maintaining the patient after usual TURP.

  6. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research.

  7. Salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia for local recurrence after radiation therapy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukielka, A.M.; Hetnal, M.; Dabrowski, T.; Walasek, T.; Brandys, P.; Reinfuss, M. [Centre of Oncology, M. Sklodowska - Curie Institute, Krakow Branch, Department of Radiotherapy, Krakow (Poland); Nahajowski, D.; Kudzia, R.; Dybek, D. [Centre of Oncology, M. Sklodowska - Curie Institute, Krakow Branch, Department of Medical Physics, Department of Radiotherapy, Krakow (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present retrospective study is to evaluate toxicity and early clinical outcomes of interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) combined with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in patients with biopsy-confirmed local recurrence of prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy. Between September 2008 and March 2013, 25 patients with local recurrence of previously irradiated prostate cancer were treated. The main eligibility criteria for salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia were biopsy confirmed local recurrence and absence of nodal and distant metastases. All patients were treated with a dose of 30 Gy in 3 fractions at 21-day intervals. We performed 62 hyperthermia procedures out of 75 planned (83 %). The aim of the hyperthermia treatment was to heat the prostate to 41-43 C for 60 min. Toxicity for the organs of the genitourinary system and rectum was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, v. 4.03). Determination of subsequent biochemical failure was based on the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/ml). The median age was 71 years (range 62-83 years), the median initial PSA level was 16.3 ng/ml (range 6.37-64 ng/ml), and the median salvage PSA level was 2.8 ng/ml (1.044-25.346 ng/ml). The median follow-up was 13 months (range 4-48 months). The combination of HDR brachytherapy and IHT was well tolerated. The most frequent complications were nocturia, weak urine stream, urinary frequency, hematuria, and urgency. Grade 2 rectal hemorrhage was observed in 1 patient. No grade 3 or higher complications were observed. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of biochemical control after salvage treatment was 74 %. The PSA in 20 patients decreased below the presalvage level, while 11 patients achieved a PSA nadir < 0.5 ng/ml. All patients are still alive. Of the 7 patients who experienced biochemical failure, bone metastases were found in 2 patients. IHT in combination

  8. Combining Global and Local Information for Knowledge-Assisted Image Analysis and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezaris V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning approach to knowledge-assisted image analysis and classification is proposed that combines global and local information with explicitly defined knowledge in the form of an ontology. The ontology specifies the domain of interest, its subdomains, the concepts related to each subdomain as well as contextual information. Support vector machines (SVMs are employed in order to provide image classification to the ontology subdomains based on global image descriptions. In parallel, a segmentation algorithm is applied to segment the image into regions and SVMs are again employed, this time for performing an initial mapping between region low-level visual features and the concepts in the ontology. Then, a decision function, that receives as input the computed region-concept associations together with contextual information in the form of concept frequency of appearance, realizes image classification based on local information. A fusion mechanism subsequently combines the intermediate classification results, provided by the local- and global-level information processing, to decide on the final image classification. Once the image subdomain is selected, final region-concept association is performed using again SVMs and a genetic algorithm (GA for optimizing the mapping between the image regions and the selected subdomain concepts taking into account contextual information in the form of spatial relations. Application of the proposed approach to images of the selected domain results in their classification (i.e., their assignment to one of the defined subdomains and the generation of a fine granularity semantic representation of them (i.e., a segmentation map with semantic concepts attached to each segment. Experiments with images from the personal collection domain, as well as comparative evaluation with other approaches of the literature, demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  9. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 1. Analytic solutions forced by interior Ekman pumping and local alongshore winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; McCreary, J.P.; Han, W.; Shetye, S.R.

    OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 101, NO. C6, PAGES 13,975-13,991, JUNE 15, 1996 Dynamics of the East India Coastal Current 1. Analytic solutions forced by interior Ekman pumping and local alongshore winds D. Snankar Centre for Mathematical Modelling... linear, continuously stratified model is used to investigate how forcing by interior Ekman pumping and local alongshore winds affects the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Solutions are found analytically to an approximate version of the equations...

  10. Application and outcomes of therapy combining transcranial direct current stimulation and virtual reality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Thais; Crocetta, Tânia Brusque; Silva, Talita Dias da; Trevizan, Isabela Lopes; Arab, Claudia; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the methods and major outcomes of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality (VR) therapy in randomized controlled trials. A systematic review was performed following PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science and CAPES periodic databases, with no time restriction. The studies were screened for the following inclusion criteria: human subjects, combination of VR and tDCS methods, and randomized controlled study design. All potentially relevant articles were independently reviewed by two researchers, who reached a consensus on which articles met the inclusion criteria. The PEDro scale was used to evaluate the studies. Eleven studies were included, all of which utilized a variety of tDCS and VR application methods. The main outcomes were found to be beneficial in intervention groups of different populations, including improvements in body sway, gait, stroke recovery, pain management and vegetative reactions. The use of tDCS combined with VR showed positive results in both healthy and impaired patients. Future studies with larger sample sizes and homogeneous participants are required to confirm the benefits of tDCS and VR. Implications for Rehabilitation tDCS with VR intervention can be an alternative to traditional rehabilitation programs. tDCS with VR is a promising type of intervention with a variety of positive effects. Application of tDCS with VR is appropriated to both healthy and impaired patients. There is no consensus of tDCS with VR application.

  11. Facilitation of corticospinal tract excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with voluntary grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for the deliberate manipulation of the activity of human cerebral cortex. Moreover, it has also been shown that the non-exhausted voluntary motor exercise increases the excitability of corticospinal tract. We conducted this study to define the facilitation effect following anodal tDCS combined with the voluntary grip exercise as compared with single use of tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. Our result showed that the combination of anodal tDCS with voluntary grip exercise produced a 2-fold increase in the amplitude of MEP as compared with single use of anodal tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. In conclusion, our result could indicate that the treatment outcomes of brain and neurorehabilitation using tDCS would be better when tDCS is combined with the appropriate method of voluntary exercise as compared with single use of tDCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E

    2016-06-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Tools for probing local circuits: high-density silicon probes combined with optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, György; Stark, Eran; Berényi, Antal; Khodagholy, Dion; Kipke, Daryl R; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall D

    2015-04-01

    To understand how function arises from the interactions between neurons, it is necessary to use methods that allow the monitoring of brain activity at the single-neuron, single-spike level and the targeted manipulation of the diverse neuron types selectively in a closed-loop manner. Large-scale recordings of neuronal spiking combined with optogenetic perturbation of identified individual neurons has emerged as a suitable method for such tasks in behaving animals. To fully exploit the potential power of these methods, multiple steps of technical innovation are needed. We highlight the current state of the art in electrophysiological recording methods, combined with optogenetics, and discuss directions for progress. In addition, we point to areas where rapid development is in progress and discuss topics where near-term improvements are possible and needed.

  14. Evaluation of the local dose enhancement in the combination of proton therapy and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rovira, I., E-mail: immamartinez@gmail.com; Prezado, Y. [Laboratoire d’Imagerie et Modélisation en Neurobiologie et Cancérologie (IMNC), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université Paris 7 and 11, Campus Universitaire, Bât. 440, 1er étage, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay Cedex 91406 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The outcome of radiotherapy can be further improved by combining irradiation with dose enhancers such as high-Z nanoparticles. Since 2004, spectacular results have been obtained when low-energy x-ray irradiations have been combined with nanoparticles. Recently, the same combination has been explored in hadron therapy. In vitro studies have shown a significant amplification of the biological damage in tumor cells charged with nanoparticles and irradiated with fast ions. This has been attributed to the increase in the ionizations and electron emissions induced by the incident ions or the electrons in the secondary tracks on the high-Z atoms, resulting in a local energy deposition enhancement. However, this subject is still a matter of controversy. Within this context, the main goal of the authors’ work was to provide new insights into the dose enhancement effects of nanoparticles in proton therapy. Methods: For this purpose, Monte Carlo calculations (GATE/GEANT4 code) were performed. In particular, the GEANT4-DNA toolkit, which allows the modeling of early biological damages induced by ionizing radiation at the DNA scale, was used. The nanometric radial energy distributions around the nanoparticle were studied, and the processes (such as Auger deexcitation or dissociative electron attachment) participating in the dose deposition of proton therapy treatments in the presence of nanoparticles were evaluated. It has been reported that the architecture of Monte Carlo calculations plays a crucial role in the assessment of nanoparticle dose enhancement and that it may introduce a bias in the results or amplify the possible final dose enhancement. Thus, a dosimetric study of different cases was performed, considering Au and Gd nanoparticles, several nanoparticle sizes (from 4 to 50 nm), and several beam configurations (source-nanoparticle distances and source sizes). Results: This Monte Carlo study shows the influence of the simulations’ parameters on the local

  15. Combining local scaling and global methods to detect soil pore space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sotoca, Juan Jose; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of the spatial distribution of soil pore structures is essential to obtain different parameters that will influence in several models related to water flow and/or microbial growth processes. The first step in pore structure characterization is obtaining soil images that best approximate reality. Over the last decade, major technological advances in X-ray computed tomography (CT) have allowed for the investigation and reconstruction of natural porous media architectures at very fine scales. The subsequent step is delimiting the pore structure (pore space) from the CT soil images applying a thresholding. Many times we could find CT-scan images that show low contrast at the solid-void interface that difficult this step. Different delimitation methods can result in different spatial distributions of pores influencing the parameters used in the models. Recently, new local segmentation method using local greyscale value (GV) concentration variabilities, based on fractal concepts, has been presented. This method creates singularity maps to measure the GV concentration at each point. The C-A method was combined with the singularity map approach (Singularity-CA method) to define local thresholds that can be applied to binarize CT images. Comparing this method with classical methods, such as Otsu and Maximum Entropy, we observed that more pores can be detected mainly due to its ability to amplify anomalous concentrations. However, it delineated many small pores that were incorrect. In this work, we present an improve version of Singularity-CA method that avoid this problem basically combining it with the global classical methods. References Martín-Sotoca, J.J., A. Saa-Requejo, J.B. Grau, A.M. Tarquis. New segmentation method based on fractal properties using singularity maps. Geoderma, 287, 40-53, 2017. Martín-Sotoca, J.J, A. Saa-Requejo, J.B. Grau, A.M. Tarquis. Local 3D segmentation of soil pore space based on fractal properties using singularity

  16. Can the combination of localized "proliferative therapy" with "minor ozonated autohemotherapy" restore the natural healing process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracer, R I; Bocci, V

    2005-01-01

    Regenerative injection therapy (RIT), also known as proliferative therapy, has been used for over 30 years in the USA in patients with spinal and peripheral joint and ligamentous pathologies. It involves the injection of mildly irritating medications onto ligaments and tendons, most commonly at origins and insertions. These injections cause a mild inflammatory response which "turns on" the normal healing process and results in the regeneration of these structures. At the same time they strengthen and become less sensitive to pain through a combination of neurolysis of small nerve fibers (C-fibers) and increased stability of the underlying structures. Oxygen/ozone therapy is a well established complementary therapy practiced in many European countries. The ozone dissolves in body fluids and immediately reacts with biomolecules generating messengers responsible for biological and therapeutic activities. This results in an anti inflammatory response, which also results in a similar trophic reaction to that of RIT. It is logical to expect that combining these two modalities would result in enhanced healing and therefore improved clinical outcomes. Oxygen/ozone therapy, accomplished by autohemotherapy (AHT), is performed by either administering ozonated blood intravenously (Major AHT) or via intramuscular route (Minor AHT). These procedures result in stimulation of the immune and healing systems. Our concept is that the local injection of this activated blood injected directly to the ligamentous areas that are also being treated with RIT will act as a direct stimulation to the healing process. In addition, combining this with intravenous major AHT should stimulate the immune system to augment and support this process. RIT and oxygen/ozone therapy have been extensively studied separately. We propose a study of lumbosacral ligamentous pain to explore this therapeutic combination. We hope that this paper will stimulate general interest in this area of medicine and result

  17. User localization in complex environments by multimodal combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID, and pedometer technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Trung-Kien; Nguyen, Hung-Long; Pham, Thanh-Thuy; Castelli, Eric; Nguyen, Viet-Tung; Nguyen, Dinh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Many user localization technologies and methods have been proposed for either indoor or outdoor environments. However, each technology has its own drawbacks. Recently, many researches and designs have been proposed to build a combination of multiple localization technologies system which can provide higher precision results and solve the limitation in each localization technology alone. In this paper, a conceptual design of a general localization platform using combination of multiple localization technologies is introduced. The combination is realized by dividing spaces into grid points. To demonstrate this platform, a system with GPS, RFID, WiFi, and pedometer technologies is established. Experiment results show that the accuracy and availability are improved in comparison with each technology individually.

  18. User Localization in Complex Environments by Multimodal Combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID, and Pedometer Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung-Kien Dao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many user localization technologies and methods have been proposed for either indoor or outdoor environments. However, each technology has its own drawbacks. Recently, many researches and designs have been proposed to build a combination of multiple localization technologies system which can provide higher precision results and solve the limitation in each localization technology alone. In this paper, a conceptual design of a general localization platform using combination of multiple localization technologies is introduced. The combination is realized by dividing spaces into grid points. To demonstrate this platform, a system with GPS, RFID, WiFi, and pedometer technologies is established. Experiment results show that the accuracy and availability are improved in comparison with each technology individually.

  19. The local property taxes and municipal federalism. Current and future inequity condition of Italian Property Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Argiolas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the current local tax on real estate and the future and assessing criticality. The tax base is calculated by applying calculation methods that differ depending on the type of property you must tax. For buildings used for residential, the tax base is calculated on the basis of the cadastral income; in the case of building land is rather used the market value of land and buildings and, for rent, rural manor. The land property values are always lower than market values, which is because some time trying to implement a revision of the class with the objective of bringing the two values. The reclass procedure has recently been adopted in the municipality of Milano where it was decided to reclass of buildings located within a few micro-climates for the most central, in which houses were originally built affordable housing to meet the housing needs of the social classes poor and that over time turned into mansions in the city center. From 1 January 2012, the Imu will come into force, only municipal tax, which replaces the current Ici; the two taxes differ in the higher fixed rate (7.6 ‰, which does not involve substantial modifications to the old system tax. In this way, the result will be to produce an increase in the tax burden without solving the inequalities of the old system but increasing the gap. The Implementation Act contains provisions which IMU when applied to allow municipalities to solve some problems present in the Ici.

  20. Influence of Electrolyte Modulus on the Local Current Density at a Dendrite Tip on a Lithium Metal Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, KJ; Higa, K; Srinivasan, V; Balsara, NP

    2016-08-10

    Understanding and controlling the electrochemical deposition of lithium is imperative for the safe use of rechargeable batteries with a lithium metal anode. Solid block copolymer electrolyte membranes are known to enhance the stability of lithium metal anodes by mechanically suppressing the formation of lithium protrusions during battery charging. Time-resolved hard X-ray microtomography was used to monitor the internal structure of a symmetric lithium-polymer cell during galvanostatic polarization. The microtomography images were used to determine the local rate of lithium deposition, i.e. local current density, in the vicinity of a lithium globule growing through the electrolyte. Measurements of electrolyte displacement enabled estimation of local stresses in the electrolyte. At early times, the current density was maximized at the globule tip, as expected from simple current distribution arguments. At later times, the current density was maximized at the globule perimeter. We show that this phenomenon is related to the local stress fields that arise as the electrolyte is deformed. The local current density, normalized for the radius of curvature, decreases with increasing compressive stresses at the lithium-polymer interface. To our knowledge, our study provides the first direct measurement showing the influence of local mechanical stresses on the deposition kinetics at lithium metal electrodes.

  1. Denoising MR images using non-local means filter with combined patch and pixel similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Denoising is critical for improving visual quality and reliability of associative quantitative analysis when magnetic resonance (MR images are acquired with low signal-to-noise ratios. The classical non-local means (NLM filter, which averages pixels weighted by the similarity of their neighborhoods, is adapted and demonstrated to effectively reduce Rician noise without affecting edge details in MR magnitude images. However, the Rician NLM (RNLM filter usually blurs small high-contrast particle details which might be clinically relevant information. In this paper, we investigated the reason of this particle blurring problem and proposed a novel particle-preserving RNLM filter with combined patch and pixel (RNLM-CPP similarity. The results of experiments on both synthetic and real MR data demonstrate that the proposed RNLM-CPP filter can preserve small high-contrast particle details better than the original RNLM filter while denoising MR images.

  2. A Local and Global Search Combined Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitian Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA is an advantage optimization tool. However, it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems and it is difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine-tuning parameters. According to the insufficiency, this paper researches the local and global search combine particle swarm algorithm (LGSCPSOA, and its convergence and obtains its convergence qualification. At the same time, it is tested with a set of 8 benchmark continuous functions and compared their optimization results with original particle swarm algorithm (OPSOA. Experimental results indicate that the LGSCPSOA improves the search performance especially on the middle and large size benchmark functions significantly.

  3. Optimization of Peltier current lead for applied superconducting systems with optimum combination of cryo-stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Sun, Jian; Ivanov, Yury; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    2012-06-01

    The reduction of electric power consumption of the cryo-cooler during the working conditions of applied superconducting systems is important, as superconductivity can only be stored at low temperature and the power required for the cooling determines the efficiency of the systems employed. Use of Peltier current leads (PCLs) represents one key solution to effect heat load reduction on the terminals in systems. On the other hand, the performance of cryo-coolers generally increases as the temperature increases given the higher Carnot efficiency. Therefore, combination with suitable mid-stage temperatures represents one possible approach since the thermal anchor can enhance the performance of the system by reducing the electric power consumption of the cryo-coolers. In this paper, we discuss this possibility utilizing an advanced configuration of PCL with a commercially available high temperature cooler. Over 50% enhancement of the performance is estimated.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation combined with treadmill training in the subacute phase following stroke: case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figlewski, Krystian; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Blicher, Jakob

    Background Stroke is a common cause of gait impairment and regaining a normal gait is a major target in stroke rehabilitation. To facilitate motor recovery after stroke, a variety of experimental approaches have been tested. Recent developments include non-invasive brain stimulation techniques...... such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). In neurophysiologic studies an imbalance of interhemispheric interactions has been demonstrated which is believed to interfere with the recovery process. This imbalance can be ameliorated by upregulation of the excitability in the lesioned hemisphere applying...... (Fig.3). No major side effects were reported. Conclusions This case series supports the feasibility of anodal tDCS combined with body weight support treadmill training and demonstrates that this type of intervention carries potential for strategy to improve gait recovery in early phase...

  5. History and current status of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M

    2015-04-01

    The development of a T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T-cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period, while asymptomatic, permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and it is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions.

  6. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  7. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  8. History and Current Status of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period while asymptomatic permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions. PMID:25937517

  9. Combination of Reactive Current Droop Compensation and Line Drop Compensation for Improving Voltage Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Qing; LIN Xiang-ning

    2009-01-01

    Recent events related to power system failure have shown that voltage collapse can be a cause of widespread outages.The thrust of this paper is to discuss and establish means of mitigating system voltage instability by using a combination of both reactive current droop compensation and line drop compensation.It is shown that the point that the voltage regulator controls can be defined by a new method which is based on a widely accepted vohage stability analysis tool.This tool can be used to determine which generators will have an impact on the maximum permissible loading of a bus.Dynamic analysis was carried out on the CIGRE Nordic test system to study the impact of control point location on time to collapse and it is shown that the new scheme can improve the voltage stability.

  10. Investigation of the crack problem in non-local piezoelectric materials under combined electromechanical loadings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Li; Yiheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation of the crack problem in piezoelectric materials is performed based on the non-local theory. After some manipulations, the impermeable crack,the permeable crack (the crack gap is full of NaCI solution),and the semi-permeable crack (the crack gap is full of air or silicon oil) are reduced to a uniform formulation by assuming the normal electric displacement on the crack surfaces to be an unknown variable. Thus, a triple integral equation with the unknown normal electric displacement is established. By using the Newton iterative method and solving the triple integral equation, it is found that the normal electric displacement on the crack surfaces is no longer a constant as determined by previous studies, rather, it depends upon the remote combined electromechanical loadings. Numerical results of the stresses and electric displacement fields show that there are no singularities at the crack tips so that the stresses remain finite. It is of great significance that the concrete electric boundary condition on the crack surfaces exerts significant influence on the near-tip fields and in this way plays an important role in evaluating the crack stability in the non-local piezoelectric materials. More specifically, the impermeable crack model always overestimates the finite stresses at the crack tips, whereas the permeable crack model always underestimates them.

  11. Radio-guided localization of clinically occult breast lesions: current modalities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Fatih; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Kilic, Fahrettin; Yilmaz, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The extensive availability of breast cancer screening programs and improvement in diagnostic imaging have led to more frequent detection of suspicious and clinically occult breast lesions. Early detection of tumor is important for breast-conserving treatment. Incomplete excision is a major risk factor for local recurrence. Following precise localization and removing the entire lesion while achieving adequate clear margins is the key factor for successful management of non-palpable breast lesions. For this purpose, several techniques such as wire-guided localization, intra-operative ultrasound guided resection, radio-guided occult lesion localization and radioactive seed localization have been described and applied. In this article, we overview the two commonly used localization techniques, radio-guided occult lesion localization and wire-guided localization, particularly describing their advantages and drawbacks.

  12. Current concepts in combination therapy for the treatment of hypertension: combined calcium channel blockers and RAAS inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto F Rubio-Guerra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto F Rubio-Guerra1, David Castro-Serna2, Cesar I Elizalde Barrera2, Luz M Ramos-Brizuela21Metabolic and Research Clinic, 2Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General de Ticomán SS DF, MéxicoAbstract: Recent guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend target blood pressures <140/90 mmHg in hypertensive patients, or <130/80 mmHg in subjects with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or coronary artery disease. Despite the availability and efficacy of antihypertensive drugs, most hypertensive patients do not reach the recommended treatment targets with monotherapy, making combination therapy necessary to achieve the therapeutic goal. Combination therapy with 2 or more agents is the most effective method for achieving strict blood pressure goals. Fixed-dose combination simplifies treatment, reduces costs, and improves adherence. There are many drug choices for combination therapy, but few data are available about the efficacy and safety of some specific combinations. Combination therapy of calcium antagonists and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS are efficacious and safe, and have been considered rational by both the JNC 7 and the 2007 European Society of Hypertension – European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. The aim of this review is to discuss some relevant issues about the use of combinations with calcium channel blockers and RAAS inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, calcium channel blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, fixed-dose combination, adherence

  13. Combination of transcranial direct current stimulation and methylphenidate in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Mei; Cui, Huashun; Han, Soo Jeong; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Lee, Yong-Tae; Herman, Seth; Latif, Lydia Abul; Zafonte, Ross; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-05-21

    Noninvasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and methylphenidate (MP) are associated with motor recovery after stroke. Based on the potentially complementary mechanisms of these interventions, we examined whether there is an interactive effect between MP and tDCS. In this preliminary study, we randomized subacute stroke subjects to receive tDCS alone, MP alone or combination of tDCS and MP. A blinded rater measured safety, hand function, and cortical excitability before and after treatment. None of the treatments caused any major or severe adverse effects or induced significant differences in cortical excitability. Analysis of variance of gain score, as measured by Purdue pegboard test, showed a significant between-group difference (F(2,6)=12.167, p=0.008). Post hoc analysis showed that the combination treatment effected greater Purdue pegboard gain scores than tDCS alone (p=0.017) or MP alone (p=0.01). Our preliminary data with nine subjects shows an interesting dissociation between motor function improvement and lack of motor corticospinal plasticity changes as indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation in subacute stroke subjects.

  14. Interpolation across a muffin-tin interstitial using localized linear combinations of spherical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Yoshiro; Andersen, O. K.

    2016-08-01

    A method for 3D interpolation between hard spheres is described. The function to be interpolated could be the charge density between atoms in condensed matter. Its electrostatic potential is found analytically, and so are various integrals. Periodicity is not required. The interpolation functions are localized structure-adapted linear combinations of spherical waves, the so-called unitary spherical waves (USWs), ψR L(" close=")ɛn)">ɛ ,r , centered at the spheres R , where they have cubic-harmonic character L . Input to the interpolation are the coefficients in the cubic-harmonic expansions of the target function at and slightly outside the spheres; specifically, the values and the three first radial derivatives labeled by d =0 (value) and 1-3 (derivatives). To fit this, we use USWs with four negative energies, ɛ =ɛ1,ɛ2,ɛ3 , and ɛ4. Each interpolation function, ϱd R L(r ), is actually a linear combination of these four sets of USWs with the following properties. (1) It is centered at a specific sphere where it has a specific cubic-harmonic character and radial derivative. (2) Its value and the first three radial derivatives vanish at all other spheres and for all other cubic-harmonic characters, and is therefore highly localized, essentially inside its Voronoi cell. Value-and-derivative (v&d) functions were originally introduced and used by Methfessel [Phys. Rev. B 38, 1537 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevB.38.1537], but only for the first radial derivative. Explicit expressions are given for the v&d functions and their Coulomb potentials in terms of the USWs at the four energies, plus ɛ0≡0 for the potentials. The coefficients, as well as integrals over the interstitial such as the electrostatic energy, are given entirely in terms of the structure matrix, SR L ,R'L', describing the slopes of the USWs at the five energies and their expansions in Hankel functions. For open structures, additional constraints are installed to pinpoint the interpolated function deep

  15. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıç, Emre, E-mail: emre.kilic@tum.de; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.

  16. Effect of the combined action of Faradaic currents and mobility differences in ac electro-osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A.; Ramos, A.; García-Sánchez, P.; Castellanos, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we extend previous analyses of ac electro-osmosis to account for the combined action of two experimentally relevant effects: (i) Faradaic currents from electrochemical reactions at the electrodes and (ii) differences in ion mobilities of the electrolyte. In previous works, the ac electro-osmotic motion has been analyzed theoretically under the assumption that only forces in the diffuse (Debye) layer are relevant. Here, we first show that if the ion mobilities of a 1-1 aqueous solution are different, the charged zone expands from the Debye layer to include the diffusion layer. We later include the Faradaic currents and, as an attempt to explore both factors simultaneously, we perform a thin-layer, low-frequency, linear analysis of the system. Finally, the model is applied to the case of an electrolyte actuated by a traveling-wave signal. A steady liquid motion in opposite direction to the applied signal is predicted for some ranges of the parameters. This could serve as a partial explanation for the observed flow reversal in some experiments.

  17. Semantic Feature Training in Combination with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Progressive Anomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Hung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effectiveness of a 2-week regimen of a semantic feature training in combination with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for progressive naming impairment associated with primary progressive aphasia (N = 4 or early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (N = 1. Patients received a 2-week regimen (10 sessions of anodal tDCS delivered over the left temporoparietal cortex while completing a language therapy that consisted of repeated naming and semantic feature generation. Therapy targets consisted of familiar people, household items, clothes, foods, places, hygiene implements, and activities. Untrained items from each semantic category provided item level controls. We analyzed naming accuracies at multiple timepoints (i.e., pre-, post-, 6-month follow-up via a mixed effects logistic regression and individual differences in treatment responsiveness using a series of non-parametric McNemar tests. Patients showed advantages for naming trained over untrained items. These gains were evident immediately post tDCS. Trained items also showed a shallower rate of decline over 6-months relative to untrained items that showed continued progressive decline. Patients tolerated stimulation well, and sustained improvements in naming accuracy suggest that the current intervention approach is viable. Future implementation of a sham control condition will be crucial toward ascertaining whether neurostimulation and behavioral treatment act synergistically or alternatively whether treatment gains are exclusively attributable to either tDCS or the behavioral intervention.

  18. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH, which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  19. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Guilherme; Delpey, Matthias T.; Brito, David; Pinto, Lígia; Leitão, Paulo; Neves, Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH), which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica) located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal) to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  20. Local closed world reasoning: a personal view on current status and trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Z. PAN; Yuan REN

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction In computer science and artificial intelligence,an ontology is a model of (some aspect of) the world that introduces the vocabulary of a particular domain,and specifies the meaning (semantics) of terms.Today's ontologies are based on the description logics (DLs).With the help of DL reasoners,implicit knowledge can be inferred from explicit knowledge in an ontology.Different from the relational database or logic programming,ontologies impose the open world assumption (OWA) instead of the closed world assumption (CWA).In CWA,a proposition will be regarded as false,if there is no evidence for it being true.While in OWA,a proposition will be regarded as false if and only if there is clear.evidence for it being false.These two assumptions seem to contradict with each other.However,in real world applications,it is usually desired to combine OWA and CWA.For example,a restaurant should not close the class ‘Vegetarian Customer’ because whether a new customer is vegetarian or not is unknown to the restaurant unless explicitly asserted by the customer.Nevertheless,it can close the class ‘Vegetarian Food Menu’ because it has the complete knowledge about its own menus.This raises the challenge of doing local closed world reasoning (LCWR) with ontologies.In the following sections of this extended abstract,we review the state of the art regarding this topic.We also propose several emerging topics in this research area and discuss possible technical directions.

  1. LOW POWER BRACHYTHERAPY IN COMBINED TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH INTERMEDIATE RISK OF LOCALIZED PROST ATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Biryukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Estimation of the effectiveness of low power brachytherapy sources I-125 in the combined treatment in group of patients of intermediate risk of localized prostate cancer.Material and methods. The study included 126 patients with prostate cancer of intermediate risk. 104 patients (83,9% were conducted low power brachytherapy I‑125 in combination with hormone therapy by analogues of LHWG. 22 patients (16.1% received external beam irradiation in combination with brachytherapy I‑125 and hormonal treatment. Relapse-free survival of patients was evaluated in accordance with the criteria Phoenix (Nadir PSA + ng/ml. Evaluation of side effects of radiation treatment were carried out according to the RTOG criteria.Results. PSA relapse-free survival in the group of brachytherapy and hormone treatment at the time of observation 5 years amounted to 97.1%. In the group of combined radiation therapy with brachytherapy, and hormonal treatment PSA relapse-free survival rate was 95.5%.In both groups, relapse-free survival was noted in 96,8% of cases. Tumor-specific and overall survival in bothgroups was 100%. The major complications of treatment in both groups were radiation urethritis 1 to 2 degrees in 9.5% of cases (12 patients, urethral stricture in 5 patients (3.9% of cases, acute urinary retention in 1 patient (0.8% of cases and late radiation rectitis of 2 degree in 1.58% of cases (2 patients.Conclusions. It is possible to draw tentative conclusions about the high rate of survival without progression in both treatment groups on the background of the relatively low frequency of adverse reactions. It is necessary further follow-up for patients with estimating of survival for a longer period.

  2. Combined electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrical source imaging improves localization of pediatric focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Maria; Tierney, Tim M; Perani, Suejen; Shamshiri, Elhum A; St Pier, Kelly; Wilkinson, Charlotte; Konn, Daniel; Vulliemoz, Serge; Grouiller, Frédéric; Lemieux, Louis; Pressler, Ronit M; Clark, Christopher A; Cross, J Helen; Carmichael, David W

    2017-08-01

    Surgical treatment in epilepsy is effective if the epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be correctly localized and characterized. Here we use simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) data to derive EEG-fMRI and electrical source imaging (ESI) maps. Their yield and their individual and combined ability to (1) localize the EZ and (2) predict seizure outcome were then evaluated. Fifty-three children with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent EEG-fMRI. Interictal discharges were mapped using both EEG-fMRI hemodynamic responses and ESI. A single localization was derived from each individual test (EEG-fMRI global maxima [GM]/ESI maximum) and from the combination of both maps (EEG-fMRI/ESI spatial intersection). To determine the localization accuracy and its predictive performance, the individual and combined test localizations were compared to the presumed EZ and to the postsurgical outcome. Fifty-two of 53 patients had significant maps: 47 of 53 for EEG-fMRI, 44 of 53 for ESI, and 34 of 53 for both. The EZ was well characterized in 29 patients; 26 had an EEG-fMRI GM localization that was correct in 11, 22 patients had ESI localization that was correct in 17, and 12 patients had combined EEG-fMRI and ESI that was correct in 11. Seizure outcome following resection was correctly predicted by EEG-fMRI GM in 8 of 20 patients, and by the ESI maximum in 13 of 16. The combined EEG-fMRI/ESI region entirely predicted outcome in 9 of 9 patients, including 3 with no lesion visible on MRI. EEG-fMRI combined with ESI provides a simple unbiased localization that may predict surgery better than each individual test, including in MRI-negative patients. Ann Neurol 2017;82:278-287. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  3. Treatment of primary progressive aphasias by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with language training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Petesi, Michela; Brambilla, Michela; Cosseddu, Maura; Zanetti, Orazio; Miniussi, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is an untreatable neurodegenerative disorder that disrupts language functions. Previous studies have demonstrated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may improve language symptoms in patients with post stroke aphasia or neurodegenerative diseases. The present study investigated whether the application of anodal tDCS (AtDCS) to the scalp overlying the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may increase cortical excitability, in combination with individualized speech therapy would improve naming accuracy in the agrammatic variant of PPA (avPPA). Sixteen avPPA patients were randomly allocated into two subgroups: AtDCS (n = 8) or placebo tDCS (PtDCS). tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC (BA 8/9) 25 minutes per day for two weeks (10 days). Each patient underwent 25 minutes of individualized speech therapy with either AtDCS or PtDCS during each treatment session. Neuropsychological assessment, experimental naming, and linguistic abilities in daily living were assessed at baseline (T0), after two weeks of intervention (T1) and at a 12-week follow-up (T2). Significant improvement in experimental naming was observed in both groups at T1 and T2, but this effect was significantly greater in AtDCS than PtDCS patients. Naming correctness, as assessed using the Aachener Aphasie Test, increased selectively in the AtDCS group from T0 to T1, and this effect remained significant at T2. The analysis of daily living language abilities improved selectively in AtDCS group. Our results support the beneficial effect of targeted language training in combination with brain stimulation in avPPA patients. tDCS should be considered a useful tool for the improvement of language functions in patients with neurodegenerative diseases in future trials.

  4. A quantitative description of the Norwegian Atlantic Current by combining altimetry and hydrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mork

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we quantified the mean flow and the variability in the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC, including the individual branches, with associated error estimates. We accomplished this by combining repeated hydrographic data in the Svinøy section (at 62° N off the coast of Norway toward the northwest with absolute dynamic sea surface topography data for the period from 1992–2009. The analysis shows a two-branched structure of the NwAC in this section, with calculated absolute velocities that are largely in accordance with the independent current measurements. The mean volume flux of the NwAC was estimated to be 5.1 ± 0.3 Sv (Sv = 106 m3 s−1. In terms of branches, the estimated 3.4 ± 0.3 Sv in the eastern branch is slightly below previous estimates. The estimated volume flux in the western branch is 1.7 ± 0.2 Sv, but a lack of robust estimates makes a comparison difficult. There is a significant seasonal cycle in the volume transport (the winter maximum is almost twice as large as the summer minimum with a major contribution from the eastern branch. On the inter-annual scale, the volume flux and temperature are significantly and negatively correlated in both the western branch and in the total. Examining the results showed that increased volume flux is followed by a decrease in the stability of the upper water column, averaged over the Norwegian Sea, and a delay in the phytoplankton spring bloom at the Ocean Weather Station M (66° N, 2° E, by a lag of 1 year. The cause of this decrease in stability, whether a direct effect of the increased volume flux or a consequence of indirect effects, is however beyond the scope of this study.

  5. A critical analysis of the combined usage of protein localization prediction methods: Increasing the number of independent data sets can reduce the accuracy of predicted mitochondrial localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgow, Kieren T.; Hudson, Gavin; Andras, Peter; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of a comprehensive experimentally derived mitochondrial proteome, several bioinformatic approaches have been developed to aid the identification of novel mitochondrial disease genes within mapped nuclear genetic loci. Often, many classifiers are combined to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions. Here we show that the greatest sensitivity and specificity are obtained by using a combination of seven carefully selected classifiers. We also show that increasing the number of independent prediction methods can paradoxically decrease the accuracy of predicting mitochondrial localization. This approach will help to accelerate the identification of new mitochondrial disease genes by providing a principled way for the selection for combination of appropriate prediction methods of mitochondrial localization of proteins. PMID:21195798

  6. Numerical Simulation of Wave-Induced Currents Combined with Parabolic Mild-Slope Equation in Curvilinear Coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Lei; TONG Fei-fei; SHI Feng

    2011-01-01

    Researches on breaking-induced currents by waves are summarized firstly in this paper.Then,a combined numerical model in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates is presented to simulate wave-induced current in areas with curved boundary or irregular coastline.The proposed wave-induced current model includes a nearshore current module established through orthogonal curvilinear transformation form of shallow water equations and a wave module based on the curvilinear parabolic approximation wave equation.The wave module actually serves as the driving force to provide the current module with required radiation stresses.The Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme and the alternating directions implicit method are used to solve the wave and current module,respectively.The established surf zone currents model is validated by two numerical experiments about longshore currents and rip currents in basins with rip channel and breakwater.The numerical results are compared with the measured data and published numerical results.

  7. Interaction of Streamwise and Wall-Normal Velocities in Combined Wave-Current Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qing YANG; In-Soo KIM; Daniel S. KOH; Young-Chae SONG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an analytical expression for the streamwise velocity distribution in a non-uniform flow in the presence of waves; the correlation between the horizontal and vertical velocity components has been comprehensively examined. Different from previous researches which attributed the deviation of velocity from the classical log-law to the wave Reynolds stress, i.e. -ρ(uv)only, this study demonstrates that the momentum flux caused by mean velocities, i.e.,(u)and(v) , is also responsible for the velocity deviation, and it is found that the streamwise velocity for a flow in the presence of non-zero wall-normal velocity does not follow the classical log-law, but the modified log-law proposed in this study based on simplified mixing-length theorem. The validity of the modified log-law has been verified by use of available experimental data from published sources for combined wave-current flows, and good agreement between the predicted and observed velocity profiles has been achieved.

  8. Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer. Current strategies and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Rabeneck, Daniela; Weiss, Christian

    2010-07-15

    Background: concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma. The most appropriate radiation (RT) dose, fractionation, techniques, and the most effective chemotherapy regimen (agents, number of neoadjuvant, concomitant, adjuvant cycles) remain to be established. Material and methods: this review article focuses on recent randomized trials designed to improve standard 5-FU/MMC-based CRT through the inclusion of (induction, concurrent, maintenance) cisplatin, and describes developments in combining RT with other chemotherapeutic drugs and targeted therapies. Computerized bibliographic searches of PubMed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO/ASTRO/ESTRO meetings. Results: based on results of three recent randomized phase III trials, neither induction chemotherapy (RTOG 98-11, ACCORD 03) or maintenance chemotherapy with 5-FU/cisplatin (ACT II) nor RT dose escalation (ACCORD 03) improved the outcome of concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT. A randomized phase II trial (EORTC 22011-40014) compared concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT with cisplatin/MMC-CRT. The response rate of cisplatin/MMC-CRT was promising, but compliance to this regimen was limited. Current phase I/II studies are evaluating the use of capecitabine, oxalipatin, and the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor cetuximab. Conclusion: concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients. (orig.)

  9. Optimal HP configurations of proteins by combining local search with elastic net algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Zhen; Feng, En-Min; Wang, Yong

    2007-04-10

    The prediction of protein conformation from its amino-acid sequence is one of the most prominent problems in computational biology. But it is NP-hard. Here, we focus on an abstraction widely studied of this problem, the two-dimensional hydrophobic-polar protein folding problem (2D HP PFP). Mathematical optimal model of free energy of protein is established. Native conformations are often sought using stochastic sampling methods, but which are slow. The elastic net (EN) algorithm is one of fast deterministic methods as travelling salesman problem (TSP) strategies. However, it cannot be applied directly to protein folding problem, because of fundamental differences in the two types of problems. In this paper, how the 2D HP protein folding problem can be framed in terms of TSP is shown. Combination of the modified elastic net algorithm and novel local search method is adopted to solve this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first application of EN algorithm to 2D HP model. The results indicate that our approach can find more optimal conformations and is simple to implement, computationally efficient and fast.

  10. A case with insulinoma localized by combined use of various means

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jun-feng; HU Bing; JIA Wei-ping; ZHANG Feng; BAO Yu-qian; ZHOU Jian; LU Wei; LU Jun-xi; ZHAO Jun-gong; HUANG Xin-yu; BAO Zhao-kang

    2011-01-01

    A patient with insulinoma diagnosed by clinical features and localized preoperatively using a combination of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), dual phase contrast enhanced spiral computed tomography (DPSCT) and arterial stimulation and venous sampling (ASVS) was reported. A 37-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of hypoglycemic attacks, palpitations, and muscular weakness. Fajans' ratio reported to be an index for insulinoma was positive. Transabdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography failed to detect any abnormalities. CEUS showed a small low echoic lesion in the pancreatic body with blood flow and the early arterial phase of DPSCT revealed a small strengthening focus, which mimicked a pancreatic tumor in the pancreatic body. ASVS showed that the insulin levels in the hepatic vein were extremely increased by calcium injection to the gastroduodenal artery. An open intra-abdominal operation was performed and an insulinoma was confirmed in the pancreatic body. Enucleation of tumor was undertaken and histopathological examination showed an adenoma, insulin expression was positive in immunofluorescence staining.Symptomatic hypoglycemia never happened even without glucose infusion since the operation. His blood glucose level improved to within the normal range.

  11. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, KJ; The ATLAS collaboration; Pospelov, G

    2010-01-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at $|eta| = 3.2$ in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at $|eta| = 0.45$ of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap testbeam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  12. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pospelov, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |eta| = 0.45 of Atlas have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap test beam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested on the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to MC simulations are presented.

  13. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Karl-Johan; Kiryunin, Andrey; Pospelov, Guennadi; ATLAS Calorimeter Group

    2011-04-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at |η| = 3.2 in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |η| = 0.45 of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap beam test. The local hadron calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap beam test data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte Carlo simulations are presented.

  14. Spiking Cortical Model Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Combining Entropy Information with Weber Local Descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Ren, Jinxia; Huang, Zhiwen; Zhu, Fei

    2016-09-15

    Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF) plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM) based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs. The extensive experiments on multimodal medical images show that compared with the numerous state-of-the-art MIF methods, the proposed method can preserve image details very well and avoid the introduction of artifacts effectively, and thus it significantly improves the quality of fused images in terms of human vision and objective evaluation criteria such as mutual information, edge preservation index, structural similarity based metric, fusion quality index, fusion similarity metric and standard deviation.

  15. Spiking Cortical Model Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Combining Entropy Information with Weber Local Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs. The extensive experiments on multimodal medical images show that compared with the numerous state-of-the-art MIF methods, the proposed method can preserve image details very well and avoid the introduction of artifacts effectively, and thus it significantly improves the quality of fused images in terms of human vision and objective evaluation criteria such as mutual information, edge preservation index, structural similarity based metric, fusion quality index, fusion similarity metric and standard deviation.

  16. Hypofractionated Proton Boost Combined with External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Silvia; Åström, Lennart; Sandin, Fredrik; Isacsson, Ulf; Montelius, Anders; Turesson, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    Proton boost of 20 Gy in daily 5 Gy fractions followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 50 Gy in daily 2 Gy fractions were given to 278 patients with prostate cancer with T1b to T4N0M0 disease. Fifty-three percent of the patients received neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (N-ADT). The medium followup was 57 months. The 5-year PSA progression-free survival was 100%, 95%, and 74% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. The toxicity evaluation was supported by a patient-reported questionnaire before every consultant visit. Cumulative probability and actuarial prevalence of genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities are presented according to the RTOG classification. N-ADT did not influence curability. Mild pretreatment GU-symptoms were found to be a strong predictive factor for GU-toxicity attributable to treatment. The actuarial prevalence declined over 3 to 5 years for both GU and GI toxicities, indicating slow resolution of epithelial damage to the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. Bladder toxicities rather than gastrointestinal toxicities seem to be dose limiting. More than 5-year followup is necessary to reveal any sign of true progressive late side effects of the given treatment. Hypofractionated proton-boost combined with EBRT is associated with excellent curability of localized PC and acceptable frequencies of treatment toxicity. PMID:22848840

  17. Soft combination of local models in a multi-objective framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fenicia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual hydrologic models are useful tools as they provide an interpretable representation of the hydrologic behaviour of a catchment. Their representation of catchment's hydrological processes and physical characteristics, however, implies simplification of the complexity and heterogeneity of reality. As a result, those models often show a lack of flexibility in reproducing the vast spectrum of catchment responses. Hence, the accuracy in reproducing certain aspects of the system behaviour is often paid in terms of a lack of accuracy in the representation of other aspects.

    By acknowledging the structural limitations of those models, a modular approach to hydrological simulation is proposed. Instead of using a single model to reproduce the full range of catchment responses, multiple models are used, each of them assigned to a specific task.

    The approach is here demonstrated in the case where the different models are associated with different parameter realizations within a fixed model structure. We show that using a composite "global" model, obtained by a combination of individual "local" models, the accuracy of the simulation is improved. We argue that this approach can be useful because it partially overcomes the structural limitations that a conceptual model might exhibit. The approach is shown in application to the discharge simulation of the experimental Alzette River basin in Luxembourg, with a conceptual model that follows the structure of the HBV model.

  18. Hypofractionated Proton Boost Combined with External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Johansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton boost of 20 Gy in daily 5 Gy fractions followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT of 50 Gy in daily 2 Gy fractions were given to 278 patients with prostate cancer with T1b to T4N0M0 disease. Fifty-three percent of the patients received neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (N-ADT. The medium followup was 57 months. The 5-year PSA progression-free survival was 100%, 95%, and 74% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. The toxicity evaluation was supported by a patient-reported questionnaire before every consultant visit. Cumulative probability and actuarial prevalence of genitourinary (GU and gastrointestinal (GI toxicities are presented according to the RTOG classification. N-ADT did not influence curability. Mild pretreatment GU-symptoms were found to be a strong predictive factor for GU-toxicity attributable to treatment. The actuarial prevalence declined over 3 to 5 years for both GU and GI toxicities, indicating slow resolution of epithelial damage to the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. Bladder toxicities rather than gastrointestinal toxicities seem to be dose limiting. More than 5-year followup is necessary to reveal any sign of true progressive late side effects of the given treatment. Hypofractionated proton-boost combined with EBRT is associated with excellent curability of localized PC and acceptable frequencies of treatment toxicity.

  19. CHANGES OF MEAN VELOCITY PROFILES IN THE WAVE-CURRENT COMBINED FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to simulate thechange in mean velocity for the coexistent case of waves and current. The experimental results of mean velocity profile in a wave-current flume have shown following features: Eulerian mean current profile for following current is more uniformly distributed than the corresponding pure current case, whereas, the case of an opposing current leads to the more straight profile. This model is based on Eulerian mean framework, and motions of wave and current are solved simultaneously. The comparisons of numerical results and experimental data show that the mathematical model presented in this paper is reasonable and feasible.

  20. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eDal Pra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy (RT is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa. The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: I. androgen signaling pathway; II. hypoxic tumor cells and regions; III. DNA damage response (DDR pathway; and IV. abnormal extra/intra-cell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa.

  1. Summertime coastal current reversal opposing offshore forcing and local wind near the middle east coast of Korea: Observation and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun

    2016-07-01

    A 6 year long current measurement at a buoy station off the middle east coast of Korea reveals an equatorward reversal of coastal current in summer opposing poleward local wind stress and offshore boundary current. The current reversal extends about 40 km offshore from the coast and is concurrent with warming and freshening of water column. Estimates of the depth-averaged alongshore momentum balance suggest a major balance between the alongshore pressure gradient and the lateral friction. Sources of the pressure gradient for the summertime current reversal are identified as the alongshore buoyancy gradient driven by the wind curl gradient and the prevalence of warmer and lower salinity water in the north. Alongshore pressure gradient and velocity induced by the wind curl gradient are quantified, which yields the observed seasonal current reversal.

  2. Managerial accounting in local authorities : An overview of the current/real situation

    OpenAIRE

    Letort, Frederique

    2016-01-01

    This thesis raises the question of the appropriate type of management accounting in local government. Thepurpose of this research is to study how local authorities have been using managerial accounting. Originally,managerial accounting was meant for companies and using it for non-profit organizations, which have differentpurposes, is problematic. Studying the literature on this topic shows that the use of this management tool bylocal authorities since the 1980s has not been smooth, as it orig...

  3. Transdermal delivery of combined hormonal contraception: a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galzote RM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosanna M Galzote,1 Sally Rafie,2 Rachel Teal,1 Sheila K Mody1 1Section of Family Planning, Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Pharmacy, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The transdermal patch provides an effective and convenient option for hormonal contraception. The patch currently on the US market contains 150 µg norelgestromin and 35 µg ethinylestradiol (EE. The 20 cm2 patch is applied once weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week, for a 21–7 cycle. Typical failure rates are similar to that of combined oral contraceptives (COCs. Transdermal delivery results in less peaks and troughs of estrogen, but a higher total estrogen exposure compared with COCs. Though studies show mixed results, the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE is about twice as high with the patch as with COCs; however, the absolute risk of VTE remains low. The side effect profile is similar to that of COCs, with slightly higher rates of breast tenderness plus a unique adverse effect of application site reactions. Two new patches have been developed, one containing gestodene and EE in Europe and another containing levonorgestrel and EE. Overall, the patch provides an alternative to COCs for women who want autonomy and the benefit of not needing to take a pill daily, with similar efficacy and tolerability. Keywords: contraceptive patch, Ortho-Evra, transdermal, levonorgestrel patch, gestodene patch, hormonal patch 

  4. Combined transcranial alternating current stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation: a novel approach for neuroplasticity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Yang, Ruiting; Pitcher, Julia B; Ridding, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation can induce functionally relevant plasticity in the human cortex, making it potentially useful as a therapeutic tool. However, the induced changes are highly variable between individuals, potentially limiting research and clinical utility. One factor that might contribute to this variability is the level of cortical inhibition at the time of stimulation. The alpha rhythm (~ 8-13 Hz) recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) is thought to reflect pulsatile cortical inhibition; therefore, targeting non-invasive brain stimulation to particular phases of the alpha rhythm may provide an approach to enhance plasticity induction. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to entrain cortical oscillations in a frequency-specific manner. We investigated whether the neuroplastic response to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was enhanced by timing bursts of stimuli to the peak or the trough of a tACS-imposed alpha rhythm. While motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were unaffected when cTBS was applied in-phase with the peak of the tACS-imposed oscillation, MEP depression was enhanced when cTBS was applied in-phase with the trough. This enhanced MEP depression was dependent on the individual peak frequency of the endogenous alpha rhythm recorded with EEG prior to stimulation, and was strongest in those participants classified as non-responders to standard cTBS. These findings suggest that tACS may be used in combination with cTBS to enhance the plasticity response. Furthermore, the peak frequency of endogenous alpha, as measured with EEG, may be used as a simple marker to pre-select those individuals likely to benefit from this approach.

  5. Methylprednisolone and tetrandrine in combination with direct current electrical field for treating acute spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningjiang Shen; Yutian Wang; Ji Cai

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The direct current electrical field can effectively promote the regeneration of the spinal cord; moreover, methylprednisolone (MP) can relieve secondary edema after spinal cord injury. Tetrandrine (Tet) is an effective component of hanfangji and can protect the effect of spinal cord and axis-cylinder.Whether direct current electrical field combining with MP or Tet has synergic or strengthening effect on treating complete spinal cord injury or not should be studied further.OBJECTIVE:To study the effect of direct current electrical field assisted by MP and Tet on treating spinal cord injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: People's Hospital of Hainan Province.MATERIALS: A total of 45 healthy hybrid dogs, of both genders, weighing 10 - 12 kg, aged 1.5 - 2 years,were provided by Animal Center of Hainan Province. Somatosensory evoked potential meter (DANTEC Company), IBAS-2.0 imaging analysis meter (Germany), and self-made electronic stimulator.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in Hainan People's Hospital from May 2001 to June 2004. All experimental dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n =9), electrostimulating group (n =12), MP + electrostimulating group (n =12) and Tet + electrostimulating group (n =12). ① After anesthesia, Allen WD method was used to induce complete spinal cord injury. The metal bar, which was 10cm in height fell freely and vertically hit the spinal cord to provide a complete spinal cord injury. Dogs in control group and electrostimulating group were implanted electrical stimulators 6 hours after spinal cord injury (no electricity in control group); dogs in MP + electrostimulating group were injected 30 mg/kg MP for 15 minutes at 2 hours after spinal cord injury and electrical stimulators implanted at 6 hours after injury;dogs in Tet + electrostimulating group were intravenously injected with 7.5 mg/kg Tet at 2 hours after spinal cord injury and electrical stimulators implanted at 6 hours

  6. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  7. Field-aligned currents in Saturn's magnetosphere: Local time dependence of southern summer currents in the dawn sector between midnight and noon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.; Bunce, E. J.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Alexeev, I. I.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    We examine and compare the magnetic field perturbations associated with field-aligned ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling currents at Saturn, observed by the Cassini spacecraft during two sequences of highly inclined orbits in 2006/7 and 2008 under late southern summer conditions. These sequences explore the southern currents in the dawn-noon and midnight sectors, respectively. This allows investigation of possible origins of the local time (LT) asymmetry in auroral Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) emissions, which peak in power at 8 h LT in the dawn-noon sector. We first show that the dawn-noon field data generally have the same four-sheet current structure as found previously in the midnight data, and that both are similarly modulated by "planetary period oscillation" (PPO) currents, these being associated with the 10.7 h magnetic field oscillations observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere. We then separate the averaged PPO-independent (e.g., subcorotation) and PPO-related currents for both LT sectors using the latter current system symmetry properties. Surprisingly, we find that the PPO-independent currents are essentially identical within uncertainties in the dawn-dusk and midnight sectors, thus providing no explanation for the LT dependence of the SKR emissions. The main PPO-related currents are, however, found to be slightly stronger and narrower in latitudinal width at dawn-noon than at midnight, leading to estimated precipitating electron powers, and hence emissions, that are on average a factor of 1.3 larger at dawn-noon than at midnight, inadequate to account for the observed LT asymmetry in SKR power by a factor of 2.7. Some other factor must also be involved, such as a LT asymmetry in the hot magnetospheric auroral source electron population.

  8. Non-inductive current built-up by local electron cyclotron heating and current drive with a 28 GHz focused beam on QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; Idei, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ohwada, Hiroaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Kariya, Tsuyoshi; Mishra, Kishore; Shikama, Taichi; Quest Team

    2016-10-01

    The plasma current can be driven solely by injecting electron cyclotron waves (ECWs) in spherical tokamak (ST) configuration. A system of 28 GHz gyrotron (maximum power: 270 kW) is renewed and reinstalled on QUEST. A focused ECW beam, whose diameter is about 5 cm at the second harmonic resonance, is injected for local ECW heating and current drive. The local power density at resonance exceeds 75 MW/m2 at an injection power of 150 kW. The incident ECW polarization can be adjusted employing the phase shifter consisting of two corrugated plates. During 1.25 second pulse of ECH, plasma current is built up to Ip = 70 kA fully non-inductively with a core electron density of ne > 1018 m-3. The closed flux in such ST plasma is determined at the inboard limiter on the center stack. Energetic electrons are also responsible for the pressure and equilibrium. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI (15H04231, 15K17800), NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUTR085, NIFS11KUTR069, NIFS16KUTR114).

  9. Magnetic signature of current carrying edge localized modes filaments on the Joint European Torus tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migliucci, P.; Naulin, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Fast magnetic pickup coils are used in forward modeling to match parameters in a simple edge localized mode (ELM) filament model. This novel method allows us to determine key parameters for the evolution of the ELM filaments, as effective mode number, radial and toroidal velocities, and average...

  10. Investigation of local tunneling current noise spectra on the silicon crystal surfaces by means of STM/STS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsevich, V. N., E-mail: vmantsev@spmlab.phys.msu.su; Maslova, N. S. [Moscow State University, Department of Physics (Russian Federation); Cao, G. Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics (China)

    2015-08-15

    We report on a careful analysis of the local tunneling conductivity by means of ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) technique in the vicinity of low-dimensional structures on the Si(111)–(7 × 7) and Si(110)–(16 × 2) surfaces. The power-law exponent α of low-frequency tunneling current noise spectra is investigated for different values of the tunneling contact parameters: relaxation rates, the localized state coupling, and the tunneling barrier width and height.

  11. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2014-01-01

    studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study...... their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition...

  12. Towards a high-throughput label-free detection system combining localized-surface plasmon resonance and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Yunfang; Hsieh, Yi-Heui; Hsu, Chuen-Yuan; Xi, Jianzhong; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-09-07

    This work reports an integrated platform combining localized-surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and microfluidic chips to carry out multiplexed and label-free protein analysis. We fabricated an optical bench to enable detection using only a laboratory UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This assay not only improves throughput, but also allows quantitative analysis.

  13. Advanced decision support techniques in combination with smart card and local operating network technologies for intelligent energy management in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolokotsa, D.; Kalaitzakis, K.; Stavrakakis, G.; Sutherland, G.; Santamouris, M.; Soultanidis, S.; Moumtzis, P.; Brunet, J.; Guillaumin, P.; Pelegrini, L.; Romiti, G.; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to present recent developments of integrated building energy manaeement system combining intelligent decision making systems and smart card technology using Local Operating Network (LON) techniques applying mainly to existing buildings and to new buildings with

  14. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: r.kumar@neu.edu [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Belz, Jodi [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Markovic, Stacey [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niedre, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  15. Millisecond Coupling of Local Field Potentials to Synaptic Currents in the Awake Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Bilal; Schulz, David P.A.; Häusser, Michael; Carandini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The cortical local field potential (LFP) is a common measure of population activity, but its relationship to synaptic activity in individual neurons is not fully established. This relationship has been typically studied during anesthesia and is obscured by shared slow fluctuations. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings in visual cortex of anesthetized and awake mice to measure intracellular activity; we then applied a simple method to reveal its coupling to the simultaneously recorded ...

  16. Millisecond Coupling of Local Field Potentials to Synaptic Currents in the Awake Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, B; Schulz, D. P.; Häusser, M.; Carandini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The cortical local field potential (LFP) is a common measure of population activity, but its relationship to synaptic activity in individual neurons is not fully established. This relationship has been typically studied during anesthesia and is obscured by shared slow fluctuations. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings in visual cortex of anesthetized and awake mice to measure intracellular activity; we then applied a simple method to reveal its coupling to the simultaneously recorded LFP. LFP...

  17. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  18. Evaluation of global and local critical current densities in 122-type iron-based superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyon, Sunseng, E-mail: pyon@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Mine, Akinori; Suwa, Takahiro; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pressed tapes are fabricated. • We found an intriguing anisotropy in J{sub c} determined by magnetic measurements, which is related to microcrack structures affecting the local J{sub c}. • Microcrack structures are directly observed by magneto-optical imaging technique. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pressed tapes through a powder-in-tube method using uniaxial cold pressing technique, and evaluate global and local J{sub c} by several physical measurements. We found an intriguing anisotropy in J{sub c} determined by magnetic measurements, which is related to microcrack structures affecting the local J{sub c}. The maximum J{sub c} estimated from magnetization measurements has reached ∼1.9 × 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} under self-field at 4.2 K. Furthermore, microcrack structures are directly observed by magneto-optical imaging technique.

  19. Kinetics of local "magnetic" moment and non-stationary spin-polarized current in the single impurity Anderson-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, N. S.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Arseyev, P. I.

    2017-02-01

    We perform theoretical investigation of the localized state dynamics in the presence of interaction with the reservoir and Coulomb correlations. We analyze kinetic equations for electron occupation numbers with different spins taking into account high order correlation functions for the localized electrons. We reveal that in the stationary state electron occupation numbers with the opposite spins always have the same value - the stationary state is a "paramagnetic" one. "Magnetic" properties can appear only in the non-stationary characteristics of the single-impurity Anderson model and in the dynamics of the localized electrons second order correlation functions. We found, that for deep energy levels and strong Coulomb correlations, relaxation time for initial "magnetic" state can be several orders larger than for "paramagnetic" one. So, long-living "magnetic" moment can exist in the system. We also found non-stationary spin polarized currents flowing in opposite directions for the different spins in the particular time interval.

  20. Presentation of Local and International Culture in Current International English-Language Teaching Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeeyoung; Eslami, Zohreh R.; Chen, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The place of culture in teaching English as an international language (EIL) is a complex issue, given the diversity of contexts in which English is currently being used globally. Building on a sociocultural perspective that language use is open to negotiation and is context-dependent, this paper argues that the design and content of…

  1. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  2. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax, probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  3. 78 FR 4307 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... streamlined regulatory framework for firms to use when demonstrating compliance with CGMP requirements for... framework that takes account of the fact that combination products are made up of drug, device, and biological product constituent parts. At the same time, commenters wanted to ensure that the framework...

  4. Combination therapy with biologic agents in rheumatic diseases: current and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Kentaro; Koike, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Strategies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on ‘treat to target’ aim to control disease activity, minimize structural damage, and promote longer life. Several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been shown to be effective including biological DMARDs (bDMARDs). Treatment guidelines and recommendations for RA have also been published. According to those guidelines, conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs), as monotherapy or combination therapy, should be used in DMARD-naïve patients, irrespective of the addition of glucocorticoids (GCs). Combination therapies with bDMARDs are also essential for conducting treatment strategies for RA, because in every recommendation or guideline for the management of RA, combination therapies of csDMARDs with bDMARDs are recommended for RA patients with moderate or high disease activity after failure of csDMARD treatment. bDMARDs are more efficacious if used concomitantly with methotrexate (MTX) than with MTX monotherapy or bDMARD monotherapy. Thus, retention has been reported to be longer when combined with MTX. The superior efficacy of combination therapy compared with MTX monotherapy or bDMARD monotherapy could be because: (1) it could help to minimize MTX toxicity by reducing the dose of MTX, thus retention rate of the same therapeutic regimen would become high; (2) anti-bDMARD antibodies are observed at lower concentrations when using MTX concomitantly, so less clearance of bDMARDs via less formation of bDMARD and an anti-bDMARD immune complex; (3) of the additive effects of MTX to bDMARD, especially the combination of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) with MTX. Hence, evidence suggests that combination therapy with bDMARDs is more efficacious than monotherapy using a csDMARD or bDMARD, and that MTX is the best drug for this purpose (if MTX is not contraindicated). Finding the most effective drug regimen at the lowest cost will be the aim of RA treatment in the future. PMID:27721905

  5. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  6. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dyrda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents activated by a local and controlled membrane deformation in single red blood cells under on-cell patch clamp to define the nature of the stretch-activated currents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to allow recordings of single channel activity in intact red blood cells. Gigaohm seal formation was obtained with and without membrane deformation. Deformation was induced by the application of a negative pressure pulse of 10 mmHg for less than 5 s. Currents were only detected when the membrane was seen domed under negative pressure within the patch-pipette. K(+ and Cl(- currents were strictly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+. The Ca(2+-dependent currents were transient, with typical decay half-times of about 5-10 min, suggesting the spontaneous inactivation of a stretch-activated Ca(2+ permeability (PCa. These results indicate that local membrane deformations can transiently activate a Ca(2+ permeability pathway leading to increased [Ca(2+](i, secondary activation of Ca(2+-sensitive K(+ channels (Gardos channel, IK1, KCa3.1, and hyperpolarization-induced anion currents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stretch-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and

  7. An Optimized Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layer Model for Arbitrary Bed Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    studies of shelf circulation patterns that incorporate wave-current effects in the bottom boundary layer have been conducted in the past (e.g...presence of surface waves reemphasizes the fact that wave-current effects are important on storm- dominated continental shelves. In addition to these...can be defined for / rz z1 (i.e., */ rrzz ακR1 ), where * * / )(r cw rR u z ω . The two expressions are related by * */ /r r zR zR  0 , where

  8. Experimental study on bed-load sediment transport under irregular wave and current combined flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using an irregularly oscillating tray and flume, a series of experiments are completed to evaluate bed-load sediment transport rate under irregular wave- current coexistent fild. Testing conditions include three interaction angles 0°, 45°, 90° and two kinds of median sizes (0.38 and 1.10 mm).The results of transport rate show that the net sediment transport rate can be expressed approximately as the function of the maximum bottom shear stress of waves, mean shear stress of current and the grain size.

  9. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy combined with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kocar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The addition of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, infusional 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid before and after chemoradiotherapy was found to be safe and effective in patients with operated gastric cancer.

  10. Suppressing local hot spots due to eddy currents in magnetic coil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhen; Shojinaga, Aaron; Wu, Yong; Shvartsman, Shmaryu; Eagan, Timothy; Chmielewski, Thomas; Brown, Robert

    2011-03-01

    A particular goal in magnetic field applications is to avoid eddy current heating in coils and shields. It is important, in MRI, for example, to avoid hot spots near the patient to be imaged as well as in the vicinity of soldering joints. We develop effective analytical formulas for the eddy current behavior of sources close to surrounding conductors, we verify these via numerical simulations, and we make successful comparisons to corresponding experimental temperature distributions. Optimized patterns of incisions made in the conductors are discovered for addressing particularly troublesome heating locations. The criteria include the need to minimize the number and length of the cuts. Theory and experiment are in agreement on the efficacy of this method for reducing steady-state temperatures. An example of results in the practical design of commercial coils and shields is that a single cut parallel to the long edge of rectangular conductors reduces the temperatures much more than making multiple cuts parallel to the short edge. Supported by Ohio Third Frontier Program

  11. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy with combined intracavitary and interstitial technique improves the therapeutic ratio in locally advanced cervical cancer: Analysis from the retroEMBRACE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LU, Fokdal; Sturdza, Alina; Mazeron, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) applicat......Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC...

  12. A combined noise analysis and power supply current based testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Pulendra, Vani K.; Yellampalli, Siva

    2005-05-01

    A technique integrating the noise analysis based testing and the conventional power supply current testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits is presented for bridging type faults due to manufacturing defects. The circuit under test (CUT) is a CMOS amplifier designed for operation at +/- 2.5 V and implemented in 1.5 μm CMOS process. The faults simulating possible manufacturing defects have been introduced using the fault injection transistors. The amplifier circuit is analyzed and simulated in SPICE for its performance with and without fault injections. The faults in the CUT are identified by observing the variation in the equivalent noise voltage at the output of CUT. In power supply current testing, the current (IPS) through the power supply voltage, VDD is measured under the application of an AC input stimulus. The effect of parametric variation is taken into consideration by determining the tolerance limit using the Monte-Carlo analysis. The fault is identified if the power supply current, IPS lies outside the deviation given by Monte-Carlo analysis. Simulation results are in close agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

  13. Current signatures and search for Pop. III stars in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Recent numerical studies argue that low-mass stars can be formed even at zero-metallicity environment. These low-mass Population III(Pop.~III) stars are thought to be still shining and able to be observed in the Local Universe. Most low-mass Pop.~III stars are thought to be formed as secondary companions in binary systems. They can be escaped from their host mini-halos when their primary companions explode as supernovae. In this paper, we estimate the escape probability of the low-mass Pop.~III stars from their host mini-halos. We find that $\\sim 100$ Pop.~III stars are expected. We also compute spatial distribution of these escaped Pop.~III survivors by means of the semi-analytic hierarchical chemical evolution model. Typically, they are distributed around $\\sim 2$Mpc away from the Milky Way but 5 -- $35\\%$ of the escaped stars fall into the Milky Way halo. These escaped Pop.~III stars are possibly detected by very large scaled surveys being planned.

  14. A COX-2 inhibitor combined with chemoradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Mortensen, John Pløen; Bisgaard, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effect of a COX-2 inhibitor in addition to chemoradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 35 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients had a tumor localised....

  15. Combining close-range and remote sensing for local assessment of biophysical characteristics of arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schut, A.G.T.

    2007-01-01

    For crop management, information on the actual status of the crop is important for taking decisions on nitrogen supply, water supply or harvesting. One would also like to take into account the local spatial variation of the crop. Remote sensing has proved to be a useful technique for estimating and

  16. Combined radical prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection for locally invasive rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernández-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: En bloc radical prostatectomy and proctosigmoidectomy is feasible in selected patients with rectal cancer and invasion limited to the prostate or seminal vesicles because it provides good local tumor control and significantly improves the patient's quality of life in comparison to total pelvic exenteration.

  17. Comparison of Galvanic Currents Generated Between Different Combinations of Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires Using Potentiostat: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Shafiuddin, Bareera; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Shetty, Smitha V

    2015-07-01

    Technological advances in wire selection and bracket design have led to improved treatment efficiency and allowed longer time intervals between appliance adjustments. The wires remain in the mouth for a longer duration and are subjected to electrochemical reactions, mechanical forces of mastication and generalized wear. These cause different types of corrosion. This study was done to compare the galvanic currents generated between different combinations of brackets and archwires commonly used in orthodontic practices. The materials used for the study included different commercially available orthodontic archwires and brackets. The galvanic current generated by individual materials and different combinations of these materials was tested and compared. The orthodontic archwires used were 0.019″ × 0.025″ heat-activated nickel-titanium (3M Unitek), 0.019″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium (3M Unitek) and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel (3M Unitek). The orthodontic brackets used were 0.022″ MBT laser-cut (Victory Series, 3M Unitek) and metal-injection molded (Leone Company) maxillary central incisor brackets respectively. The ligature wire used for ligation was 0.009″ stainless steel ligature (HP Company). The galvanic current for individual archwires, brackets, and the different bracket-archwire-ligature combinations was measured by using a Potentiostat machine. The data were generated using the Linear Sweep Voltammetry and OriginPro 8.5 Graphing and Data Analysis Softwares. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I comprised of five groups for open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (I), whereas Phase II comprised of six groups for galvanic current alone. Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the OCP and galvanic current (I) values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. In Phase I, higher mean OCP was recorded in stainless steel archwire, followed by beta-titanium archwire, heat-activated nickel

  18. Local triple-combination therapy results in tumour regression and prevents recurrence in a colon cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, João; Oliva, Nuria; Zhang, Yi; Artzi, Natalie

    2016-10-01

    Conventional cancer therapies involve the systemic delivery of anticancer agents that neither discriminate between cancer and normal cells nor eliminate the risk of cancer recurrence. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of gene, drug and phototherapy delivered through a prophylactic hydrogel patch leads, in a colon cancer mouse model, to complete tumour remission when applied to non-resected tumours and to the absence of tumour recurrence when applied following tumour resection. The adhesive hydrogel patch enhanced the stability and provided local delivery of embedded nanoparticles. Spherical gold nanoparticles were used as a first wave of treatment to deliver siRNAs against Kras, a key oncogene driver, and rod-shaped gold nanoparticles mediated the conversion of near-infrared radiation into heat, causing the release of a chemotherapeutic as well as thermally induced cell damage. This local, triple-combination therapy can be adapted to other cancer cell types and to molecular targets associated with disease progression.

  19. Current role of treatment in men with lower urinary tract symptoms combined with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are highly prevalent in older men. The storage subcategory of LUTS is synonymous with overactive bladder (OAB syndrome, which is an empirical diagnosis. Traditionally, alpha-blockers are widely prescribed to manage the LUTS of BPH, although storage symptoms may persist in many men despite treatment. Therefore, because therapies that target the prostate often fail to alleviate storage symptoms, they may not be the appropriate therapy for OAB. In past years, most physicians appeared to give more weight in elderly men to voiding symptoms than to storage symptoms and to be more concerned with initial treatment with anticholinergics for males with storage symptoms. Considering the recent increase in data on the efficacy and safety of combination treatment with alpha receptor antagonists and antimuscarinic agents, the standard pharmacologic treatment of patients with LUTS combined with OAB should be an alpha receptor antagonist and an antimuscarinic agent. Beta-3 adrenoreceptor agonists may also potentially be useful for the treatment of male LUTS combined with OAB.

  20. Review of clinical studies of fenofibrate in combination with currently approved lipid-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W V

    1989-01-01

    Recent trials have investigated the usefulness of fenofibrate, alone and in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies, in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Studies of fenofibrate + bile acid sequestrants demonstrate that these two therapies may have an additive effect in reducing total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia or familial hypercholesterolemia. These lipoprotein changes have been associated with a regression of tendon xanthoma. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that bile acid sequestrants do not alter the absorption or the plasma levels of fenofibrate. The combined use of fenofibrate with bile acid sequestrants has been found to be comparably effective with the new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, synvinolin, with respect to the reduction of total cholesterol and LDL. Although synvinolin was more effective in lowering LDL, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced to a greater extent with fenofibrate. Another notable difference was that fenofibrate + bile acids more markedly increased HDL levels. The combination of fenofibrate + nicotinic acid also appears to have a beneficial effect on lipoproteins. These preliminary results indicate that fenofibrate may be a useful addition to the present lipid-lowering drug armamentarium.

  1. Coastal erosion management in Accra: Combining local knowledge and empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal erosion along the Accra coast has become a chronic phenomenon that threatens both life and property. The issue has assumed a centre stage of national debate in recent times because of its impact on the coastal communities. Lack of reliable geospatial data hinders effective scientific investigations into the changing trends in the shoreline position. However, knowledge about coastal erosion, by the local people, and how far the shoreline has migrated inland over time is high in the coastal communities in Accra. This opens a new chapter in coastal erosion research to include local knowledge of the local settlers in developing sustainable coastal management. This article adopted a scientific approach to estimate rate of erosion and tested the results against perceived erosion trend by the local settlers. The study used a 1974 digital topographic map and 1996 aerial photographs. The end point rate statistical method in DSAS was used to compute the rates of change. The short-term rate of change for the 22-year period under study was estimated as -0.91 m/annum ± 0.49 m/annum. It was revealed that about 79% of the shoreline is eroding, while the remaining 21% is either stabilised or accreting. It emerged, from semi-structured interviews with inhabitants in the Accra coastal communities, that an average of about 30 m of coastal lands are perceived to have been lost to erosion for a period of about 20 years. This translates to a historic rate of change of about 1.5 m/year, which corroborates the results of the scientific study. Again this study has established that the local knowledge of the inhabitants, about coastal erosion, can serve as reliable information under scarcity of scientific data for coastal erosion analyses in developing countries.

  2. Direct current stimulation (tDCS) reveals parietal asymmetry in local/global and salience-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Kanai, Ryota; Mapelli, Daniela; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Data from neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies indicate hemispheric asymmetries in processing object's global form versus local parts. However the attentional mechanisms subtending visual selection of different levels of information are poorly understood. The classical left hemisphere/local-right hemisphere/global dichotomy has been recently challenged by studies linking the asymmetry of activation in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) with the relative salience of the stimulus rather than with the local/global level. The present study aimed to assess hemispheric asymmetry in local-global and salience-based selection in hierarchical stimuli by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To this end, tDCS has been applied to the PPC of both the hemispheres. Our data revealed that tDCS did affect the selection of the target on the basis of its relative salience in a manner that depended on the tDCS polarity applied to the two hemispheres. This result is in line with previous findings that the left PPC is critically involved in attention for low-salience stimuli in the presence of high-salience distractor information, while right PPC is involved in attending to more salient stimuli. Hemispheric asymmetries were also found in local/global selection. Overall the results suggest that neural activation in the PPC is related to both the salience and the level of stimulus representations mediating responses to hierarchical stimuli. The comparison of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 in local/global-based selection suggests that the effect of stimulation could be completely opposite depending on subtle differences in demands of attentional control (sustained attention vs task switching).

  3. Unconditional Stability for Numerical Scheme Combining Implicit Timestepping for Local Effects and Explicit Timestepping for Nonlocal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anitescu, Mihai; Layton, William J.; Pahlevani, Faranak

    2003-01-01

    A combination of implicit and explicit timestepping is analyzed for a system of ODEs motivated by ones arising from spatial discretizations of evolutionary partial differential equations. Loosely speaking, the method we consider is implicit in local and stabilizing terms in the underlying PDE and explicit in nonlocal and unstabilizing terms. Unconditional stability and convergence of the numerical scheme are proven by the energy method and by algebraic techniques. This stability result is sur...

  4. Influence of local mucosal anesthesia combined with non tracheal intubation general anesthesia on EMR patients' intra-operative serum indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Yong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of local mucosal anesthesia combined with non tracheal intubation general anesthesia on EMR patients’ intra-operative serum indexes.Methods: 162 patients who received EMR from September 2013 to September 2014 in our hospital were enrolled and randomly divided into the observation group, including 81 cases, who received local mucosal anesthesia combined with non tracheal intubation general anesthesia, and the control group, including 81 cases, who received local mucosal anesthesia combined with routine tracheal intubation general anesthesia. Then inflammation index, stress index and immune index, etc were compared.Results:1) after general anesthesia, serum cytokine levels of IL-23, IL-32, PCT,β-EP and TNF-α, etc of the observation group were all significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05); 2) after general anesthesia, serum cytokine levels of COR, ET, TH and Ins, etc of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05); 3) after general anesthesia, serum levels of sICAM 1, CD11b, CD18 and CD20 of the observation group were lower than those of the control group; CD56 level was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Local mucosal anesthesia combined with non tracheal intubation general anesthesia provides sufficient anesthetic depth for EMR patients, and at the same time, can effectively reduce intra-operative systemic inflammatory response and stress response and contribute to the protection of body's immune function.

  5. Successful combination treatment of a patient with progressive juvenile localized scleroderma (morphea) using imatinib, corticosteroids, and methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamo, Yasuji; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of progressive juvenile localized scleroderma (JLS or morphea) treated with a combination of imatinib, corticosteroids, and methotrexate. This therapy halted the progressive skin thickening and the hand and finger joint deformity in the early stages of the disease. We conclude that imatinib used in addition to standard treatment with systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate may be of therapeutic benefit for individuals with JLS.

  6. Seizure-freedom with combination therapy in localization-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Jukka; Peltola, Maria; Raitanen, Jani; Keränen, Tapani; Kharazmi, Elham; Auvinen, Anssi

    2008-04-01

    We analyzed the effect of combination therapy on seizure frequency in all adult patients (N=193) with focal epilepsy followed at a single institution in a cross-sectional study. One hundred and thirty-five patients were on two AEDs, of them, 37 (27%) were seizure-free, 50 patients were on three AEDs including 5 (10%) seizure-free patients (pseizure-freedom with two AEDs versus three AEDs). Thirty-five different combinations were used in patients on two AEDs and 40 combinations on patients on three drugs emphasizing the difficulties involved in evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of specific combinations. The significant proportion of seizure-free cases (27%) on duotherapy is suggesting the usefulness of combination therapy in achieving seizure-freedom in epilepsies refractory to single drug treatment. The material in the study was not from a randomized trial and therefore the comparability of patients on different AEDs is uncertain, but on the other hand the clinical practice followed provides a natural experiment suitable for comparative, non-randomized assessment of treatment outcomes.

  7. Novel Approaches for Concurrent Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Platinum Combinations, Non-Platinum-Containing Regimens, and Molecular Targeted Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Mountzios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the available prevention and early detection strategies, squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is still diagnosed as locally advanced disease in a considerable proportion of patients. As a potent sensitizer of cancer cells, cisplatin has been the “traditional partner” of external beam irradiation in this setting for more than two decades. Induction chemotherapy strategies followed by concurrent chemoradiation or surgery and preoperative concurrent chemoradiation have been recently implemented in clinical trials in an effort to optimize local control and to minimize the risk of distant metastases. In this context, cisplatin has been combined with a number of other potential radiosensitizers, including 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, and gemcitabine. In patients resistant or intolerant to platinum compounds, numerous non-platinum-containing regimens have been developed, implementing various antimetabolites, taxanes, antineoplastic antibiotics, and topoisomerase II inhibitors. More recently, molecular agents targeting critical pathways in cervical malignant transformation are being assessed in early clinical trials in combination with external-beam irradiation. In the current work, we review the evolving role of cisplatin and other platinum compounds, either alone or in combination regimens, in the context of other potent radiosensitizers. The emerging role of molecular targeted agents, as candidate partners of external beam irradiation, is also discussed.

  8. Combined effects of local and nonlocal hybridization on formation and condensation of excitons in the extended Falicov-Kimball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkašovský, Pavol

    2017-04-01

    We study the combined effects of local and nonlocal hybridization on the formation and condensation of the excitonic bound states in the extended Falicov-Kimball model by the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method. Analysing the resultant behaviours of the excitonic momentum distribution N(q) we found, that unlike the local hybridization V, which supports the formation of the q=0 momentum condensate, the nonlocal hybridization Vn supports the formation of the q = π momentum condensate. The combined effect of local and nonlocal hybridization further enhances the excitonic correlations in q=0 as well as q = π state, especially for V and Vn values from the charge-density-wave (CDW) region. Strong effects of local and nonlocal hybridization are observed also for other ground-state quantities of the model such as the f-electron density, or the density of unbound d-electrons, which are generally enhanced with increasing V and Vn. The same calculations performed for nonzero values of f-level energy Ef revealed that this model can yield a reasonable explanation for the pressure-induced resistivity anomaly observed experimentally in TmSe0.45Te0.55 compound.

  9. Extremely Severe Space Weather and Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Regions with Locally Heterogeneous Ground Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Kataoka, Ryuho; Pulkkinen, Antti; Watari, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Large geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) triggered by extreme space weather events are now regarded as one of the serious natural threats to the modern electrified society. The risk is described in detail in High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk, A Jointly-Commissioned Summary Report of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the US Department of Energy's November 2009 Workshop, June 2010. For example, the March 13-14,1989 storm caused a large-scale blackout affecting about 6 million people in Quebec, Canada, and resulting in substantial economic losses in Canada and the USA (Bolduc 2002). Therefore, European and North American nations have invested in GIC research such as the Solar Shield project in the USA (Pulkkinen et al. 2009, 2015a). In 2015, the Japanese government (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI) acknowledged the importance of GIC research in Japan. After reviewing the serious damages caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, METI recognized the potential risk to the electric power grid posed by extreme space weather. During extreme events, GICs can be concerning even in mid- and low-latitude countries and have become a global issue.

  10. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  11. Relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distribution modulated by localized background magnetic field perturbation driven by hot ring current ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Chen, Lunjin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan; Xia, Zhiyang; Pu, Zuyin

    2017-05-01

    Dayside modulated relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs) from ˜200 keV to 2.6 MeV were observed by Van Allen Probe B at L = 5.3 on 15 November 2013. They were associated with localized magnetic dip driven by hot ring current ion (60-100 keV proton and 60-200 keV helium and oxygen) injections. We reproduce the electron's butterfly PADs at satellite's location using test particle simulation. The simulation results illustrate that a negative radial flux gradient contributes primarily to the formation of the modulated electron's butterfly PADs through inward transport due to the inductive electric field, while deceleration due to the inductive electric field and pitch angle change also makes in part contribution. We suggest that localized magnetic field perturbation, which is a frequent phenomenon in the magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances, is of great importance for creating electron's butterfly PADs in the Earth's radiation belts.

  12. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents......-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.......BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced...

  13. Local homogeneity combined with DCT statistics to blind noisy image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingxian; Chen, Li; Chen, Heping

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a novel method for blind noisy image quality assessment is proposed. First, it is believed that human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to the local smoothness area in a noise image, an adaptively local homogeneous block selection algorithm is proposed to construct a new homogeneous image named as homogeneity blocks (HB) based on computing each pixel characteristic. Second, applying the discrete cosine transform (DCT) for each HB and using high frequency component to evaluate image noise level. Finally, a modified peak signal to noise ratio (MPSNR) image quality assessment approach is proposed based on analysis DCT kurtosis distributions change and noise level above-mentioned. Simulations show that the quality scores that produced from the proposed algorithm are well correlated with the human perception of quality and also have a stability performance.

  14. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-...

  15. Preoperative chemoradiation of locally advanced T3 rectal cancer combined with an endorectal boost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Mortensen, John P; Bisgaard, Claus

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect and feasibility of concurrent radiation and chemotherapy combined with endorectal brachytherapy in T3 rectal cancer with complete pathologic remission as end point. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 50 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients had...

  16. Local stress analysis on semiconductor devices by combined experimental-numerical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Driel, W. van; Alkemade, P.; Miro, H.; Kamminga, J.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic stresses in bondpads may lead to early failure of IC's. In order to determine the intrinsic stresses in semiconductor structures, a new procedure is set up. This procedure is a combined experimental/numerical approach which consists of the following steps: First, a conductive gold layer (2

  17. Isobolographic analyses of the gabapentin-metamizol combination after local peripheral, intrathecal and oral administration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Varela, Luis F; Herrera, Jorge E; Caram-Salas, Nadia L; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive interaction between gabapentin and metamizol on formalin-induced nociception. Gabapentin, metamizol or a fixed dose-ratio combination of both drugs were assessed after local peripheral, intrathecal and oral administration in rats. Isobolographic analyses were employed to define the nature of the interaction between drugs. Gabapentin, metamizol and gabapentin-metamizol combinations yielded a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect when administered by the three different routes. ED30 values were estimated for the individual drugs and isobolograms were constructed. Theoretical ED30 values for the combination estimated from the isobolograms were 21.11 +/- 1.17 microg/paw, 104.6 +/- 5.5 microg/rat and 78.8 +/- 5.5 mg/kg for the local peripheral, intrathecal and oral administration routes, respectively. These values were significantly higher than the experimentally obtained ED30 values which were 11.3 +/- 1.5 microg/paw, 36.8 +/- 3.1 microg/rat and 15 +/- 1.2 mg/kg indicating a synergistic interaction. Systemic administration resulted in the highest synergism. Data confirm that low doses of the gabapentin and metamizol can interact synergistically to reduce formalin-induced nociceptive behavior suggesting that this combination could be useful to treat inflammatory pain in humans. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Advances in sediment transport under combined action of waves and currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun Lu; Shouqian Li; Liqin Zuo; Huaixiang Liu; J.A. Roelvink

    2015-01-01

    The coastal zone continuously changes due to natural processes and human activities. In order to understand and predict these morphological changes, an accurate description of sediment transport, caused by waves and currents (tidal or wave-induced), is important. This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art knowledge in this field, including sediment incipient motion, bed forms, bed roughness, bed-load transport, suspended-load transport, equilibrium sediment concentration, and sheet flow. Some possible research fields and topics for future study also are proposed.

  19. Combined use of transverse and scout computed tomography scans to localize radioactive seeds in an interstitial brachytherapy implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, N; Chen, Z; Bond, J E; Son, Y H; Nath, R

    1999-04-01

    Various techniques have been developed to localize radioactive sources in brachytherapy implants. The most common methods include the orthogonal film method, the stereo-shift film method, and recently, direct localization from a series of contiguous CT transverse images. The major advantage of the CT method is that it provides the seed locations relative to anatomic structures. However, it is often the case that accurate identification and localization of the sources become difficult because of partial source artifacts in more than one transverse cut and other artifacts on CT images. A new algorithm has been developed to combine the advantages of using a pair of orthogonal scout views with the advantages of using a stack of transverse cuts. In the new algorithm, a common reference point is used to correlate CT transverse images and two orthogonal scout CT scans (AP and lateral). The radioactive sources are localized on CT transverse images. At the same time, the sources are displayed automatically on the two CT scout scans. In this way, the individual sources can be clearly distinguished and ambiguities arising from partial source artifacts are resolved immediately. Because of the finite slice thickness of transverse cuts, the longitudinal coordinates are more accurately obtained from the scout views. Therefore, the longitudinal coordinates of seeds localized on the transverse cuts are adjusted so that they match the position of the seeds on scout views. The algorithm has been tested on clinical cases and has proved to be a time saving and accurate method.

  20. The baryon vector current in the combined chiral and 1/Nc expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Goity, Jose L [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    The baryon vector current is computed at one-loop order in large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory, where Nc is the number of colors. Loop graphs with octet and decuplet intermediate states are systematically incorporated into the analysis and the effects of the decuplet-octet mass difference and SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking are accounted for. There are large-Nc cancellations between different one-loop graphs as a consequence of the large-Nc spin-flavor symmetry of QCD baryons. The results are compared against the available experimental data through several fits in order to extract information about the unknown parameters. The large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory predictions are in very good agreement both with the expectations from the 1/Nc expansion and with the experimental data. The effect of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking for the |Delta S|=1 vector current form factors f1(0) results in a reduction by a few percent with respect to the corresponding SU(3) symmetric values.

  1. Three dimensional complex plasma structures in a combined radio frequency and direct current discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Mitic, S; Khrapak, S A; Morfill, G E; 10.1063/1.4798418

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first detailed analysis of large three dimensional (3D) complex plasma structures in experiments performed in pure rf and combined rf+dc discharge modes. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is generated by an rf coil wrapped around the vertically positioned cylindrical glass tube at a pressure of 0.3 mbar. In addition, dc plasma can be generated by applying voltage to the electrodes at the ends of the tube far from the rf coil. The injected monodisperse particles are levitated in the plasma below the coil. A scanning laser sheet and a high resolution camera are used to determine the 3D positions of about $10^5$ particles. The observed bowl-shaped particle clouds reveal coexistence of various structures, including well-distinguished solid-like, less ordered liquid-like, and pronounced string-like phases. New criteria to identify string-like structures are proposed.

  2. On the spectral combination of satellite gravity model, terrestrial and airborne gravity data for local gravimetric geoid computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yan Ming

    2016-12-01

    One of the challenges for geoid determination is the combination of heterogeneous gravity data. Because of the distinctive spectral content of different data sets, spectral combination is a suitable candidate for its solution. The key to have a successful combination is to determine the proper spectral weights, or the error degree variances of each data set. In this paper, the error degree variances of terrestrial and airborne gravity data at low degrees are estimated by the aid of a satellite gravity model using harmonic analysis. For higher degrees, the error covariances are estimated from local gravity data first, and then used to compute the error degree variances. The white and colored noise models are also used to estimate the error degree variances of local gravity data for comparisons. Based on the error degree variances, the spectral weights of satellite gravity models, terrestrial and airborne gravity data are determined and applied for geoid computation in Texas area. The computed gravimetric geoid models are tested against an independent, highly accurate geoid profile of the Geoid Slope Validation Survey 2011 (GSVS11). The geoid computed by combining satellite gravity model GOCO03S and terrestrial (land and DTU13 altimetric) gravity data agrees with GSVS11 to ±1.1 cm in terms of standard deviation along a line of 325 km. After incorporating the airborne gravity data collected at 11 km altitude, the standard deviation is reduced to ±0.8 cm. Numerical tests demonstrate the feasibility of spectral combination in geoid computation and the contribution of airborne gravity in an area of high quality terrestrial gravity data. Using the GSVS11 data and the spectral combination, the degree of correctness of the error spectra and the quality of satellite gravity models can also be revealed.

  3. State and local levels of preparedness for terrorist incidents : the current and sobering U.S. picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, G. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Scott, C.M.; Scott-Dimenna, D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An increasing number of professional organizations and foundations have surveyed components of the United States readiness programs concerning preparedness for terrorist attacks. This paper reviews the results of research conducted in 2002 and compares them with subsequent studies, demonstrating a gap between desired and current states of readiness. Weaknesses at the local, federal and state levels were discussed. Results from local needs and preparedness surveys were examined, including details and summaries of surveys sent to representatives within all states and territories. Significant gaps still remained in protecting the public from biological and chemical attacks. Cut-backs and a lack of resources were identified as contributing to a lack of local preparedness. In addition, emergency responders were not receiving appropriate training. An independent task force reported that less than 10 per cent of fire departments in the United States had the resources, training and equipment needed to respond to a building collapse. It was noted that less than one-quarter of the United States are able to respond 24 hours a day to reports from hospitals of possible victims of biological or chemical attacks. Bioterrorism preparedness still lacks strategic direction, well-defined priorities and appropriate levels of resources to match needs. In addition, although facilities have been identified as risk management program sites, local responders remain unprepared for threats and many local fire and police departments have not been informed of specific plant hazards or information regarding exact chemical hazards. It was concluded that as the United States approaches its fourth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, there is is much yet to be done to improve the level of preparedness in cities and towns across the country. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Locally advanced prostate cancer: combination of high-dose high-precision radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy%Locally advanced prostate cancer:combination of high-dose high-precision radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel Bolla; René-Olivier Mirimanoff

    2014-01-01

    Locally advanced prostate cancer entails a risk of local,regional and systemic relapse requiring the combination of a Ioco-regional treatment,namely external beam radiotherapy(EBRT) to control the pelvic-confined disease,combined with a systemic therapy,namely androgen-deprivation therapy(ADT),to potentiate irradiation and to destroy the infra-clinical androgen-dependant disease outside the irradiated volume.Many phases Ⅲ randomized trials have paved the way in establishing the indications of this combined approach,which requires a long term ADT(≥2 years) with LHRH agonists.The duration of ADT may be reduced to 6 months should there be a significant comorbidity,a reluctance from the patient or a poor tolerance.A multidisciplinary approach will enable physicians to tailor the treatment strategy and a close cooperation between the specialists and the general practitioners will be set up to prevent as much as possible the side-effects of ADT.

  5. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A double......-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). RESULTS: Both groups improved...... with the sham group, from baseline to post-assessment (p = 0.158). CONCLUSIONS: Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor...

  6. Local Anesthesia Combined With Sedation Compared With General Anesthesia for Ambulatory Operative Hysteroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lone Dragnes; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    anesthesia combined with sedation (group LA + S; n = 76) or general anesthesia (group GA; n = 77). Primary outcome was the worst pain intensity score in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) rated by the patients on a numerical rating scale. FINDING: Data from 144 patients were available for analysis (LA + S...... was shorter (P anesthesia with sedation can be recommended as a first choice anesthetic technique for operative ambulatory hysteroscopy....

  7. Combination of Maximin and Kriging Prediction Methods for Eddy-Current Testing Database Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilicz, Sandor; Lambert, Marc; Vazquez, Emmanuel; Gyimothy, Szabolcs, E-mail: sandor.bilicz@lss.supelec.fr

    2010-11-01

    Eddy-current testing (ECT) is a widely used nondestructive evaluation technique. The numerical simulation of ECT methods involves high complexity and computational load. However, one needs reliable solutions (within a reasonable CPU time) for these problems to be able to solve the related inverse problem. One possible approach is to build a configuration-specific database, consisting of well-chosen samples (corresponding input data - output signal pairs). Once the database has been constructed, the sought information can be retrieved practically in no time. However, the optimal choice of samples raises complex optimization problems. This paper presents a sampling method which aims to achieve databases being optimal in a certain sense. The goal of our approach is to spread out the output samples in the whole conceivable output domain. The method is formalized as a maximin problem which is solved step-by-step using the kriging prediction.

  8. A new technique combining virtual simulation and methylene blue staining for the localization of small peripheral pulmonary lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Quickly and accurately localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions can avoid prolonged operative time and unplanned open thoracotomy. In this study, we aimed to introduce and evaluate a new technique combining virtual simulation and methylene blue staining for the localization of small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Methods Seventy four (74) patients with 80 peripheral pulmonary lesions methylene blue dye was injected to the virtually identified point according to the surface point, angle and depth previously determined by the simulator. The wedge resection of the marked lesion was performed under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and the specimens were sent for immediate pathologic examination. According to pathology results, appropriate surgical procedures were decided and undertaken. Results The average lesion size was 10.4±3.5 mm (range: 4-17 mm) and the average distance to the pleural surface was 9.4±4.9 mm. Our preoperative localization procedure was successful in 75 of 80 (94%) lesions. Histological examination showed 28 benign lesions and 52 lung cancers. The shortest distance between the edges of the stain and lesion was 5.1±3.1 mm. Localization time was 17.4±2.3 min. All patients with malignant lesions subsequently underwent lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection. No complications were observed in all participants. Conclusions The novel technique combining the preoperative virtual simulation and methylene blue staining techniques has a high success rate for localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions, particularly for those tiny lesions which are difficult to visualise and palpate during VATS. PMID:24512571

  9. Local Strategy Combined with a Wavelength Selection Method for Multivariate Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors influencing the prediction accuracy of multivariate calibration models is the quality of the calibration data. A local regression strategy, together with a wavelength selection approach, is proposed to build the multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression. The local algorithm is applied to create a calibration set of spectra similar to the spectrum of an unknown sample; the synthetic degree of grey relation coefficient is used to evaluate the similarity. A wavelength selection method based on simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis minimizes the influence of noisy variables, and the most informative variables of the most similar samples are selected to build the multivariate calibration model based on partial least squares regression. To validate the performance of the proposed method, ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra of mixed solutions of food coloring analytes in a concentration range of 20–200 µg/mL is measured. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of the calibration model, but also greatly reduce its complexity.

  10. Local effect of celecoxib on peripheral nerve repair combined with silicone tubulization in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahim Mohammadi; Keyvan Amini; Alireza Yousefi; Mehdi Abdollahi-Pirbazari

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess local effect of celecoxib on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model.Methods:Forty-five male healthy white Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 for each):sham-operation (SHAM),control (SIL) and celecoxib treated (SIL/CLX) groups.In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed and after homeostasis muscle was sutured.In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibioperoneal bifurcation leaving a 10 mm gap.Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution.In SIL/CLX group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl celecoxib (0.1 g/L).Results:Functional study and gastrocnemius muscle mass confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/CLX than in SIL group (P<0.05).Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/CLX were significantly greater than those in control group.In immunohistochemistry,location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/CLX was clearly more positive than that in SIL group.Conclusion:Response to local treatment ofcelecoxib demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  11. Kinetics deformation of current-voltage characteristics of the varistor oxide structures due to overcharging of the localized states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonkoshkur A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure of zinc oxide varistors to the electrical load leads to current-voltage characteristics (CVC deformation, which is associated with a change in the height and width of the intergranular barriers, which are main structural element of the varistors. Polarization phenomena in zinc oxide ceramics are studied in a number of works, but those are mainly limited to the study of the physics of the CVC deformation process and to determining the parameters of localized electronic states involved in this process. This paper presents the results on the simulation of the deformation of pulse CVC of a separate intergranular potential barrier at transient polarization/depolarization, associated with recharging of surface electronic states (SES, which cause this barrier. It is found that at high density of SES their degree of electron filling is small and the effect of DC voltage leads to a shift of pulse current-voltage characteristics into the region of small currents. Conversely, the low density SES are almost completely filled with electrons, and after crystallite polarization CVC is shifted to high currents. Experimental studies have confirmed the possibility of applying the discovered laws to ceramic varistor structures. The proposed model allows interpreting the «anomalous» effects (such as increase in the classification voltage and reduction of active losses power observed during the varistors accelerated aging test.

  12. Single element of the matrix source of negative hydrogen ions: Measurements of the extracted currents combined with diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, D., E-mail: yordanov@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    Combining measurements of the extracted currents with probe and laser-photodetachment diagnostics, the study is an extension of recent tests of factors and gas-discharge conditions stimulating the extraction of volume produced negative ions. The experiment is in a single element of a rf source with the design of a matrix of small-radius inductively driven discharges. The results are for the electron and negative-ion densities, for the plasma potential and for the electronegativity in the vicinity of the plasma electrode as well as for the currents of the extracted negative ions and electrons. The plasma-electrode bias and the rf power have been varied. Necessity of a high bias to the plasma electrode and stable linear increase of the extracted currents with the rf power are the main conclusions.

  13. Development of a locally advanced orthotopic prostate tumor model in rats for assessment of combined modality therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Vasu; Mathur, Sanjeev; Song, Kwang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Zhao, Dawen; Takahashi, Masaya; Dobin, Timothy; Gandee, Leah; Solberg, Timothy D; Habib, Amyn A; Saha, Debabrata

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an aggressive locally advanced orthotopic prostate cancer model for assessing high-dose image-guided radiation therapy combined with biological agents. For this study, we used a modified human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line, PC3, in which we knocked down a tumor suppressor protein, DAB2IP (PC3‑KD). These prostate cancer cells were implanted into the prostate of nude or Copenhagen rats using either open surgical implantation or a minimally invasive procedure under ultrasound guidance. We report that: i) these DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells form a single focus of locally advanced aggressive tumors in both nude and Copenhagen rats; ii) the resulting tumors are highly aggressive and are poorly controlled after treatment with radiation alone; iii) ultrasound-guided tumor cell implantation can be used successfully for tumor development in the rat prostate; iv) precise measurement of the tumor volume and the treatment planning for radiation therapy can be obtained from ultrasound and MRI, respectively; and v) the use of a fiducial marker for enhanced radiotherapy localization in the rat orthotopic tumor. This model recapitulates radiation-resistant prostate cancers which can be used to demonstrate and quantify therapeutic response to combined modality treatments.

  14. SU-E-J-130: Automating Liver Segmentation Via Combined Global and Local Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dengwang; Wang, Jie [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to develop a robust algorithm for accurate segmentation of liver with special attention paid to the problems with fuzzy edges and tumor. Methods: 200 CT images were collected from radiotherapy treatment planning system. 150 datasets are selected as the panel data for shape dictionary and parameters estimation. The remaining 50 datasets were used as test images. In our study liver segmentation was formulated as optimization process of implicit function. The liver region was optimized via local and global optimization during iterations. Our method consists five steps: 1)The livers from the panel data were segmented manually by physicians, and then We estimated the parameters of GMM (Gaussian mixture model) and MRF (Markov random field). Shape dictionary was built by utilizing the 3D liver shapes. 2)The outlines of chest and abdomen were located according to rib structure in the input images, and the liver region was initialized based on GMM. 3)The liver shape for each 2D slice was adjusted using MRF within the neighborhood of liver edge for local optimization. 4)The 3D liver shape was corrected by employing SSR (sparse shape representation) based on liver shape dictionary for global optimization. Furthermore, H-PSO(Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization) was employed to solve the SSR equation. 5)The corrected 3D liver was divided into 2D slices as input data of the third step. The iteration was repeated within the local optimization and global optimization until it satisfied the suspension conditions (maximum iterations and changing rate). Results: The experiments indicated that our method performed well even for the CT images with fuzzy edge and tumors. Comparing with physician delineated results, the segmentation accuracy with the 50 test datasets (VOE, volume overlap percentage) was on average 91%–95%. Conclusion: The proposed automatic segmentation method provides a sensible technique for segmentation of CT images. This work is

  15. Effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Juan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods:A total of 134 patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer in our hospital from May 2012 to December 2014 were selected for study, received surgical resection after chemotherapy, and were divided into intravenous chemotherapy group and combined treatment group according to different chemotherapy regimens. After chemotherapy and before operation, serum tumor marker levels were detected;after operation, recurrence and metastasis-related molecule levels in tumor tissue were detected. Results:After chemotherapy and before operation, serum CEA, CA199, CA72-4, TSGF, ESM-1 and DKK-1 levels of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group;TET1, TET2, LATS1 and RUNX3 levels in tumor tissue of combined treatment group were higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while Sipa1, GOLPH3, AEP, MT2-MMP, OPN, Galectin-1, Galectin-3 and Galectin-9 levels were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions:Compared with systemic intravenous chemotherapy, preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization can more effectively kill gastric cancer cells and prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis at molecular level.

  16. The importance of combined radiation and endocrine therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip J Gray; William U Shipley

    2012-01-01

    The management of all stages of prostate cancer has become an increasingly complex task as new treatment paradigms are tested and the results of large randomized studies become available.Despite these advances,prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of eancer death and the seventh overall cause of death in men in the United States.1 The advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the 1980s resulted in a significant downward stage migration such that many men now present with the earliest and most curable form of the disease.2,3 Despite this fact,high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer remains a common and complex problem facing clinicians across the world.

  17. Empirical Mode Decomposition Combined with Local Linear Quantile Regression for Automatic Boundary Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abobaker M. Jaber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical mode decomposition (EMD is particularly useful in analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear time series. However, only partial data within boundaries are available because of the bounded support of the underlying time series. Consequently, the application of EMD to finite time series data results in large biases at the edges by increasing the bias and creating artificial wiggles. This study introduces a new two-stage method to automatically decrease the boundary effects present in EMD. At the first stage, local polynomial quantile regression (LLQ is applied to provide an efficient description of the corrupted and noisy data. The remaining series is assumed to be hidden in the residuals. Hence, EMD is applied to the residuals at the second stage. The final estimate is the summation of the fitting estimates from LLQ and EMD. Simulation was conducted to assess the practical performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method is superior to classical EMD.

  18. An application of locally linear model tree algorithm with combination of feature selection in credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami, Mohammad; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Basiri, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring is one of the most important topics in the banking sector. Credit scoring models have been widely used to facilitate the process of credit assessing. In this paper, an application of the locally linear model tree algorithm (LOLIMOT) was experimented to evaluate the superiority of its performance to predict the customer's credit status. The algorithm is improved with an aim of adjustment by credit scoring domain by means of data fusion and feature selection techniques. Two real world credit data sets - Australian and German - from UCI machine learning database were selected to demonstrate the performance of our new classifier. The analytical results indicate that the improved LOLIMOT significantly increase the prediction accuracy.

  19. A combined joint diagonalization-MUSIC algorithm for subsurface targets localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinlin; Sigman, John B.; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a combined joint diagonalization (JD) and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for estimating subsurface objects locations from electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data, without solving ill-posed inverse-scattering problems. JD is a numerical technique that finds the common eigenvectors that diagonalize a set of multistatic response (MSR) matrices measured by a time-domain EMI sensor. Eigenvalues from targets of interest (TOI) can be then distinguished automatically from noise-related eigenvalues. Filtering is also carried out in JD to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the data. The MUSIC algorithm utilizes the orthogonality between the signal and noise subspaces in the MSR matrix, which can be separated with information provided by JD. An array of theoreticallycalculated Green's functions are then projected onto the noise subspace, and the location of the target is estimated by the minimum of the projection owing to the orthogonality. This combined method is applied to data from the Time-Domain Electromagnetic Multisensor Towed Array Detection System (TEMTADS). Examples of TEMTADS test stand data and field data collected at Spencer Range, Tennessee are analyzed and presented. Results indicate that due to its noniterative mechanism, the method can be executed fast enough to provide real-time estimation of objects' locations in the field.

  20. Force-free Currents and the Newman-Penrose Tetrad of a Kerr Black Hole: Exact Local Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Govind

    2015-01-01

    In a previous article we derived a class of solutions to the force-free magnetosphere in a Kerr background. Here, the streaming surface, defined by constant values of the toriodal component of the electromagnetic vector potential $A$, were generated by constant values of $\\theta$. The electromagnetic current vector flowed along the in-falling principle null geodesic vector of the geometry. Subsequently, we generalized this to obtain an out-going principle null geodesic vector as well. In this article, we derive solutions that are complimentary to the above mentioned criteria. Namely, here the solution has a streaming surface generated by spheres of constant radial coordinate $r$, and the current vector is generated by linear combinations of $m$ and $m^\\star$, the remaining bases vectors in the Newman-Penrose null tetrad.

  1. Clinical analysis of preoperative induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine combined with cisplatin for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianping Li; Jianjun Wang; Jun Zhang; Chengyi Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the curative effect and adverse reaction of preoperative induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine combined with cisplatin for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial included 115 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomly divided into experimental and control groups and were treated from January 2007 to January 2010. The experimental group of 63 cases was treated with two cycles of induction chemotherapy before operation, radical surgery had been performed about three weeks after completion of chemotherapy, followed by received two cycles of chemotherapy. And the control group (52 cases) was treated at first with radical surgery, then treated with four cycles of chemotherapy. Two groups of the cases received routine thoracic radiotherapy with a total dose of 45 Gy. One cycle of gemcitabine combined with cisplatin regimen in-cluded gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8 and cisplatin 25 mg/m2 on day 1, day 2 and day 3 by intravenous infusion, with 21 days as one cycle. The tumor recurrence was evaluated by chest CT and abdominal B-ultrasound. Efficacy and toxicity results were compared by two groups. Results: All patients were followed up for three months to two years. The surgical stage of the experimental group reduced, two-years disease-free survival and postoperative recovery in the experimental group were better than in the control group, the difference was statistical significant. Toxicity and side effect after chemotherapy were mainly bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal reactions, other complications included thrombocytopenia, leuko-penia, anemia, liver and kidney dysfunction were no significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Preoperative induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine combined with cisplatin for locally advanced lung cancer can reduce the surgical staging and extend the postoperative disease-free survival.

  2. Optimization of the sources in local hyperthermia using a combined finite element-genetic algorithm method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siauve, N; Nicolas, L; Vollaire, C; Marchal, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes an optimization process specially designed for local and regional hyperthermia in order to achieve the desired specific absorption rate in the patient. It is based on a genetic algorithm coupled to a finite element formulation. The optimization method is applied to real human organs meshes assembled from computerized tomography scans. A 3D finite element formulation is used to calculate the electromagnetic field in the patient, achieved by radiofrequency or microwave sources. Space discretization is performed using incomplete first order edge elements. The sparse complex symmetric matrix equation is solved using a conjugate gradient solver with potential projection pre-conditionning. The formulation is validated by comparison of calculated specific absorption rate distributions in a phantom to temperature measurements. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the specific absorption rate distribution to predict the phases and amplitudes of the sources leading to the best focalization. The objective function is defined as the specific absorption rate ratio in the tumour and healthy tissues. Several constraints, regarding the specific absorption rate in tumour and the total power in the patient, may be prescribed. Results obtained with two types of applicators (waveguides and annular phased array) are presented and show the faculties of the developed optimization process.

  3. An in-depth stability analysis of nonuniform FDTD combined with novel local implicitization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Londersele, Arne; De Zutter, Daniël; Vande Ginste, Dries

    2017-08-01

    This work focuses on efficient full-wave solutions of multiscale electromagnetic problems in the time domain. Three local implicitization techniques are proposed and carefully analyzed in order to relax the traditional time step limit of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method on a nonuniform, staggered, tensor product grid: Newmark, Crank-Nicolson (CN) and Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) implicitization. All of them are applied in preferable directions, alike Hybrid Implicit-Explicit (HIE) methods, as to limit the rank of the sparse linear systems. Both exponential and linear stability are rigorously investigated for arbitrary grid spacings and arbitrary inhomogeneous, possibly lossy, isotropic media. Numerical examples confirm the conservation of energy inside a cavity for a million iterations if the time step is chosen below the proposed, relaxed limit. Apart from the theoretical contributions, new accomplishments such as the development of the leapfrog Alternating-Direction-Hybrid-Implicit-Explicit (ADHIE) FDTD method and a less stringent Courant-like time step limit for the conventional, fully explicit FDTD method on a nonuniform grid, have immediate practical applications.

  4. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Periodontology for correction of Seibert′s Class III ridge defect in the lower anterior region. Granulation tissue/connective tissue present at the base of the defect was removed after elevation of full thickness flap. MucoMatrixX, an animal derived, collagen based soft-tissue graft was sutured to the labial flap and bone graft was placed into the defect. If a soft-tissue graft material could be used to replace the palatal grafts, then all the possible complications associated with donor site would be eliminated and above all periodontal plastic surgery and ridge augmentation would be better accepted by patients.

  5. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Ritu; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Lahori, Manesh; Singhal, Reetika; Jithendra, K D

    2013-10-01

    Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Periodontology for correction of Seibert's Class III ridge defect in the lower anterior region. Granulation tissue/connective tissue present at the base of the defect was removed after elevation of full thickness flap. MucoMatrixX, an animal derived, collagen based soft-tissue graft was sutured to the labial flap and bone graft was placed into the defect. If a soft-tissue graft material could be used to replace the palatal grafts, then all the possible complications associated with donor site would be eliminated and above all periodontal plastic surgery and ridge augmentation would be better accepted by patients.

  6. Selection of the optimum combination of responses for Wave Buoy Analogy - An approach based on local sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2016-01-01

    One method to estimate the wave spectrum onboard ships is to use measured ship responses. In this method, known also as Wave Buoy Analogy, amongst various responses that are available from sensor measurements, a couple of responses (at least three) are usually utilized. Selec-tion of the best...... combination of ship responses is important. Optimally, this selection should not be implemented manually in onboard applications. Therefore, availability of an automatic response selection procedure would be a great advantage for decision support. In this paper, a local sensitivity analysis is applied...

  7. Helical Tomotherapy Combined with Capecitabine in the Preoperative Treatment of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical tomotherapy plus capecitabine as a preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC. Thirty-six LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT were analyzed. Radiotherapy (RT consisted of 45 Gy to the regional lymph nodes and simultaneous-integrated boost (SIB 50.4 Gy to the tumor, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of capecitabine 850 mg/m2, twice daily, during the RT days. Patients underwent surgery 6–8 weeks after completion of CRT. Information was collected for patient characteristics, treatment response, and acute and late toxicities. Grade 3/4 (G3+ toxicities occurred in 11.1% of patients (4/36. Sphincter preservation rate was 85.2% (23/27. Five patients (14.3% achieved pathological complete response. Tumor, nodal, and ypT0-2N0 downstaging were noted in 60% (21/35, 69.6% (16/23, and 57.1% (20/35. Tumor regression grade 2~4 was achieved in 28 patients (80%. After a median follow-up time of 35 months, the most common G3+ late morbidity was ileus and fistula (5.7%, 2/35. The study showed that capecitabine plus helical tomotherapy with an SIB is feasible in treatment of LARC. The treatment modality can achieve a very encouraging sphincter preservation rate and a favorable ypT0-2N0 downstaging rate without excessive toxicity.

  8. The mechanism of local tumor irradiation combined with interleukin 2 therapy in murine renal carcinoma: histological evaluation of pulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezso, B; Haas, G P; Hamzavi, F; Kim, S; Montecillo, E J; Benson, P D; Pontes, J E; Maughan, R L; Hillman, G G

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated that tumor irradiation enhanced the therapeutic effect of interleukin 2 (IL-2) on pulmonary metastases from a murine renal adenocarcinoma, Renca. To investigate the mechanism of interaction between tumor irradiation and IL-2 therapy, we have histologically evaluated the effects of each therapy alone or in combination on Renca pulmonary metastases. Following treatment of established lung metastases with irradiation and IL-2 therapy, lung sections were processed for H&E or immunohistochemical staining. We found that tumor irradiation or IL-2 therapy locally induced vascular damage, resulting in multifocal hemorrhages and mononuclear cell mobilization in the lung tissue. This effect was amplified in lungs treated with the combined therapy. Immunohistochemistry showed that irradiation produced a macrophage influx into irradiated tumor nodules, and systemic IL-2 therapy induced T-cell infiltration in tumor nodules. Lungs treated with the combined therapy exhibited massive macrophage, T-cell, and natural killer cell mobilization in disintegrating tumor nodules and in the lung tissue. This combined therapy caused a decrease in the number of proliferating tumor cells and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, which were more marked than with either therapy alone. We suggest that the macrophages mobilized by radiation-induced tissue injury could play a role in phagocytosis of apoptotic tumor cells, processing and presenting of tumor antigens for a systemic immune response activated by IL-2. Tumor destruction may result from the concomitant action of activated T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages infiltrating the tumor nodules.

  9. Antidepressant monotherapy and combination of antidepressants in the treatment of resistant depression in current clinical practice: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Martin; Novak, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Stopkova, Pavla; Höschl, Cyril

    2010-11-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of antidepressant monotherapies and combinations of antidepressants in the treatment of resistant patients in current clinical practice. Methods. We reviewed chart documents of resistant depressive inpatients treated at least 4 weeks with a new treatment. Depressive symptoms and clinical status were assessed using Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form and Clinical Global Impression at the baseline, week 2 and in the end of treatment. Results. We identified 81 patients (27 with combinations and 51 with monotherapies) that were suitable for analyses. The combination group achieved higher reduction of MADRS score (14.6 vs 10.2 pts., p=0.02) and response rate (≥ 50% reduction of MADRS, 67% vs 39%, p=0.03). Number needed to treat for response was 4. Conclusions. Based on our results, we suggest that combination of antidepressants might be more effective than monotherapy in clinical practice.

  10. Investigation into in vitro anti-leishmanial combinations of calcium channel blockers and current anti-leishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Quero Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for drug combinations to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL arose because of resistance to antimonials, the toxicity of current treatments and the length of the course of therapy. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs have shown anti-leishmanial activity; therefore their use in combination with standard drugs could provide new alternatives for the treatment of VL. In this work, in vitro isobolograms of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi using promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes were utilised to identify the interactions between five CCBs and the standard drugs pentamidine, amphotericin B and glucantime. The drug interactions were assessed with a fixed ratio isobologram method and the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs, sum of FICs (ΣFICs and the overall mean ΣFIC were calculated for each combination. Graphical isobologram analysis showed that the combination of nimodipine and glucantime was the most promising in amastigotes with an overall mean ΣFIC value of 0.79. Interactions between CCBs and the anti-leishmanial drugs were classified as indifferent according to the overall mean ΣFIC and the isobologram graphic analysis.

  11. Review of current indications for combined very high fluence collagen cross-linking and laser in situ keratomileusis surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios John Kanellopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we will discuss the reasoning and evolution of our current use of combined very high-fluence collagen crosslinking and laser in situ keratomileusis. Several presentations and pertinent publications are reviewed, along with the key steps of the enhanced LASIK procedure. Long term outcome data support the safety and efficacy of LASIK Xtra in stabilizing myopic but also hyperopic LASIK results.In conclusion, we have compelling evidence that LASIK Xtra is a safe and effective adjunct.

  12. Methodological challenges for the large N study of local participatory experiences. Combining methods and databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galais, Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the effects of different data collection strategies in the study of local participatory experiences in a region of Spain (Andalusia. We examine the divergences and similarities between the data collected using different methods, as well as the implications for the reliability of the data. We have collected participatory experiences through two parallel processes: a survey of municipalities and web content mining. The survey of municipalities used two complementary strategies: an online questionnaire and a CATI follow-up for those municipalities that had not answered our first online contact attempt. Both processes (survey and data mining were applied to the same sample of municipalities, but provided significantly different images of the characteristics of Andalusia’s participatory landscape. The goal of this work is to discuss the different types of biases introduced by each data collection procedure and their implications for substantive analyses.

    En este artículo analizamos los efectos de diferentes estrategias para la recolección de datos en el estudio de las experiencias participativas andaluzas. Examinamos para ello las diferencias y similitudes entre los datos recogidos mediante diferentes métodos, así como las implicaciones para la fiabilidad de los datos. Para ello, hemos utilizado dos procedimientos paralelos. En primer lugar, una encuesta a municipios y la minería de datos en Internet. La encuesta se realizó utilizando dos modos de administración diferentes, un cuestionario online y un cuestionario telefónico de seguimiento a los municipios que no respondieron al primer intento de contacto vía correo electrónico. Tanto la encuesta como la minería de datos fueron aplicados a la misma muestra de municipios, aunque arrojaron diferencias significativas en cuanto a las características del panorama participativo en Andalucía. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los diferentes tipos

  13. Current and Emerging Systemic Therapy in Gastro-Esophageal Cancer "The Old and New Therapy for Metastatic Disease, The Role of Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Localized Disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bora; Jiang, Yixing

    2015-01-01

    Cancers of esophagus and stomach are common malignant diseases worldwide, and they are associated with serious morbidity and high mortality rates. When diagnosed at an early stage, gastro-esophageal cancers are potentially curable. Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapies using both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been shown to reduce the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. For advanced or metastatic tumors, systemic chemotherapy offers symptomatic palliation and moderate benefits in survival. With recent advances in anti-cancer therapeutics, progress has been made to improve treatment response and life expectancy in patients with advanced gastro-esophageal cancers. Furthermore, the clinical use of molecularly targeted agents in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics is being evaluated in a number of ongoing clinical trials. In this article, we review currently used standard systemic therapies including recently evolving targeted therapies for metastatic gastro-esophageal cancers, as well as the proven role and the regimens that are used as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment in localized gastro-esophageal cancers.

  14. Multi-objective Local Search Combined with NSGA-II for Bi-criteria Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiu; Zhang, Wenqiang; Weng, Wei; Fujimura, Shigeru

    This paper proposed a multi-objective local search procedure (MOLS). It is combined with NSGA-II for solving bi-criteria PFSP with the objectives of minimizing makespan and maximum tardiness. Utilizing the properties of active blocks for flow shop scheduling problem, neighborhood structures MOINS (multi-objective insertion) and MOEXC (multi-objective exchange) are designed in order to improve efficiency of perturbation. Any perturbation based on MOINS and MOEXC takes effect on different criteria simultaneously. The original idea of MOLS is systematic change neighborhoods in the local search procedure. The search direction of MOLS on an individual is naturally guided by interaction of MOINS and MOEXC. Moreover, there is no need to set parameters in MOLS. The MOLS combined with popular multi-objective evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II) is called as “NSGA-II-MOLS”. To illustrate the efficacy of proposed approach, four different scaled problems are used to test performance of NSGA-II-MOLS. The numerous comparisons show efficacy of NSGA-II-MOLS is better than most of algorithms even with the same number of individual evaluations and parameters setting.

  15. Combined radiochemotherapy with docetaxel in patients with unresectable locally advanced head and neck tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, K.; Heinrich, B.; Zimmermann, F.; Molls, M.; Feldmann, H.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Kau, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke; Sommer, G.; Achterrath, W. [Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Koeln (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Background: As the treatment with Docetaxel in metastatic head and neck cancer resulted in an encouraging response rate, the following phase-I study examined the effects of a combined radiochemotherapy with weekly Docetaxel in patients with inoperable advanced head and neck tumors. Patients and Methods: Six patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer were included into the study. Within the treatment regimen the primary tumor and the involved lymph nodes were irradiated up to a total dose of 70 Gy, the non involved cervical and supraclavicular lymph nodes received 50 Gy in conventional fractionation. Simultaneously Docetaxel was given 1 hour before radiotherapy. The initial dose was 15 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: A dose escalation was impossible because of several dose limiting toxicities (NCI-CTC) already in the first dose level. Two patients showed skin reactions Grade 4, 2 patients pulmonary complications Grade 4, 2 patients neurologic side effects Grade 3 and 1 a thrombocytopenia Grade 3. The response rate resulted in 3 complete and 1 partial remission, 1 death, 1 patient was not evaluable. Conclusion: Unexpectedly already in the first dose level several dose limiting toxicities were evaluated. For that reason the treatment scheme is not feasible. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Da die Behandlung mit Docetaxel bei metastasierten HNO-Tumoren eine guenstige Ansprechrate ergeben hat, untersuchte die folgende Phase-I-Studie die Effekte einer kombinierten Radiochemotherapie mit woechentlicher Gabe von Docetaxel bei Patienten mit inoperablen fortgeschrittenen HNO-Tumoren. Patienten und Methoden: In der Zeit von September 1997 bis Maerz 1998 wurden sechs Patienten mit fortgeschrittenen HNO-Tumoren im Stadium IV in die Studie eingeschlossen. Innerhalb des Therapieregimes wurden der Primaertumor und die befallenen Lymphknoten bis 70 Gy bestrahlt, die nicht befallenen zervikalen und supraklavikulaeren Lymphknoten erhielten 50 Gy in konventioneller Fraktionierung. Simultan wurde

  16. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  17. A phase I study of combination S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamori, Kenichi; Kishino, Daizo; Takigawa, Nagio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Nogami, Naoyuki; Kamei, Haruhito; Kuyama, Shoichi; Gemba, Kenichi; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Segawa, Yoshihiko; Takata, Saburo; Tabata, Masahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2009-07-01

    A combination of S-1, a newly developed oral 5-fluorouracil derivative, and cisplatin is reported to show anti-tumour activity against advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because S-1 shows synergistic effects with radiation, we conducted a phase I study to evaluate the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs), recommended doses (RDs), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of cisplatin and S-1 when combined with concurrent thoracic radiation (total dose of 60 Gy with 2 Gy per daily fraction) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Chemotherapy consisted of two 4-week cycles of cisplatin administered on days 1 and 8, and S-1 administered on days 1-14. S-1/cisplatin dosages (mg/m(2)/day) were escalated as follows: 60/30, 60/40, 70/40, 80/40 and 80/50. Twenty-two previously untreated patients were enrolled. The MTDs and RDs for S-1/cisplatin were 80/50 and 80/40, respectively. DLTs included febrile neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia, bacterial pneumonia and delayed second cycle of chemotherapy. No patient experienced radiation pneumonitis>grade 2 and only one patient experienced grade 3 radiation oesophagitis. The overall response rate was 86.4% with a median survival time of 24.4 months. These results indicate that combination cisplatin-S-1 chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiation would be a feasible treatment option and a phase II study is currently under way.

  18. A case of a gastric submucosal tumor treated with combined therapy using superselective TAE and endoscopic local resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamori, Fumio; Kuniyoshi, Nobutoshi; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Kazushige

    2012-10-01

    The case was a 76-year-old female, who was noted to have a gastric submucosal tumor 25 mm in size located at the lesser curvature of the gastric body. Computed tomography revealed that the tumor was located near the coronary loop between the left and right gastric arteries. On the day before endoscopic local resection, abdominal angiography was performed and it revealed that the tumor was supplied by the left and right gastric arteries. Superselective transarterial embolization of the left and right gastric arteries around the tumor was performed to prevent accidental bleeding during the endoscopic procedure. Endoscopic local resection using full-thickness resection and submucosal dissection techniques was performed under general anesthesia. The tumor was completely resected without accidental bleeding. A gastric wall defect was closed using metallic clips and loop snares. Histologic examination revealed that the tumor was a low-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We suggest that the combined therapy using superselective transarterial embolization and endoscopic local resection is an optional safe method for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors.

  19. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  20. T-current related effects of antiepileptic drugs and a Ca2+ channel antagonist on thalamic relay and local circuit interneurons in a rat model of absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broicher, Tilman; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Meuth, Patrick; Munsch, Thomas; Meuth, Sven G; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Pape, Hans-Christian; Budde, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Channel blocking, anti-oscillatory, and anti-epileptic effects of clinically used anti-absence substances (ethosuximide, valproate) and the T-type Ca2+ current (IT) blocker mibefradil were tested by analyzing membrane currents in acutely isolated local circuit interneurons and thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons, slow intrathalamic oscillations in brain slices, and spike and wave discharges (SWDs) occurring in vivo in Wistar Albino Glaxo rats from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij). Substance effects in vitro were compared between WAG/Rij and a non-epileptic control strain, the ACI rats. Ethosuximide (ETX) and valproate were found to block IT in acutely isolated thalamic neurons. Block of IT by therapeutically relevant ETX concentrations (0.25-0.75 mM) was stronger in WAG/Rij, although the maximal effect at saturating concentrations (>or=10 mM) was stronger in ACI. Ethosuximide delayed the onset of the low threshold Ca2+ spike (LTS) of neurons recorded in slice preparations. Mibefradil (>or=2 microM) completely blocked IT and the LTS, dampened evoked thalamic oscillations, and attenuated SWDs in vivo. Computational modeling demonstrated that the complete effect of ETX can be replicated by a sole reduction of IT. However, the necessary degree of IT reduction was not induced by therapeutically relevant ETX concentrations. A combined reduction of IT, the persistent sodium current, and the Ca2+ activated K+ current resulted in an LTS alteration resembling the experimental observations. In summary, these results support the hypothesis of IT reduction as part of the mechanism of action of anti-absence drugs and demonstrate the ability of a specific IT antagonist to attenuate rhythmic burst firing and SWDs.

  1. Critical current degradation behaviour of GdBCO CC tapes in pure torsion and combined tension-torsion modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung-Seop

    2016-10-01

    Coated conductor (CC) tapes utilized in high-current-density superconducting cables are commonly subjected to different loading modes, primarily torsion and tension especially in the case of twisted stacked-tape cable. Torsion load can occur due to twisting along the length or when winding the CC tapes around a former, while tension load can occur due to pre-tension when coiled and as a hoop stress when the coil is energized. In this study, electromechanical properties of single CC tapes under torsion load were investigated using a new test apparatus. The results could provide basic information for cable designers to fully characterize stacked cables. Copper-electroplated and brass-laminated CC tapes fabricated with different deposition techniques were subjected to pure torsion and combined tension-torsion loading. The critical current, I c degradation behaviours of CC tapes under torsional deformation were examined. Also, the effect of further external lamination on the I c degradation behaviour of the CC tapes under such loading conditions was investigated. In the case of the combined tension-torsion test, short samples were subjected to twist pitches of 200 mm and 100 mm. Critical parameters including reversible axial stress and strain in such twist pitch conditions were also investigated.

  2. Combined local-density and dynamical mean field theory calculations for the compressed lanthanides Ce, Pr, and Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, A K

    2005-03-30

    This paper reports calculations for compressed Ce (4f{sup 1}), Pr (4f{sup 2}), and Nd (4f{sup 3}) using a combination of the local-density approximation (LDA) and dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), or LDA+DMFT. The 4f moment, spectra, and the total energy among other properties are examined as functions of volume and atomic number for an assumed face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. These materials are seen to be strongly localized at ambient pressure and for compressions up through the experimentally observed fcc phases ({gamma} phase for Ce), in the sense of having fully formed Hund's rules moments and little 4f spectral weight at the Fermi level. Subsequent compression for all three lanthanides brings about significant deviation of the moments from their Hund's rules values, a growing Kondo resonance at the fermi level, an associated softening in the total energy, and quenching of the spin orbit since the Kondo resonance is of mixed spin-orbit character while the lower Hubbard band is predominantly j = 5/2. while the most dramatic changes for Ce occur within the two-phase region of the {gamma}-{alpha} volume collapse transition, as found in earlier work, those for Pr and Nd occur within the volume range of the experimentally observed distorted fcc (dfcc) phase, which is therefore seen here as transitional and not part of the localized trivalent lanthanide sequence. The experimentally observed collapse to the {alpha}-U structure in Pr occurs only on further compression, and no such collapse is found in Nd. These lanthanides start closer to the localized limit for increasing atomic number, and so the theoretical signatures noted above are also offset to smaller volume as well, which is possibly related to the measured systematics of the size of the volume collapse being 15%, 9%, and none for Ce, Pr, and Nd, respectively.

  3. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D' Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  4. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  5. A combined global and local approach to elucidate spatial organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS partition assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark R; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2011-03-22

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  6. Combined single-molecule manipulation and localization for the study of lac Repressor 1D-diffusion along DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, G.; Mónico, C.; Capitanio, M.; Vanzi, F.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of intact genetic information, as well as the deployment of transcription for specific sets of genes, critically rely on a family of proteins interacting with DNA and recognizing specific sequences or features. The mechanisms by which these proteins search for target DNA are the subject of intense investigations employing a variety of methods in biology. A large interest in these processes stems from the faster-than-diffusion association rates, explained in current models by a combination of 3D and 1D diffusion. Here, we describe the combination of optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence detection for the study of protein-DNA interaction. The method offers the opportunity of investigating interactions occurring in solution (thus avoiding problems due to closeby surfaces as in other single molecule methods), controlling the DNA extension and tracking interaction dynamics as a function of both mechanical parameters and DNA sequence.

  7. Combined motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves plateaued manual dexterity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Munoz-Rubke, Felipe; Wan, Hsuan-Yu; Block, Hannah J

    2016-10-28

    Motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) in hand muscles is known to modify motor cortex excitability and improve learning rate, but not plateau of performance, in manual dexterity tasks. Central stimulation of motor cortex, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can have similar effects if accompanied by motor practice, which can be difficult and tiring for patients. Here we asked whether adding tDCS to MPAS could improve manual dexterity in healthy individuals who are already performing at their plateau, with no motor practice during stimulation. We hypothesized that MPAS could provide enough coordinated muscle activity to make motor practice unnecessary, and that this combination of stimulation techniques could yield improvements even in subjects at or near their peak. If so, this approach could have a substantial effect on patients with impaired dexterity, who are far from their peak. MPAS was applied for 30min to two right hand muscles important for manual dexterity. tDCS was simultaneously applied over left sensorimotor cortex. The motor cortex input/output (I/O) curve was assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and manual dexterity was assessed with the Purdue Pegboard Test. Compared to sham or cathodal tDCS combined with MPAS, anodal tDCS combined with MPAS significantly increased the plateau of manual dexterity. This result suggests that MPAS has the potential to substitute for motor practice in mediating a beneficial effect of tDCS on manual dexterity.

  8. Combined current-modulation annealing induced enhancement of giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co-rich amorphous microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingshun; Qin, Faxiang; Chen, Dongming; Shen, Hongxian; Wang, Huan; Xing, Dawei; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Jianfei

    2014-05-01

    We report on a combined current-modulation annealing (CCMA) method, which integrates the optimized pulsed current (PC) and DC annealing techniques, for improving the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its field sensitivity of Co-rich amorphous microwires. Relative to an as-prepared Co68.2Fe4.3B15Si12.5 wire, CCMA is shown to remarkably improve the GMI response of the wire. At 10 MHz, the maximum GMI ratio and its field sensitivity of the as-prepared wire were, respectively, increased by 3.5 and 2.28 times when subjected to CCMA. CCMA increased atomic order orientation and circumferential permeability of the wire by the co-action of high-density pulsed magnetic field energy and thermal activation energy at a PC annealing stage, as well as the formation of uniform circular magnetic domains by a stable DC magnetic field at a DC annealing stage. The magnetic moment can overcome eddy-current damping or nail-sticked action in rotational magnetization, giving rise to a double-peak feature and wider working field range (up to ±2 Oe) at relatively higher frequency (f ≥ 1 MHz).

  9. Combined current-modulation annealing induced enhancement of giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co-rich amorphous microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingshun, E-mail: jingshun-liu@163.com, E-mail: faxiang.qin@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Qin, Faxiang, E-mail: jingshun-liu@163.com, E-mail: faxiang.qin@gmail.com [1D Nanomaterials Group, National Institute for Material Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Chen, Dongming; Shen, Hongxian; Wang, Huan; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Phan, Manh-Huong [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We report on a combined current-modulation annealing (CCMA) method, which integrates the optimized pulsed current (PC) and DC annealing techniques, for improving the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its field sensitivity of Co-rich amorphous microwires. Relative to an as-prepared Co{sub 68.2}Fe{sub 4.3}B{sub 15}Si{sub 12.5} wire, CCMA is shown to remarkably improve the GMI response of the wire. At 10 MHz, the maximum GMI ratio and its field sensitivity of the as-prepared wire were, respectively, increased by 3.5 and 2.28 times when subjected to CCMA. CCMA increased atomic order orientation and circumferential permeability of the wire by the co-action of high-density pulsed magnetic field energy and thermal activation energy at a PC annealing stage, as well as the formation of uniform circular magnetic domains by a stable DC magnetic field at a DC annealing stage. The magnetic moment can overcome eddy-current damping or nail-sticked action in rotational magnetization, giving rise to a double-peak feature and wider working field range (up to ±2 Oe) at relatively higher frequency (f ≥ 1 MHz)

  10. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  11. Combination transcranial direct current stimulation and virtual reality therapy for upper extremity training in patients with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook Joung; Chun, Min Ho

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of combination cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and virtual reality (VR) therapy for upper extremity (UE) training in patients with subacute stroke. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group A received cathodal tDCS, group B received VR, and group C received combination therapy (cathodal tDCS was simultaneously applied during VR therapy). University hospital. Patients (N=59) with impaired unilateral UE motor function after stroke. Fifteen sessions of treatment over a 3-week period. The Modified Ashworth Scale, manual muscle test (MMT), Manual Function Test (MFT), Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS), and Box and Block Test were used to assess UE function. To evaluate activities of daily living, the Korean-Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) was used. All outcomes were measured before and immediately after treatment. After treatment, all groups demonstrated significant improvements in MMT, MFT, FMS, and K-MBI scores. The change in MFT and FMS scores was different between the 3 groups. Post hoc analysis revealed that the improvement of MFT and FMS scores in group C was significantly higher than those of the other 2 groups. In the present pilot study, the combination of brain stimulation using tDCS and peripheral arm training using VR could facilitate a stronger beneficial effect on UE impairment than using each intervention alone. This combination therapy might be a helpful method to enhance recovery of the paretic UE in patients with stroke. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inductive Magnetic Footpoint Tracking by Combining the Minimum Energy Fit with the Local Correlation Tracking and Doppler Velocity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Ravindra; D. W. Longcope

    2008-03-01

    Time-dependent magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of active region coronal magnetic field require the underlying photospheric magnetic footpoint velocities. The minimum energy fit (MEF) is a new velocity inversion technique to infer the photospheric magnetic footpoint velocities using a pair of vector magnetograms, introduced by Longcope (2004). The MEF selects the smallest overall flow from several consistent flows by minimizing an energy functional. The inferred horizontal and vertical flow fields by the MEF can be further constrained by incorporating the partial or imperfect velocity information obtained through independent means. This hybrid method is expected to give a velocity close to the true magnetic footpoint velocity. Here, we demonstrate that a combination of the MEF, the local correlation tracking (LCT) and Doppler velocity is capable of inferring the velocity close to the photospheric flow.

  13. Localizing internal friction along the reaction coordinate of protein folding by combining ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Alessandro; Wensley, Beth G; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B; Hoffmann, Armin; Pfeil, Shawn H; Lipman, Everett A; Clarke, Jane; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Theory, simulations and experimental results have suggested an important role of internal friction in the kinetics of protein folding. Recent experiments on spectrin domains provided the first evidence for a pronounced contribution of internal friction in proteins that fold on the millisecond timescale. However, it has remained unclear how this contribution is distributed along the reaction and what influence it has on the folding dynamics. Here we use a combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, microfluidic mixing and denaturant- and viscosity-dependent protein-folding kinetics to probe internal friction in the unfolded state and at the early and late transition states of slow- and fast-folding spectrin domains. We find that the internal friction affecting the folding rates of spectrin domains is highly localized to the early transition state, suggesting an important role of rather specific interactions in the rate-limiting conformational changes.

  14. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  15. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape – studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Hofmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME, a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. Aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future, with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium – the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS – has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1 the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2 initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, (3 an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

  16. Non-local total-variation (NLTV) minimization combined with reweighted L1-norm for compressed sensing CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Chen, Josephine; Wang, Adam; Chuang, Cynthia; Held, Mareike; Pouliot, Jean

    2016-09-01

    The compressed sensing (CS) technique has been employed to reconstruct CT/CBCT images from fewer projections as it is designed to recover a sparse signal from highly under-sampled measurements. Since the CT image itself cannot be sparse, a variety of transforms were developed to make the image sufficiently sparse. The total-variation (TV) transform with local image gradient in L1-norm was adopted in most cases. This approach, however, which utilizes very local information and penalizes the weight at a constant rate regardless of different degrees of spatial gradient, may not produce qualified reconstructed images from noise-contaminated CT projection data. This work presents a new non-local operator of total-variation (NLTV) to overcome the deficits stated above by utilizing a more global search and non-uniform weight penalization in reconstruction. To further improve the reconstructed results, a reweighted L1-norm that approximates the ideal sparse signal recovery of the L0-norm is incorporated into the NLTV reconstruction with additional iterates. This study tested the proposed reconstruction method (reweighted NLTV) from under-sampled projections of 4 objects and 5 experiments (1 digital phantom with low and high noise scenarios, 1 pelvic CT, and 2 CBCT images). We assessed its performance against the conventional TV, NLTV and reweighted TV transforms in the tissue contrast, reconstruction accuracy, and imaging resolution by comparing contrast-noise-ratio (CNR), normalized root-mean square error (nRMSE), and profiles of the reconstructed images. Relative to the conventional NLTV, combining the reweighted L1-norm with NLTV further enhanced the CNRs by 2-4 times and improved reconstruction accuracy. Overall, except for the digital phantom with low noise simulation, our proposed algorithm produced the reconstructed image with the lowest nRMSEs and the highest CNRs for each experiment.

  17. Global and local critical current density in superconducting SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} measured by two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otabe, E.S., E-mail: otabe@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Kiuchi, M.; Kawai, S. [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Morita, Y.; Ge, J.; Ni, B. [Department of Life, Environment and Material Science, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajirohigashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Gao, Z.; Wang, L.; Qi, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ma, Y. [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-11-01

    The critical current densities of polycrystalline bulk SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} prepared by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method and by a conventional solid-state reaction were investigated using the remnant magnetic moment method and Campbell's method. Two types of shielding current, corresponding to global and local critical current densities J{sub c} were observed using both measurement methods. The global and local J{sub c} were on the order of 10{sup 7} A/m{sup 2} and 10{sup 10} A/m{sup 2} at 5 K, respectively. The local J{sub c} decreased slightly with increasing magnetic field. The global J{sub c} was independent of the preparation method, while the local J{sub c} was larger for samples prepared by PIT than for those prepared by solid-state reaction.

  18. A cooperative control strategy of resistance spot welding process by combining the constant current control with the DRC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guizhong; Wang Changzheng; Kong Meng; Guo Caiguang

    2009-01-01

    The modeling control method based on the dynamic resistance characteristics of good nuggets, that is the DRC method, is an improvement on the dynamic resistance threshold method for the quality control of resistance spot welding. But there is still a control blind area in the initial four cycles. For this reason, the quality of every weld nugget could not be fully ensured. Thus a new fuzzy cooperative control method is put forward. It uses a multi-information time-control mechanism by combining the constant current control technology with the DRC method in a relay way. This whole-process control strategy has led to a good control effect and produced the dual-identicul results in the weld nugget quality and the welding time.

  19. Simultaneous preparation of naturally abundant and rare catechins by tannase-mediated biotransformation combining high speed counter current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guobin; Hong, Shan; Liu, Songbai

    2014-05-15

    Simultaneous preparation of naturally rare catechins, EGC and EC, has been realized by tannase-mediated biotransformation combining high speed counter current chromatography. In addition, simultaneous preparation of the four catechins, EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC in green tea extract has also been achieved by HSCCC under the normal phase and the reversed phase modes. The identity of the catechins was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and quantification of the catechins was performed by HPLC-DAD. In a typical HSCCC separation, 27.2 mg 98.8% EGCG, 14.1 mg 94.7% EGC, and 9.3 mg 97.5% EC were obtained. This new method is efficient, time-saving and valuable for biological studies.

  20. Single-Tooth Osteotomy Combined Wide Linear Corticotomy Under Local Anesthesia for Correcting Anterior Protrusion With Ectopically Erupted Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskenderoglu, Nur Serife; Choi, Byung-Joon; Seo, Kyung Won; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the alternative surgical treatments of both anterior protrusion by carrying out retraction on mandibular anterior fragment, meanwhile applying retraction force on maxilla anterior teeth and ectopically erupted canine with using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Anterior segmental osteotomy was combined with linear corticotomy under local anesthesia. The correction of right ectopic canine was achieved through 2 stages. First, dento-osseous osteotomy on palatal side was performed. Then second osteotomy with immediate manual repositioning of the canine with concomitant first premolar extraction was enhanced with PRF, which was prepared by centrifuging patient's blood, applied into buccal side of high canine during osteotomy. Mandibular retraction was accomplished by anterior segmental osteotomy. Single-tooth osteotomy is a more effective surgical method for ankylosed or ectopically erupted tooth in orthodontic treatment. It can reduce the total orthodontic treatment time and root resorption, 1 common complication. Significant improved bone formation was seen with the addition of PRF on noncritical size defects in the animal model. It is reasonable to think that PRF can promote bone regeneration. So early bone formation also can reduce the complication such as postoperative infection. As an alternative to anterior protrusion and ectopically erupted canine treatment, segmental osteotomy and corticotomy combined platelet-rich plasma can enhance orthodontic treatment outcome.

  1. Combined use of remifentanil and propofol to limit patient movement during retinal detachment surgery under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdul Kader

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the drawbacks of performing ophthalmic surgery under local anesthesia is patient movement, which might affect optimal surgical outcome. Purpose: The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the combined use of propofol and remifentanil as a sedative technique in comparison with the use of propofol alone to limit patient discomfort and movement during local anesthesia for vitreo-retinal surgery lasting for more than two hours. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 patients scheduled for vitreo-retinal surgery under local anesthesia, with an expected surgical time of more than two hours, were included in the study. Patients were divided randomly into two equal groups: group I where patients were given propofol and remifentanil by continuous infusion and group II where patients were given propofol alone by continuous infusion. Results: The two groups were comparable with regard to age, weight, gender, ASA physical status and duration of surgery. There was a significant decrease in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP in each group 10 minutes after the start of sedation compared with pre-sedation data and continued all through the procedure. There was an insignificant difference between the two groups with regard to changes in heart rate and MABP all through surgical procedure. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the incidence of complications except for an increased incidence of breakthrough pain and discomfort which necessitated the use of fentanyl as a rescue treatment in the propofol group P<0.001. There were no instances of movements with a major effect on the surgical field, which could have affected surgical outcome, in the two groups. The number of patients who did not move was significantly higher, 56 (80%, in group I compared with 38 (54.29% in group II with P<0.001. The ophthalmologist satisfaction scale was significantly higher in group I (4.5±0.63 compared with group

  2. CURRENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMBINATION TREATMENT OF LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS DUE TO BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Kasyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are widely presented, particularly among elderly men. It was commonly accepted that LUTS are directly or indirectly connected with the prostate. Recent studies have shown that mild andsevere forms of LUTS may have a different etiology, such as, bladder related problems: overactive bladder (OAB/detrusor overactivity or, conversely, an underactive bladder due to compromised contractions of the detrusor. There are three main groups of LUTS: storage symptoms, voiding symptoms and post-micturition symptoms. Patients with LUTS/BPH who are not sufficiently respond to monotherapy with alpha-blockers should receive additional treatment with M‑anticholinergics in accordance with the European urological guidelines. Current studies show that up to 65% of patients with LUTS/BPH with symptoms of urgency and frequency do not have sufficient reduction of symptoms after 3 months of treatment with alphablocker as monotherapy. Until recently, alpha-blockers and M‑anticholinergic medications were prescribed in combination therapy as a two separate pills. Vesomni is a combination of antimuscarinic drug solifenacin 6 mg with α1‑blocker tamsulosin OCAS 0.4 mg in one tablet. It is developed to relieve storage (urgency and frequency and voiding symptoms in men with LUTS/BPH. Solifenacin suppresses the overactivity of the detrusor and reduces storage symptoms. Tamsulosin OCAS relaxes smooth muscle of the prostate, prostatic urethra and bladder neck, and eliminates most voiding symptoms and, to a lesser extent, storage symptoms.

  3. Ifosfamide plus etoposide combined with regional hyperthermia in patients with locally advanced sarcomas: a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issels, R D; Prenninger, S W; Nagele, A; Boehm, E; Sauer, H; Jauch, K W; Denecke, H; Berger, H; Peter, K; Wilmanns, W

    1990-11-01

    From July 1986 to July 1989, 40 patients (92% pretreated) with deep-seated, advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS, 25 patients), Ewing's sarcomas (ES, eight patients), osteosarcomas (OS, three patients) and chondrosarcomas (ChS, four patients) were treated at the University of Munich in a protocol involving regional hyperthermia (RHT) combined with ifosfamide plus etoposide. A total of 265 RHT treatments (mean, 6.6 RHT per patient) were applied including 33 pelvic, four extremity, and three abdominal sites. The mean tumor volume was 537 cc (range, 50 to 2,980 cc). For systemic chemotherapy, all patients received ifosfamide (1.5 g/m2, days 1 to 5), etoposide (100 mg/m2, days 1, 3, and 5), and mesna (300 mg/m2 x 4, days 1 to 5) with RHT given only on days 1 and 5 in repeated cycles every 4 weeks. Acute toxicity consisted primarily of pain (57%) combined with local discomfort within the annular phased array applicator (AA) of the BSD hyperthermia system (BSD Medical Corp, Salt Lake City, UT). The average maximum systemic temperature was 37.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C, and there was no indication of enhanced bone marrow toxicity due to the addition of RHT to the systemic chemotherapy. Detailed thermal mapping by invasive thermometry was performed in all patients. In 38 assessable patients, the overall objective response rate was 37%: six complete responses (CRs), four partial responses (PRs), and four favorable histologic responses (FHRs) (95% confidence limits, 22% to 54%). Complete responders are alive and disease-free at 40, 35, 23, 19, 19, and 8 months. Of patients with PR and FHR, two died from metastatic disease after 4 and 17 months and one died from other disease after 27 months. The remaining five patients are stable at 37, 25, 21, 13, and 8 months. Eleven patients showed no change (NC), and 13 patients showed local tumor progression (PD). The mean observation time for all patients was 11.6 months. The time-averaged temperatures (Ts) of all RHT treatments calculated as

  4. Isolation and purification of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by enzymatic hydrolysis combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xi, Xingjun; Wang, Mei; Fan, Li; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography for the transformation and isolation of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii was successfully developed. In the first step, the extract solution of Fructus Arctii was enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were 40°C, pH 5.0, 24 h of hydrolysis time, and 1.25 mg/mL β-glucosidase concentration. Under these conditions, the content of arctigenin was transformed from 2.60 to 12.59 mg/g. In the second step, arctigenin in the hydrolysis products was separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (10:25:15:20, v/v), and the fraction was analyzed by HPLC, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, 102 mg of arctigenin with a purity of 98.9% was obtained in a one-step separation from 200 mg of hydrolyzed sample.

  5. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahodova, Vera [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-0453 Koszalin (Poland); Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec1 (Czech Republic); Ding, Xing-zhao, E-mail: xzding@SIMTech.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Seng, Debbie H.L. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Gulbinski, W. [Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-0453 Koszalin (Poland); Louda, P. [Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec1 (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power.

  6. Current and calcium responses to local activation of axonal NMDA receptors in developing cerebellar molecular layer interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Rossi

    Full Text Available In developing cerebellar molecular layer interneurons (MLIs, NMDA increases spontaneous GABA release. This effect had been attributed to either direct activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs or an indirect pathway involving activation of somato-dendritic NMDARs followed by passive spread of somatic depolarization along the axon and activation of axonal voltage dependent Ca(2+ channels (VDCCs. Using Ca(2+ imaging and electrophysiology, we searched for preNMDARs by uncaging NMDAR agonists either broadly throughout the whole field or locally at specific axonal locations. Releasing either NMDA or glutamate in the presence of NBQX using short laser pulses elicited current transients that were highly sensitive to the location of the spot and restricted to a small number of varicosities. The signal was abolished in the presence of high Mg(2+ or by the addition of APV. Similar paradigms yielded restricted Ca(2+ transients in interneurons loaded with a Ca(2+ indicator. We found that the synaptic effects of NMDA were not inhibited by blocking VDCCs but were impaired in the presence of the ryanodine receptor antagonist dantrolene. Furthermore, in voltage clamped cells, bath applied NMDA triggers Ca(2+ elevations and induces neurotransmitter release in the axonal compartment. Our results suggest the existence of preNMDARs in developing MLIs and propose their involvement in the NMDA-evoked increase in GABA release by triggering a Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release process mediated by presynaptic Ca(2+ stores. Such a mechanism is likely to exert a crucial role in various forms of Ca(2+-mediated synaptic plasticity.

  7. Local controlled release of VEGF and PDGF from a combined brushite-chitosan system enhances bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Riva, Beatriz; Sánchez, Esther; Hernández, Antonio; Reyes, Ricardo; Tamimi, Faleh; López-Cabarcos, Enrique; Delgado, Araceli; Evora, Carmen

    2010-04-02

    The two growth factors VEGF and PDGF are involved in the process of bone regeneration. For this reason, we developed a brushite-chitosan system which controls the release kinetics of incorporated VEGF and PDGF to enhance bone healing. PDGF (250 ng) was incorporated in the liquid phase. Alginate microsphere-encapsulated VEGF (350 ng) was pre-included in small cylindrical chitosan sponges. VEGF and PDGF release kinetics and tissue distribution were determined using iodinated ((125)I) growth factor. In vivo, PDGF was more rapidly delivered from these systems implanted in rabbit femurs than VEGF. 80% of PDGF was released by the end of two weeks while only 70% of VEGF was delivered after a period of three weeks. Both GFs released from the brushite-chitosan constructs remained located around the implantation site (5 cm) with negligible systemic exposure. A PDGF bone peak concentration of approximately 5 ng/g was achieved on the 4th day. Thereafter, PDGF concentrations stayed higher than 2 ng/g during the first week. These scaffolds also provided a local VEGF bone concentration above 3 ng/g during a total of 4weeks, with a peak concentration of 5.5 ng/g on the 7th day. The present work demonstrates that our brushite-chitosan system is capable of controlling the release rate and localization of both GFs within a bone defect. The effect on bone formation was considerably enhanced with PDGF loaded brushite-chitosan scaffolds as well as with the PDGF/VEGF combination.

  8. [Combined quantitative and qualitative methods to identify local facilitators of and barriers to physician's adherence to clinical practice guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillour-Glénisson, F; Domecq, S; Pouchadon, M-L; Jacques, B; Sibé, M

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) implementation interventions could be improved by their adaptation to facilitators of and barriers to practice change in each setting. Very few is known about these local factors in French hospitals. Our objectives were to identify the facilitator factors of and barriers to physician's adherence to CPG in internal medicine wards in France and to determine the factors most strongly statistically associated to CPG adherence. Combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Two CPGs were chosen as examples. The settings were internal medicine wards of hospitals of the Aquitaine region voluntary to participate. Qualitative analyses were conducted in the internal medicine wards of 5 hospitals in the Aquitaine region selected among the 12 voluntary hospitals to represent the variability of situations. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: A questionnaire was constituted by the factors retrieved through the qualitative analyses and a previous literature review as barriers or facilitator factors to physician's adherence to CPG and asked the physicians on the degree of CPG adherence. It was sent to each physician of the internal medicine wards of the 12 voluntary hospitals. The responses to the questionnaire allowed the analysis of the frequency of each factor and the strength of the statistical association between these factors and CPG adherence. These analyses focused on the importance of the management, particularly the role of ward head and of the exchange between physicians. The attitude to CPGs varied according to the individual positionnement on the professional hierarchy, function of the quantity of research activities and of the local, regional and national radiance of the ward. Organisational difficulties as professionals and patients turn over, work overload, lack of coordination between wards were organisational barriers to CPG adherence. The quantitative analysis confirmed the role of managerial and organisational factors

  9. Citizen earthquake alert using near real time PGA estimation from a local array combining a variety of accelerometric instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Kalogeras, Ioannis; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2017-04-01

    It is of a great importance to assess rapidly the intensity of a felt event in a highly populated environment. Rapid and reliable information plays a key role to decision making responses, by performing correctly the first steps after a felt ground shaking. Thus, it is important to accurately respond to urgent societal demand using reliable information. A strong motion array is under deployment and trial operation in the area of Patras, Greece. It combines: (a) standard accelerometric stations operated by the National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics (NOA), (b) QCN-type USB MEMS acceleration sensors deployed in schools and (c) P-alert MEMS acceleration devices deployed in public sector buildings as well as in private dwellings. The array intends to cover the whole city of Patras and the populated suburbs. All instruments are operating in near real time and they are linked to a combined Earthworm - SeisComP3 server at NOA, Athens. Rapid intensity estimation can be also performed by the P-alert accelerometers locally, but the performance of a near real time intensity estimation system is under operation at NOA. The procedure is based on observing the maximum PGA value at each instrument and empirically estimate the corresponding intensity. The values are also fed to a SeisComP3 based ShakeMap procedure that is served at NOA and uses the scwfparam module of SeisComP3. Earthquake activity has been recorded so far from the western Corinth Gulf, the Ionian Islands and Achaia-Elia area, western Peloponnesus. The first phase involves correlation tests of collocated instruments and assessment of their performance to low intensity as well as to strongly felt events in the Patras city area. Steps of expanding the array are also under consideration, in order to cover the wider area of northwestern Peloponnesus and Ionian islands.

  10. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in an intensive dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy schedule for locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Frai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT in patients with locally advanced (L A inoperable breast cancer (BC at baseline, by using the intensified combination CT at the interval being reduced between the administration of cytostatic dru gs to 2 weeks to give a chance to the patients to be surgically treated.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 26 patients aged 33 to 75 years with L A BC. Paclitaxel was administered intravenously (IV over 3 hours at a dose of 175 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by gemcitabine, 2000 mg/m2, given by 30-minute IV infusion on day 1 every 2 w eeks. If the cytostatics were well tolerated and their effect increased, the treatment was continued up to 6 courses.Results. Eighteen (69.2% out of the 26 patients achieved the objective effect of treatment; of them 17 (65.4% had a partial remission and 1 (3.8 had a complete remission.The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor w as rated in 22 patients; fourth-degree tumor pathomorphism w as found in 2 (9% patien ts. The follow-up of patients w as 11 to 28 months (median, 20 months. The median time to progression w as not reached in the entire group of patients.Conclusion. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in intensive dose-dense scheduling has a marked antitumor activity in BC andis characterized by its good tolerability without a pronounced myelosuppressive effect. This therapy regimen may be used as neoadjuvant CT.

  11. Extended-bandwidth frequency sweeps of a distributed feedback laser using combined injection current and temperature modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferman, Gerald; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Tao

    2017-07-01

    This article details the generation of an extended-bandwidth frequency sweep using a single, communication grade distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The frequency sweep is generated using a two-step technique. In the first step, injection current modulation is employed as a means of varying the output frequency of a DFB laser over a bandwidth of 99.26 GHz. A digital optical phase lock loop is used to lock the frequency sweep speed during current modulation, resulting in a linear frequency chirp. In the second step, the temperature of the DFB laser is modulated, resulting in a shifted starting laser output frequency. A laser frequency chirp is again generated beginning at this shifted starting frequency, resulting in a frequency-shifted spectrum relative to the first recorded data. This process is then repeated across a range of starting temperatures, resulting in a series of partially overlapping, frequency-shifted spectra. These spectra are then aligned using cross-correlation and combined using averaging to form a single, broadband spectrum with a total bandwidth of 510.9 GHz. In order to investigate the utility of this technique, experimental testing was performed in which the approach was used as the swept-frequency source of a coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry system. This system was used to interrogate an optical fiber containing a 20 point, 1-mm pitch length fiber Bragg grating, corresponding to a period of 100 GHz. Using this technique, both the periodicity of the grating in the frequency domain and the individual reflector elements of the structure in the time domain were resolved, demonstrating the technique's potential as a method of extending the sweeping bandwidth of semiconductor lasers for frequency-based sensing applications.

  12. New insights on the recent and current deformation in Central-Eastern Iran, derived from a combined tectonic and GPS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpersdorf, A.; Manighetti, I.; Tavakoli, F.; Mousavi, Z.; Vergnolle, M.; Jadidi, A.; Hatzfeld, D.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Djamour, Y.; Nankali, H.; Sedighi, M.; Lutz, L.

    2012-04-01

    We have studied the recent to current deformation in Iran and especially Central-Eastern Iran by tightly combining tectonic and GPS analyses. Based on morphotectonic analyses of satellite images, we have identified and mapped the major active faults that dissect the entire ≈ 4500 km x 2500 km2 region that extends from Eastern Turkey to Western Afghanistan/Pakistan and hence encompasses Iran, emphasizing their large-scale organization and kinematic relationships. Doing so, we have identified the major fault systems that control the tectonics of Iran, especially in its central-eastern part. We have also analyzed the 11 years GPS record on the 92 stations deployed in central-eastern Iran in the framework of the Iranian-French collaboration. The GPS analysis reveals that all major faults identified as seismogenic in central-eastern Iran are indeed currently active and slipping at fast rates. The northerly-trending East Lut, West Lut, Kuhbanan, Anar and Deshir faults have a current right-lateral slip rate of 5.7 ± 0.9, 4.7 ± 1.7, 2.3 ± 1.9, 2.7 ± 1.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm/yr, respectively, while the ≈ EW-trending Doruneh and Sedeh faults have a left-lateral current slip rate of 3.1 ± 1.8 and 1.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, respectively. The large regions bounded by the northerly-striking faults behave as fairly rigid blocks that are all found to move towards both the N13°E ARA-EUR convergence direction and the WNW, at fast rates, in the range 6.5-12.5 and 1-5 mm/yr, respectively. Combined with the available data on the studied faults, our tectonic and geodetic results suggest that a bookshelf faulting strain transfer mechanism has been and is still operating in central-eastern Iran. The coeval dextral motion of the two major, overlapping, North Anatolian-Main Recent and Caucasus-Kopeh Dagh-Herat fault lines that embrace central-eastern Iran, induces a large-scale regional sinistral shear on either side of the region, which forces the northerly-trending right-lateral faults and

  13. Purification of two triterpenoids from Schisandra chinensis by macroporous resin combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Meng, Xianjun

    2014-10-01

    A method for preparative purification of corosolic acid and nigranoic acid from Schisandra chinensis (SC) was established using a combination of macroporous absorption resin column separation and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The crude extracts obtained from SC using 70% ethanol were separated on a macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. The 70% ethanol fraction was used as the sample for separation of the two triterpenoids by HSCCC. The two-phase solvent system used for HSCCC separation was chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (10:0.5:7:4, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase of HSCCC. Corosolic acid (16.4 mg) of 96.3% purity and nigranoic acid (9.5 mg) of 98.9% purity were obtained in a one-step HSCCC separation from 100 mg of the sample. The structures of corosolic acid and nigranoic acid were identified by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C-NMR.

  14. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and robotic upper limb therapy improves upper limb function in an adult with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Kathleen M; Lee, Peter; Soles, Lindsey V; Smorenburg, Ana R P; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Gupta, Disha; Edwards, Dylan J

    2017-01-01

    Robotic therapy can improve upper limb function in hemiparesis. Excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can prime brain motor circuits before therapy. We tested safety and efficacy of tDCS plus robotic therapy in an adult with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). In each of 36 sessions, anodal tDCS (2 mA, 20 min) was applied over the motor map of the affected hand. Immediately after tDCS, the participant completed robotic therapy, using the shoulder, elbow, and wrist (MIT Manus). The participant sat in a padded chair with affected arm abducted, forearm supported, and hand grasping the robot handle. The participant controlled the robot arm with his affected arm to move a cursor from the center of a circle to each of eight targets (960 movements). Motor function was tested before, after, and six months after therapy with the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and Fugl-Meyer (FM). Reaching accuracy on the robot task improved significantly after therapy. The WMFT and FM improved clinically meaningful amounts after therapy. The motor map of the affected hand expanded after therapy. Improvements were maintained six months after therapy. Combined tDCS and robotics safely improved upper limb function in an adult with USCP.

  15. A multi-site array for combined local electrochemistry and electrophysiology in the non-human primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Anita A; McKinney, Collin; Grissom, Larry; Lu, Xuekun; Reynolds, John H

    2015-11-30

    Currently, the primary technique employed in circuit-level study of the brain is electrophysiology, recording local field or action potentials (LFPs or APs). However most communication between neurons is chemical and the relationship between electrical activity within neurons and chemical signaling between them is not well understood in vivo, particularly for molecules that signal at least in part by non-synaptic transmission. We describe a multi-contact array and accompanying head stage circuit that together enable concurrent electrophysiological and electrochemical recording. The array is small (electrochemistry) recording. This system is designed for concurrent, dual-mode recording. It is also the only system designed explicitly to meet the challenges of recording in non-human primates. Our system offers the possibility for conducting in vivo studies in a range of species that examine the relationship between the electrical activity of neurons and their chemical environment, with exquisite spatial and temporal precision. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time-dependent density-functional theory simulation of local currents in pristine and single-defect zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-07-01

    The spatial current distribution in H-terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) under electrical bias is investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory solved on a real-space grid. A projected complex absorbing potential is used to minimize the effect of reflection at simulation cell boundary. The calculations show that the current flows mainly along the edge atoms in the hydrogen terminated pristine ZGNRs. When a vacancy is introduced to the ZGNRs, loop currents emerge at the ribbon edge due to electrons hopping between carbon atoms of the same sublattice. The loop currents hinder the flow of the edge current, explaining the poor electric conductance observed in recent experiments.

  17. Relative importance of current and past landscape structure and local habitat conditions for plant species richness in dry grassland-like forest openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure.

  18. Current state of professional and core competency in pediatric residency program at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: A local survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sedigheh; Rezaee, Rita

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation assesses performance, or capacity to perform, against predetermined standards. It typically combines external quality assurance, through a process of peers review, with elements of self-regulation through internal and self-directed assessment. This study is an attempt to identify the quality of pediatrics residency educational programs regarding predetermined standards. This descriptive-analytical evaluation study of applied type was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the pediatrics department of Shiraz Medical School, Iran. The assessment process occurred in several phases; at first an assessment model for a residency educational development and a series of educational criteria and indices were created based on WFME Standards. Multiple methods including a self-assessment questionnaire and several checklists were used to collect data, whereas systematic site visit, peer review and document reviewing were conducted with survey team. Due to limitation of the statistical society, all faculty members (n=34) and residents (n=41) of the pediatric department were asked to complete the survey. At last, descriptive and deductive statistics data analysis was performed using SPSS version 14. According to the records available in assessing program quality, it seems that the input criteria were desirable for the program based on the residents' viewpoints (86.6 %).There were proper physical facilities for them to meet the residency program goals.  The study indicated that the learning environment needed to be revised for the educational needs (Likert scale: 2.96±1.05). The peer evaluation team demonstrated achievement of mission fulfillment in the context of the objectives and indicators by meeting the desired themes.  In spite of some weaknesses in the process criteria, the criteria for output indicators were good according to the report (more than desired level of 75-80%). Accreditation is an important step towards strengthening the quality of educational

  19. [Effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in diffuse peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, N Dzh; Nasirov, M Ia; Sushkov, S V; Klimova, E M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in 111 patients with diffuse peritonitis. It was shown, that combined sequential local and systemic cytokine and ozone therapy allows correcting the expression of endogenous intoxication and lipid peroxidation in diffuse peritonitis. This method suppresses an inflammation in the abdominal cavity. At the same time, it accelerates the elimination of intestine atony and thereby potentiates the possibilities of traditional methods of treatment.

  20. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uyl, Tess E; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying mechanisms by including behavioral (craving, implicit associations, approach tendencies) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials) measurements. The analytical sample consisted of 78 hazardous drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test >8) randomly assigned to 4 conditions in a 2-by-2 factorial design (control/active CBM and sham/active tDCS). The intervention consisted of 3 sessions of CBM, specifically alcohol approach bias retraining, combined with 15 minutes 1 mA tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was a pre- and postassessment before and after the intervention that included experimental tasks (Approach Avoidance Task, Implicit Association Task) and an electroencephalogram with an oddball and cue-reactivity task. tDCS decreased cue-induced craving (but not overall craving) on postassessment. CBM did not induce an avoidance bias during assessment. During the training, active and control-CBM only differed in bias score during the first session. We found no enhancement effects of tDCS on CBM. Electrophysiological data showed no clear effects of active tDCS or CBM on the P300. There were no electrophysiological or behavioral effects of repeated CBM and/or tDCS, except for an effect of tDCS on craving. Applied in these specific ways these techniques appear to have limited effects in a hazardous drinking population. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Improvement in R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current via combining compliance current with multilayer structure in tantalum oxide-based RRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaorong; Feng, Jie [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-15

    Improvements in the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio and reset current are required prior to the practical application of RRAM. To achieve this improvement, tantalum oxide-based RRAM devices with multilayer structure (bi-layer and tri-layer) were fabricated and various compliance currents were adopted. The reset current of 40 μA was observed; the R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio increased to more than 20 in the tri-layer structure device. Resistance changes in two types of devices under voltage pulses with different pulse width were also conducted. The tri-layer device exhibited lower reset voltage and higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio than the bi-layer device under voltage pulses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via plasma oxidation, and there was an oxygen gradient in the multilayer devices. The results demonstrated that the tri-layer structure with oxygen gradient was an effective method for achieving better device performance. Additionally, it is implied that reasonable control of the proportion of TaO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and compliance current can improve device performance. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous localization of six antigens in single sections of transgenic mouse intestine using a combination of light and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiston, M L; Latham, C B; Gordon, J I; Roth, K A

    1992-09-01

    To study the geographic differentiation of the intestinal epithelium and to understand the complex lineage relationships of its cell populations, it is often necessary to visualize the protein products of multiple genes in sections prepared from different positions along the duodenal-to-colonic and/or crypt-to-villus axes. Multilabel fluorescence or brightfield immunohistochemical techniques have previously been used for this purpose. However, the number of antigens that can be identified on single sections is limited in fluorescence microscopy by the number of fluorophores with non-overlapping absorption and emission characteristics, in brightfield microscopy by the number of visually distinguishable chromogens, and in both methods by the availability of primary antisera raised in multiple species. We have now used a combination of light and fluorescence microscopic techniques to increase the number of antigens that can be detected in a single section to six. Sections were sequentially stained using immunogold with silver intensification, peroxidase-antiperoxidase with diaminobenzidine chromogen, and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase with alpha-naphthol/basic dye as chromogen, followed by simultaneous fluorescent detection with fluorescein, 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid, and beta-phycoerythrin. This method enables up to four separate antigens to be visualized within a single cell and two additional antigens to be detected in unrelated cells. The technique is illustrated by examining the cellular patterns of expression of liver fatty acid binding protein/human growth hormone fusion genes in the intestinal epithelium of adult transgenic mice. It should be generally applicable to other experimental systems that require localization of multiple antigens in single tissue sections.

  3. A Framework for Local Mechanical Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques: Combination of Ultrasound Displacement Imaging and Inverse Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Ali C; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Speelman, Lambert; De Korte, Chris L; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical models have the potential to predict plaque rupture. For reliable models, correct material properties of plaque components are a prerequisite. This study presents a new technique, where high resolution ultrasound displacement imaging and inverse finite element (FE) modeling is combined, to estimate material properties of plaque components. Iliac arteries with plaques were excised from 6 atherosclerotic pigs and subjected to an inflation test with pressures ranging from 10 to 120 mmHg. The arteries were imaged with high frequency 40 MHz ultrasound. Deformation maps of the plaques were reconstructed by cross correlation of the ultrasound radiofrequency data. Subsequently, the arteries were perfusion fixed for histology and structural components were identified. The histological data were registered to the ultrasound data to construct FE model of the plaques. Material properties of the arterial wall and the intima of the atherosclerotic plaques were estimated using a grid search method. The computed displacement fields showed good agreement with the measured displacement fields, implying that the FE models were able to capture local inhomogeneities within the plaque. On average, nonlinear stiffening of both the wall and the intima was observed, and the wall of the atheroslcerotic porcine iliac arteries was markedly stiffer than the intima (877 ± 459 vs. 100 ± 68 kPa at 100 mmHg). The large spread in the data further illustrates the wide variation of the material properties. We demonstrated the feasibility of a mixed experimental-numerical framework to determine the material properties of arterial wall and intima of atherosclerotic plaques from intact arteries, and concluded that, due to the observed variation, plaque specific properties are required for accurate stress simulations.

  4. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, Laurent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Parry, Ian [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lap@pha.jhu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Marin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  5. A set of GFP-based organelle marker lines combined with DsRed-based gateway vectors for subcellular localization study in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Meng; Lin, Ke-Chun; Liau, Wei-Shiang; Chao, Yun-Yang; Yang, Ling-Hung; Chen, Szu-Yun; Lu, Chung-An; Hong, Chwan-Yang

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, many useful tools have been developed to accelerate the investigation of gene functions. Fluorescent proteins have been widely used as protein tags for studying the subcellular localization of proteins in plants. Several fluorescent organelle marker lines have been generated in dicot plants; however, useful and reliable fluorescent organelle marker lines are lacking in the monocot model rice. Here, we developed eight different GFP-based organelle markers in transgenic rice and created a set of DsRed-based gateway vectors for combining with the marker lines. Two mitochondrial-localized rice ascorbate peroxidase genes fused to DsRed and successfully co-localized with mitochondrial-targeted marker lines verified the practical use of this system. The co-localization of GFP-fusion marker lines and DsRed-fusion proteins provide a convenient platform for in vivo or in vitro analysis of subcellular localization of rice proteins.

  6. Activity-dependent increases in local oxygen consumption correlate with post-synaptic currents in the mouse cerebellum in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Caesar, Kirsten; Thomsen, Kirsten Joan

    2011-01-01

    mitochondrial signaling, but whether this also occurs in the intact brain is unknown. Here we applied a pharmacological approach to dissect the effects of ionic currents and cytosolic Ca2+ rises of neuronal origin on activity-dependent rises in CMRO2. We used two-photon microscopy and current source density...

  7. Covering localization, mapping and evaluation of ducts, using Pipeline Current Mapper Methods (PCM); Localizacao, mapeamento e avaliacao de revestimento de dutos, utilizando o metodo Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Antonio Jorge [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., together with the PETROBRAS - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., comes accomplishing the Location, Geo positioning, Mapping and Inspection of the Coating in more than 5.000 km of pipes in several areas of the country. The works come being executed seeking the obtaining of the real position of Ducts (They-Built) and the conditions in that meets the coating of the same ones. The risings base on the method Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), using the equipment of production of Radio detection to locate and to inspect the conditions of the coating. This work presents the results, analyses, precision, benefits and difficulties found during the execution of the surveying. (author)

  8. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    -activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia....

  9. Combined use of local and global hydrometeorological data with regional and global hydrological models in the Magdalena - Cauca river basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erasmo; Sanchez, Ines; Duque, Nicolas; Lopez, Patricia; Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Arboleda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Magdalena Cauca Macrobasin (MCMB) in Colombia, with an area of about 257,000 km2, is the largest and most important water resources system in the country. With almost 80% of the Colombian population (46 million people) settled in the basin, it is the main source of water for demands including human consumption, agriculture, hydropower generation, industrial activities and ecosystems. Despite its importance, the basin has witnessed enormous changes in land-cover and extensive deforestation during the last three decades. To make things more complicated, the MCMB currently lacks a set of tools to support planning and decision making processes at scale of the whole watershed. Considering this, the MCMB has been selected as one of the six different regional case studies in the eartH2Observe research project, in which hydrological and meteorological reanalysis products are being validated for the period 1980-2012. The combined use of the hydrological and meteorological reanalysis data, with local hydrometeorological data (precipitation, temperature and streamflow) provided by the National Hydrometeorological Agency (IDEAM), has given us the opportunity to implement and test three hydrological models (VIC, WFLOW and a Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework) at the basin scale. Additionally, results from the global models in the eartH2Observe hydrological reanalysis have been used to evaluate their performance against the observed streamflow data. This paper discusses the comparison between streamflow observations and simulations from the global hydrological models forced with the WFDEI data, and regional models forced with a combination of observed and meteorological reanalysis data, in the whole domain of the MCMB. For the three regional models analysed results show good performances for some sub-basins and poor performances for others. This can be due to the smoothing of the precipitation fields, interpolated from point daily rainfall data, the effect of

  10. Local control and survival in patients with soft tissue sarcomas treated with limb sparing surgery in combination with interstitial brachytherapy and external radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhic, A.; Hovgaard, D.; Mork, Petersen M.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate local control, survival and complication rate after treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with limb-sparing surgery combined with pulsed-dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS...... surgery, combined with PDR BRT and EBRT can result in good local control in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. BRT is an effective modality with good cosmetic results and acceptable toxicity Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate local control, survival and complication rate after treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with limb-sparing surgery combined with pulsed-dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective review of 39 adult patients (female/male=25/14, mean age 51(range 21-78) years) with STS who underwent primary limb-sparing surgery combined with PDR BRT (20Gy) and additional post-operative EBRT (50Gy) during the years 1995-2004. RESULTS: Five patients developed local recurrence after a mean...

  11. Assessment Of Current State And Impact Of REDD On Livelihood Of Local People In Rungwe District Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD is anticipated to affect livelihoods of forest dependent communities. This study was conducted to establish this impact on livelihoods of local people in Rungwe District Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaires group discussions and interviews from three villages Syukula Ilolo and Kibisi. Results showed that households annual income and crop production are higher after REDD implementation. The older respondents 40 years old considered REDD to be important for forest management compared to younger generation 40 years old p0.05. Similarly the older respondents considered wood forest products such as fuelwood charcoal timber and poles to be reduced. There was a widespread awareness about REDDs objectives among household respondents. Therefore REDD proponents should implement alternative sources of livelihoods to help local people improve their income and reduce dependence on the forest resources and eventually decrease deforestation and forest degradation.

  12. Local heat transfer properties in co- and counter-current G-L-S magnetically stabilized fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinli Zhang; Ming Zhang; Wei Li; Xiaofang Li; Xiangkun Meng; Baoning Zong

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured by immersed probes in co- and counter-current G-L-S magnetically stabilized fluidized beds (MSFBs) using air,water and nickel-alloy particles as the gas,liquid and solid phases. Influences of major factors,including magnetic field intensity,superficial gas and liquid velocities,liquid viscosity and surface tension,on heat-transfer properties were studied experimentally,indicating that both co- and counter-current G-L-S MSFB can provide relatively uniform radial distribution of heat transfer coefficients under appropriate operation conditions,thus controlling operation temperature for highly exothermic multi-phase reaction systems. Two correlations were provided to estimate accurately heat transfer properties in both co- and counter-current G-L-S MSFB systems,with an average error of less than 10%.

  13. Large-scale atmospheric circulation and local particulate matter concentrations in Bavaria - from current observations to future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Weitnauer, Claudia; Brosy, Caroline; Hald, Cornelius; Lochbihler, Kai; Siegmund, Stefan; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) may have distinct adverse effects on human health. Spatial and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations reflect local emission rates, but are as well influenced by the local and synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions. Against this background, it can be furthermore argued that potential future climate change and associated variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation and local meteorological parameters will probably provoke corresponding changes in future PM10 concentration levels. The DFG-funded research project „Particulate matter and climate change in Bavaria" aimed at establishing quantitative relationships between daily and monthly PM10 indices at different Bavarian urban stations and the corresponding large-scale atmospheric circulation as well as local meteorological conditions. To this end, several statistical downscaling approaches have been developed for the period 1980 to 2011. PM10 data from 19 stations from the air quality monitoring network (LÜB) of the Bavarian Environmental Agency (LfU) have been utilized as predictands. Large-scale atmospheric gridded data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data base and local meteorological observational data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) served as predictors. The downscaling approaches encompass the synoptic downscaling of daily PM10 concentrations and several multivariate statistical models for the estimation of daily and monthly PM10, i.e.monthly mean and number of days exceeding a certain PM10 concentration threshold. Both techniques utilize objective circulation type classifications, which have been optimized with respect to their synoptic skill for the target variable PM10. All downscaling approaches have been evaluated via cross validation using varying subintervals of the 1980-2011 period as calibration and validation periods respectively. The most suitable - in terms of model skill determined from cross

  14. Local, Non-Geodesic, Timelike Currents in the Force-Free Magnetosphere of a Kerr Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Govind

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use previously developed exact solutions to present some of the curious features of a force-free magnetosphere in a Kerr background. More precisely, we obtain a hitherto unseen timelike current in the force-free magnetosphere that does not flow along a geodesic. The electromagnetic field in this case happens to be magnetically dominated. This too is a feature that has entered the literature for the first time. Changing the sign of a single parameter in our solutions generates a spacelike current that creates an electromagnetic field that is electrically dominated.

  15. Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhall, D J; Stein, W; Gronberg, J B

    2006-05-15

    We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, solenoidal coils. These calculations have been undertaken to assess the eddy-current power loss in various possible International Linear Collider (ILC) positron target wheels. They have also been done to validate the simulation code module against known results published in the literature. The commercially available software package used in these calculations is the Maxwell 3D, Version 10, Transient Module from the Ansoft Corporation.

  16. Local current transport and surface potential of photovoltaic Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films probed by multi-scale imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, A. R.; Kim, G. Y.; Jo, W.; Nam, D. H.; Cheong, H.; Jo, H. J.; Kim, D.-H.; Sung, S. J.; Kang, J. K.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-03-01

    Microstructural alteration induces non-uniform device characteristics in polycrystalline thin films. In thin-film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), local electrical properties are investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopic imaging and scanning probe microscopic tools. Localized and uneven intensity of phonon modes, which represent different orientation and phases, elucidate the nature of non-uniformity of crystallinity, composition and defects in the films. Surface potential mapping at nanoscale is performed by Kelvin probe force microscopy, showing ˜40 mV of band-bending at the grain boundaries. Externally biased-current mapping, which is obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy, shows preferred current path in the films. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2012, 30 October-2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  17. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  18. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival, combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux®. Radiation therapy (RT is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. Methods/Design The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR antibody cetuximab (Erbitux® as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1st and 5th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16 to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Discussion Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC. Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trial registration ISRCTN87356938

  19. Combined effects of current-smoking and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 allele on the risk of myocardial infarction in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kazunori; Miyazaki, Hiroko; Saruwatari, Junji; Oniki, Kentaro; Kumagae, Naoki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Ayami; Otake, Koji; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Arima, Yuichiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2015-01-05

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies toxic aldehydes, e.g. acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke; however, the interactive effects between smoking status and the ALDH2 genotype on coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been reported. We investigated the effects of smoking status and the ALDH2 genotype, and assessed their interactive and combined effects on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or stable angina (SA), including 221 MI and 175 SA subjects and 473 age- and sex-matched controls without CAD. Current-smoking and the ALDH2*2 allele additively increased the risk of MI (adjusted odds ratio 4.54, 95% confidence interval 2.25-9.15), although this combination was not associated with the risk of SA. This combination also increased the peak creatine kinase (CK) level synergistically in the acute MI (AMI) subjects. Moreover, current-smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for an increased peak CK level in the ALDH2*2 allele carriers (B 2220.2IU/L, p=0.008), but not the non-carriers. Additionally, a synergistic effect of this combination on the triglycerides levels was also found in the AMI subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that the combination of current-smoking and the inactive ALDH2*2 allele may increase the risk of MI additively and the infarct size synergistically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

    1988-05-15

    Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

  1. A combined vector and scalar potential method for 3D magnetic fields and transient Eddy current effects in recording head coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrkac, G. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.hrkac@sheffield.ac.uk; Schrefl, T. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Schabes, M. [Hitachi San Jose Research Center, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, San Jose, CA 95193 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    A mixed 3D finite element vector and scalar potential method was developed to treat inhomogeneities in coils of recording heads. It is assumed that in the yoke of the recording head the change of magnetization, generates a magnetic field that leads to Eddy current effects in the coil. The problem is separated into two regions, a conducting (the coil) and in a non-conducting one. For the conducting region we solve a vector potential diffusion equation with all contributing currents as a source term, including the Eddy currents produced by the yoke and for the non-conducting region a scalar potential partial differential equation is solved. To combine the vector and the scalar potential method special boundary conditions are implemented. The combined system of partial differential equations are solved simultaneously with a finite element/boundary element method.

  2. Is there any advantage to combined trastuzumab and chemotherapy in perioperative setting her 2neu positive localized gastric adenocarcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albouzidi Abderrahmane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report here a 44-year-old Moroccan man with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma with overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 by immunohistochemistry who was treated with trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in perioperative setting. He received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of trastuzumab, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. Afterwards, he received total gastrectomy with extended D2 lymphadenectomy without spleno-pancreatectomy. A pathologic complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and oxaliplatin and capecitabine. He received 3 more cycles of trastuzumab containing regimen postoperatively. We conclude that resectable gastric carcinoma with overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein should ideally be managed with perioperative combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy. Further research to evaluate trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy regimens in the perioperative and adjuvant setting is urgently needed.

  3. INGUINAL HERNIA MESHPLASTY USING LOCAL ANAESTHESIA- CURRENT OPTIONS IN A RURAL HOSPITAL: A REVIEW OF 96 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Groin hernia is one of the most common surgical problems in male. Its treatment is always surgical if not contraindicated otherwise. For many years, inguinal hernia surgery has been carried out under general or spinal anaesthesia. But in recent years more and more emphasis is given on repair under local anaesthesia even when GA or SA is contraindicated. It is cost effective, only fear of intraoperative pain hinders its widespread use. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility, operative and postoperative complications of inguinal hernia mesh repair under local anaesthesia and its safety and effectiveness in a rural teaching hospital. METHODS This prospective study was carried out in a Surgical Dept. of a teaching rural hospital in Assam from Jan/2014 to Dec/2015 in total 96 male patients, irrespective of age groups from 20 yrs. to 75 yrs. Hernia direct or indirect and reducible, complete or incomplete were included. Exclusion criteria- Obstructed, irreducible, strangulated hernias excluded. All the standard procedure recommended for open technique with polypropylene mesh were followed, only hernia site were infiltrated with L/A. Patients were put under observation during intraop and postop. Pain, vomiting, hypotension, urinary retention and wound haematoma and total hospital stay. RESULTS Total 96 male patients were included in the study. Mean age was 46.2 yrs. Out of these 72 (75% were I. I. Hernia variety and 24 (25% were Direct variety. In our study, 23 (24% patients had minor problems during intraop period. During postop period, 21 (21.8% patients developed operative site pain. Haematoma was seen in 4 (4.1% patients. CONCLUSION Tension-free meshplasty under L/A is simple, safe, cost-effective, very low rate of complications, quick recovery, early discharge from hospital and feasible alternative in a rural hospital.

  4. Investigation of tunneling current and local contact potential difference on the TiO2(110) surface by AFM/KPFM at 78 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Huan Fei; Li, Yan Jun; Arima, Eiji; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Xu, Rui; Hai Cheng, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new multi-image method for obtaining the frequency shift, tunneling current and local contact potential difference (LCPD) on a TiO2(110) surface with atomic resolution. The tunneling current image reveals rarely observed surface oxygen atoms contrary to the conventional results. We analyze how the surface and subsurface defects affect the distribution of the LCPD. In addition, the subsurface defects are observed clearly in the tunneling current image, in contrast to a topographic image. To clarify the origin of the atomic contrast, we perform site-dependent spectroscopy as a function of the tip–sample distance. The multi-image method is expected to be widely used to investigate the charge transfer phenomena between the nanoparticles and surface sites, and it is useful for elucidating the mechanisms of catalytic reactions.

  5. Acute and long-term toxicity following radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, JH; Pras, E; Willemse, PHB; de Vries, EGE

    2003-01-01

    Randomised studies in locally advanced cervical cancer patients showed that cisplatin should be given concurrently with radiotherapy, because of a better long-term survival compared to radiotherapy alone. This increases the relevance of treatment related toxicity. This review summarises the acute an

  6. An immunocytochemical procedure for protein localization in various nematode life stages combined with plant tissues using methylacrylate-embedded specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Paulo; Banora, Mohamed Youssef; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2012-10-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes possess a large number of proteins that are secreted in planta, allowing them to be successful parasites of plants. The majority of these proteins are synthesized mainly in the nematode subventral and dorsal glands as well as in other organs. To improve the immunovisualization of these proteins, we adapted a methacrylate embedding method for the localization of proteins inside nematode tissues, and extracellularly when secreted in planta or within plant cells. An important advantage is that the method is applicable for all nematode stages: preparasitic as well as parasitic stages, including large mature females. Herein, the method has been successfully applied for the localization of four nematode secreted proteins, such as Mi-MAP-1, Mi-CBM2-bearing proteins, Mi-PEL3, and Mi-6D4. In addition, we could also localize 14-3-3 proteins, as well as two cytoskeletal proteins, by double-immunolabeling on preparasitic juveniles. Superior preservation of nematode and plant morphology, allowed more accurate protein localization as compared with other methods. Besides excellent epitope preservation, dissolution of methacrylate from tissue sections unmasks target proteins and thereby drastically increases antibody access.

  7. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying

  8. Local area networks and protocols of data transmission in electric power systems: current status and tendencies; Redes locales y protocolos de transmision de datos en sistemas electricos de potencia: estado actual y tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzoni, Rodolfo [TRANSBA S.A., Empresa de Transporte de Energia Electrica por Distribucion Troncal de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vignoni, Roberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In electric power systems, overcome the stage of the remote system (SCADA) implementation, the current tendency is the automation and use of open architectures. That tendency is reflected in the use of standardized local area networks of industrial use and adoption of data transmission protocols which are based in international standards. The result is the connectivity and operationalization among the local devices and terminals usually called IED. In this document it is presented a summary of the standardized data transmission protocols, which have been used in electric power substations currently, based on a architecture which defines three layers of the OSI/ISO reference pattern. Based on the tendency increase of automation in substations, some ways of communication have been analyzed, they mean: local area networks such as the Ethernet pattern and some industrial ones and others such as Profibus and its respective implementation in electric power systems. It also is analyzed the tasks which have supported IEC and EPRI for defining a standardization and a model for the open communications in electric power substations.

  9. TREATMENT OF LOCAL DEEP DEFECT OF A KNEE JOINT CARTILAGE COMBINED WITH I STAGE MEDIAL GONARTHROSIS AND VARUS DEFORMATION OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kulyaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented one case of combination high tibia osteotomy with mosaic osteochondral autoplasty for the treatmentof the patients suffering from local full thickness cartilage defects of femur condyle and early degenerative changes in the same knee compartment. The positive intermediate results were achieved in this case. The correction of mechanical overload of the damaged knee compartment creates favorable conditions for cartilage restoration and slows down osteoarthrosis progression.

  10. Short-term effect of combined treatment ofDC-CIK cell and gamma knife in locally advanced hepatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Peng Zhang; Xi-Ming Xu; Wei Ge; Jian-Guo Wang; Yu-Xin Li; Jing-Jing Li; Shi-Yong Yang; Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect and significance of adoptive immunotherapy of dendritic cell and cytokine-induced killer cell (DC-CIK) combined with the gamma knife in the treatment of middle and advanced hepatic carcinoma.Methods:42 patients with the middle and advanced primary hepatic carcinoma were randomly divided into two groups: 20 cases in the combination group were given the adoptive immunotherapy of DC-CIK cells and gamma knife radiotherapy; 22 cases in the control group were only given the gamma knife radiotherapy. The short-term effect, quality of life, overall survival and toxic and side effects were compared between two groups after the operation.Results: 3 months after the treatment, the short-term effect of combination group and control group was 70% and 54.5% respectively (P<0.05). Patients in the combination group performed better in the overall survival, change of T-cell subsets, PS score, decrease rate of AFP and degree of liver function than the control group, while the adiodermatitis at II and over and bone marrow suppression were also better than the control group. Conclusion:The adoptive immunotherapy of DC-CIK cells combined with the gamma knife in the treatment of middle and advanced hepatic carcinoma can prolong the overall survival, improve the quality of life, reduce the toxic and side effect and effectively promote the short-term clinical effect for patients.

  11. [Brescia Local Health Autority Population Database: a method based on current data for monitoring chronic diseases and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Fulvio; Scarcella, Carmelo; Indelicato, Annamaria; Brioschi, Alessia; Magoni, Michele; Medea, Gerardo; Saleri, Nada; Orizio, Grazia; Donato, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The Local Health Autority (ASL) of Brescia has activated an innovative method of surveillance, based on the integration ofcurrent databases in a single database, Population Database (BDA), for monitoring the prevalence of chronic diseases in the area. The BDA has been set up using automatic record-linkages of databases regarding disease exemptions, drug treatments, hospital admissions and outpatient specialist visits. This enabled us to calculate the prevalence of various chronic diseases (single or grouped) and the gross average expenditure per person for each disease group. Out of the 1,092,201 people in the Brescia ASL, 275,601 had at least one chronic disease (prevalence 252.3/1,000). Diseases ofthe circulatory system were the most frequent (169.1/1,000), followed by diabetes mellitus (36 6/1,000). Having had an organ transplant was the condition with the highest per-person expenditure (Euro 16,170/year). The highest total expenditure was associated with circulatory diseases, because of the high prevalence (Euro 470,377,413). A single computerised data base is capable of achieving epidemiological aims (assessing population health status) as well as managerial and health care aims (resources management, control of the appropriateness of services, adaptation of diagnostic-therapeutic methods to international guidelines and standards).

  12. A Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars: \\\\II. UBVRI Photometry of Stars in Seven Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, P; Hodge, P W; Jacoby, G H; McNeill, R T; Smith, R C; Strong, S B; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.; Jacoby, George H.; Neill, Reagin T. Mc; Strong, Shay B.

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained UBVRI images with the Kitt Peak and Cerro Tololo 4-m telescopes and Mosaic cameras of seven dwarfs in (or near) the Local Group, all of which have known evidence of recent star formation: IC10, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextans B, Sextans A, Pegasus,and Phoenix. We construct color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of these systems, as well as neighboring regions that can be used to evaluate the degree of foreground contamination by stars in the Milky Way. Inter-comparison of these CMDs with those of M31, M33, the LMC, and the SMC permits us to determine improved reddening values for a typical OB star found within these galaxies. All of the CMDs reveal a strong or modest number of blue supergiants. All but Pegasus and Phoenix also show the clear presence of red supergiants in the CMD, although IC10 appears to be deficient in these objects given its large WR population. The bright stars of intermediate color in the CMD are badly contaminated by foreground stars (30-100%), and considerable spectroscopy is needed b...

  13. Local cryosurgery and imiquimod: A successful combination for the treatment of locoregional cutaneous metastasis of melanoma: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Tolosa, Nancy; Ortiz-Brugués, Ariadna; Toledo-Pastrana, Tomás; Baradad, Manel; Traves, Víctor; Soriano, Virtudes; Sanmartín, Verónica; Requena, Celia; Martí, Rosa; Nagore, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Locoregional cutaneous metastases of melanoma (LCMM) represent a therapeutic challenge. Many treatment options are available with varying results. The combination of cryotherapy and imiquimod, two treatments with a possible synergistic effect, has not yet been described for treating this disease. In this paper, we aimed to show the response of LCMM to cryotherapy combined with topical imiquimod 5%. A retrospective review of 20 patients diagnosed with LCMM and treated with cryotherapy combined with topical imiquimod 5% between November 2000 and May 2014 at three institutions was performed. The locoregional cutaneous response was evaluated. After a mean of five sessions, 13 patients (65%) responded to treatment, eight (40%) of these completely and five (25%) partially. Systemic disease progressed in 16 (80%) patients. Cryotherapy followed by topical imiquimod 5% is simple to apply, has minimal adverse effects and provides response rates similar to other, more complex treatment options. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Correlation of local structure peculiarities and critical current density of 2G MOCVD YBCO tapes with BaZrO3 nanoinclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menushenkov, A. P.; Ivanov, V. G.; Chepikov, V. N.; Nygaard, R. R.; Soldatenko, A. V.; Rudnev, I. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Kaul, A. R.; Mathon, O.; Monteseguro, V.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the influence of BaZrO3 nanoinclusions on the local structure and critical current density of second-generation high temperature superconducting tapes based on YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films. The films were made by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The crystal and local structure of the materials under study were analysed by x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS + XANES). We have found that, being added at MOCVD process, Zr forms BaZrO3 nanoinclusions in YBCO matrix. The distance between Zr and the neighboring atoms is shorter than that one in a bulk crystalline BaZrO3, so we conclude that the nanoinclusions are in compressed state. The incorporation of 5 mol% BaZrO3 minimizes the static disorder of Cu-O bonds and maximizes their stiffness in YBCO. We show that the local structure peculiarities correlate well with the observed critical current behavior and consider this to be additional evidence in favor of small amounts of BaZrO3 nanoinclusions as efficient pinning centers.

  15. Polarization curve measurements combined with potential probe sensing for determining current density distribution in vanadium redox-flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maik; Bredemeyer, Niels; Tenhumberg, Nils; Turek, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Potential probes are applied to vanadium redox-flow batteries for determination of effective felt resistance and current density distribution. During the measurement of polarization curves in 100 cm2 cells with different carbon felt compression rates, alternating potential steps at cell voltages between 0.6 V and 2.0 V are applied. Polarization curves are recorded at different flow rates and states of charge of the battery. Increasing compression rates lead to lower effective felt resistances and a more uniform resistance distribution. Low flow rates at high or low state of charge result in non-linear current density distribution with high gradients, while high flow rates give rise to a nearly linear behavior.

  16. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive α-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, C; Doll, T; Stueber, T; Herzog, C; Echtermeyer, F; Greulich, F; Rudat, C; Kispert, A; Wegner, F; Leffler, A

    2016-06-01

    The sodium channel α-subunit (Nav) Nav1.5 is regarded as the most prevalent cardiac sodium channel required for generation of action potentials in cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, Nav1.5 seems to be the main target molecule for local anesthetic (LA)-induced cardiotoxicity. However, recent reports demonstrated functional expression of several "neuronal" Nav's in cardiomyocytes being involved in cardiac contractility and rhythmogenesis. In this study, we examined the relevance of neuronal tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Nav's for inhibition of cardiac sodium channels by the cardiotoxic LAs ropivacaine and bupivacaine. Effects of LAs on recombinant Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 expressed in human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK-293) cells, and on sodium currents in murine, cardiomyocytes were investigated by whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Expression analyses were performed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice express messenger RNA (mRNA) for Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.8, and 1.9 and generate TTX-sensitive sodium currents. Tonic and use-dependent block of sodium currents in cardiomyocytes by ropivacaine and bupivacaine were enhanced by 200 nM TTX. Inhibition of recombinant Nav1.5 channels was similar to that of TTX-resistant currents in cardiomyocytes but stronger as compared to inhibition of total sodium current in cardiomyocytes. Recombinant Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 channels displayed significant differences in regard to use-dependent block by ropivacaine. Finally, bupivacaine blocked sodium currents in cardiomyocytes as well as recombinant Nav1.5 currents significantly stronger in comparison to ropivacaine. Our data demonstrate for the first time that cardiac TTX-sensitive sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by LAs.

  17. Short range DFT combined with long-range local RPA within a range-separated hybrid DFT framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chermak, E; Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Selecting excitations in localized orbitals to calculate long-range correlation contributions to range-separated density-functional theory can reduce the overall computational effort significantly. Beyond simple selection schemes of excited determinants, the dispersion-only approximation, which avoids counterpoise-corrected monomer calculations, is shown to be particularly interesting in this context, which we apply to the random-phase approximation. The approach has been tested on dimers of formamide, water, methane and benzene.

  18. Development of a special approach of the mineralization localization zones prediction based on the combination and the geoinformation analysis of heterogeneous geodata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Julia

    2014-05-01

    The complexity of any task solving, including tasks in the Earth Sciences, depends on the completeness of the information that is available. The prediction of the mineralization zone localization is a task with incomplete information. The tasks of prediction are complicated because of search data difficult formalize, and the absent of single information structures of the representation of the search data. These facts complicate the process of structuring, processing and analysis of information. Geodata that need to process are presented in various formats: raster two-dimensional and three-dimensional fields, vector layers of polygons and lines, point markable layers, the spectral and discrete, quantized and continuous, analog and digital forms, as well as chemical formalization. In this form representative data cannot be combining into superclasses. At the same time the information content of geodata that are applied individually is very small. While a number of low informative features, which can be obtained in the process of research of mineralization zones are usually redundant. As a result the quality of knowledge that can be obtained from the search data decreases, as well as the technological cycle of information processing increases. Additionally, that leads to exploitation of datasets, and production of large shared datasets [1]. To solve efficiently the tasks of predicting, it is necessary to use union heterogeneous search features, accumulated factual data and modern science-based mathematical apparatus of processing and analysis of the information. As well young branches of human knowledge help to solve this task: remote sensing, geoinformatics, Earth and Space Science Informatics [2], apparatus of catastrophe theory and nonlinear dynamics, game theory. The purpose of the suggested approach is to increase informational content, and to reduce of geodata redundancy to improve the accuracy of the prediction of mineralization zones. The developed algorithm

  19. 胰腺癌综合治疗的现状%Current status of the combined therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪泉兴; 李骥

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the worst digestive malignancies characterized by non-specific symptoms, rapid progression and high mortality. Despite great efforts that have been made in basic and clinical research, the prognosis remains poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment option, but the curative resectabillty is still about 15% in China. Pancreatic surgery is considered one of the most techni-cally demanding and challenging procedures. The development of pancreatic surgery in China depends not only on the progress in surgical techniques, but also the specialization on pancreatic surgery. There has been advancement in combined therapy with a modern interdisciplinary approach including chemotherapy,radiotherapy, biotherapy and thermotherapy. The research pro-gress of gene therapy on pancreatic cancer showed us some hopes for the future. The outcome of pancreatic cancer treated by Chinese medicine with herbal drugs is encouraging, but still needs the support of more solid evidences from randomized con-trolled trials. It is suggested that the combined therapy should play an important role in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, and the fallow-up should be paid more attention.

  20. Quantitative EEG and Current Source Density Analysis of Combined Antiepileptic Drugs and Dopaminergic Agents in Genetic Epilepsy: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Hamlin; Wells, Christopher; Mizrahi, Neptune

    2015-07-01

    Two adolescent females with absence epilepsy were classified, one as attention deficit and the other as bipolar disorder. Physical and cognitive exams identified hypotension, bradycardia, and cognitive dysfunction. Their initial electroencephalograms (EEGs) were considered slightly slow, but within normal limits. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) data included relative theta excess and low alpha mean frequencies. A combined treatment of antiepileptic drugs with a catecholamine agonist/reuptake inhibitor was sequentially used. Both patients' physical and cognitive functions improved and they have remained seizure free. The clinical outcomes were correlated with statistically significant changes in QEEG measures toward normal Z-scores in both anterior and posterior regions. In addition, low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) Z-scored source correlation analyses of the initial and treated QEEG data showed normalized patterns, supporting a neuroanatomic resolution. This study presents preliminary evidence for a neurophysiologic approach to patients with absence epilepsy and comorbid disorders and may provide a method for further research.

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Aerobic Exercise to Optimize Analgesic Responses in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonca, Mariana E.; Simis, Marcel; Grecco, Luanda C.; Battistella, Linamara R.; Baptista, Abrahão F; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome that is associated with maladaptive plasticity in neural central circuits. One of the neural circuits that are involved in pain in fibromyalgia is the primary motor cortex. We tested a combination intervention that aimed to modulate the motor system: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and aerobic exercise (AE). In this phase II, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial, 45 subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 gr...

  2. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...

  3. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  4. The Ghost in the Shell : Local and Remote Forcing of a Coastal Bivalve Inhabiting the Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The external skeleton of mollusc bivalves, the shell, can furnish a recording of the environmental changes to which the organisms and population are exposed during their lives. The bivalve's growth is subjected to the thermocline variability; which itself is affected by environmental and climatic events. A highly variable environment such as the Humboldt current system (HCS) requires tools capable of recording its variations over a wide range of periodicities. Upwelling, Coastal trapped waves (CTWs), El Niño Southern Oscillation, and Pacific decadal oscillation events contribute to this environmental and climatic variability. The thermocline depth is modified by these different events at their own time-scales (respectively, daily to weekly, intraseasonally, interseasonally to interannually, and on a decadal scale). The thermocline variation translates into changes in Sea surface temperature (SST) and in the qualitative and quantitative productivity of phytoplankton. These two environmental factors are critical to bivalve growth.The sclerochronological (increment width) and sclerochemical (δ18O and δ13C) study consisted on the analysis of the Chilean bivalve Eurhomalea rufa, collected in 2005, as a recorder of the environmental HCS variability. The calibration step identified daily, monthly, and annual marks in the growth patterns of E. rufa. The results confirmed that the thermocline variability mainly drives the bivalve's activity and led to the establishment of a paleotemperature equation. Moreover, periodogram and wavelet analyses exposed the respective impacts of each environmental event from daily to interannual periodicities. In particular, the growth pattern of E. rufa follows SST variability at an intraseasonal periodicity (~ 60 days) which is remotely induced by CTWs. CTWs are generated by Kelvin oceanic waves, which are formed primarily by eastward equatorial Pacific winds (e.g. Shaffer et al. 1997; Montecino and Lange 2009).Sclerochronological studies

  5. Analysis of local chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate combined with systemic inflammation improves prognostication in stage II colon cancer independent of standard clinicopathologic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Natalie; Wong, Hui-Li; Templeton, Arnoud; Tripathy, Sagarika; Whiti Rogers, Te; Croxford, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Sinnathamby, Mathuranthakan; Desai, Jayesh; Tie, Jeanne; Bae, Susie; Christie, Michael; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2016-02-01

    In Stage II colon cancer, multiple independent studies have shown that a dense intratumoural immune infiltrate (local inflammation) is associated with improved outcomes, while systemic inflammation, measured by various markers, has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, previous studies have not considered the interaction between local and systemic inflammation, nor have they assessed the type of inflammatory response compared with standard clinicopathologic criteria. In order to evaluate the potential clinical utility of inflammatory markers in Stage II colon cancer, we examined local and systemic inflammation in a consecutive series of patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2000 and 2010 who were identified from a prospective clinical database. Increased intratumoural chronic inflammatory cell (CIC) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >5, as calculated from pre-operative full blood counts, was used to represent systemic inflammation. In 396 eligible patients identified, there was a non-significant inverse relationship between local and systemic inflammation. Increased CIC density was significantly associated with improved overall (HR 0.45, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR 0.37, p = 0.003). High NLR was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (HR 2.56, p < 0.001). The combination of these markers further stratified prognosis independent of standard high-risk criteria, with a dominant systemic inflammatory response (low CIC/high NLR) associated with the worst outcome (5-year overall survival 55.8%). With further validation this simple, inexpensive combined inflammatory biomarker might assist in patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II colon cancer.

  6. Combined consideration for decentralised non-potable water supply from local groundwater and nutrient load reduction in urban drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, O; Barr, A; Donn, M; Pollock, D

    2011-01-01

    Integrated analysis of land use change and its effect on catchment water balance allows the selection of appropriate water and land management options for new urban developments to minimise the environmental impacts of urbanisation. A process-based coupled surface water-groundwater model was developed for Southern River catchment (Perth, Western Australia) to investigate the effect of urban development on catchment water balance. It was shown that urbanisation of highly permeable flat catchments with shallow groundwater resulted in significant increase in net groundwater recharge. The increased recharge creates the opportunity to use local groundwater resources for non-potable water supply with the added advantage of reducing the total discharge from new urban developments. This minimises the environmental impacts of increased urbanisation, as higher discharge is often associated with greater nutrient loads to receiving environments. Through the used of water balance modelling it was demonstrated that there are both water and nutrient benefits from local groundwater use in terms of reduced nutrient exports to receiving waters and additional water resources for non-potable water supply.

  7. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Valentin, Dominique; Arvisenet, Gaëlle

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to understand consumers' habits and belief structures concerning local food products and to develop a new snack as a way to fight against children malnutrition in Madagascar. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Madagascar, like Moringa oleifera (MO) which leaves are rich in nutrients but not consumed. First, a survey conducted in four areas of Madagascar revealed that MO leaves are known for their health benefits but infrequently consumed, probably because of their low satiating power and strong odor. In the studied areas, different levels of consumption were observed, which may be linked to varying levels of familiarity with MO by the local populations, this in turn resulting from different situations regarding geographical and historical availability. In contrary, resources such as cassava are perceived as having negative effects on health but are widely consumed because they are cheap, liked by children and satiating. The second step in the study aimed to propose products that could increase MO consumption without completely changing food practices. The acceptability of snacks associating cassava roots and MO was evaluated by means of hedonic tests performed by children. Between the snacks tested, the preferred snack contained the highest quantity of MO and was sweetened. There was no effect of area on the acceptance of the formulated snacks. This work is an evaluation of the potential of MO in the diet of malnourished population.

  8. Onset and duration of anesthesia for local anesthetic combinations commonly used in forefoot surgery; surprise results with sequential blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Marie Mantini; Petrozzi, Rocco; Harris, Samantha Y; Greer, Hillary; Goldfarb, Jacqueline; Biernacki, Tomasz; Kawalec, Jill S

    2015-06-01

    Local anesthetic nerve blocks are frequently used for postoperative analgesia and to the best of our knowledge no studies have evaluated the effects of injecting bupivacaine into an area previously injected with lidocaine. Sensation was tested in three groups of subjects receiving local anesthetic digital blocks. Group A received bupivacaine 0.25% plain. Group B received a 1:1 mixture of lidocaine 1% plain and bupivacaine 0.25%. Group C received an initial block of lidocaine 1% plain sequentially followed by bupivacaine 0.25% 1h later. Bupivacaine exhibited a delayed onset and the longest duration when compared to the other two groups. The group receiving the 1:1 mixture showed a rapid onset that resembled that of lidocaine and a shortened duration that did not resemble bupivacaine. The group receiving the sequential injections showed that even after a 1h interval following the lidocaine infiltration, there was a deleterious effect on duration of action of the bupivacaine. Using bupivacaine as a post-surgical block in the presence of residual lidocaine from a preoperative block is not warranted as once again, the extended duration of bupivacaine is mitigated. Bupivacaine alone as an initial operative block affords clinically acceptable onset of anesthesia while also providing extended duration of action.

  9. Synoptic Field Measurements In The Ems Estuary Combining Adcp, Multi Sensor Equipped Current Meter and Gauge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J.; Frank, T.; Mudersbach, Ch.

    The estuary of the Ems River is located in the north-west of Germany and forms partly the border line between the Netherlands and Germany. Between the lower Ems River and the outer estuary to the North Sea a brackish shallow water basin of mesohalin characteristics is located - the Dollart. The surface area ist about 100 km2 and the only barrier which separates the Dollart from the Ems navigation channel is a sand split with a riprap training works. This barrier is only partially effective and during the flood phase water exchange takes place. Prior to the commission of the currently constructed Ems barrier a synoptic, multi- institutional field measuring effort has been undertaken in March 2001. The purpose was a) to reach a more in depth understanding of the exchange situation between Dollart and the Ems river regarding discharge as well as salinity and oxygen content. b) To get a basis for assessment of potential impacts of the future operation of the Ems Barrier. In several measuring profiles ship-supported ADCP measurements (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) for a whole tide cycle were executed. These measurements are com- pleted by data of numerous measuring probes and tide gauges along the lower Ems River, the Ems navigational channel and in the Dollart covering the period of one month. This paper discusses the accomplished survey as well as the compilation of the gath- ered data. Thereby the software "TIDE" of the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG) will be presented. This software is specialised in the assessment and visual- isation of ADCP Data gathered in tidal areas. This presentation concludes with the application of a database management system alongside with a geographical informa- tion system for the storage, visualisation and distribution of the collected data.

  10. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Dietzgen, Ralf G. [Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  11. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria; Pedersen, Line M I; Pedersen, Sara R;

    2016-01-01

    The threat from unpredictable influenza virus pandemics necessitates the development of a new type of influenza vaccine. Since the internal proteins are highly conserved, induction of T cells targeting these antigens may provide the solution. Indeed, adenoviral (Ad) vectors expressing flu...... (intranasal (i.n.)) immunization elicited delayed, but more lasting protection despite relatively inefficient immunization. However, by far, the most robust protection was induced by simultaneous, combined (i.n. + s.c.) vaccination, and, notably, in this case clinical protection lasted at least 8 months...

  12. [Use of local injections of tolperisone (midocalm) in combination with tractional therapy in the treatment of vertebral static syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Ia Iu; Kutarev, R V; Shelkov, S N; Suslov, S A

    2007-01-01

    A randomized double-blind study of the efficacy of midocalm combined with tractional therapy has been carried out in 24 patients (indexed group) comparing to the tractional therapy without midocalm (the drug has been substituted with placebo) in 25 patients (comparison group). The effective number of injections was 3-6 in the indexed group and 7 in the comparison group. A quantitative assessment revealed that in the indexed group treatment efficacy was 1,56 times higher and the effect achieved sooner than in the comparison group.

  13. Search reliability and search efficiency of combined Lévy-Brownian motion: long relocations mingled with thorough local exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palyulin, Vladimir V.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Klages, Rainer; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    A combined dynamics consisting of Brownian motion and Lévy flights is exhibited by a variety of biological systems performing search processes. Assessing the search reliability of ever locating the target and the search efficiency of doing so economically of such dynamics thus poses an important problem. Here we model this dynamics by a one-dimensional fractional Fokker-Planck equation combining unbiased Brownian motion and Lévy flights. By solving this equation both analytically and numerically we show that the superposition of recurrent Brownian motion and Lévy flights with stable exponent α \\lt 1, by itself implying zero probability of hitting a point on a line, leads to transient motion with finite probability of hitting any point on the line. We present results for the exact dependence of the values of both the search reliability and the search efficiency on the distance between the starting and target positions as well as the choice of the scaling exponent α of the Lévy flight component.

  14. Virial-to-optical velocity ratios of local disk galaxies from combined kinematics and galaxy-galaxy lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Gunn, James E; Nakajima, Reiko; Seljak, Uros; Hirata, Chris M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we measure the virial-to-optical velocity ratios V_vir/V_opt of disk galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at a mean redshift of = 0.07 and with stellar masses 10^9 M_sun < M_* < 10^11 M_sun. V_vir/V_opt, the ratio of the circular velocity measured at the virial radius of the dark matter halo (~150 kpc) to that at the optical radius of the disk (~10 kpc), is a powerful observational constraint on disk galaxy formation. It links galaxies to their dark matter haloes dynamically and constrains the total mass profile of disk galaxies over an order of magnitude in length scale. For this measurement, we combine V_vir derived from halo masses measured with galaxy-galaxy lensing, with V_opt derived from the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) from Reyes et al. (2011). In anticipation of this combination, we use similarly-selected galaxy samples for both the lensing and TFR analysis. For three M_* bins with lensing-weighted mean stellar masses of 0.6, 2.7, and 6.5 x 10^10 M_sun, we find halo-to...

  15. Thermosensitive liposomal cisplatin in combination with local hyperthermia results in tumor growth delay and changes in tumor microenvironment in xenograft models of lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yannan Nancy; Dunne, Michael; Huang, Huang; Mckee, Trevor; Chang, Martin C; Jaffray, David A; Allen, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Treatment efficacy of a heat-activated thermosensitive liposome formulation of cisplatin (CDDP), known as HTLC, was determined in xenograft models of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The short-term impact of local hyperthermia (HT) on tumor morphology, microvessel density and local inflammatory response was also evaluated. The HTLC formulation in combination with local HT resulted in a significant advantage in therapeutic effect in comparison with free drug and a non-thermosensitive liposome formulation of CDDP (i.e. Lipoplatin(TM)) when administered at their maximum tolerated doses. Local HT-induced widespread cell necrosis and a significant reduction in microvessel density in the necrotic regions of tumors. CD11b-expressing innate leukocytes were demonstrated to infiltrate and reside preferentially at the necrotic rim of tumors, likely as a means to phagocytose-damaged tissue. Colocalization of CD11b with a marker of DNA damage (i.e. γH2AX) revealed a small portion of CD11b-expressing leukocytes that were possibly undergoing apoptosis as a result of HT-induced damage and/or the short lifespan of leukocytes. Overall, HT-induced tissue damage (i.e. at 24-h post-treatment) alone did not result in significant improvements in treatment effect, rather, the enhancement in tumor drug availability was correlated with improved therapeutic outcomes.

  16. Synergistic effect of combined transcranial direct current stimulation/constraint-induced movement therapy in children and young adults with hemiparesis: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette; Menk, Jeremiah; Mueller, Bryon; Meekins, Gregg; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Timothy; Rudser, Kyle

    2015-11-12

    Perinatal stroke occurs in more than 1 in 2,500 live births and resultant congenital hemiparesis necessitates investigation into interventions which may improve long-term function and decreased burden of care beyond current therapies ( http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/data.html ). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) is recognized as an effective hemiparesis rehabilitation intervention. Transcranial direct current stimulation as an adjunct treatment to CIMT may potentiate neuroplastic responses and improve motor function. The methodology of a clinical trial in children designed as a placebo-controlled, serial -session, non-invasive brain stimulation trial incorporating CIMT is described here. The primary hypotheses are 1) that no serious adverse events will occur in children receiving non-invasive brain stimulation and 2) that children in the stimulation intervention group will show significant improvements in hand motor function compared to children in the placebo stimulation control group. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Twenty children and/or young adults (ages 8-21) with congenital hemiparesis, will be enrolled. The intervention group will receive ten 2-hour sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with constraint-induced movement therapy and the control group will receive sham stimulation with CIMT. The primary outcome measure is safety assessment of transcranial direct current stimulation by physician evaluation, vital sign monitoring and symptom reports. Additionally, hand function will be evaluated using the Assisting Hand Assessment, grip strength and assessment of goals using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Neuroimaging will confirm diagnoses, corticospinal tract integrity and cortical activation. Motor cortical excitability will also be examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques. Combining non-invasive brain stimulation and CIMT interventions has the potential to improve motor

  17. Combining controlled-source seismology and local earthquake tomography to derive a 3-D crustal model of the western Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael; Kissling, Edi; Husen, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    We present a newly developed approach of combining controlled-source seismology (CSS) and local earthquake tomography (LET) data to obtain a new 3-D crustal model of the western Alpine region. Our approach combines either data by taking into account the strengths of the individual seismic methods. Our western Alpine 3-D model is primarily based on a well-defined Moho, constrained by CSS and LET data, and includes smooth lateral variations in seismic velocities mainly constrained by LET data, but locally also by CSS data. The consistent combination of results from the two different seismic methods is feasible due to LET Moho elements, as defined by characteristic P-wave velocities and their uncertainty estimates. These uncertainty estimates are based on values of the diagonal element of the resolution matrix, absolute P-wave velocities that are typical for crust and mantle and a specific velocity gradient across the Moho discontinuity. Finally, our definition of LET Moho elements and their uncertainties is validated by comparisons of highest quality Moho results from both methods coinciding in 353 localities. Our model clearly shows three Moho surfaces, being Europe, Adria and Liguria as well as major tectonic structures like suture zones and the high-velocity Ivrea body. In general, it is in a good agreement with previous studies. The biggest differences occur along plate boundaries, where the strong lateral velocity variations are best resolved by LET. Due to the larger number of available Moho reflector elements a more accurate definition of plate boundaries at Moho level is possible and, therefore, new insights in deep lithosphere structures of the Alpine collision zone can be expected. Furthermore, our new 3-D crustal model directly includes a 3-D migrated image of the Ivrea body.

  18. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ryan C; Custis, James T; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ehrhart, E J; Condon, Keith W; Gookin, Sara E; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma.

  19. Clinical efficacy of breast-conserving surgery combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer: a report of 81 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with breast-conserving surgery for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods Eighty-one patients with locally advanced breast cancer were selected from those who were admitted into 309 Hospital of PLA from January 2009 to October 2013, consisting of 65 patients in stage Ⅲa and 16 in stage Ⅲb, and they were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with breast-conserving surgery. The clinical efficacy [complete response (CR, partial response (PR, stable disease (SD and progress disease (PD] was observed during follow-up. Results All the patients were followed-up for 12-60 months with a median of 34 months. There were 12 CR patients (14.8%, including 4 with pathological complete response (4.9%, and 52 PR patients (64.2%, 17 SD patients (21.0%. No PD was observed. The overall response rate(ORR was 79.0%(64/81. After follow-up for 12-60 months (median 34 months, distant metastasis to the lung, liver, meninges and bone occurred in 3 patients (3.7%, 3/81 and 1 of them died. Forty-eight patients received breastconserving surgery. The local recurrence rate was 6.3% (3/48. Assessment of cosmetic result was carried out in 48 patients who received breast-conserving surgery and comprehensive treatment for one year, and excellent results were obtained in 14.6% (7/48, good in 43.8% (21/48, and poor in 41.7% (20/48. Conclusions The therapeutic efficacy of locally advanced breast cancer is satisfactory by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast-conserving surgery. Standardization of excision and postoperative radiotherapy, systemic comprehensive treatment is the key to the success of the treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.14

  20. Motor area localization using fMRI-constrained cortical current density reconstruction of movement-related cortical potentials, a comparison with fMRI and TMS mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuggi, Alberto; Filippi, Massimo; Chieffo, Raffaella; Agosta, Federica; Rocca, Maria A; González-Rosa, Javier J; Cursi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Leocani, Letizia

    2010-01-13

    The localization of human hand primary motor area (M1) has been the object of several studies during the last decades. EEG source analysis, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are non-invasive methods for localizing M1 with good accuracy compared to direct electrocorticography (ECoG) results. EEG sources were reconstructed with Cortical Current Density (CCD) method, allowing to evaluate simultaneous and distributed patterns of activation and to increase accuracy by constraining on information derived from fMRI (fMRI-CCD). The aim of this study was to compare the M1 contribution of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) with TMS and fMRI results and to test the effect of constraints strength, algorithm norm and localization methods over CCD reconstruction. Seven right-handed healthy subjects underwent 64-channel EEG recording of MRCP to right thumb movement, focal TMS mapping of the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle and fMRI during right hand movement. We found fMRI activations, EEG sources and TMS mapping corresponding to the anatomical landmark of the hand area in all subjects with fMRI and TMS center-of-gravity and in almost all subjects using fMRI-CCD with moderate constraint. A significant improvement was found using fMRI-CCD compared to CCD alone. This study confirms the usefulness of multimodal integration of fMRI, EEG and TMS in localizing M1 and the possibility to increase EEG spatial resolution using fMRI information.

  1. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  2. [Efficacy of the treatment of pharyngeal fistula through pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion in 20 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Liu, Y H; Hu, G Q; Zhao, Y

    2016-08-01

    To sum up the efficacy of treatment of pharyngeal fistula through pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion in 20 patients. A retrospective analysis of the therapeutic efficacy in 20 cases of laryngeal and laryngopharyngeal cancer with postoperative pharyngeal fistula, to whom double-deck repairing were operated on through pectoralis major myocutaneous island flap combined with inversion of skin around fistula from January 2010 to December 2013. 20 patients were treated by improved pharyngeal fistula inverting suture of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with the skin around the pharyngeal fistula. Flap around the fistula were sutured without tension formation. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps were sutured without tension formation covering the inner flanging flap wound. 20 patients were on a nasogastric liquid diet after operation for one week and received antibiotics to prevent infection. Then they all took liquid diet after one week, and had extubation safely later. Stitches were removed 10 more days later. All the twenty patients were recovered successfully, among them, 16 cases recovered in stage Ⅰ and left the hospital 10 days later, 4 cases recovered in stage Ⅱ and left the hospital 20 days later. All the 4 cases recovered in stage Ⅱ were treated with radiotherapy. Fistulas less than 1 cm occurred near their anastomotic stomas at 7 to 14 days after operation. They were healed well by dressing change and pressure dressing. No recurrence was observed during the six months follow-up. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion is a good way to repair pharyngeal fistula, and it is suitable for the laryngeal and laryngopharynx cancer patients with postoperative throat fistula in an internal diameter larger than 2 cm.

  3. Hysteresis losses in MgB{sub 2} superconductors exposed to combinations of low AC and high DC magnetic fields and transport currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, N., E-mail: niklas.magnusson@sintef.no [SINTEF Energy Research, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Abrahamsen, A.B. [DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu, D. [Electrical Power Processing Group, TU Delft, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Runde, M. [SINTEF Energy Research, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Polinder, H. [Electrical Power Processing Group, TU Delft, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A method for calculating hysteresis losses in the low AC – high DC magnetic field and transport current range has been shown. • The method can be used in the design of wind turbine generators for calculating the losses in the generator DC rotor. • First estimates indicate tolerable current ripple in the 0.1% range for a 4 T DC MgB{sub 2} generator rotor coil. - Abstract: MgB{sub 2} superconductors are considered for generator field coils for direct drive wind turbine generators. In such coils, the losses generated by AC magnetic fields may generate excessive local heating and add to the thermal load, which must be removed by the cooling system. These losses must be evaluated in the design of the generator to ensure a sufficient overall efficiency. A major loss component is the hysteresis losses in the superconductor itself. In the high DC – low AC current and magnetic field region experimental results still lack for MgB{sub 2} conductors. In this article we reason towards a simplified theoretical treatment of the hysteresis losses based on available models in the literature with the aim of setting the basis for estimation of the allowable magnetic fields and current ripples in superconducting generator coils intended for large wind turbine direct drive generators. The resulting equations use the DC in-field critical current, the geometry of the superconductor and the magnitude of the AC magnetic field component as parameters. This simplified approach can be valuable in the design of MgB{sub 2} DC coils in the 1–4 T range with low AC magnetic field and current ripples.

  4. Intrinsic plasticity induced by group II metabotropic glutamate receptors via enhancement of high-threshold KV currents in sound localizing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, W R; Lu, Y

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsic plasticity has emerged as an important mechanism regulating neuronal excitability and output under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we report a novel form of intrinsic plasticity. Using perforated patch clamp recordings, we examined the modulatory effects of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II) on voltage-gated potassium (KV) currents and the firing properties of neurons in the chicken nucleus laminaris (NL), the first central auditory station where interaural time cues are analyzed for sound localization. We found that activation of mGluR II by synthetic agonists resulted in a selective increase of the high-threshold KV currents. More importantly, synaptically released glutamate (with reuptake blocked) also enhanced the high-threshold KV currents. The enhancement was frequency-coding region dependent, being more pronounced in low-frequency neurons compared to middle- and high-frequency neurons. The intracellular mechanism involved the Gβγ signaling pathway associated with phospholipase C and protein kinase C. The modulation strengthened membrane outward rectification, sharpened action potentials, and improved the ability of NL neurons to follow high-frequency inputs. These data suggest that mGluR II provides a feedforward modulatory mechanism that may regulate temporal processing under the condition of heightened synaptic inputs.

  5. Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

  6. Hazard of pyroclastic density currents at the Campi Flegrei Caldera (Southern Italy) as deduced from the combined use of facies architecture, physical modeling and statistics of the impact parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, D.; Dioguardi, F.; Dellino, P.; Isaia, R.; Sulpizio, R.; Braia, G.

    2015-06-01

    Pyroclastic density currents of the recent eruptions at Campi Flegrei Caldera (CFC - Southern Italy) have been studied with the aim of assessing the potential impact of similar events in the future. Eruptions of different scales have been investigated by means of the combined use of facies architecture, laboratory analysis and physical modeling. Both in the small (Averno 2) and intermediate (Astroni) scales, facies analysis indicates that deposits result from the emplacement of pyroclastic density currents like base-surge, formed by multiple closely-timed impulses of phreatomagmatic origin. In the large-scale event (Agnano-Monte Spina), the facies architecture suggests that the currents started as concentrated flows near the vent, as originating from the collapse of a dense eruptive column, and evolved laterally into expanded flows by the propagation of the basal shear current. Laboratory analyses on samples from the main layers of deposits allowed obtaining the input data for the PYFLOW code, which was used for reconstructing the flow dynamic characteristics of the currents. The expected damage is discussed in terms of the probability density function of dynamic pressure and particle volumetric concentration. In this way, the range of potential impact that similar pyroclastic density currents could cause to buildings, infrastructures and population is defined. In the large-scale event, the dynamic pressure ranges from 9.38 to 1.00 kPa (integrating the basal 10 m of the current) at distances of 1.5 and 4.0 km from the vent, respectively. The values are highly influenced by the local topography. In the intermediate-scale event, the dynamic pressure ranges from 2.43 to 0.26 kPa at distances of 1.1 and 1.4 km from the vent, respectively. In the small scale event, the dynamic pressure ranges from 1.49 to 0.39 kPa at distances of 0.5 and 1.1 km from the vent, respectively. The particle volumetric concentration at a height of 2 m within the current is always lower than 0

  7. Neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with standard radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Mature results of a phase II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Debus, J. [Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Rudat, V. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Wulf, J. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Budach, W. [Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Hoelscher, T. [Technical Univ., Dresden (Germany); Reese, T. [Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Mose, S.; Roedel, C. [Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany); Zuehlke, H. [Paul Gerhard Hospital, Wittenberg (Germany); Hinke, A. [WiSP GmbH, Langenfeld (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: the objective of this expanded phase II trial was to confirm the safety results of the preceding phase I study and establish the efficacy of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy with capecitabine in rectal cancer in a multicenter setting. Patients and methods: 96 patients (63% male, age 34-81 years) with advanced rectal cancer (cT3-4 or cN+) from seven university centers in Germany were recruited. All were to receive a total irradiation dose of 50.4-55.8 Gy with conventional fractions. Capecitabine was given at an oral dosage of 825 mg/m{sup 2} bid on each day of the radiotherapy period with the first daily dose applied 2 h before irradiation, followed by surgery 6 weeks later. Results: most of the patients suffered from an advanced primary tumor (cT3: 57%, cT4: 40%) with lymph node involvement in 60%. After neoadjuvant treatment, with a mean of 99% of the scheduled radiation dose actually delivered, a clinical response rate of 68% (95% confidence interval: 57-78%) was observed. Out of 87 evaluable patients undergoing surgery, a sphincter-preserving procedure could be performed in 51% and RO resection in 94%. A pathologically complete response was achieved in six patients (7%, 95% confidence interval: 3-14%). The comparison of initial diagnosis and pathologic findings showed a downstaging in 61%. Acute toxicity with > 5% incidence of NCI (National Cancer Institute) grade {>=} 3 included lymphopenia (12%), leukopenia (6%), and diarrhea (7%). Mild to moderate hand-foot syndrome occurred in 12% only. After a median follow-up of 48 months, the 5-year overall survival and tumor control data were, with regard to patient selection, in the expected range with an overall survival of 65%, a relapse-free survival of 47%, and a local recurrence rate after 5 years of 17%. Conclusion: the data clearly confirm that capecitabine is an adequate substitute for 5-fluorouracil in preoperative chemoradiation of rectal cancer with a favorable safety profile. (orig.)

  8. The clinical observation of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with FOLFOX chemotherapy for rectal cancer of postoperative local recurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeqin Zhou; Mi Liu; Daiyuan Ma; Tao Ren; Xiaojie Ma; Xianfu Li; Bangxian Tan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with FOLFOX scheme chemotherapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrence of rectal cancer. Methods: Sixty-eight cases of recurrent rectal cancer were divided randomly into two groups: 34 cases of conformal radiotherapy plus FOLFOX chemotherapy group (experiment group) and 34 cases of conformal radiotherapy (control group). After 6 MvX line with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy technologies for recurrent lesions and pelvic cavity around subclinical lymphatic drainage radiotherapy after radiotherapy to DT 40 Gy to reposit was made use of between both groups, experiment group was made the new treatment plan to continue to irradiate to 50 Gy, and then Shrinkage GTV was pushed quantity in the field 66 Gy. Researchers took chemotherapy in the first week and the fourth week after radiotherapy, with 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, calcium leucovorin 200 mg, d1-5 with intravenous drip, Oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 and d1 with intravenous drip 2 h, 21 days was one cycle. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: The survival rates for 1, 2 and 3 years for experiment group and control group were 88.2%, 64.7%, 47.1% and 66.7%, 38.2%, 29.4% (P = 0.03), the 2-year rate of distant metastases was 32.4% and 58.8% (P = 0.032) respectively. The median survival time was 33 and 20 months respectively. There were some side effects between the groups, but there was no statistical difference. Conclusion: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plus FOLFOX chemotherapy can be considered as a safe and effective approach to treat rectal cancer patients of postoperative recurrence, and can improve the survival rates of patients and reduce distant metastasis rate obviously and make the acute adverse reaction rate insignificantly.

  9. On the multiday haze in the Asian continental outflow: the important role of synoptic conditions combined with regional and local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jihoon; Kim, Jin Young; Youn, Daeok; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Hwajin; Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Yumi; Cher Jin, Hyoun

    2017-08-01

    The air quality of the megacities in populated and industrialized regions like East Asia is affected by both local and regional emission sources. The combined effect of regional transport and local emissions on multiday haze was investigated through a synthetic analysis of PM2. 5 sampled at both an urban site in Seoul, South Korea and an upwind background site on Deokjeok Island over the Yellow Sea during a severe multiday haze episode in late February 2014. Inorganic components and carbonaceous species of daily PM2. 5 samples were measured, and gaseous pollutants, local meteorological factors, and synoptic meteorological conditions were also determined. A dominance of fine-mode particles (PM2. 5 / PM10 ˜ 0.8), a large secondary inorganic fraction (76 %), high OC / EC (> 7), and highly oxidized aerosols (oxygen-to-carbon ratio of ˜ 0.6 and organic-mass-to-carbon ratio of ˜ 1.9) under relatively warm, humid, and stagnant conditions characterize the multiday haze episode in Seoul; however, the early and late stages of the episode show different chemical compositions of PM2. 5. High concentrations of sulfate in both Seoul and the upwind background in the early stage suggest a significant regional influence on the onset of the multiday haze. At the same time, high concentrations of nitrate and organic compounds in Seoul, which are local and highly correlated with meteorological factors, suggest the contribution of local emissions and secondary formation under stagnant meteorological conditions to the haze. A slow eastward-moving high-pressure system from southern China to the East China Sea induces the regional transport of aerosols and potential gaseous precursors for secondary aerosols from the North China Plain in the early stage but provides stagnant conditions conducive to the accumulation and the local formation of aerosols in the late stage. A blocking ridge over Alaska that developed during the episode hinders the zonal propagation of synoptic-scale systems

  10. Salvage brachytherapy in combination with interstitial hyperthermia for locally recurrent prostate carcinoma following external beam radiation therapy: a prospective phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukiełka, Andrzej M; Strnad, Vratislav; Stauffer, Paul; Dąbrowski, Tomasz; Hetnał, Marcin; Nahajowski, Damian; Walasek, Tomasz; Brandys, Piotr; Matys, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Optimal treatment for patients with only local prostate cancer recurrence after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) failure remains unclear. Possible curative treatments are radical prostatectomy, cryosurgery, and brachytherapy. Several single institution series proved that high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDRBT) are reasonable options for this group of patients with acceptable levels of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. A standard dose prescription and scheme have not been established yet, and the literature presents a wide range of fractionation protocols. Furthermore, hyperthermia has shown the potential to enhance the efficacy of re-irradiation. Consequently, a prospective trial is urgently needed to attain clear structured prospective data regarding the efficacy of salvage brachytherapy with adjuvant hyperthermia for locally recurrent prostate cancer. The purpose of this report is to introduce a new prospective phase II trial that would meet this need. The primary aim of this prospective phase II study combining Iridium-192 brachytherapy with interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) is to analyze toxicity of the combined treatment; a secondary aim is to define the efficacy (bNED, DFS, OS) of salvage brachytherapy. The dose prescribed to PTV will be 30 Gy in 3 fractions for HDRBT, and 60 Gy in 2 fractions for PDRBT. During IHT, the prostate will be heated to the range of 40-47°C for 60 minutes prior to brachytherapy dose delivery. The protocol plans for treatment of 77 patients.

  11. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in a Phase Ⅱ Study on Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Combining Rh-Endostatin with Docetaxel and Epirubicin for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianxin Jia, Junqing Xu, Weifeng Jiang, Minwen Zheng, Mengqi Wei, Jianghao Chen, Ling Wang, Yi Huan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients.Methods: The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group. The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery.Results: The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021 and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000, Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000, tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018, and Ktrans (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000. Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with Ktrans after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00.Conclusions: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and Ktrans

  12. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in a phase Ⅱ study on neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining Rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin for locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianxin; Xu, Junqing; Jiang, Weifeng; Zheng, Minwen; Wei, Mengqi; Chen, Jianghao; Wang, Ling; Huan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients. The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group). The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery. The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021) and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000), Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000), tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018), and K(trans) (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026) in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000). Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with K(trans) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00). The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and K(trans), could provide non-invasive evaluation for

  13. [Long-term oncologic outcomes of localized high-risk prostate cancer undergoing brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiation therapy and maximal androgen blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y; Li, M C; Qi, H Z; Zhao, J H; Han, Y L; Lin, Y H; Hou, Z; Jiang, Y G

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the oncologic outcome and PSA kinetics of localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with combination strategy of radiation therapy (RT) and maximal androgen blockade (MAB). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 320 localized PCa patients undergoing RT+ MAB from 2001 to 2015. And radiation treatment protocol consisted of permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) at 110 Gy and EBRT at 45 Gy/23 fractions. Results: The median follow-up time was 90 (range: 12-186) months. And 117 (36.6%) cases underwent MAB + external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and other 203 (63.4%) cases received MAB+ EBRT+ PPB. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that PSA kinetics were positive indicators of oncologic outcomes. Furthermore, PSA kinetics were aberrantly improved by supplemental PPB to MAB+ EBRT as following, PSA nadir (1.3±0.7)μg/L vs(0.11±0.06)μg/L, time of PSA decrease to nadir (7.5±1.8)months vs (3.2±2.1)months, PSA doubling time (15.6±4.2)months vs (22.6±6.1)months, PSA decreasing amplitude (84.6±6.2)%vs(95.8±3.4)%. Additionally, the median time of several important oncologic events in MAB+ EBRT+ PPB group were also prolonged than that in MAB+ EBRT group as following, overall survival (12.3 years vs 9.1 years, PPPB is extremely effective combination strategy for localized high-risk PCa patients, and PPB plays the important synergistic role in improving PSA kinetics, which are independent predictor for oncologic outcomes.

  14. Effect of a combination of local flap and sequential compression-distraction osteogenesis in the reconstruction of post-traumatic tibial bone and soft tissue defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-hua; HUANG Lei; CHEN Zhong; DU Wei-li; WANG Cheng; SHEN Yu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of extensive post-traumatic composite bone and soft tissue defects remains a complicated therapeutic problem and a challenge for surgeons.We investigated the application of local flaps and Ilizarov osteogenesis in the reestablishment of severe combined defects of tibial bone and soft tissue.Methods Sixteen patients with bone and soft tissue defects were included.The mean age of the patients was 31.5 years.The average time from injury to initial surgery was 14.4 weeks.The average soft tissue and bone defect sizes were 92.9cm2 and 8.7 cm,respectively.Local flaps were created to reconstruct the soft tissue defects.The Ilizarov external fixator or the Orthofix Limb Reconstruction System was used to reconstruct bony defects using delayed distraction osteogenesis.Results Two myocutaneous flaps and 14 reverse island flaps were applied.All transferred flaps survived.Fifteen patients healed with equal leg length,and one healed with a residual leg-length discrepancy of 1.5 cm.One patient with an Ilizarov external fixator developed ankle joint stiffening and a pin-track infection that was successfully treated with oral antibiotics.No patient developed pin loosening.All patients walked without assistance.Fifteen patients returned to their work,and one lost her job.The results were evaluated using the Paley bone and functional assessment scores.The bone assessment results were excellent in 14 and good in two patients.Functional assessment scores were excellent in 13,good in two,and fair in one patient.Conclusion The combination of local flaps and sequential distraction osteogenesis can be used for successful reconstruction of defects of incorporated bone and soft tissue.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation combined with aerobic exercise to optimize analgesic responses in fibromyalgia: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Emerenciano Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome that is associated with maladaptive plasticity in neural central circuits. One of the neural circuits that are involved in pain in fibromyalgia is the primary motor cortex. We tested a combination intervention that aimed to modulate the motor system: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 and aerobic exercise (AE. In this phase II, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial, 45 subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: tDCS + AE, AE only, and tDCS only. The following outcomes were assessed: intensity of pain, level of anxiety, quality of life, mood, pressure pain threshold, and cortical plasticity, as indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. There was a significant effect for the group-time interaction for intensity of pain, demonstrating that tDCS/AE was superior to AE (F(13,364=2.25, p=0.007 and tDCS (F(13.364=2.33, p=0.0056 alone. Post hoc adjusted analysis showed a difference between tDCS/AE and tDCS group after the first week of stimulation and after one month intervention period (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively. Further, after treatment there was a significant difference between groups in anxiety and mood levels. The combination treatment effected the greatest response. The three groups had no differences regarding responses in motor cortex plasticity, as assessed by TMS. The combination of tDCS with aerobic exercise is superior compared with each individual intervention (cohen’s d effect sizes > 0.55. The combination intervention had a significant effect on pain, anxiety and mood. Based on the similar effects on cortical plasticity outcomes, the combination intervention might have affected other neural circuits, such as those that control the affective-emotional aspects of pain.

  16. Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cells and Their Expression of EGFR/Phospho-EGFR During Combined Radiotherapy Regimens in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinhofer, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.tinhofer@charite.de [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hristozova, Tsvetana; Stromberger, Carmen [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); KeilhoIz, Ulrich [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Budach, Volker [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) during the course of combined chemo- or bioradiotherapy regimens as potential biomarkers of treatment efficacy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) were determined. Methods and Materials: Peripheral blood samples from SCCHN patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B disease who were treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy or induction chemotherapy followed by bioradiation with cetuximab were included in this study. Using flow cytometry, the absolute number of CTCs per defined blood volume as well as their expression of EGFR and its phosphorylated form (pEGFR) during the course of treatment were assessed. Results: Before treatment, we detected {>=}1 CTC per 3.75 mL blood in 9 of 31 patients (29%). Basal expression of EGFR was detected in 100% and pEGFR in 55% of the CTC+ cases. The frequency of CTC detection was not influenced by induction chemotherapy. However, the number of CTC+ samples significantly increased after radiotherapy. This radiation-induced increase in CTC numbers was less pronounced when radiotherapy was combined with cetuximab compared to its combination with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. The former treatment regimen was also more effective in reducing pEGFR expression in CTCs. Conclusions: Definitive radiotherapy regimens of locally advanced SCCHN can increase the number of CTCs and might thus contribute to a systemic spread of tumor cells. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive value of the radiation-induced increase in CTC numbers and the persistent activation of the EGFR signalling pathway in individual CTC+ cases.

  17. Hedgehog pathway inhibitor in combination with radiation therapy for basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck. First clinical experience with vismodegib for locally advanced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Bjoern; Roedel, Claus; Balermpas, Panagiotis [University Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt (Germany); Meissner, Markus [University Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department of Dermatology, Frankfurt (Germany); Ghanaati, Shahram [University Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department of Craniofacial and Plastic Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Burck, Iris [University Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Definitive radiotherapy and vismodegib, an oral inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway, are both established treatment options for locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Both have shown good results in local tumor control; however, the effects concerning advanced tumors are often not of a lasting nature and to date no systematic data about the combination of the two modalities are available. We retrospectively analyzed four patients who received vismodegib and radiotherapy in combination. Radiation doses varied between 50.4 Gy and 66.0 Gy. Three patients had recurrent BCC. One patient had locoregional lymph node involvement. Vismodegib was taken once a day (150 mg) during the entire time of irradiation and beyond upon instructions of the attending dermatologist. In three cases a persistent complete response was observed, in one case the tumor remained stable for approximately 6 months until further tumor progression was documented. The combined therapy was well tolerated in all cases. No exceptional side effects pointing at a drug-radiation interaction were observed. The combination of vismodegib and radiation seems feasible and the initial results are promising. In our cohort, there was no increase in unexpected side effects. Further research is needed to evaluate the significance of this combined therapy. (orig.) [German] Sowohl definitive Radiotherapie als auch Vismodegib, ein oraler Inhibitor der Hedgehog-Signalkaskade, sind etablierte Behandlungsoptionen fuer lokal fortgeschrittene Basalzellkarzinome (BCC). Beide Therapien zeigen fuer sich gute Ansprechraten, aber die lokale Tumorkontrolle ist oft nicht dauerhaft und bis heute existieren kaum Daten ueber eine Kombination der beiden Modalitaeten. Wir analysierten retrospektiv vier Patientenfaelle nach simultaner Applikation von Vismodegib und Bestrahlung. Die Bestrahlungsdosis variierte zwischen 50,4 Gy und 66,0 Gy. Drei der Patienten hatten ein rezidiviertes BCC. Ein Patient hatte einen befallenen regionalen

  18. Decorporation approach following rat lung contamination with a moderately soluble compound of plutonium using local and systemic Ca-DTPA combined chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Bruel, Sylvie; Renault, Daniel; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Decorporation efficacy of prompt pulmonary delivery of DTPA dry powder was assessed following lung contamination with plutonium nitrate and compared to an intravenous injection of DTPA solution and a combined administration of both DTPA compounds. In addition, efficacy of a delayed treatment was assessed. In case of either early or late administration, insufflated DTPA was more efficient than intravenously injected DTPA in reducing the plutonium lung burden due to its high local concentration. Prompt treatment with DTPA powder was also more effective in limiting extrapulmonary deposits by removing the early transportable fraction of plutonium from lungs prior its absorption into blood. Translocation of DTPA from lungs to blood may also contribute to the decrease in extrapulmonary retention, as shown by reduced liver deposit after delayed pulmonary administration of DTPA. Efficacy of DTPA dry powder was further increased by the combined intravenous administration of DTPA solution for reducing extrapulmonary deposits of plutonium and promoting its urinary excretion. According to our results, the most effective treatment protocol for plutonium decorporation was the early pulmonary delivery of DTPA powder supplemented by an intravenous injection of DTPA solution. Following inhalation of plutonium as nitrate chemical form, this combined chelation therapy should provide a more effective method of treatment than conventional intravenous injection alone. At later stages following lung contamination, pulmonary administration of DTPA should also be considered as the treatment of choice for decreasing the lung burden.

  19. Experimental investigation of a general real-time 3D target localization method using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per; Ruan, Dan; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J

    2012-11-21

    The goal of this work was to experimentally quantify the geometric accuracy of a novel real-time 3D target localization method using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring for clinically realistic arc and static field treatment delivery and target motion conditions. A general method for real-time target localization using kV imaging and respiratory monitoring was developed. Each dimension of internal target motion T(x, y, z; t) was estimated from the external respiratory signal R(t) through the correlation between R(t(i)) and the projected marker positions p(x(p), y(p); t(i)) on kV images by a state-augmented linear model: T(x, y, z; t) = aR(t) + bR(t - τ) + c. The model parameters, a, b, c, were determined by minimizing the squared fitting error ∑‖p(x(p), y(p); t(i)) - P(θ(i)) · (aR(t(i)) + bR(t(i) - τ) + c)‖(2) with the projection operator P(θ(i)). The model parameters were first initialized based on acquired kV arc images prior to MV beam delivery. This method was implemented on a trilogy linear accelerator consisting of an OBI x-ray imager (operating at 1 Hz) and real-time position monitoring (RPM) system (30 Hz). Arc and static field plans were delivered to a moving phantom programmed with measured lung tumour motion from ten patients. During delivery, the localization method determined the target position and the beam was adjusted in real time via dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) adaptation. The beam-target alignment error was quantified by segmenting the beam aperture and a phantom-embedded fiducial marker on MV images and analysing their relative position. With the localization method, the root-mean-squared errors of the ten lung tumour traces ranged from 0.7-1.3 mm and 0.8-1.4 mm during the single arc and five-field static beam delivery, respectively. Without the localization method, these errors ranged from 3.1-7.3 mm. In summary, a general method for real-time target localization using kV imaging and respiratory

  20. Experimental investigation of a general real-time 3D target localization method using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per; Ruan, Dan; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this work was to experimentally quantify the geometric accuracy of a novel real-time 3D target localization method using sequential kV imaging combined with respiratory monitoring for clinically realistic arc and static field treatment delivery and target motion conditions. A general method for real-time target localization using kV imaging and respiratory monitoring was developed. Each dimension of internal target motion T(x, y, z; t) was estimated from the external respiratory signal R(t) through the correlation between R(ti) and the projected marker positions p(xp, yp; ti) on kV images by a state-augmented linear model: T(x, y, z; t) = aR(t) + bR(t - τ) + c. The model parameters, a, b, c, were determined by minimizing the squared fitting error ∑‖p(xp, yp; ti) - P(θi) · (aR(ti) + bR(ti - τ) + c)‖2 with the projection operator P(θi). The model parameters were first initialized based on acquired kV arc images prior to MV beam delivery. This method was implemented on a trilogy linear accelerator consisting of an OBI x-ray imager (operating at 1 Hz) and real-time position monitoring (RPM) system (30 Hz). Arc and static field plans were delivered to a moving phantom programmed with measured lung tumour motion from ten patients. During delivery, the localization method determined the target position and the beam was adjusted in real time via dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) adaptation. The beam-target alignment error was quantified by segmenting the beam aperture and a phantom-embedded fiducial marker on MV images and analysing their relative position. With the localization method, the root-mean-squared errors of the ten lung tumour traces ranged from 0.7-1.3 mm and 0.8-1.4 mm during the single arc and five-field static beam delivery, respectively. Without the localization method, these errors ranged from 3.1-7.3 mm. In summary, a general method for real-time target localization using kV imaging and respiratory monitoring has been

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian inference for the EEG inverse problem using realistic FE head models: depth localization and source separation for focal primary currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucka, Felix; Pursiainen, Sampsa; Burger, Martin; Wolters, Carsten H

    2012-07-16

    The estimation of the activity-related ion currents by measuring the induced electromagnetic fields at the head surface is a challenging and severely ill-posed inverse problem. This is especially true in the recovery of brain networks involving deep-lying sources by means of EEG/MEG recordings which is still a challenging task for any inverse method. Recently, hierarchical Bayesian modeling (HBM) emerged as a unifying framework for current density reconstruction (CDR) approaches comprising most established methods as well as offering promising new methods. Our work examines the performance of fully-Bayesian inference methods for HBM for source configurations consisting of few, focal sources when used with realistic, high-resolution finite element (FE) head models. The main foci of interest are the correct depth localization, a well-known source of systematic error of many CDR methods, and the separation of single sources in multiple-source scenarios. Both aspects are very important in the analysis of neurophysiological data and in clinical applications. For these tasks, HBM provides a promising framework and is able to improve upon established CDR methods such as minimum norm estimation (MNE) or sLORETA in many aspects. For challenging multiple-source scenarios where the established methods show crucial errors, promising results are attained. Additionally, we introduce Wasserstein distances as performance measures for the validation of inverse methods in complex source scenarios.

  2. Pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Nigel; Bagust, Adrian; Beale, Sophie; Dwan, Kerry; Dickson, Rumona; Proudlove, Chris; Dundar, Yenal

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Roche) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of pertuzumab + trastuzumab + docetaxel for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer in accordance with the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article summarises the ERG's review of the evidence submitted by the manufacturer and provides a summary of the Appraisal Committee's (AC) initial decision. At the time of writing, final guidance had not been published by NICE. The clinical evidence was mainly derived from an ongoing phase III randomised double-blind placebo-controlled international multicentre clinical trial (CLEOPATRA), designed to evaluate efficacy and safety in 808 patients, which compared pertuzumab + trastuzumab + docetaxel (pertuzumab arm) with placebo + trastuzumab + docetaxel (control arm). Both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analysed at two data cut-off points-May 2011 (median follow-up of 18 months) and May 2012 (median follow-up of 30 months). At both time points, PFS was significantly longer in the pertuzumab arm (18.5 months compared with 12.4 months in the control arm at the first data cut-off point and 18.7 versus 12.4 months at the second data cut-off point). Assessment of OS benefit suggested an improvement for patients in the pertuzumab arm with a strong trend towards an OS benefit at the second data cut-off point; however, due to the immaturity of the OS data, the magnitude of the OS benefit was uncertain. Importantly, cardiotoxicity was not increased in patients treated with a combination of pertuzumab + trastuzumab + docetaxel. The ERG's main concern with the

  3. Gemcitabine alone versus combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin for the treatment of patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, A; Kos, F T; Algin, E; Yildiz, R; Dikiltas, M; Unek, I T; Colak, D; Elkiran, E T; Helvaci, K; Geredeli, C; Dane, F; Balakan, O; Kaplan, M A; Durnali, A G; Harputoglu, H; Goksel, G; Ozdemir, N; Buyukberber, S; Gumus, M; Kucukoner, M; Ozkan, M; Uncu, D; Benekli, M; Isikdogan, A

    2012-01-01

    The majority of patients with pancreatic cancer is of advanced disease. Several randomized Phase II and III trials suggest that the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GemCis) response rates were higher than Gemcitabine (Gem) alone, however the trials were not enough powered to indicate a statistically significant prolongation of survival in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study is to evaluated the efficiency of Gem alone versus GemCis in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma .A total of 406 patients, from fourteen centers were evaluated retrospectively. All patients received Gem or GemCis as first-line treatment between September 2005 to March 2011. Primary end of this study were to evaluate the toxicity, clinical response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between the arms. There were 156 patients (M: 98, F: 58) in Gem arm and 250 patients (M: 175, F: 75) in the combination arm. Gemcitabin arm patients older than the combination arm ( median 63 vs 57.5, p=0.001). In patients with the combination arm had a higher dose reduction (25.2% vs 11.3%, p=0.001) and dose delay (34% vs 16.8%, p=0.001). Among patients with the combination and Gemcitabin arm gender, diabetes mellitus, performance status, cholestasis, grade, stage did not have a statistically difference (p>0.05). Clinical response rate to the combination arm was higher than the Gem arm (69.0% vs 49.7%, p=0.001). PFS was more favorable in the GemCis arm than Gem alone, but the difference did not attain statistical significance (8.9 vs 6.0, p=0.08). OS was not significantly superior in the GemCis arm (12.0 vs 10.2, p>0.05). Grade III-IV hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity were higher in the combination arm. PFS was more favorable in the GemCis arm than Gem alone, but the difference did not attain statistical significance. OS was not significantly superior in the GemCis arm.

  4. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A double-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). Both groups improved JTT over time (p occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor impairment. It is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based training. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to further explore possible effects of tDCS in patients with ICH. Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based rehabilitation.

  5. The separation of flavonoids from Pongamia pinnata using combination columns in high-speed counter-current chromatography with a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan; Yin, Hang; Tian, Xinpeng; Luo, Xiongming; Nan, Haihan; He, Sha

    2013-11-01

    The mangrove plant Pongamia pinnata (Leguminosae) is well known as a plant pesticide. Previous studies have indicated that the flavonoids are responsible of the biological activities of the plant. A new high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for the separation of three flavonoids, karanjin (1), pinnatin (2), and pongaflavone (3), from P. pinnata was developed in the present study. The lower and intermediate phase (LP and IP) of a new three-phase solvent system, n-hexane-acetonitrile-dichloromethane-water, at a volume ratio of 5:5:1:5, were used as the stationary phases, while the upper phase (UP) was used as the mobile phase, and the volume ratio between the stationary phases in the CCC column could be tuned by varying the initial pumped volume ratio of the stationary phases. The CCC columns containing all three phases of the solvent system were considered combination columns. According to the theories of combination column, it is possible to optimize the retention time of the target compounds by varying the volume ratio of the stationary phases in the HSCCC combination columns, as well as the suitable volume ratios of the stationary phases for the separation of the target compounds were predicted from the partition coefficients of the compounds in the three-phase solvent system. Then, three HSCCC separations using the combination columns with initial pumped LP:IP volume ratios of 1:0, 0.9:0.1, and 0.7:0.3 were performed separately based on the prediction. Three target compounds were prepared with high purity when the initial pumped volume ratio of the stationary phases was 0.9:0.1. The baseline separation of compounds 2 and 3 was achieved on the combination column with an initial pumped volume ratio of 0.7:0.3. Furthermore, the three experiments clearly demonstrated that the retentions and resolutions of the target compounds increased with an increasing volume ratio of IP, which is consistent with the prediction for the retention times for the

  6. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  7. Validation of the Local Hadronic Calibration Scheme of ATLAS with Combined Beam Test Data in the End-Cap and Forward Regions of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryunin, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented. The Local Hadron Calibration developed for the energy reconstruction and the calibration of jets and missing transverse energy in ATLAS, has been validated using data obtained during these beam tests. The analysis has been carried out by using special sets of calibration weights and corrections obtained with the Geant4 simulation of a detailed beam test set-up. The validation itself has been performed by careful studying specific calorimeter performance parameters such as e.g. energy response, energy resolution, shower shapes, cluster energy density as well as different physics lists of the Geant4 simulation.

  8. Analysis of Entropy Generation of Combined Heat and Mass Transfer in Internal and External Flows with the Assumption of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShouguangYao

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the control volume method is used to establish the general expression of entropy generation due to combined convective heat and mass transfer in internal and external fluid streams.The expression accounts for irreversibilities due to the presence of heat transfer across a finite temperature difference,mass transfer across a finite difference in the chemical potential of a species,and due to flow friction.Based on the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium,the generalized form of the Gibbs equation is used in this analysis.The results are applied to two fundamental problems of forced convection heat and mass transfer in internal and external flows.After minimizing the entropy generation,useful conclusions are derived that are typical of the second law viewpoint for the definition of the optimum operation conditions for the specified applications.which is a valuable criterion for optimum design of heat and fluid flow devices.

  9. Effect of a combined surgery, re-irradiation and hyperthermia therapy on local control rate in radio-induced angiosarcoma of the chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linthorst, M.; Rhoon, G.C. van; Zee, J. van der [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Geel, A.N. van [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgical Oncology; Baartman, E.A. [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Oei, S.B. [Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ghidey, W. [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Trial and Medical Statistics

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced angiosarcoma (RAS) of the chest wall/breast has a poor prognosis due to the high percentage of local failures. The efficacy and side effects of re-irradiation plus hyperthermia (reRT + HT) treatment alone or in combination with surgery were assessed in RAS patients. Patients and methods: RAS was diagnosed in 23 breast cancer patients and 1 patient with melanoma. These patients had previously undergone breast conserving therapy (BCT, n = 18), mastectomy with irradiation (n=5) or axillary lymph node dissection with irradiation (n = 1). Treatment consisted of surgery followed by reRT + HT (n = 8), reRT + HT followed by surgery (n = 3) or reRT + HT alone (n = 13). Patients received a mean radiation dose of 35 Gy (32-54 Gy) and 3-6 hyperthermia treatments (mean 4). Hyperthermia was given once or twice a week following radiotherapy (RT). Results: The median latency interval between previous radiation and diagnosis of RAS was 106 months (range 45-212 months). Following reRT + HT, the complete response (CR) rate was 56 %. In the subgroup of patients receiving surgery, the 3-month, 1- and 3-year actuarial local control (LC) rates were 91, 46 and 46 %, respectively. In the subgroup of patients without surgery, the rates were 54, 32 and 22 %, respectively. Late grade 4 RT toxicity was seen in 2 patients. Conclusion: The present study shows that reRT + HT treatment - either alone or combined with surgery - improves LC rates in patients with RAS. (orig.)

  10. A new crustal model of the western Alpine region derived by combining controlled-source seismology and local earthquake tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Kissling, E.; Husen, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a newly developed approach of combining controlled-source seismology (CSS) and local earthquake tomography (LET) data to obtain a new 3D crustal model in the western Alpine region. Our approach takes into account the strengths of each seismic method and the quality of each individual seismic information. Therefore, our western Alpine 3D model includes a well-defined Moho, constrained by CSS and LET data, as well as smooth lateral variations in seismic velocities. The consistent combination of results from two different seismic methods is feasible due to the definition of LET Moho elements and their uncertainty estimates. Identification of LET Moho elements is based on a characteristic P-wave velocity (7.25 km/s); uncertainty estimates are derived from the diagonal element of the resolution matrix (RDE), absolute P-wave velocities that are typical for crust and mantle, and a specific velocity gradient around Moho depth. We validate our approach by comparing highest quality Moho elements from both methods coinciding in 353 localities. We find only four Moho elements for which the difference in Moho depth is greater than the error sum of the uncertainty estimates and these four Moho elements are all located close to plate boundaries, where 3D migration of CSS reflector elements is poorly constrained. Our model clearly shows three Moho surfaces, being Europe, Adria, and Liguria, as well as major tectonic structures like suture zones and the high-velocity Ivrea body. Compared to previous studies, our model allows for a more accurate definition of plate boundaries at Moho level. We attribute this to the larger number of available Moho elements derived from LET data. Therefore, the new model allows better insights in the deep crustal structure of the Alpine collision zone.

  11. Application of localized reactivity index in combination with periodic DFT calculation to rationalize the swelling mechanism of clay type inorganic material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Chatterjee

    2005-09-01

    Clays are layered alumino-silicates. Clays swell and expand in aqueous solution. This property governs the usage of these materials in synthesis of nano-composites and is a source of many of its catalytic applications. We used both localized and periodic calculations within the realm of density functional theory (DFT) on a series of monovalent (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+), and divalent (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) cations, to monitor their effect on the swelling of clays. The activity order obtained for the exchangeable cations among all the monovalent and divalent series studied is: Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+ > Cs+ > Rb+ > Na+ > Li+ > K+. We have studied two types of clays, montmorillonite and beidellite, with different surface structures and with/without water using periodic calculations. We have calculated the layer spacing at the first, second and third hydration shells of exchangeable cation, to compare with the experimental -spacing values to correlate with humidity. A novel quantitative scale is proposed in terms of the intermolecular relative nucleophilicity of the active cation sites in their hydrated state through Fukui functions using hard-soft acid base (HSAB) principle. Finally, a swelling mechanism is proposed. This is a unique study where a combination of periodic and localized calculations has been performed to validate the capability of reactivity index calculations in material designing.

  12. Detection of Amide and Aromatic Proton Resonances of Human Brain Metabolites Using Localized Correlated Spectroscopy Combined with Two Different Water Suppression Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakumar Nagarajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the J-coupling connectivity network between the amide, aliphatic, and aromatic proton resonances of metabolites in human brain using two-dimensional (2D localized correlated spectroscopy (L-COSY. Two different global water suppression techniques were combined with L-COSY, one before and another after localizing the volume of interest (VOI. Phantom solutions containing several cerebral metabolites at physiological concentrations were evaluated initially for sequence optimization. Nine healthy volunteers were scanned using a 3T whole body MRI scanner. The VOI for 2D L-COSY was placed in the right occipital white/gray matter region. The 2D cross and diagonal peak volumes were measured for several metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, creatine (Cr, free choline (Ch, glutamate/glutamine (Glx, aspartate (Asp, myo-inositol (mI, GABA, glutathione (GSH, phosphocholine (PCh, phosphoethanolamine (PE, tyrosine (Tyr, lactate (Lac, macromolecules (MM and homocarnosine (Car. Using the pre-water suppression technique with L-COSY, the above mentioned metabolites were clearly identifiable and the relative ratios of metabolites were calculated. In addition to detecting multitude of aliphatic resonances in the high field region, we have demonstrated that the amide and aromatic resonances can also be detected using 2D L-COSY by pre water suppression more reliably than the post-water suppression.

  13. Increased Duration of Heating Boosts Local Drug Deposition during Radiofrequency Ablation in Combination with Thermally Sensitive Liposomes (ThermoDox in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Swenson

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is used for the local treatment of liver cancer. RFA is effective for small ( 3 cm, there is a tendency to leave viable tumor cells in the margins or clefts of overlapping ablation zones. This increases the possibility of incomplete ablation or local recurrence. Lyso-Thermosensitive Liposomal Doxorubicin (LTLD, is a thermally sensitive liposomal doxorubicin formulation for intravenous administration, that rapidly releases its drug content when exposed to temperatures >40°C. When used with RFA, LTLD releases its doxorubicin in the vasculature around the zone of ablation-induced tumor cell necrosis, killing micrometastases in the ablation margin. This may reduce recurrence and be more effective than thermal ablation alone.The purpose of this study was to optimize the RFA procedure used in combination with LTLD to maximize the local deposition of doxorubicin in a swine liver model. Pigs were anaesthetized and the liver was surgically exposed. Each pig received a single, 50 mg/m2 dose of the clinical LTLD formulation (ThermoDox®. Subsequently, ablations were performed with either 1, 3 or 6 sequential, overlapping needle insertions in the left medial lobe with total ablation time of 15, 45 or 90 minutes respectively. Two different RFA generators and probes were evaluated. After the final ablation, the ablation zone (plus 3 cm margin was dissected out and examined for doxorubicin concentration by LC/MS and fluorescence.The mean Cmax of plasma total doxorubicin was 26.5 μg/ml at the end of the infusion. Overall, increased heat time from 15 to 45 to 90 minutes shows an increase in both the amount of doxorubicin deposited (up to ~100 μg/g and the width of the ablation target margin to which doxorubicin is delivered as determined by tissue homogenization and LC/MS detection of doxorubicin and by fluorescent imaging of tissues.

  14. Local Helioseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizon Laurent

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of local helioseismology, covering both theoretical and observational results. After a brief introduction to solar oscillations and wave propagation through inhomogeneous media, we describe the main techniques of local helioseismology: Fourier-Hankel decomposition, ring-diagram analysis, time-distance helioseismology, helioseismic holography, and direct modeling. We discuss local helioseismology of large-scale flows, the solar-cycle dependence of these flows, perturbations associated with regions of magnetic activity, and solar supergranulation.

  15. Preparative separation and purification of bufadienolides from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jialian; Zhang, Yongqing, E-mail: fleiv@163.com [College of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Lin, Yunliang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Geng, Yanling [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Qinde [Shandong College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Laiyang, Shandong (China)

    2013-09-01

    Eight bufadienolides were successfully isolated and purified from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with preparative HPLC (prep-HPLC). First, a stepwise elution mode of HSCCC with the solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:6:4:6, 4:6:5:5, v/v) was employed and four bufadienolides, two partially purified fractions were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract. The partially purified fractions III and VI were then further separated by prepHPLC, respectively, and another four bufadienolides were recovered. Their structures were confirmed by ESI-MS and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra. (author)

  16. Purification of six lignans from the stems of Schisandra chinensis by using high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Huang, Guohui; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-11-01

    A method for the preparative purification of lignans from Schisandra chinensis was established using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The crude extracts obtained from S. chinensis by using 70% ethanol were separated on a macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. A two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v) was used for HSCCC, and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) was used for preparative HPLC. The results obtained using HSCCC were compared with those obtained using preparative HPLC, and their advantages were further integrated to improve the separation efficiency. Six known lignans were identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR analyses; the purities of all the compounds were more than 91%.

  17. Separation and purification of three stilbenes from the radix of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai Ohwl by macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the rapid separation and purification of three stilbenes from the radix of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai Ohwl by macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully established. In the present study, a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:4:2, v/v/v/v was used for HSCCC separation. A one-step separation in 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract produced 26.3 mg of trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside, 42.0 mg of pieceid-2"-O-gallate, and 17.9 mg of trans-resveratrol with purities of 99.1%, 97.8%, and 99.4%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Preparative separation and purification of bufadienolides from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bufadienolides were successfully isolated and purified from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC combined with preparative HPLC (prep-HPLC. First, a stepwise elution mode of HSCCC with the solvent system composed of petroleum ether - ethyl acetate - methanol - water (4:6:4:6, 4:6:5:5, v/v was employed and four bufadienolides, two partially purified fractions were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract. The partially purified fractions III and VI were then further separated by prep-HPLC, respectively, and another four bufadienolides were recovered. Their structures were confirmed by ESI-MS and ¹H-NMR spectra.

  19. Investigation of subcellular localization and dynamics of membrane proteins in living bacteria by combining optical micromanipulation and high-resolution microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso Peña, Álvaro; Nieves, Marcos; Teper, Konrad; Wedlich-Soldner, Roland; Denz, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    The plasma membrane serves as protective interface between cells and their environment. It also constitutes a hub for selective nutrient uptake and signal transduction. Increasing evidence over the last years indicates that, similar to eukaryotic cells, lateral membrane organization plays an important role in the regulation of prokaryotic signaling pathways. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. Spatiotemporal characterization of bacterial signal transduction demands very sensitive high-resolution microscopy techniques due to the low expression levels of most signaling proteins and the small size of bacterial cells. In addition, direct study of subcellular confinement and dynamics of bacterial signaling proteins during the different stages of the signal transduction also requires immobilization in order to avoid cell displacement caused by Brownian motion, local fluid flows and bacterial self-propulsion. In this work we present a novel approach based on the combination of high resolution imaging and optical manipulation that enables the investigation of the distribution and dynamics of proteins at the bacterial plasma membrane. For this purpose, we combine the versatility of holographic optical tweezers (HOT) with the sensitivity and resolution of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of microfluidic devices in our integrated HOT+TIRF system for the control of growth conditions of bacterial cells. The capabilities of our workstation provides thus new valuable insights into the fundamental cellular and physical mechanisms underlying the regulation of bacterial signal transduction.

  20. The influence of ns- and fs-LA plume local conditions on the performance of a combined LIBS/LA-ICP-MS sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are well-established analytical techniques with their own unique advantages and disadvantages. The combination of the two analytical methods is a very promising way to overcome the challenges faced by each method individually. We made a comprehensive comparison of local plasma conditions between nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) laser ablation (LA) sources in a combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS system. The optical emission spectra and ICP-MS signal were recorded simultaneously for both ns- and fs-LA and figures of merit of the system were analyzed. Characterization of the plasma was conducted by evaluating temperature and density of the plume under various irradiation conditions using optical emission spectroscopy, and correlations to ns- and fs-LIBS and LA-ICP-MS signal were made. The present study is very useful for providing conditions for a multimodal system as well as giving insight into how laser ablation plume parameters are related to LA-ICP-MS and LIBS results for both ns- and fs-LA.

  1. Effect of transcranial direct-current stimulation combined with treadmill training on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy refers to permanent, mutable motor development disorders stemming from a primary brain lesion, causing secondary musculoskeletal problems and limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of gait training combined with transcranial direct-current stimulation over the primary motor cortex on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled study was carried out with 24 children aged five to 12 years with cerebral palsy randomly allocated to two intervention groups (blocks of six and stratified based on GMFCS level (levels I-II or level III.The experimental group (12 children was submitted to treadmill training and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex. The control group (12 children was submitted to treadmill training and placebo transcranial direct-current stimulation. Training was performed in five weekly sessions for 2 weeks. Evaluations consisted of stabilometric analysis as well as the administration of the Pediatric Balance Scale and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory one week before the intervention, one week after the completion of the intervention and one month after the completion of the intervention. All patients and two examiners were blinded to the allocation of the children to the different groups. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited better results in comparison to the control group with regard to anteroposterior sway (eyes open and closed; p<0.05, mediolateral sway (eyes closed; p<0.05 and the Pediatric Balance Scale both one week and one month after the completion of the protocol. CONCLUSION: Gait training on a treadmill combined with anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex led to improvements in static balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/RBR-9B5DH7.

  2. Separation of polyphenols from leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder by off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography combined with recycling elution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Fuzhu; Chen, Xiaoqing; Yang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    In this study, off-line two-dimensional High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (2D HSCCC) strategy combined with recycling elution mode was developed to isolate compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of a common green tea--leaves of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder. In the orthogonal separation system, a conventional HSCCC was employed for the first dimension and two recycling HSCCCs were used for the second in parallel. Using a solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:0.6:4.4, v/v) in the first and second dimension, four compounds including 3-hydroxy-phlorizin (1), phloretin (2), avicularin (3) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (4) were obtained. The purities of these four compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. And their structures were all identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line 2D HSCCC with recycling elution mode is an efficient technique to isolate compounds with similar polarities in natural products.

  3. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  4. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Ras, D., E-mail: daniel.abou-ras@helmholtz-berlin.de; Schäfer, N.; Baldaz, N.; Brunken, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Boit, C. [Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Semiconductor Devices, Einsteinufer 19, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2}/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe{sub 2} layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w{sup 2} and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  5. Combined complementary plasma diagnostics to characterize a 2f plasma with additional DC current with conditioning effects at the chamber wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Michael; Rothe, Ralf; Baek, Kye Hyun; Lee, Eunwoo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple frequencies and DC current used in a low-pressure plasma rf discharge result in an increased complexity. This needs plasma diagnostics applied, in particular in a plasma process chamber. That is done under manufacturing conditions which restrict the applicable plasma diagnostics to non-invasive methods with small footprint. So plasma chamber parameters, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and self-excited electron spectroscopy (SEERS) are used to characterize the plasma and to understand chamber wall conditioning effects in an Ar plasma. The parameters are classified according to their origin--the region they are representative for. The center ion density is estimated from the DC current and compared to the SEERS electron density reflecting the electron density close to that at the chamber wall. The conditioning effects are caused by Si sputtering at a Si wafer changing the chamber wall state only when the chamber is clean, subsequent plasmas in the same chamber are not affected in that way. Through the combination of the complementary methods it can be shown that the chamber wall condition finally changes the radial plasma density distribution. Also the heating of electrons in the sheath is shown to be influenced by conditioning effects.

  6. Single-step purification of dracorhodin from dragon's blood resin of Daemonorops draco using high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with pH modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianmei; Hu, Ruilin; Lu, Yanbin; Sun, Cuirong; Wu, Tianxing

    2009-12-01

    Dracorhodin is a major constituent found in "Dragon's blood" resin of Daemonorops draco Willd. Blume. This natural flavylium compound is a potent pharmaceutical substance due to its biological and pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor and cytotoxic activity. An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography method was successfully established for the isolation and purification of dracorhodin directly from extract of D. draco by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:3:2:3 v/v). Under the optimal conditions, 6.6 mg dracorhodin was obtained from 100 mg crude resin. The isolated fraction of counter-current chromatography was determined by HPLC, NMR, UV/visible and ESI/MS combined with pH modulation, since dracorhodin is unstable in solution which exists in different forms depending on pH values. The data were compared with those of the reference substance, and the literatures as well. The purity of dracorhodin was over 98% based on the HPLC result.

  7. Highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors by combined application of oxygen plasma treatment and field plate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asubar, Joel T.; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tokuda, Hirokuni; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    We report on the highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combined application of pre-passivation oxygen (O2) plasma treatment and gate field plate (FP) structures schemes. Four different devices were fabricated in this work: (1) conventional HEMT as reference device, (2) field-plated HEMT, (3) O2 plasma-treated HEMT, (4) both field-plated and O2 plasma-treated HEMT. Analysis of dependence of normalized dynamic R on (NDR) on gate pulse on-time (t on) revealed that gate-FP reduces the emission time constant (τ i ) of trapped electrons while O2-plasma treatment decreases the density of traps. For all measurement conditions, the device with both FP and O2 plasma treatment exhibited the least NDR compared to devices with either FP or O2 plasma treatment only, demonstrating for the first time the compatibility of both O2 plasma treatment and FP schemes in mitigating current collapse.

  8. Combination of Multiple Spectral Libraries Improves the Current Search Methods Used to Identify Missing Proteins in the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Yoo, Jong Shin; Omenn, Gilbert S; Baker, Mark S; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 2.9 billion long base-pair human reference genome sequences are known to encode some 20 000 representative proteins. However, 3000 proteins, that is, ~15% of all proteins, have no or very weak proteomic evidence and are still missing. Missing proteins may be present in rare samples in very low abundance or be only temporarily expressed, causing problems in their detection and protein profiling. In particular, some technical limitations cause missing proteins to remain unassigned. For example, current mass spectrometry techniques have high limits and error rates for the detection of complex biological samples. An insufficient proteome coverage in a reference sequence database and spectral library also raises major issues. Thus, the development of a better strategy that results in greater sensitivity and accuracy in the search for missing proteins is necessary. To this end, we used a new strategy, which combines a reference spectral library search and a simulated spectral library search, to identify missing proteins. We built the human iRefSPL, which contains the original human reference spectral library and additional peptide sequence-spectrum match entries from other species. We also constructed the human simSPL, which contains the simulated spectra of 173 907 human tryptic peptides determined by MassAnalyzer (version 2.3.1). To prove the enhanced analytical performance of the combination of the human iRefSPL and simSPL methods for the identification of missing proteins, we attempted to reanalyze the placental tissue data set (PXD000754). The data from each experiment were analyzed using PeptideProphet, and the results were combined using iProphet. For the quality control, we applied the class-specific false-discovery rate filtering method. All of the results were filtered at a false-discovery rate of libraries, iRefSPL and simSPL, were designed to ensure no overlap of the proteome coverage. They were shown to be complementary to spectral library

  9. Adherence to current guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD among patients treated with combination of long-acting bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asche CV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carl Victor Asche1,2, Shelah Leader3, Craig Plauschinat4, Swetha Raparla1, Ming Yan1, Xiangyang Ye1, Dave Young11Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2Center for Outcomes Research, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, 3Formerly of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey, 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey, USABackground: To estimate the potential cost savings by following the current Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guideline recommendations in patients being treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with the combination of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS.Methods: The Geisinger Health System (GHS database was utilized to identify subjects between January 1, 2004 to March 12, 2007. The index date was based on the first prescription of a LAMA plus LABA, LAMA plus LABA/ICS, or LABA plus ICS. Patients were included in the study if they: had a COPD diagnosis; had data representative of treatment 12 months prior to and 12 months post index date; were 40 years of age or over; had no prior diagnosis for asthma; and had pulmonary function test (PFT data. We examined the baseline characteristics of these patients along with their healthcare resource utilization. Based on PFT data within 30 days of the index date, a subgroup was classified as adhering or non-adhering to GOLD guidelines.Results: A total of 364 subjects could be classified as adhering or non-adherent to current GOLD guidelines based on their PFT results. The adherent subgroup received COPD medications consistent with current GOLD guidelines. Of the LAMA plus LABA cohort, 25 patients adhered and 39 patients were non-adherent to current GOLD guidelines. In the

  10. Combined probes of X-ray scattering and optical spectroscopy reveal how global conformational change is temporally and spatially linked to local structural perturbation in photoactive yellow protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Wu; Yang, Cheolhee; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong Goo; Kim, Jeongho; Jung, Yang Ouk; Jun, Sunhong; Lee, Sang Jin; Park, Sungjun; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert; van Thor, Jasper J; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2016-04-07

    Real-time probing of structural transitions of a photoactive protein is challenging owing to the lack of a universal time-resolved technique that can probe the changes in both global conformation and light-absorbing chromophores of the protein. In this work, we combine time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to investigate how the global conformational changes involved in the photoinduced signal transduction of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is temporally and spatially related to the local structural change around the light-absorbing chromophore. In particular, we examine the role of internal proton transfer in developing a signaling state of PYP by employing its E46Q mutant (E46Q-PYP), where the internal proton transfer is inhibited by the replacement of a proton donor. The comparison of TRXSS and TA spectroscopy data directly reveals that the global conformational change of the protein, which is probed by TRXSS, is temporally delayed by tens of microseconds from the local structural change of the chromophore, which is probed by TA spectroscopy. The molecular shape of the signaling state reconstructed from the TRXSS curves directly visualizes the three-dimensional conformations of protein intermediates and reveals that the smaller structural change in E46Q-PYP than in wild-type PYP suggested by previous studies is manifested in terms of much smaller protrusion, confirming that the signaling state of E46Q-PYP is only partially developed compared with that of wild-type PYP. This finding provides direct evidence of how the environmental change in the vicinity of the chromophore alters the conformational change of the entire protein matrix.

  11. 地方政府教育課責系統現況與成效探究 Educational Accountability System in Local Government: Current Conditions and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    賴彥全 Yen-Chywan Lai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 受新右派主義與新公共管理思潮影響,政治治理(governance)納入績效回應等觀念,對於公部門課責(accountability)需求高漲,以確保官僚組織的高績效與高回應性。本研究以地方縣市政府課責系統為焦點,以活化課程為研究對象,探討地方教育課責系統之運作途徑、效果以及影響因素。先由文獻歸納課責五大機制-科層課責、法律課責、政治課責、專業課責、社會課責,再透過個案研究,以臺北縣(現為新北市)活化課程為例,透過文件分析、訪談,探討縣市政府之課責系統。結果發現,科層課責因法制及政治因素成效不彰,法律課責以經費掌控為主政治性強,政治課責具影響力但與選舉連結有限,專業課責受文化因素影響並不顯著,社會課責力道強但受壓力團體影響。各課責機制間存在相互影響,以及政治考量介入之情形。 The emerging influences of the “New Right” and the “New Public Management” have prompted the government to incorporate additional ideas of market principles and responsiveness in their management. A public accountability system is established when the demands for efficiency and answerability increase. Because local governments are currently the major providers of education, examining how the educational accountability system functions in local government is crucial. The concepts, types, and operations of accountability systems in local governments were examined. Five types of accountability system, namely hierarchical accountability, legal accountability, political accountability, professional accountability, and social accountability, were considered. Language Enrichment Curriculum of Taipei County (now New Taipei City was used as the case for study. Document analysis and interviews were used to collect information on how the five types of accountability system functioned in this

  12. Combining local lithofacies and global geochemical signals to test the acidification hypothesis for the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the U.S. Western Interior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. M.; Sageman, B. B.; Selby, D. S.; Oakes, R. L.; Bralower, T. J.; Parker, A. L.; Leckie, R. M.; Sepulveda, J.

    2015-12-01

    igneous province volcanism and enhanced global organic matter burial, respectively. By combining a refined knowledge of local depositional environments with isotope geochemistry it is better possible to evaluate the impact of ocean acidification on the stratigraphic record through this critical Earth-life transition.

  13. 一种基于局部冲突分配的证据组合规则%Evidence combination rule based on local conflict distribution strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁; 郭雷雷

    2013-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer(D-S)method has been used widely in all kinds of data fusion system,but it has difficulty in dealing with combining evidences with high degree of conflict.In order to solve problem,this paper proposed a new method based on local conflict distribution strategy.According to Jousselme's distance,the credibility of each evidence and the weighted average evidence were obtained.Then every focal elements'absolute distance was got,according to absolute distance the credibility of each focal element were obtained.Finally,the results of numerical examples show that the proposed method improves the reliability and rationality of the evidence combination results.%Dempster-Shafer证据理论广泛应用于信息融合中,但是在证据高冲突情况下基于经典D-S证据组合规则的融合结果存在问题.针对这一问题,提出了一种基于局部冲突分配的证据组合规则.首先基于Jousselme证据距离获得各个证据体的信任度和加权平均证据,然后由定义的焦元距求其每一个焦元的绝对距离,并以此获得焦元信任度.最后实验结果表明,所提算法提高了证据合成结果的可靠性和合理性.

  14. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K2HPO4 0.359 g/L, CaCl2 2.5 g/L, MgSO4 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  15. Image quality and radiation dose of 128-slice dual-source CT venography using low kilovoltage combined with high-pitch scanning and automatic tube current modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Kue; Choo, Ki Seok; Jeon, Ung Bae; Baik, Seung Kug; Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Tae Un; Kim, Chang Won; Jeong, Yeon Ju; Jeong, Dong Wook; Lim, Soo Jin

    2013-06-01

    To compare vascular enhancement, image quality, and radiation dose of 128-slice dual-source CT venography (CTV) between an imaging setting of 120 kVp with low pitch, and a setting of 100 kVp combined with high pitch and automatic tube current modulation. A total of 100 patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis and varicose veins were divided into two groups: Group 1 [50 patients, 120 kVp, low pitch (0.6), and fixed 120 mA) and Group 2 (50 patients, 100 kVp, high pitch (3.0), and automatic tube current modulation]. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the image protocol, assessed vascular enhancement and image noise in the inferior vena cava (IVC), femoral vein, and popliteal vein. They also assigned an image quality score independently using a 5-point visual scale. Effective dose was estimated using the dose-length product (DLP). Group demographics, radiation dose, vascular enhancement, image noise, and image quality in the two groups were analyzed. Mean vascular enhancement of the IVC, femoral vein, and popliteal vein was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and images in group 2 had significantly higher image noise. However, there were no significant differences in subjective image quality score of the IVC, femoral vein, and popliteal vein. The mean DLP in group 2 (402.10 ± 94.29 mGy cm) was significantly lower than that in group 1 (973.36 ± 63.20 mGy cm) (P enhancement with acceptable image quality and low radiation dose.

  16. Combining transcranial direct current stimulation and tailor-made notched music training to decrease tinnitus-related distress--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Henning; Wollbrink, Andreas; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Schlaug, Gottfried; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    The central auditory system has a crucial role in tinnitus generation and maintenance. Curative treatments for tinnitus do not yet exist. However, recent attempts in the therapeutic application of both acoustic stimulation/training procedures and electric/magnetic brain stimulation techniques have yielded promising results. Here, for the first time we combined tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in an effort to modulate TMNMT efficacy in the treatment of 32 patients with tonal tinnitus and without severe hearing loss. TMNMT is characterized by regular listening to so-called notched music, which is generated by digitally removing the frequency band of one octave width centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. TMNMT was applied for 10 subsequent days (2.5 hours of daily treatment). During the initial 5 days of treatment and the initial 30 minutes of TMNMT sessions, tDCS (current strength: 2 mA; anodal (N = 10) vs. cathodal (N = 11) vs. sham (N = 11) groups) was applied simultaneously. The active electrode was placed on the head surface over left auditory cortex; the reference electrode was put over right supra-orbital cortex. To evaluate treatment outcome, tinnitus-related distress and perceived tinnitus loudness were assessed using standardized tinnitus questionnaires and a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant treatment effect reflected in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire that was largest after 5 days of treatment. This effect remained significant at the end of follow-up 31 days after treatment cessation. Crucially, tDCS did not significantly modulate treatment efficacy--it did not make a difference whether anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied. Possible explanations for the findings and functional modifications of the experimental design for future studies (e.g. the selection of control conditions) are discussed.

  17. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus current best practice (including inhaled steroid maintenance), for chronic asthma in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Christopher J; Karner, Charlotta

    2013-04-30

    Traditionally inhaled treatment for asthma has used separate preventer and reliever therapies. The combination of formoterol and budesonide in one inhaler has made possible a single inhaler for both prevention and relief of symptoms (single inhaler therapy or SiT). To assess the efficacy and safety of budesonide and formoterol in a single inhaler for maintenance and reliever therapy in asthma compared with maintenance with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (alone or as part of current best practice) and any reliever therapy. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register in February 2013. Parallel, randomised controlled trials of 12 weeks or longer in adults and children with chronic asthma. Studies had to assess the combination of formoterol and budesonide as SiT, against a control group that received inhaled steroids and a separate reliever inhaler. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 trials involving 13,152 adults and one of the trials also involved 224 children (which have been separately reported). All studies were sponsored by the manufacturer of the SiT inhaler. We considered the nine studies assessing SiT against best practice to be at a low risk of selection bias, but a high risk of detection bias as they were unblinded.In adults whose asthma was not well-controlled on ICS, the reduction in hospital admission with SiT did not reach statistical significance (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 1.44, eight trials, N = 8841, low quality evidence due to risk of detection bias in open studies and imprecision). The rates of hospital admission were low; for every 1000 people treated with current best practice six would experience a hospital admission over six months compared with between three and eight treated with SiT. The odds of experiencing exacerbations needing treatment with oral steroids were lower with SiT compared with control (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0

  18. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with gait and mobility training on functionality in children with cerebral palsy: study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália de Almeida Carvalho; de Mendonça, Mariana Emerenciano; Pasini, Hugo; Lima, Vânia Lúcia Costa de Carvalho; Franco, Renata Calhes; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari; Collange, Nelci Zanon; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-11

    The project proposes three innovative intervention techniques (treadmill training, mobility training with virtual reality and transcranial direct current stimulation that can be safely administered to children with cerebral palsy. The combination of transcranial stimulation and physical therapy resources will provide the training of a specific task with multiple rhythmic repetitions of the phases of the gait cycle, providing rich sensory stimuli with a modified excitability threshold of the primary motor cortex to enhance local synaptic efficacy and potentiate motor learning. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled, analytical, clinical trial will be carried out.Eligible participants will be children with cerebral palsy classified on levels I, II and III of the Gross Motor Function Classification System between four and ten years of age. The participants will be randomly allocated to four groups: 1) gait training on a treadmill with placebo transcranial stimulation; 2) gait training on a treadmill with active transcranial stimulation; 3) mobility training with virtual reality and placebo transcranial stimulation; 4) mobility training with virtual reality and active transcranial stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation will be applied with the anodal electrode positioned in the region of the dominant hemisphere over C3, corresponding to the primary motor cortex, and the cathode positioned in the supraorbital region contralateral to the anode. A 1 mA current will be applied for 20 minutes. Treadmill training and mobility training with virtual reality will be performed in 30-minute sessions five times a week for two weeks (total of 10 sessions). Evaluations will be performed on four occasions: one week prior to the intervention; one week following the intervention; one month after the end of the intervention;and 3 months after the end of the intervention. The evaluations will involve three-dimensional gait analysis, analysis of cortex

  19. A synchrotron-based local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling approach for quantitative analysis of anthracite coal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sam Y S; Xiao, Ti Qiao; Mayo, Sherry C; Wang, Yu Dan; Wang, Hai Peng

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying three-dimensional spatial distributions of pores and material compositions in samples is a key materials characterization challenge, particularly in samples where compositions are distributed across a range of length scales, and where such compositions have similar X-ray absorption properties, such as in coal. Consequently, obtaining detailed information within sub-regions of a multi-length-scale sample by conventional approaches may not provide the resolution and level of detail one might desire. Herein, an approach for quantitative high-definition determination of material compositions from X-ray local computed tomography combined with a data-constrained modelling method is proposed. The approach is capable of dramatically improving the spatial resolution and enabling finer details within a region of interest of a sample larger than the field of view to be revealed than by using conventional techniques. A coal sample containing distributions of porosity and several mineral compositions is employed to demonstrate the approach. The optimal experimental parameters are pre-analyzed. The quantitative results demonstrated that the approach can reveal significantly finer details of compositional distributions in the sample region of interest. The elevated spatial resolution is crucial for coal-bed methane reservoir evaluation and understanding the transformation of the minerals during coal processing. The method is generic and can be applied for three-dimensional compositional characterization of other materials.

  20. PDA-phone-based instant transmission of radiological images over a CDMA network by combining the PACS screen with a Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Park, Jeong Jin; Kim, Sun Ho

    2007-06-01

    Remote teleconsultation by specialists is important for timely, correct, and specialized emergency surgical and medical decision making. In this paper, we designed a new personal digital assistant (PDA)-phone-based emergency teleradiology system by combining cellular communication with Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless links. The mobility and portability resulting from the use of PDAs and wireless communication can provide a more effective means of emergency teleconsultation without requiring the user to be limited to a fixed location. Moreover, it enables synchronized radiological image sharing between the attending physician in the emergency room and the remote specialist on picture archiving and communication system terminals without distorted image acquisition. To enable rapid and fine-quality radiological image transmission over a cellular network in a secure manner, progressive compression and security mechanisms have been incorporated. The proposed system is tested over a code division Multiple Access 1x-Evolution Data-Only network to evaluate the performance and to demonstrate the feasibility of this system in a real-world setting.

  1. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P. X.; Lian, F. L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W. S.; Zhao, H. F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D. H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrPC) to the post-translationally modified form (PrPSc) is thought to be relevant to Cu2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases.

  2. Push-Broom-Type Very High-Resolution Satellite Sensor Data Correction Using Combined Wavelet-Fourier and Multiscale Non-Local Means Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonseok; Yu, Soohwan; Seo, Doochun; Jeong, Jaeheon; Paik, Joonki

    2015-09-10

    In very high-resolution (VHR) push-broom-type satellite sensor data, both destriping and denoising methods have become chronic problems and attracted major research advances in the remote sensing fields. Since the estimation of the original image from a noisy input is an ill-posed problem, a simple noise removal algorithm cannot preserve the radiometric integrity of satellite data. To solve these problems, we present a novel method to correct VHR data acquired by a push-broom-type sensor by combining wavelet-Fourier and multiscale non-local means (NLM) filters. After the wavelet-Fourier filter separates the stripe noise from the mixed noise in the wavelet low- and selected high-frequency sub-bands, random noise is removed using the multiscale NLM filter in both low- and high-frequency sub-bands without loss of image detail. The performance of the proposed method is compared to various existing methods on a set of push-broom-type sensor data acquired by Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite 3 (KOMPSAT-3) with severe stripe and random noise, and the results of the proposed method show significantly improved enhancement results over existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative assessments.

  3. Effect of photoperiod on the levels of endogenous gibberellins in spinach as measured by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1980-11-01

    The changes in the levels of five endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in spinach in relation to photoperiodic treatment have been examined by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring. Long-day treatment caused a 5-fold decline in the level of GA/sub 19/ while the levels of GA/sub 20/ and GA/sub 29/ increased dramatically during the same period. In absolute terms, the level of GA/sub 20/ increased from 0.8 microgram per 100 grams dry weight in short days to 5.5 micrograms per 100 grams dry weight after 14 long days. The levels of GA/sub 17/ and GA/sub 44/ did not change significantly with long-day treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GA/sub 19/ is converted to GA/sub 20/ and that this conversion is under photoperiodic control. Since stem growth in spinach is correlated with an increase in the level of GA/sub 20/, one major aspect of photoperiodic control of stem growth might be the availability of GA/sub 20/ through regulation of the conversion of GA/sub 19/ to GA/sub 20/.

  4. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Larissa M.; Nogueira, Lídia L. R. F.; de Oliveira, Eliane A.; de Carvalho, Antonio G. C.; Lima, Soriano S.; Santana, Jordânia R. M.; de Lima, Emerson C. C.; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex) combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence) after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561). PMID:28250992

  6. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Suellen M; Batista, Larissa M; Nogueira, Lídia L R F; de Oliveira, Eliane A; de Carvalho, Antonio G C; Lima, Soriano S; Santana, Jordânia R M; de Lima, Emerson C C; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex) combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence) after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561).

  7. What controls open-pore and residual currents in the first sensing zone of alpha-hemolysin nanopore? Combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biase, Pablo M.; Ervin, Eric N.; Pal, Prithwish; Samoylova, Olga; Markosyan, Suren; Keehan, Michael G.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Noskov, Sergei Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The electrophoretic transport of single-stranded DNA through biological nanopores such as alpha-hemolysin (αHL) is a promising and cost-effective technology with the potential to revolutionize genomics. The rational design of pores with the controlled polymer translocation rates and high contrast between different nucleotides could improve significantly nanopore sequencing applications. Here, we apply a combination of theoretical and experimental methods in an attempt to elucidate several selective modifications in the pore which were proposed to be central for the effective discrimination between purines and pyrimidines. Our nanopore test set includes the wild type αHL and six mutants (E111N/M113X/K147N) in which the cross-section and chemical functionality of the first constriction zone of the pore are modified. Electrophysiological recordings were combined with all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and a recently developed Brownian Dynamics (BROMOC) protocol to investigate residual ion currents and pore-DNA interactions for two homo-polymers e.g. poly(dA)40 or poly(dC)40 blocking the pore. The calculated residual currents and contrast in the poly(dA)40/poly(dC)40 blocked pore are in qualitative agreement with the experimental recordings. We showed that a simple structural metric allows rationalization of key elements in the emergent contrast between purines and pyrimidines in the modified αHL mutants. The shape of the pore and its capacity for hydrogen bonding to a translocated polynucleotide are two essential parameters for contrast optimization. To further probe the impact of these two factors in the ssDNA sensing, we eliminated the effect of the primary constriction using serine substitutions (i.e. E111S/M113S/T145S/K147S) and increased the hydrophobic volume of the central residue in the secondary constriction (L135I). This pore modification sharply increased the contrast between Adenine (A) and Cytosine (C).The electrophoretic transport of single

  8. Separation and purification of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima by combination of macroporous resin and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiukai; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Sun, Chongde; Huang, Jianzhen; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a simple and efficient protocol for rapid preparation and separation of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima was established by the combination of macroporous resin column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Six types of resin were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests, and D101 macroporous resin was selected for the first cleaning-up procedure, in which 55% aqueous ethanol was used to elute neohesperidin. After treatment with D101 resin, the neohesperidin purity increased 11.83-fold from 4.92% in the crude extract to 58.22% in the resin-refined sample, with a recovery of 68.97%. The resin-refined sample was directly subjected to HSCCC purification with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (4:1:5, v/v), and 23.6 mg neohesperidin with 97.47% purity was obtained from 60 mg sample in only one run. The recovery of neohesperidin in HSCCC separation procedure was 65.85%. The chemical structure of the purified neohesperidin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS. The established purification process will be helpful for further characterization and utilization of Citrus neohesperidin.

  9. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen M. Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561.

  10. A combined field and numerical approach to understanding dilute pyroclastic density current dynamics and hazard potential: Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Gravley, Darren M.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Bloomberg, Simon H.; Agustin-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly

    2014-04-01

    less damage is expected up to the final runout distance of 4 km. For larger eruptions (base surge runout distance 4-6 km), Pdyn of > 35 kPa can be expected up to 2.5 km from source, ensuring complete destruction within this area. Moderate damage to reinforced structures and damage to weaker structures can be expected up to 6 km from source. In both cases hot ash may still cause damage due to igniting flammable materials in the distal-most regions of a base surge. This work illustrates our ability to combine field observations and numerical models to explore the depositional mechanisms, macroscale current dynamics, and potential impact of dilute PDCs. Thus, this approach may serve as a tool to understand the damage potential and extent of previous and potential future eruptions in the AVF.

  11. 局部阻滞疗法并激光治疗肱骨外上髁炎%Local blocking combined with laser onexternal humeral epicondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崇丽; 李昭杨

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND: External epicondylitis of distal humerus is often caused by overwork of wrist which pathological change are hyperemia, edema, exudation and adhesion of local tissue, laceration, calcification, aseptic necrosis of extensor tendon, or local synovitis, burstis.

  12. 融合局部与全局信息的头发形状模型%Combining Local and Global Information for Hair Shape Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 艾海舟

    2014-01-01

    Hair plays an important role in human appearance. However, hair segmentation is still a challenging problem partially due to the lack of an effective model to handle its arbitrary shape variations. In this paper, we present a part-based model, which is robust to hair shape and environment variations. The model combines local and global information to describe the hair shape. The local model is learned by a series of algorithms, including global shape word vocabulary construction, shape word classifier learning and parameter optimization, while the global model which depicts different hair styles is learned using support vector machine (SVM) to configure parts and define potentials for all underlying hair shapes. Experiments performed on a set of consumer images show our algorithm0s capability and robustness to handle hair shape variations and complex environments.%头发在人体表观中具有重要作用,然而,因为缺少有效的形状模型,头发分割仍然是一个非常具有挑战性的问题。本文提出了一种基于部件的模型,它对头发形状以及环境变化更加鲁棒。该模型将局部与全局信息相结合以描述头发的形状。局部模型通过一系列算法构建,包括全局形状词表生成,词表分类器学习以及参数优化;而全局模型刻画不同的发型,采用支持向量机(Support vector machine, SVM)来学习,它为所有潜在的发型配置部件并确定势函数。在消费者图片上的实验证明了本文算法在头发形状多变和复杂环境等条件下的准确性与有效性。

  13. Combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer%局部晚期非小细胞肺癌的放化综合治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劲

    2009-01-01

    The main methods to treat locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy includes sequential chemoradiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The effectiveness of concurrent chemoradiotherapy is superior to that of sequential chemoradiotherapy, but the toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy increases as well. Continuing to explore new ways which can improve the effectiveness and reduce the toxicity is the current and future direction. [Key words] Carcinoma, non-small cell lung; Radiotherapy; Drug therapy%局部晚期非小细胞肺癌主要的治疗方式是放疗和化疗.放疗与化疗结合分为序贯放化疗和同步放化疗两种.同步放化疗在治疗疗效方面优于序贯治疗,但同时增加了不良反应.继续探索新的提高疗效、降低毒性的方法是目前及未来的研究方向.

  14. Photovoltaic combiner box system based on DC leakage current detection%基于直流漏电流检测的光伏汇流箱系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸣; 肖慧明

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of detecting the ground leakage current by photovoltaic DC system to explore the positive and negative poles’earth resistance of the photovoltaic circuit and judge the earth fault branch of the photovoltaic circuit is pro⁃posed,which takes C8051F020 as the control center. A novel photovoltaic DC grounding detection system was developed. The current detection function of photovoltaic confluence is used to search which branche in the photovoltaic array has different cur⁃rent value,and find out the earth fault of the photovoltaic array circuit in combination with the detected positive and negative poles’earth resistance of the photovoltaic circuit. It is unnecessary to add any signals to the photovoltaic branches in this meth⁃od. This method has no adverse effect on the photovoltaic system. The detection results are not affected by the distribution capaci⁃tance,and is relatively simple.%以C8051F020型单片机为控制中心,采用一种通过检测光伏直流系统对地漏电流来探测光伏回路正负极接地电阻和判断光伏回路接地故障支路的新方法,研制出新的光伏直流接地探测系统。利用光伏汇流的电流检测功能,寻找出光伏阵列电流数值不同的支路,结合探测光伏回路正负极接地电阻,从而发现光伏阵列回路的对地故障。该方法无须给光伏支路施加任何信号,对光伏系统无任何不良影响,检测结果不受分布电容的影响,检测电路相对简单。

  15. Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Miller, Eric B; Goswami, Mayank; Wang, Xinlei; Jonnal, Ravi S; Lee, Sang-Hyuck; Kim, Dae Yu; Flannery, John G; Werner, John S; Burns, Marie E; Pugh, Edward N

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has recently been used to achieve exquisite subcellular resolution imaging of the mouse retina. Wavefront sensing-based AO typically restricts the field of view to a few degrees of visual angle. As a consequence the relationship between AO-SLO data and larger scale retinal structures and cellular patterns can be difficult to assess. The retinal vasculature affords a large-scale 3D map on which cells and structures can be located during in vivo imaging. Phase-variance OCT (pv-OCT) can efficiently image the vasculature with near-infrared light in a label-free manner, allowing 3D vascular reconstruction with high precision. We combined widefield pv-OCT and SLO imaging with AO-SLO reflection and fluorescence imaging to localize two types of fluorescent cells within the retinal layers: GFP-expressing microglia, the resident macrophages of the retina, and GFP-expressing cone photoreceptor cells. We describe in detail a reflective afocal AO-SLO retinal imaging system designed for high resolution retinal imaging in mice. The optical performance of this instrument is compared to other state-of-the-art AO-based mouse retinal imaging systems. The spatial and temporal resolution of the new AO instrumentation was characterized with angiography of retinal capillaries, including blood-flow velocity analysis. Depth-resolved AO-SLO fluorescent images of microglia and cone photoreceptors are visualized in parallel with 469 nm and 663 nm reflectance images of the microvasculature and other structures. Additional applications of the new instrumentation are discussed.

  16. 结合局部与非局部的图像复原方法%Combining local and nonlocal method for image restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊英; 肖升

    2015-01-01

    In order to recover the details better, this paper proposed a new image restoration method, which combined the lo-cal total variation (LTV) and the nonlocal total variation (NLTV) models.First, it extracted the details accurately from the image.Then, the method applied the NLTV model only on the details, and applied the LTV model only on the residual image components.The proposed method, which used the advantages of both the LTV and NLTV models, could recover the image details better.A large number of experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms several recent image resto-ration methods, not only the subjective vision has the betterment obviously, but also the PSNR improves between 0.11 dB and 2.28 dB.%为了更好地复原图像的细节,提出了一种结合局部与非局部的图像复原方法。将图像中的细节准确地提取出来,对提取的细节进行非局部全变差约束,同时对剩下的图像成分进行局部全变差约束。提出的方法很好地结合了非局部全变差和局部全变差的优点,实现了图像细节更好的复原。实验结果表明,提出的方法与近几年的一些较好的图像复原方法相比,不仅主观的视觉效果得到了明显的改进,而且客观的峰值信噪比也增加了0.11~2.28 dB。

  17. Combining Skyline and local selection for heuristic Web service composition%基于Skyline和局部选择的启发式服务组合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海军; 齐连永; 窦万春

    2011-01-01

    为了改善现有基于QoS的Web服务组合方法的效率,在已有服务组合算法的基础上提出了一种新颖的基于Skyline点和局部选择的启发式服务组合方法SLOMIP(Skyline local optimization mixed integer programming).该方法首先从候选服务集合中选出Skyline服务,可以证明如果存在最优服务组合方案,则其一定是由Skyline服务集中的服务组成的.然后,为了进一步缩小解空间,再从Skyline服务集中选取最优的K个服务进行最终服务组合方案的优化求解.与传统启发式服务组合方法的不同之处在于,该方法一旦获得解,必然是最优解而不是次优解.实验结果表明:在固定任务总数和固定候选服务个数的情况下,该方法的效率都远高于传统方法;K值越大,该方法的准确率越高.该方法可较大幅度地提高服务组合的效率,提升用户体验.%To improve the efficiency of existing QoS-aware Web service composition methods, a novel heuristic Web service composition method, named SLOMIP (Skyline local optimization mixed integer programming), is proposed. Based on existing Web service composition methods, SLOMIP combines Skyline point and local selection methods. First, for each service class, Skyline services are determined from the set of candidate services. It can be proved that each constituent service of the optimal service composition solution belongs to the Skyline services of the corresponding service class. Next, to further reduce the solution space, top K optimal services are selected from the Skyline services of each service class, for final service composition optimization. Unlike traditional heuristic service composition methods, the composition solution determined by using this method must be the optimal solution other than a near-to-optimal solution. Experimental results demonstrate that the SLOMIP method greatly improves the service composition efficiency if the number of tasks and the number of candidate

  18. Isolation and purification of lignans from Schisandra chinensis by combination of silica gel column and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel column combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography separation was successfully applied to the separation of schizandrin (I, angeloylgomisin H (II, gomisin A (III, schisantherin C (IV, deoxyschizandrin (V, γ-schisandrin (VI and schisandrin C (VII from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baillon. The petroleum ether extracts of the fruits of S. chinensis were pre-separated first on a silica gel column and divided into two fractions as sample 1 and sample 2. 260 mg of sample 1 was separated by HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:8:10:8, v/v as the two-phase solvent system and 18.2 mg of schizandrin, 15.7 mg of angeloylgomisin H, 16.5 mg of gomisin A and 16.7 mg of schisantherin C were obtained. 230 mg of sample 2 was separated using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:0.5:10:1, v/v as the two-phase solvent system and 19.7 mg of deoxyschizandrin, 23.4 mg of γ-schisandrin and 18.2 mg of schisandrin C were obtained. The purities of the separated compounds were all over 94% as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by ESI-MS and 1H NMR. [Acknowledgments. Natural Science Foundation of China (20872083, scientific and technological major special project (2010ZX09401-302-5-12 and the Key Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province (BS2009SW047

  19. Characterisation of impacts on the environment of an idealised offshore wind farm foundation, under waves and the combination of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermosa, Isabel; Abcha, Nizar; Brossard, Jérôme; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Ezersky, Alexander; Gross, Marcus; Iglesias, Gregorio; Magar, Vanesa; Miles, Jon; Mouazé, Dominique; Perret, Gaële; Pinon, Grégory; Rivier, Aurélie; Rogan, Charlie; Simmonds, David

    2015-04-01

    Offshore wind technology is currently the most widespread and advanced source of marine renewable energy. Offshore wind farms populate waters through the North Sea and the English Channel. The UK and French governments devised deadlines to achieve percentages of electricity from renewable sources by 2020, these deadlines and the direct translation of land based wind farm technology to the offshore environment resulted in the rapid expansion of the offshore wind energy. New wind farms have been designed with a larger number of masts and are moving from shallow offshore banks to deeper waters and in order to produce more power the diameters of monopoles masts are becoming larger to support larger turbines. The three-partner EU INTERREG funded project OFELIA (http://www.interreg-ofelia.eu/) aims to establish a cross-channel (between the UK and France) research collaboration to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of offshore wind farm foundations. The objective of the present study is to characterise changes in the hydrodynamics and sea bed in the vicinity of an offshore wind farm mast and in the wake area under wave and wave-current conditions corresponding to events in the French wind farm site of Courseulles-sur-mer (offshore of Lower Normandy, in the English Channel). Experiments were carried out in two laboratory facilities: a wave flume of 35 m long, 0.9 m wide and 1.2 m in depth with regular and irregular waves (García-Hermosa et al., 2014); and a wave and current flume of 17 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.4 m depth with regular waves, currents from 180° to the waves and a mobile bed (Gunnoo et al., 2014). Flow velocity measurements were taken with an Acoustic Dopple Velocimeter (ADV) at various points around the cylinder and Particle Image Velocitmetry (PIV) techniques were applied to larger areas upstream and downstream of the cylinder. During the assessment of waves and currents' effects on the bed evolution were assessed using a laser and camera

  20. Mapping the motor and sensory cortices: a historical look and a current case study in sensorimotor localization and direct cortical motor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Justin

    2012-03-01

    The utilization of cortical mapping during craniotomies for epilepsy and brain tumor resection is extremely important. Cortical mapping can guide the surgical team intraoperatively with regards to the layout of important anatomical structures and their function to prevent post-operative deficits. Electroneurophysiological methods employed include sensorimotor localization recorded directly from the surface of the brain when stimulated from a peripheral nerve and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of the motor cortex to elicit a distal muscle response. This paper presents a case, in which a paradigm of neurophysiological modalities is utilized to assist the surgeon in creating a topographic map of the motor cortex and with localizing the sensory and motor cortices, in addition to a historical review of functional localization.

  1. RTOG 0417: Efficacy of Bevacizumab in Combination With Definitive Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Untreated Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefter, Tracey, E-mail: tracey.schefter@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kwon, Janice S. [University of British Columbia and BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Stuhr, Kelly [University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Balaraj, Khalid [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Yaremko, Brian Patrick [Western University, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Small, William [Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sause, William [Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (United States); Gaffney, David [University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0417 was a phase II study that explored the safety and efficacy of the addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation therapy. The safety results have been previously reported. Herein we report the secondary efficacy endpoints of overall survival (OS), locoregional failure (LRF), para-aortic nodal failure (PAF), distant failure (DF), and disease-free survival (DFS). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with bulky Stage IB-IIIB disease were treated with once-weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy and standard pelvic radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Bevacizumab was administered at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks for 3 cycles during chemoradiation. For OS, failure was defined as death of any cause and was measured from study entry to date of death. LRF was defined as any failure in the pelvis. PAF was defined as any para-aortic nodal failure. DF was analyzed both including and excluding PAF. DFS was measured from study entry to date of first LRF. DF was measured with or without PAF or death. OS and DFS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and LRF and DF rates were estimated by the cumulative incidence method. Results: 49 eligible patients from 28 institutions were enrolled between 2006 and 2009. The median follow-up time was 3.8 years (range, 0.8-6.0 years). The surviving patients had a median follow-up time of 3.9 years (range, 2.1-6.0 years). Most patients had tumors of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB (63%), and 80% were squamous. The 3-year OS, DFS, and LRF were 81.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.2%-89.8%), 68.7% (95% CI, 53.5%-79.8%), and 23.2% (95% CI, 11%-35.4%), respectively. The PAF, DF without PAF, and DF with PAF at 3 years were 8.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-16.3%), 14.7% (95% CI, 4.5%-24.9%), and 23.1% (95% CI 11.0%-35.2%), respectively. Conclusion: In this study, bevacizumab in combination with standard pelvic chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical

  2. Weekly Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Combination With Radiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: Phase I Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine of Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Afonso, Sergio Luis [Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine of Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cardoso Tavares, Vivian [Head and Neck Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine of Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernardes Godoi da Silva, Lucas; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Radiation Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine of Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose by describing the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of weekly gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck (LAHN) cancer concomitant to irradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with LAHN cancer were enrolled in a prospective, dose-escalation Phase I study. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria score. Maximum tolerated dose was defined when DLT developed in 2 of 6 patients. The starting dose of cisplatin was 20 mg/m{sup 2} and that of gemcitabine was 10 mg/m{sup 2} in 3 patients, with a subsequent dose escalation of 10 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatin only for 3 new patients. In the next levels, only a dose escalation of gemcitabine with 10 mg/m{sup 2} for each new cohort was used (Level 1, 10 mg/m{sup 2} of gemcitabine and 20 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatin; Level 2, 10 mg/m{sup 2} of gemcitabine and 30 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatin; and Level 3, 20 mg/m{sup 2} of gemcitabine and 30 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatin). Radiation therapy was administered by use of a conformal technique over a period of 6 to 7 weeks in 2.0-Gy daily fractions for 5 consecutive days per week to a total dose of 70 Gy. Results: From 2008 to 2009, 12 patients completing 3 dose levels were included in the study. At Dose Level 3, 1 of 3 patients had DLT with Grade 3 mucositis. Of the next 3 required patients, 2 showed DLT with Grade 3 dermatitis. At a follow-up of 3 months, 10 of 12 evaluable patients (83.3%) obtained a complete response and 1 patient (8.3%) obtained a partial response. Among the complete responders, at a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 6-14 months), 9 patients are alive and disease free. Conclusion: Gemcitabine at low doses combined with cisplatin is a potent radiosensitizer effective in patients with LAHN cancer. The recommended Phase II dose is 10 mg/m{sup 2} of gemcitabine and 30 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatin with an acceptable tolerability profile.

  3. Clinical feasibility of interstitial brachytherapy using a "hybrid" applicator combining uterine tandem and interstitial metal needles based on CT for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Shan; Guo, Jie; Lin, Xia; Wang, Hong-Yong; Qiu, Ling; Ren, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Ya; Wang, Tie-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the dosimetric advantage of target volume and surrounding normal tissue by using interstitial (IS) brachytherapy (BT) based on three-dimensional CT in locally advanced cervical cancer, as a simple and effective clinical treatment approach. Fifty-two patients with poor tumor response to external beam radiotherapy and a residual tumor >5 cm at the time of the first BT were included. IS BT was performed using a "hybrid" applicator combining uterine tandem and free metal needles based on three-dimensional CT. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV), intermediate-risk clinical target volume, and organs at risk were contoured. The total dose, including external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) and high-dose-rate BT (30 Gy in 5 fractions), was biologically normalized to conventional 2-Gy fractions. D90 and D100 for HR-CTV and intermediate-risk clinical target volume and D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were analyzed. The mean D90 value for HR-CTV was 88.4 ± 3.5 Gy. Totally, 88.5% of the patients received D90 for HR-CTV ≥87 Gy. The D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 81.1 ± 5.6, 65.7 ± 5.1, and 63.1 ± 5.4 Gy, respectively. The mean number of needles was 6.9 ± 1.3 for each application. IS BT was associated with minor complications. IS BT using the "hybrid" applicator provides a dosimetric advantage for target volume and organs at risk in large-volume (>5 cm) tumors and is, thereby, clinically feasible. However, the long-term curative effect and possible toxicity need further clinical observation. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  5. Aggressive simultaneous radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck tumors. Results of a phase I-II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnt, T.; Pigorsch, S.; Pelz, T.; Haensgen, G.; Dunst, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Becker, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Municipial Hospital, Dessau (Germany); Bloching, M.; Passmann, M. [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Lotterer, E. [Dept. of Internal Medicine I, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    We have tested a very aggressive combination protocol with cisplatin and escalated paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy to assess the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), overall toxicity, and response rate. Patients and Methods: The trial recruited 24 patients (21 males, three females, mean age 57 years) treated at our department from 1998 through 2001. Irradiation was administered in daily doses of 2 Gy up to 30 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily up to 70.6 Gy to the primary tumor and involved nodes and 51 Gy to the clinically negative regional nodes. The chemotherapy schedule included cisplatin in a fixed dose of 20 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 29-33 and paclitaxel at increasing dose levels of 20, 25, 30 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly over the whole treatment time. Patients were recruited in cohorts of three to six, and the MTD was reached if two out of six patients in one cohort developed DLT. DLT was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or any grade 3 toxicity requiring treatment interruption or unplanned hospitalization or any grade 3 neurotoxicity. We recruited mainly patients with large tumors for this protocol; all patients were stage IV, and the mean tumor volume (primary + metastases) amounted to 72 {+-} 61 cm{sup 3}. The mean follow-up was 30 months (range 4-39 months). Results: One early death (peritonitis and sepsis a t day 10) occurred, and 23 patients were evaluable for acute toxicity and response. The MTD of paclitaxel was reached at the third dose level (30 mg/m{sup 2} paclitaxel twice weekly). The DLT was severe mucositis grade 3 (n = 1) and skin erythema grade 4 (n = 2). After determining the MTD, another 14 patients were treated at the recommended dose level of paclitaxel with 25 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly. In summary, 13/23 patients (57%) developed grade 3 and 10/23 (43%) grade 2 mucositis. Two patients (9%) had grade 4, five (22%) grade 3, and 16 (69%) grade 2 dermatitis. One patient died at day 30

  6. Quantification of local changes in myocardial motion by diffeomorphic registration via currents: application to paced hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in 2D echocardiographic sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, N.; Giraldeau, G.; Gabrielli, L.; Fernandez-Armenta, J.; Penela, D.; Evertz, R.; Mont, L.; Brugada, J.; Berruezo, A.; Sitges, M.; Bijnens, B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Time-to-peak measurements and single-parameter observations are cumbersome and often confusing for quantifying local changes in myocardial function. Recent spatiotemporal normalization techniques can provide a global picture of myocardial motion and strain patterns and overcome some of these limitat

  7. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  8. 我国地方金融监管的现状与问题%The Current Situation and Problems of Local Financial Supervision in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道富

    2016-01-01

    There is a big provincial difference in financial regulatory responsibilities and organization. The local financial regulation spreads among a variety of departments,and financial regulatory bodies and specific duties vary in different regions,mainly focusing on the establishment of micro-credit company’s risk precaution system. Facing the huge complex regulatory object, local financial supervision resources are quite limited and it focuses on province and municipality level,which leads to a resource scarcity in county and uneven distribution of financial institutions.In addition,there is inconformity among local financial development,local financial regulation and local financial risk rescue.Some of the regulatory measures lack a clear legal basis.%我国各省的金融监管职责和组织框架差异性较大,地方金融监管分散于多个部门,不同地方的金融监管机构组织架构、具体职责不尽相同,且主要着力于建立小贷公司的风险防范系统。相对于庞大复杂的监管对象,地方金融监管资源相当有限,且主要集中在省市两级。县级资源极度缺乏,与地方金融机构的分布严重错配,监管手段严重不足。而且,地方经济金融发展、地方金融监管与地方金融风险救助之间的职责不完全一致,部分监管措施缺乏明确的法律依据。

  9. buffer Layer Growth, the Thickness Dependence of Jc in Coated Conductors, Local Identification of Current Limiting Mechanisms and Participation in the Wire Development Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David; Hellstron, Eric; Abraimov, Dmytro

    2011-12-17

    The primary thrusts of our work were to provide critical understanding of how best to enhance the current-carrying capacity of coated conductors. These include the deconstruction of Jc as a function of fim thickness, the growth of in situ films incorporating strong pinning centers and the use of a suite of position-sensitive tools that enable location and analysis of key areas where current-limiting occurs.

  10. 地方高校图书馆文化建设的现状分析%Current Situation of Cultural Construction of Local University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨月; 费晶

    2015-01-01

    地方高校图书馆文化建设是高校校园文化建设的的重要组成部分。因此,应加强图书馆文化建设。%The cultural construction of local university library is an important part of the construction of university campus culture. So, the cultural construction of library should be strengthened.

  11. Local measurement of conduction band offset for ZnCdS/ZnSSe nano-structure by Laplace current DLTS cooperated with AFM technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Vladimir [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryazan State Radioengineering University, Gagarina 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation); Kozlovsky, Vladimir; Sannikov, Denis; Sviridov, Dmitry [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Milovanova, Oksana; Rybin, Nikolay [Ryazan State Radioengineering University, Gagarina 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-15

    ZnCdS/ZnSSe SQW structure were investigated by current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with Laplace transform cooperated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the first time. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were carried out also. Basing on Laplace current DLTS with AFM and CL data we estimated the conduction band offset of the ZnCdS/ZnSSe interface in the different regions of the structure. Size of the investigated region was commensurable with the diameter of cantilever tip. We demonstrated that Laplace current DLTS-spectrometer switched in the circuit of an AFM cantilever may be used for an investigation of nanostructures. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Phase II study of induction chemotherapy with TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with Cetuximab and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in combination with a carbon ion boost for locally advanced tumours of the oro-, hypopharynx and larynx - TPF-C-HIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavtratzas Athanasios

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term locoregional control in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN remains challenging. While recent years have seen various approaches to improve outcome by intensification of treatment schedules through introduction of novel induction and combination chemotherapy regimen and altered fractionation regimen, patient tolerance to higher treatment intensities is limited by accompanying side-effects. Combined radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as well as modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and carbon ion therapy (C12 are able to limit toxicity while maintaining treatment effects. In order to achieve maximum efficacy with yet acceptable toxicity, this sequential phase II trial combines induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. We expect this approach to result in increased cure rates with yet manageable accompanying toxicity. Methods/design The TPF-C-HIT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, open-label, non-randomized phase II trial evaluating efficacy and toxicity of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 50 patients with histologically proven locally advanced SCCHN following TPF induction chemotherapy. Patients receive 24 GyE carbon ions (8 fractions and 50 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Primary endpoint is locoregional control at 12 months, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late radiation effects as well as any adverse events of the treatment as well as quality of life (QoL analyses. Discussion The primary objective of TPF-C-HIT is to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab in combination with combined IMRT/carbon ion therapy following TPF induction in locally advanced SCCHN. Trial Registration

  13. Telebroadcasting of a Cat-like State via Local Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文海丹; 李传锋; 郭光灿

    2001-01-01

    The quantum telebroadcasting of a cat-like state in combination with the quantum teleportation and the local copying of entanglement is presented. This gives a general way of distributing entanglement among distant parties. All of the operations of our scenario are local and within the reach of current technology.

  14. Local study of the energy spectrum of electrons in CdSe/ZnSe QD structure by current DLTS cooperated with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Vladimir; Sadofyev, Yuri; Rybin, Nikolay [Ryazan State Radioengineering University, Gagarin str. 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation); Kozlovsky, Vladimir [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    CdSe/ZnSe QD structure was investigated by current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with Laplace transform cooperated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were carried out too. Basing on Laplace current DLTS with AFM and CL data an activation energy of electron emission from the quantized levels in a small group of CdSe QDs was measured. We have demonstrated the advanced capabilities of the new method of studying the electrical properties of nano-objects. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Hysteresis losses in MgB2 superconductors exposed to combinations of low AC and high DC magnetic fields and transport currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, N.; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Liu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    a simplified theoretical treatment of the hysteresis losses based on available models in the literature with the aim of setting the basis for estimation of the allowable magnetic fields and current ripples in superconducting generator coils intended for large wind turbine direct drive generators. The resulting...... equations use the DC in-field critical current, the geometry of the superconductor and the magnitude of the AC magnetic field component as parameters. This simplified approach can be valuable in the design of MgB2 DC coils in the 1–4T range with low AC magnetic field and current ripples....

  16. Effects of Local Radiation Combined with Chemotherapy in the treatment of 
Patients with Extensive-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di WU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chemotherapy is a highly efficient primary treatment for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC. However, patients receiving such treatment are prone to develop drug resistance. Local treatment is palliative and thus can alleviate the local symptoms and improve quality of life, but limited evidence is available for prolonging survival. Hence, this study evaluated the role of local treatment in chemotherapy of patients with ES-SCLC. Methods A total of 302 ES-SCLC cases were enrolled in this retrospective study. Prognostic factors were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate proportional hazards model. Results Median progression-free survival (PFS and median survival time (MST of the patients were 4.4 and 10.4 months, respectively. 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 37.8%, 10.2% and 4.4%, correspondingly. The MST of the primary tumor radiotherapy plus chemotherapy group was 14.3 months, whereas that of the chemotherapy group was 8.2 months (P<0.01. The MSTs of multiple-site, single-site, and non-metastasis local treatments were 18.7, 12.3 and 8.9 months, respectively (P<0.01. The MSTs of initiative, passive, and non-metastasis local treatments were 16.0, 10.9 and 9.4 months, correspondingly (P<0.01. The MSTs of patients with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI and those without PCI were 19.8 and 9.9 months, respectively (P<0.01. Primary tumor radiotherapy, metastasis local treatment, and PCI were independent prognostic factors for ES-SCLC. Conclusion Primary tumor radiotherapy, metastasis local treatment, and PCI can significantly improve survival in patients with ES-SCLC.

  17. Combined high-intensity local treatment and systemic therapy in metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Luu, Michael; Yoshida, Emi J; Kim, Sungjin; Tighiouart, Mourad; David, John M; Shiao, Stephen L; Mita, Alain C; Scher, Kevin S; Sherman, Eric J; Lee, Nancy Y; Ho, Allen S

    2017-08-17

    There is increasing evidence that primary tumor ablation can improve survival for some cancer patients with distant metastases. This may be particularly applicable to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) because of its tropism for locoregional progression. This study included patients with metastatic HNSCC undergoing systemic therapy identified in the National Cancer Data Base. High-intensity local treatment was defined as radiation doses ≥ 60 Gy or oncologic resection of the primary tumor. Multivariate Cox regression, propensity score matching, landmark analysis, and subgroup analysis were performed to account for imbalances in covariates, including adjustments for the number and location of metastatic sites in the subset of patients with this information available. In all, 3269 patients were included (median follow-up, 51.5 months). Patients undergoing systemic therapy with local treatment had improved survival in comparison with patients receiving systemic therapy alone in propensity score-matched cohorts (2-year overall survival, 34.2% vs 20.6%; P < .001). Improved survival was associated only with patients receiving high-intensity local treatment, whereas those receiving lower-intensity local treatment had survival similar to that of patients receiving systemic therapy without local treatment. The impact of high-intensity local therapy was time-dependent, with a stronger impact within the first 6 months after the diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.255; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.210-0.309; P < .001) in comparison with more than 6 months after the diagnosis (AHR, 0.622; 95% CI, 0.561-0.689; P < .001) in the multivariate analysis. A benefit was seen in all subgroups, in landmark analyses of 1-, 2-, and 3-year survivors, and when adjusting for the number and location of metastatic sites. Aggressive local treatment warrants prospective evaluation for select patients with metastatic HNSCC. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017

  18. 一体化电子式电流电压互感器研究%Combined Digital Electronic Current and Voltage Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段雄英; 邹积岩; 廖敏夫; 张可卫

    2002-01-01

    A high-performance current and voltage measurement system has been developed in power system. The system is composed of two parts: one current measurement element and one voltage measurement element. A Rogowski coil and a capacitive voltage divider are used respectively for the line current and voltage measurements. Active electronic components are used to modulate signal, and power supply for these components is drawn from power line via an auxiliary current transformer. Measurement signal is transmitted by optical fibers, which is resistant to electromagnetic induction and noise. With careful design and the use of digital signal processing technology, the whole system can meet 0.5% accuracy for metering and provides large dynamic range coupled with good accuracy for protective relaying use.