WorldWideScience

Sample records for combined cycle project

  1. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  3. Dynamic Testing of the NASA Hypersonic Project Combined Cycle Engine Testbed for Mode Transition Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in developing technology that leads to more routine, safe, and affordable access to space. Access to space using airbreathing propulsion systems has potential to meet these objectives based on Airbreathing Access to Space (AAS) system studies. To this end, the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Hypersonic Project is conducting fundamental research on a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system. The TBCC being studied considers a dual flow-path inlet system. One flow-path includes variable geometry to regulate airflow to a turbine engine cycle. The turbine cycle provides propulsion from take-off to supersonic flight. The second flow-path supports a dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) cycle which would be initiated at supersonic speed to further accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed. For a TBCC propulsion system to accelerate a vehicle from supersonic to hypersonic speed, a critical enabling technology is the ability to safely and effectively transition from the turbine to the DMSJ-referred to as mode transition. To experimentally test methods of mode transition, a Combined Cycle Engine (CCE) Large-scale Inlet testbed was designed with two flow paths-a low speed flow-path sized for a turbine cycle and a high speed flow-path designed for a DMSJ. This testbed system is identified as the CCE Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition studies (CCE-LIMX). The test plan for the CCE-LIMX in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10- by 10-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is segmented into multiple phases. The first phase is a matrix of inlet characterization (IC) tests to evaluate the inlet performance and establish the mode transition schedule. The second phase is a matrix of dynamic system identification (SysID) experiments designed to support closed-loop control development at mode transition schedule operating points for the CCE-LIMX. The third phase includes a direct demonstration of controlled mode transition using a closed loop control

  4. Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    On February 22, 1988, DOE issued Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Number-DE-PS01-88FE61530 for Round II of the CCT Program. The purpose of the PON was to solicit proposals to conduct cost-shared ICCT projects to demonstrate technologies that are capable of being commercialized in the 1990s, that are more cost-effective than current technologies, and that are capable of achieving significant reduction of SO[sub 2] and/or NO[sub x] emissions from existing coal burning facilities, particularly those that contribute to transboundary and interstate pollution. The Combustion Engineering (C-E) Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project was one of 16 proposals selected by DOE for negotiation of cost-shared federal funding support from among the 55 proposals that were received in response to the PON. The ICCT Program has developed a three-level strategy for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that is consistent with the President's Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and the DOE guidelines for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The strategy includes the consideration of programmatic and project-specific environmental impacts during and subsequent to the reject selection process.

  5. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  6. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO 2 emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO x emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today's conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated

  7. Lower central combined cycle project: Conceptual design. Volume 3. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report addresses various technical, environmental, and economic aspects of developing eight 600 MW blocks of combined cycle electric generating facilities at a site located northeast of Ratchaburi. The study contains a detailed environmental assessment, as well as fueling options and cost estimates. The report consists of 5 volumes, a Feasibility Study report and four Conceptual Design studies. This volume is the Conceptual Design-Volume 3 and is divided as follows: (1) Auxiliary Power Supply; (2) Buildings and Structures; (3) Compressed Air; (4) Control; (5) Cycle Heat Rejection; (6) Electrical; (7) Equipment Cooling; (8) Feedwater; (9) Fire Protection; (10) Fual Gas.

  8. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  9. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... western sub-bituminous coal and 25 percent petroleum coke (petcoke) into a synthesis gas (syngas). The... project could generate urea, ammonia, and perhaps other nitrogenous compounds for sale. The project's urea...

  10. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Annual report, January 1996--January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Coal Diesel project will demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that has technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology enables utilization of coal-based fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. Modular power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. The University of Alaska campus in Fairbanks, Alaska, is the project`s host site. At this location, the University will construct and operate the Clean Coal Diesel System, which will serve as a 6.2 MW diesel powerplant addition. The University will also assemble and operate a 5-ton per hour coal-water fuel processing plant. The plant will utilize local coal, brought by truck from Usibelli`s mine in Healey, AK. The estimated performance characteristics of the mature commercial embodiment of the Clean Coal Diesel, if achieved, will make this technology quite competitive: 48% efficiency; $1,300/kW installed cost; and emission levels controlled to 50--70% below New Source Performance Standards. Specific objectives are to demonstrate that the Coal Diesel Technology: is durable and can operate 6,000 hours in a realistic commercial setting; will meet efficiency targets; can effectively control criteria pollutants to levels that are well below anticipated standards, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and can accommodate substantial power demand swings.

  11. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  12. Fuel cycle cost projections. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1979-12-01

    This report estimates current and future costs associated with the light water reactor nuclear fuel cycle for both once-through and thermal recycle cases. Using a range of future nuclear power generating scenarios, process flows are developed for each segment of the nuclear fuel cycle. Capital and operating costs are estimated and are combined with the process flows to generate unit cost projections for each fuel cycle segment. The unit costs and process flows are combined in the NUCOST program to estimate fuel cycle power costs through the year 2020. The unit costs are also used to estimate the fuel costs of an individual model PWR and BWR.

  13. High performance integrated solar combined cycles with minimum modifications to the combined cycle power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Off-design model of a 390 MW e three pressure combined cycle developed and validated. • The off-design model is used to evaluate different hybridization schemes with solar. • Power boosting and fuel saving with different design modifications are considered. • Maximum solar share of total electricity is only 1% with the existing equipment. • The maximum incremental solar radiation-to-electrical efficiency approaches 29%. - Abstract: The integration of solar energy into natural gas combined cycles has been successfully demonstrated in several integrated solar combined cycles since the beginning of this decade in many countries. There are many motivations that drive investments on integrated solar combined cycles which are primarily the repowering of existing power plants, the compliance with more severe environmental laws on emissions and the mitigation of risks associated with large solar projects. Integrated solar combined cycles are usually developed as brownfield facilities by retrofitting existing natural gas combined cycles and keeping the existing equipment to minimize costs. In this work a detailed off-design model of a 390 MW e three pressure level natural gas combined cycle is built to evaluate different integration schemes of solar energy which either keep the equipment of the combined cycle unchanged or include new equipment (steam turbine, heat recovery steam generator). Both power boosting and fuel saving operation strategies are analyzed in the search for the highest annual efficiency and solar share. Results show that the maximum incremental power output from solar at design solar irradiance is limited to 19 MW e without modifications to the existing equipment. Higher values are attainable only including a larger steam turbine. High solar radiation-to-electrical efficiencies in the range 24–29% can be achieved in the integrated solar combined cycle depending on solar share and extension of tube banks in the heat recovery

  14. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  15. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  16. Steam plant: Steam turbines for combined cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieken, J.

    Parameters affecting steam turbines design are discussed and it is concluded that steam turbines for combined cycles are suitable for: powers between 1 and 250 MW; driving a generator, via a gearbox if necessary; drive through of powers which can be up to three times their own power; and ground level installation with up, side, or axial exhaust for condensing turbine applications. Parameters affecting the steam turbine performance are discussed: inlet conditions and flows, sliding inlet conditions, reheat cycles, fired and unfired heat recovery steam generators, cogeneration systems, and combined cycle for process steam supply. Aerodynamic design aspects of steam turbines for combined cycles are discussed. It is concluded that steam turbines for combined cycles have a large range of special requirements. Some typical aspects are: large exhaust annular areas and special exhaust arrangements for condensing steam turbines, drive through of the power of the gas turbines, high influence on the total cycle performance optimization, and a wide variety of extraction systems for cogeneration.

  17. Maximisation of Combined Cycle Power Plant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kotowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts for increasing the efficiency of a modern combined cycle power plant. Improvement of gas turbine performance indicators as well as recovering heat from the air cooling the gas turbine’s flow system enable reaching gross electrical efficiencies of around 65%. Analyses for a wide range of compressor pressure ratios were performed. Operating characteristics were developed for the analysed combined cycle plant, for different types of open air cooling arrangements of the gas turbine’s expander: convective, transpiration and film.

  18. Center for Hypersonic Combined Cycle Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    scales, the PaSR model may behave like a perfectly-stirred reactor (PSR) or a plug - flow reactor . In our PaSR analysis, the pair-wise mixing model...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0292 CENTER FOR HYPERSONIC COMBINED CYCLE FLOW PHYSICS James Mcdaniel UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Final Report 03/24/2015...HYPERSONIC COMBINED CYCLE FLOW PHYSICS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0611 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) McDaniel, James C

  19. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  20. PROJECT GOVERNANCE – PHASES AND LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert Titus DEENEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When talking about projects, the barrier is clear: successful and failed. Some fail due to different reasons, but lack of good project and risk management played a large part. Others succeed largely because of the rigorous and disciplined application of good project practices. But both groups illustrate many points that underline and demonstrate important concepts applicable to current projects. Systematic application of good methods leads to successful outcomes in projects of all types. All projects are fundamentally dependent on people, and human beings are not very different today than we were hundreds, or even thousands, of years ago. This paper uncovers main elements in projects area such as the concepts and governance of projects, with an underline of the main characteristics and the projects phases and life cycle that erase the uncertainty that joins all the projects built at any time.

  1. Waste-heat boiler application for the Vresova combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicek, Z. [Energoprojekt Praha, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This report describes a project proposal and implementation of two combined-cycle units of the Vresova Fuel Complex (PKV) with 2 x 200 MWe and heat supply. Participation of ENERGOPROJECT Praha a.s., in this project.

  2. The Strutjet Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, A.; Bulman, M. J.; Bonnar, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The multi stage chemical rocket has been established over many years as the propulsion System for space transportation vehicles, while, at the same time, there is increasing concern about its continued affordability and rather involved reusability. Two broad approaches to addressing this overall launch cost problem consist in one, the further development of the rocket motor, and two, the use of airbreathing propulsion to the maximum extent possible as a complement to the limited use of a conventional rocket. In both cases, a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle is considered a desirable goal. However, neither the "all-rocket" nor the "all-airbreathing" approach seems realizable and workable in practice without appreciable advances in materials and manufacturing. An affordable system must be reusable with minimal refurbishing on-ground, and large mean time between overhauls, and thus with high margins in design. It has been suggested that one may use different engine cycles, some rocket and others airbreathing, in a combination over a flight trajectory, but this approach does not lead to a converged solution with thrust-to-mass, specific impulse, and other performance and operational characteristics that can be obtained in the different engines. The reason is this type of engine is simply a combination of different engines with no commonality of gas flowpath or components, and therefore tends to have the deficiencies of each of the combined engines. A further development in this approach is a truly combined cycle that incorporates a series of cycles for different modes of propulsion along a flight path with multiple use of a set of components and an essentially single gas flowpath through the engine. This integrated approach is based on realizing the benefits of both a rocket engine and airbreathing engine in various combinations by a systematic functional integration of components in an engine class usually referred to as a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine

  3. Technical and financial analysis of combined cycle gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Arshad Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technical and financial models which were developed in this study to predict the overall performance of combined cycle gas turbine plant in line with the needs of independent power producers in the liberalized market of power sector. Three similar sizes of combined cycle gas turbine power projects up to 200 Megawatt of independent power producers in Pakistan were selected in-order to develop and drive the basic assumptions for the inputs of the models in view of prevailing Government of Pakistan’s two components of electricity purchasing tariff that is energy purchase price and capacity purchase price at higher voltage grid station terminal from independent power producers. The levelized electricity purchasing tariff over life of plant on gaseous fuel at 60 percent plant load factor was 6.47 cent per kilowatt hour with energy purchase price and capacity purchase prices of 3.54 and 2.93 cents per kilowatt hour respectively. The outcome of technical models of gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cycle gas turbine power were found in close agreement with the projects under consideration and provides opportunity of evaluation of technical and financial aspects of combined cycle power plant in a more simplified manner with relatively accurate results. At 105 Celsius exit temperature of heat recovery steam generator flue gases the net efficiency of combined cycle gas turbine was 48.8 percent whereas at 125 Celsius exit temperature of heat recovery steam generator flue gases it was 48.0 percent. Sensitivity analysis of selected influential components of electricity tariff was also carried out.

  4. Modeling of a combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohamad Idris

    2001-01-01

    The combined cycle power plant is a non-linear, closed loop system, which consists of high-pressure (HP) superheater, HP evaporator, HP economizer, low-pressure (LP) evaporator, HP drum, HP deaerator, condenser, HP and LP steam turbine and gas turbine. The two types of turbines in the plant for example the gas turbine and the HP and LP steam turbines operate concurrently to generate power to the plant. The exhaust gas which originate from the combustion chamber drives the gas turbine, after which it flows into the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to generate superheated steam to be used in driving the HP and LP steam turbines. In this thesis, the combined cycle power plant is modeled at component level using the physical method. Assuming that there is delay in transport, except for the gas turbine system, the mass and heat balances are applied on the components of the plant to derive the governing equations of the components. These time dependent equations, which are of first order differential types, are then solved for the mass and enthalpy of the components. The solutions were simulated using Matlab Simulink using measured plant data. Where necessary there is no plant data available, approximated data were used. The generalized regression neural networks are also used to generate extra sets of simulation data for the HRSG system. Comparisons of the simulation results with its corresponding plant data showed good agreements between the two and indicated that the models developed for the components could be used to represent the combined cycle power plant under study. (author)

  5. Basic survey project for joint implementation in fiscal 1998. Study of BFG mono-firing gas turbine combined cycle power plant application for the steel mill of China; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Chugoku seitetsu kaishamuke koro gas sensho combined cycle hatsuden setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on application to the steel mills in China of a 1100-degree C class high-efficiency combined cycle power plant (CCPP) exclusively firing blast furnace gas developed jointly by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. of Japan and ABB Corporation of Switzerland. The CCPP can utilize the energy possessed by a fuel without waste from high temperature zones to low temperature zones, being capable of attaining high efficiency that cannot be achieved with the single cycle. The CCPP has the efficiency exceeding that of the BTGP by about 10% or more in absolute value. The investigations and discussions were given on Shougang General Corporation, Anshan Steel Corporation and Wuhan Steel Corporation. As a result, in the plan for the power plant of Shougang General Corporation on which both parties have agreed, the project implementation can be expected to result in electric power generation of 110 MW in annual average, factory air supply of about 100 tons per hour in annual average, and annual reduction of carbon dioxide of 841 kilo tons. Wuhan Steel and Anshan Steel will require implementation of further detailed investigation, but the possibility of realization is considered high (NEDO)

  6. Analysis of an integrated solar combined cycle with steam and organic Rankine cycles as bottoming cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ISCC with steam and organic Rankine cycles ORC as bottoming cycles was introduced. • The operating conditions of the cycle were optimized using the genetic optimization algorithm. • R1234ze(z) was found to be the best working fluid for the bottoming ORC. • The output power was improved by 19.5% with solar contribution and 23.1% without solar contribution. • The proposed cycle is less affected by variations of the ambient temperature. - Abstract: Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCC) are currently used in countries with high incident solar radiation in order to increase the net output power and decrease the specific fuel consumption. The present work introduces a modified ISCC with two bottoming cycles. The first bottoming cycle is a steam Rankine cycle while the second one is an Organic Rankine Cycle ORC. Multistage compression with intercooling was considered for the gas turbine unit. The ORC was used in order to intercool the compressed air and produce a net power from the received thermal energy. The proposed cycle performance was studied and optimized. Fifteen working fluids were investigated for use with the ORC. Results showed that R1234ze(z) introduces a good compromise between thermodynamics, economic, safety and environmental considerations. The cycle with R1234ze(z) as a working fluid showed an increase of the output power by 19.5% with solar contribution and 23.1% without solar contribution. The increase of the net output power with the application of the proposed cycle is higher than the power produced from a 50 MW solar field. Moreover, the proposed cycle is less affected by variations of the ambient temperature.

  7. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

  8. Overview of the Turbine Based Combined Cycle Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Walker, James F.; Pittman, James L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project is focused on technologies for combined cycle, airbreathing propulsions systems to enable reusable launch systems for access to space. Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems offer specific impulse (Isp) improvements over rocket-based propulsion systems in the subsonic takeoff and return mission segments and offer improved safety. The potential to realize more aircraft-like operations with expanded launch site capability and reduced system maintenance are additional benefits. The most critical TBCC enabling technologies as identified in the National Aeronautics Institute (NAI) study were: 1) mode transition from the low speed propulsion system to the high speed propulsion system, 2) high Mach turbine engine development, 3) transonic aero-propulsion performance, 4) low-Mach-number dual-mode scramjet operation, 5) innovative 3-D flowpath concepts and 6) innovative turbine based combined cycle integration. To address several of these key TBCC challenges, NASA s Hypersonics project (TBCC Discipline) initiated an experimental mode transition task that includes an analytic research endeavor to assess the state-of-the-art of propulsion system performance and design codes. This initiative includes inlet fluid and turbine performance codes and engineering-level algorithms. This effort has been focused on the Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX) which is a fully integrated TBCC propulsion system with flow path sizing consistent with previous NASA and DoD proposed Hypersonic experimental flight test plans. This experiment is being tested in the NASA-GRC 10 x 10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) Facility. The goal of this activity is to address key hypersonic combined-cycle-engine issues: (1) dual integrated inlet operability and performance issues unstart constraints, distortion constraints, bleed requirements, controls, and operability margins, (2) mode

  9. An Improved Solar Cycle Statistical Model for the Projection of Near Future Sunspot Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the current solar cycle 23 has progressed near the end of the cycle and accurate solar minimum and maximum occurrences have been defined, a statistical model based on the odd-even behavior of historical sunspot cycles was reexamined. Separate calculations of activity levels were made for the rising and declining phases in solar cycle 23, which resulted in improved projection of sunspots in the remainder of cycle 23. Because a fundamental understanding of the transition from cycle to cycle has not been developed, at this time it is assumed for projection purposes that solar cycle 24 will continue at the same activity level in the declining phase of cycle 23. Projection errors in solar cycle 24 can be corrected as the cycle progresses and observations become available because this model is shown to be self-correcting.

  10. Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Chang, Andrew C; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2018-01-01

      To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output LCA to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on wastewater discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, the authors apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  11. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus...... model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working...... in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine...

  12. Combination of IVF and IVM in naturally cycling women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Pedersen, Mikael; Westergaard, Lars Grabow; Erb, Karin

    2012-01-01

    seems less than reported in other IVM protocols. Though the combined concept of IVM and natural-cycle IVF is possible and there are ongoing pregnancies from both IVM and in-vivo matured eggs, we recommend either optimizing an IVM programme or using natural-cycle IVF rather than our original approach.......This study investigated the combination of an unstimulated IVF cycle with in-vitro maturation (IVM) of additional immature cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) from the same cycle collected at the same time as the spontaneous preovulatory follicle. This could potentially improve rates of embryo transfer...... is one of the potential treatments which eliminates the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and minimizes the side-effects of medication. At the same time, natural-cycle IVF without hormonal stimulation is also experiencing a revival. By combining IVM and natural-cycle IVF, we aimed for to improve...

  13. Performance analysis and modeling of energy from waste combined cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, K.; Hayden, A.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in a substantial amount with minimal fluctuations throughout the year. The analysis of carbon neutrality of MSW on a life cycle basis shows that MSW is about 67% carbon-neutral, suggesting that only 33% of the CO 2 emissions from incinerating MSW are of fossil origin. The waste constitutes a 'renewable biofuel' energy resource and energy from waste (EfW) can result in a net reduction in CO 2 emissions. In this paper, we explore an approach to extracting energy from MSW efficiently - EfW/gas turbine hybrid combined cycles. This approach innovates by delivering better performance with respect to energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation. In the combined cycles, the topping cycle consists of a gas turbine, while the bottoming cycle is a steam cycle where the low quality fuel - waste is utilized. This paper assesses the viability of the hybrid combined cycles and analyses their thermodynamic advantages with the help of computer simulations. It was shown that the combined cycles could offer significantly higher energy conversion efficiency and a practical solution to handling MSW. Also, the potential for a net reduction in CO 2 emissions resulting from the hybrid combined cycles was evaluated.

  14. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  15. Gasification and combined cycles: Present situation and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustia, G.F.; Bressan, L.; Domenichini, R.

    1992-01-01

    The gasification of coal and/or residual fuels from refineries together with the use of combined cycle power generation systems represents a technically and economically feasible method for the conversion of poor quality fossil fuels into electric power. The conversion is accomplished with maximum respect for the severest environmental normatives. In addition, foreseen technical improvements for components and plant systems are expected to heighten the marketing potential of gasification/combined cycle power plants. After Italy's moratorium on nuclear energy, the passing eras of conventional fossil fuel and then combined cycle power plants, the need for highly competitive industrial production technologies and the urgency of nation-wide energy conservation appear to be ushering in the new era of gasification with combined cycles

  16. Start-up Optimization of a Combined Cycle Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sällberg, Elin; Lind, Alexandra; Velut, Stéphane; Åkesson, Johan; Gallardo Yances, Stephanie; Link, Kilian

    2012-01-01

    In the electricity market of today, with increasing demand for electricity production on short notice, the combined cycle power plant stands high regarding fast start-ups and efficiency. In this paper it has been shown how the dynamic start-up procedure of a combined cycle power plant can be optimized using JModelica. org, proposing a way to minimize the start-up time while maximizing the power production during start-up. The physical models have been developed in M...

  17. Exergy Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant: NTPC Dadri, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Arvind; Hasan, M; Islam, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to exergy analysis of combined Brayton/Rankine power cycle of NTPC Dadri India. Theoretical exergy analysis is carried out for different components of dadri combined cycle power plant which consists of a gas turbine unit, heat recovery steam generator without extra fuel consumption and steam turbine unit. The results pinpoint that more exergy losses occurred in the gas turbine combustion chamber. Its reached 35% of the total exergy losses while the exergy losse...

  18. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  19. Modified function projective combination synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified function projective synchronization between the newly constructed combination hyperchaotic Lorenz system and hyperchaotic Lu system is investigated using adaptive method. By Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two systems as ...

  20. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working fluids possess high global warming potentials and hazard levels. It is concluded that the ORC has the greatest potential for increasing the fuel efficiency, and the combined cycle offers very high thermal efficiency. While being less efficient, the steam cycle has the advantages of being well proven, harmless to the environment as well as being less hazardous in comparison. - Highlights: • We compare steam, ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery in marine engines. • We evaluate the efficiency and important qualitative differences. • The Kalina cycle presents no apparent advantages. • The steam cycle is well known, harmless and has a high efficiency. • The ORC has the highest efficiency but also important drawbacks

  1. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero...

  2. Modeling and optimization of a hybrid solar combined cycle (HYCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eter, Ahmad Adel

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of integrating concentrated solar power (CSP) technology with the conventional combined cycle technology for electric generation in Saudi Arabia. The generated electricity can be used locally to meet the annual increasing demand. Specifically, it can be utilized to meet the demand during the hours 10 am-3 pm and prevent blackout hours, of some industrial sectors. The proposed CSP design gives flexibility in the operation system. Since, it works as a conventional combined cycle during night time and it switches to work as a hybrid solar combined cycle during day time. The first objective of the thesis is to develop a thermo-economical mathematical model that can simulate the performance of a hybrid solar-fossil fuel combined cycle. The second objective is to develop a computer simulation code that can solve the thermo-economical mathematical model using available software such as E.E.S. The developed simulation code is used to analyze the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of integrating the CSP with the conventional fossil fuel combined cycle to achieve the optimal integration configuration. This optimal integration configuration has been investigated further to achieve the optimal design of the solar field that gives the optimal solar share. Thermo-economical performance metrics which are available in the literature have been used in the present work to assess the thermo-economic performance of the investigated configurations. The economical and environmental impact of integration CSP with the conventional fossil fuel combined cycle are estimated and discussed. Finally, the optimal integration configuration is found to be solarization steam side in conventional combined cycle with solar multiple 0.38 which needs 29 hectare and LEC of HYCS is 63.17 $/MWh under Dhahran weather conditions.

  3. Storytelling for project knowledge management across the project life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Project organizations face the problems to manage knowledge embedded in various projects because of the uniqueness and short-term orientation of most projects. Therefore, project knowledge management is regarded as an important approach to building competitive advantages. This paper aimed to examine the application of storytelling as an effective and inexpensive mechanism for managing project knowledge. The study was conducted with the project management office from the Tax Administration and Reform Automation (TARA program in Iran. A questionnaire survey was used to analyze the storytelling applications in the projects of the TARA program. Based on the result, a conceptual framework of storytelling was proposed for integration into the project management lifecycle.

  4. Thermodynamic performance optimization of a combined power/cooling cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouraghaie, M.; Atashkari, K.; Besarati, S.M.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2010-01-01

    A combined thermal power and cooling cycle has already been proposed in which thermal energy is used to produce work and to generate a sub-ambient temperature stream that is suitable for cooling applications. The cycle uses ammonia-water mixture as working fluid and is a combination of a Rankine cycle and absorption cycle. The very high ammonia vapor concentration, exiting turbine under certain operating conditions, can provide power output as well as refrigeration. In this paper, the goal is to employ multi-objective algorithms for Pareto approach optimization of thermodynamic performance of the cycle. It has been carried out by varying the selected design variables, namely, turbine inlet pressure (P h ), superheater temperature (T superheat ) and condenser temperature (T condensor ). The important conflicting thermodynamic objective functions that have been considered in this study are turbine work (w T ), cooling capacity (q cool ) and thermal efficiency (η th ) of the cycle. It is shown that some interesting and important relationships among optimal objective functions and decision variables involved in the combined cycle can be discovered consequently. Such important relationships as useful optimal design principles would have not been obtained without the use of a multi-objective optimization approach.

  5. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zelong; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficiency and other performances are analyzed by numerical calculations.

  6. Optimization of the triple-pressure combined cycle power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Alus Muammer; Petrović Milan V.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new system for optimization of parameters for combined cycle power plants (CCGTs) with triple-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimizations were carried out. The objective of the thermodynamic optimization is to enhance the efficiency of the CCGTs and to maximize the power production in the steam cycle (steam turbine gross power). Improvement of the efficiency of the CCGT plants is achieved through opt...

  7. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  8. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary...... turbine design model, the details of the validation and a sensitivity analysis on the main parameters, in order to minimize the number of decision variables in the subsequent turbine design optimization. Part B analyzes the application of the combined turbine and cycle designs on a selected case study...... of validation. Discrepancy below 12% was obtained in the estimation of the flow velocities and turbine geometry. The values are considered to be within a reasonable range for a preliminary design tool. The sensitivity analysis on the turbine model suggests that two of twelve decision variables of the model can...

  9. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  10. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, Eric; Walling, Gary; Brown, Robert C.; Pletka, Ryan; Radlein, Desmond; Johnson, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW e ; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system

  11. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  12. Integrated system approach for increase of engine combined cycle efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewald, D.; Karellas, S.; Schuster, A.; Spliethoff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new approach for the optimization of engine combined cycle systems is presented. ► The efficiency can be increased by integrating all available waste heat sources. ► The optimization of the ICE cooling system towards higher temperatures is examined. ► Higher engine cooling water temperatures increase the combined cycle efficiency. ► The costs of electricity generation can be decreased by five integrated system. - Abstract: Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are widely used as independent power producers due to their high electrical efficiency (up to 47%), which can be further enhanced by operating them in combined cycle mode with a water/steam cycle as bottoming cycle. This study presents an integrated approach to optimize the combined cycle overall system efficiency. Therefore, not only the most favorable design of the waste heat recovery (WHR) cycle, but also the optimal configuration of the ICE cooling system have to be investigated, in order to integrate both available engine waste heat sources (exhaust gas, 300–400 °C, engine cooling water, 90 °C) into the waste heat recovery cycle. For the definition of the most favourable temperature level of the engine cooling water three variants of engine cooling systems are examined, with respect to technical limitations given by the ICE. In order to determine the types of engines for which this optimization approach is suitable, three types of engines with different characteristics (fuel, exhaust gas parameters) combined with a water/steam cycle are simulated, by using the calculation tools Excel and Ebsilon Professional. An energetic, exergetic and economic analysis is conducted. These reveal the impacts of the temperature level to the WHR system and to the design of the engine cooling system. The calculations performed, showed that up to 19% of the engine cooling water heat can be efficiently recovered compared to a portion of 6% in the standard system. The better recovery leads to a 5

  13. Co-generation project for the Combined Cycle Power Plant President Juarez Rosarito and a reverse osmosis desalting plant; Proyecto de cogeneracion para la planta de ciclo combinado Presidente Juarez Rosarito y una planta desaladora de osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector; Espindola Hernandez, Salvador [Universidad NAcional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    In this work a technical and economical analysis of the installation of a reverse osmosis desalting plant connected to a power station that uses the combined cycle technology under a co-generation scheme is presented: production of electricity and water. The operation program of the desalting power station will be determined by the demand of energy of the combined cycle power station; the proposal is that the desalting plant operates in the hours of low load of the power station and shuts down at the peak hours of electrical energy demand. So that this study is representative, the demand curves of electric energy of the units of combined cycle of Central President Juarez Rosarito of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken and updated the data of the reverse osmosis desalting plants that are available at the moment in the market. As basis of the study the level costs will be determined so much as the electrical energy generated by the power station of combined cycle, operating inside and outside of a co-generation scheme and the costs made level for the water produced by the reverse osmosis plant under two assumptions: the first one is buying the electrical energy from CFE and the second one considering that the CFE is the owner of the desalting plant and therefore the cost of electrical energy to desalting the plant is zero. This work shows the economic impacts on the costs of the generation of electrical energy and on those of the desalted water in a co-generation scheme. The results shown in this study can be considered for the future planning in the construction of desalting plants to supply of water in the Northwestern zones of the country where serious problems of water shortage exist. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un analisis tecnico y economico de la instalacion de una planta desaladora de osmosis inversa acoplada a una central de generacion de energia electrica que utiliza la tecnologia de ciclo combinado bajo un esquema de

  14. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  15. Parametric Investigation and Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Combined Cycle for Recovering the Waste Heat from Nuclear Closed Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihuang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined cycle that combines AWM cycle with a nuclear closed Brayton cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat rejected from the precooler of a nuclear closed Brayton cycle in this paper. The detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out for the combined cycle. The effects of several important parameters, such as the absorber pressure, the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine inlet temperature, the ammonia mass fraction, and the ambient temperature, are investigated. The combined cycle performance is also optimized based on a multiobjective function. Compared with the closed Brayton cycle, the optimized power output and overall efficiency of the combined cycle are higher by 2.41% and 2.43%, respectively. The optimized LEC of the combined cycle is 0.73% lower than that of the closed Brayton cycle.

  16. Parametric Investigation and Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Combined Cycle for Recovering the Waste Heat from Nuclear Closed Brayton Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lihuang Luo; Hong Gao; Chao Liu; Xiaoxiao Xu

    2016-01-01

    A combined cycle that combines AWM cycle with a nuclear closed Brayton cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat rejected from the precooler of a nuclear closed Brayton cycle in this paper. The detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out for the combined cycle. The effects of several important parameters, such as the absorber pressure, the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine inlet temperature, the ammonia mass fraction, and the ambient temperature, are investigated. The com...

  17. A Humid Air Turbine–Organic Rankine Cycle combined cycle for distributed microgeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, Ricardo; Becerra, José A.; Blanco, Maria J.; Muñoz-Escalona, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Humid Air microTurbine and Organic Rankine Cycle models. • Micro combined cycle with optimized medium/low temperature heat recovery. • Thermodynamic analyses of different integrations, fluids and parameters. • Outstanding performance parameters in the distributed generation power range. • Economic analyses show the high viability of the proposed concept. - Abstract: This paper analyses the integration of Humid Air microturbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle in a combined cycle for distributed generation. This integration concept maximizes heat recovery at the exhaust of the micro gas turbine combining the capacities for medium temperature heat recovery of the Organic Rankine Cycle and low temperature heat recovery of the Humid Air Turbine. The integration analysis based on different sets of organic fluids and different recovery temperatures showed that the optimal combination was achieved using toluene and R245fa for medium and low temperature Organic Rankine Cycles respectively. Their combination with the low temperature heat recovery at the Humid Air Turbine saturator maximizes the heat recovery profile from the exhaust gases. The calculations carried out reveal a 25% improvement in net power output of the dual cycle compared to the standalone Humid Air microturbine. Such improvement also affects to global efficiency, increasing it up to 52% in the optimal configuration, above the 41% estimated for the standalone Humid Air Turbine and the 33% rated efficiency of the state of art microturbine Capstone C200. The economic analysis shows that these increases in efficiency and power values make the proposed concept highly competitive, with a 15% reduction in the Levelized Cost of Electricity compared with the standalone Humid Air Turbine and a reduction of 30% compared with the micro gas turbine base case. The presented results show this novel integration as a very promising solution for distributed generation applications at power range under

  18. Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

    2012-06-08

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of a wind turbine based combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Combined cycles use the exhaust gases released from a Gas Turbine (GT). Approximately 30–40% of the turbine shaft work is typically used to drive the Compressor. The present study analyzes a system that couples a Wind Turbine (WT) with a combined cycle. It demonstrates how a WT can be used to supply power to the Compressor in the GT cycle and pump fluid through a reheat Rankine cycle, in order to increase the overall power output. Three different configurations are discussed, namely high penetration, low penetration and wind power addition. In the case of a low electricity demand and high penetration configuration, extra wind power is used to compress air which can then be used in the low penetration configuration. During a high load demand, all the wind power is used to drive the pump and compressor and if required additional compressed air is supplied by a storage unit. The analysis shows that increasing the combustion temperature reduces the critical velocity and mass flow rate. Increases in wind speed reduce both energy and exergy efficiency of the overall system. -- Highlights: ► This study analyzes a system that couples a wind turbine with a combined power generation cycle. ► Surplus wind power is used to compress air, which is then stored and used at a later time. ► Increasing the pressure ratio will reduce the work ratio between the Rankine and Brayton cycles. ► A higher combustion temperature will increase the net work output, as well as the system energy and exergy efficiencies.

  20. Optimization of the triple-pressure combined cycle power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alus Muammer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a new system for optimization of parameters for combined cycle power plants (CCGTs with triple-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimizations were carried out. The objective of the thermodynamic optimization is to enhance the efficiency of the CCGTs and to maximize the power production in the steam cycle (steam turbine gross power. Improvement of the efficiency of the CCGT plants is achieved through optimization of the operating parameters: temperature difference between the gas and steam (pinch point P.P. and the steam pressure in the HRSG. The objective of the thermoeconomic optimization is to minimize the production costs per unit of the generated electricity. Defining the optimal P.P. was the first step in the optimization procedure. Then, through the developed optimization process, other optimal operating parameters (steam pressure and condenser pressure were identified. The developed system was demonstrated for the case of a 282 MW CCGT power plant with a typical design for commercial combined cycle power plants. The optimized combined cycle was compared with the regular CCGT plant.

  1. The market outlook for integrated gasification combined cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, P.R.; Maslak, C.E.; Stoll, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology was developed in the 1970s and is now competitive with other coal fired technologies. Because it is a new technology, IGCC technology developments are continuing at a rapid pace and the trend in decreasing capital costs is similar to the same trend seen during the early decades of simple cycle gas turbines. Consequently, IGCC technology is expected to be even more economical during the mid and late 1990s than it is today. The objective of this paper is to provide an examination of the basic economic principles of IGCC technology and to illustrate the extent to which this technology is a viable least-cost generation addition technology. Moreover, key reliability and emissions issues are addressed in relation to the technology alternatives. This paper is organized to first review the IGCC technology and to contrast its reliability, emission, performance and cost data with the three key commercially proven technologies: simple cycle combustion turbines, combined cycle plants, and coal-fired steam plants. Economic screening curves are used to illustrate the need for a balanced generation expansion mix of technologies. The regional market opportunity for coal fueled technology orders in the US from 1992 through 2005 is presented

  2. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  3. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  4. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly......Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging...... variables affecting the turbine design. Part B of this two-part paper presents the first application of a design method where the thermodynamic cycle optimization is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using the mean-line design tool described in part A. The high computational...

  5. Exergy optimization for a novel combination of organic Rankine cycles, Stirling cycle and direct expander turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Mahdi; Khosravian, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel combination of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs), Stirling cycle and direct expander turbines is modeled and optimized using the genetic algorithm. The Exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function in the genetic algorithm. High efficiency is the main advantage of Stirling cycle, however, it needs nearly isothermal compressor and turbine. Therefore, an argon ORC and a R14 ORC are placed before and after the Striling cycle along with two expander turbines at the end of the line. Each component and cycle of the proposed plant in this article is verified by the previous works available in the literature and good agreement is achieved. The obtained results reveal that 27.98%, 20.86% and 12.90% of the total cold exergy are used by argon ORC, Stirling cycle and R14 ORC, respectively. Therefore, utilization of the Stirling cycle is a good idea for the LNG line cold exergy. The maximum exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchanger after the argon ORC (85.786 kJ/s per one kg/s LNG) due to the wasted cold exergy, which can be used for air conditioning systems in the plant. Finally, it would be shown that the maximum efficiency of the proposed plant is 54.25% and the maximum output power is 355.72 kW.

  6. Combined cycle plants: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2016-07-01

    Gas turbine plants (GTP) for a long time have been developed by means of increasing the initial gas temperature and improvement of the turbo-machines aerodynamics and the efficiency of the critical components air cooling within the framework of a simple thermodynamic cycle. The application of watercooling systems that were used in experimental turbines and studied approximately 50 years ago revealed the fundamental difficulties that prevented the practical implementation of such systems in the industrial GTPs. The steam cooling researches have developed more substantially. The 300 MW power GTPs with a closedloop steam cooling, connected in parallel with the intermediate steam heating line in the steam cycle of the combined cycle plant (CCP) have been built, tested, and put into operation. The designs and cycle arrangements of such GTPs and entire combined cycle steam plants have become substantially more complicated without significant economic benefits. As a result, the steam cooling of gas turbines has not become widespread. The cycles—complicated by the intermediate air cooling under compression and reheat of the combustion products under expansion and their heat recovery to raise the combustion chamber entry temperature of the air—were used, in particular, in the domestic power GTPs with a moderate (700-800°C) initial gas turbine entry temperature. At the temperatures being reached to date (1300-1450°C), only one company, Alstom, applies in their 240-300 MW GTPs the recycled fuel cycle under expansion of gases in the turbine. Although these GTPs are reliable, there are no significant advantages in terms of their economy. To make a forecast of the further improvement of power GTPs, a brief review and assessment of the water cooling and steam cooling of hot components and complication of the GTP cycle by the recycling of fuel under expansion of gases in the turbine has been made. It is quite likely in the long term to reach the efficiency for the

  7. CANDU combined cycles featuring gas-turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchiarelli, J.; Choy, E.; Peryoga, Y.; Aryono, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, a power-plant analysis is conducted to evaluate the thermodynamic merit of various CANDU combined cycles in which continuously operating gas-turbine engines are employed as a source of class IV power restoration. It is proposed to utilize gas turbines in future CANDU power plants, for sites (such as Indonesia) where natural gas or other combustible fuels are abundant. The primary objective is to eliminate the standby diesel-generators (which serve as a backup supply of class III power) since they are nonproductive and expensive. In the proposed concept, the gas turbines would: (1) normally operate on a continuous basis and (2) serve as a reliable backup supply of class IV power (the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant uses standby gas turbines for this purpose). The backup class IV power enables the plant to operate in poison-prevent mode until normal class IV power is restored. This feature is particularly beneficial to countries with relatively small and less stable grids. Thermodynamically, the advantage of the proposed concept is twofold. Firstly, the operation of the gas-turbine engines would directly increase the net (electrical) power output and the overall thermal efficiency of a CANDU power plant. Secondly, the hot exhaust gases from the gas turbines could be employed to heat water in the CANDU Balance Of Plant (BOP) and therefore improve the thermodynamic performance of the BOP. This may be accomplished via several different combined-cycle configurations, with no impact on the current CANDU Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) full-power operating conditions when each gas turbine is at maximum power. For instance, the hot exhaust gases may be employed for feedwater preheating and steam reheating and/or superheating; heat exchange could be accomplished in a heat recovery steam generator, as in conventional gas-turbine combined-cycle plants. The commercially available GateCycle power plant analysis program was applied to conduct a

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  9. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kumar Naradasu; Rama Krishna Konijeti; Sita Rama Raju Venkata Alluru

    2007-01-01

    Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is a...

  11. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  12. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE OF LEASING MARINE VESSEL OWNERS AND CHARTERERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Витальевна БОНДАРЬ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of the basic types of the bareboat charter, presented algorithms decision on the justification of the respective projects. It was found that the initiator of the project can be both owners who wants to pass the boat rental and the charterer, and also who is the owner, who wants to take a boat for rent. It is proved that the implementation of these specific operations requires careful preparation, and using of the project approach will greatly enhance their effectiveness. We describe the life of the project finance lease from the standpoint of the marine vessel, the ship-owner and charterer. It is established that such projects characterized by four-phase structure of the life cycle: preparation, let's call it as the principal decision on (from the chartering of the vessel, the investment - to select the optimal variant (from the charter and the conclusion of the bareboat charter, the phase of operation of the vessel and the fourth - the closure of the project at the end of term bareboat charter. Skill description of the content of each phase, which will continue for the main participants of the project to determine the value of each phase and the value of the whole project.

  13. Combining the nuclear power plant steam cycle with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, M.A.; Al Awadhi, Fatimah M.; Bin Amer, Anwar O. [Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences, Safat 13113 (Kuwait)

    2010-12-15

    Nuclear steam power plants (NPP) are characterized by low efficiency, compared to steam power plants using fossil fuels. This is due to the relatively low temperature and pressure-throttling conditions of the NPP compared to those using fossil fuel. The light water pressurized water reactor (LW PWR) commercially known as AP600 was suggested for Kuwait cogeneration power desalting plant (CPDP). It has 600 MW nominal power capacity and 33% overall efficiency. Meanwhile, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) installed plenty of gas turbines (GTs) to cover the drastic increase in the peak electrical load during the summer season. Combining some of these GTs with the AP600 can increase the capacity and efficiency of the combined plant, compared to either the GT open cycle or the NPP separate plants. This paper investigates the feasibility of utilizing the hot gases leaving the GT to superheat the steam leaving the steam generator of the AP600 NPP, as well as heating the feed water returning to the steam generator of the NPP condenser. This drastically increases the power output and the efficiency of the NPP. Detailed modifications to the NPP power cycle and the resulting enhancement of its performance are presented. (author)

  14. Modified function projective combination synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-08

    Feb 8, 2017 ... Abstract. In this work, a novel combination synchronization scheme in which synchronization of a new combination hyperchaotic drive system formed by combining state variables of the original drive system with appropriate scaling factors with a response hyperchaotic system is considered.

  15. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centres. IAEA study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckoni, V.; Catlin, R.J.; Bennett, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Study Project on Regional Nuclear Fuel Cycle Centres (RFCC) was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1975 to examine the economic, safety, safeguards and security aspects of a multinational approach to planning and establishing nuclear fuel-cycle facilities as a contrast to a wholly national approach. The study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle, covering transport, storage, processing and recycle activities, starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. Specific features of large regional fuel-cycle centres, established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller fuel-cycle facilities set up on a national basis, have been evaluated. A methodology for assessing alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytical system has been developed to carry out such evaluations, including appropriate sensitivity analyses. Studies have also been made on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, non-proliferation and safeguards, physical security and other essential aspects related to the development of the RFCC concept. The results of the study are indeed very encouraging. In some areas - specifically non-proliferation and safeguards considerations, waste management aspects, and economics - considerable advantages are expected from the RFCC approach to fuel-cycle activities, as contrasted to the alternative of States setting up their own smaller national plants. In the case of health, safety and environmental aspects, physical protection considerations and nuclear materials control, operational advantages would result from the co-location of facilities and from the intergovernmental structure envisaged for an RFCC. The material

  16. Characterization and functional analysis of a slow-cycling subpopulation in colorectal cancer enriched by cell cycle inducer combined chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Hua; Mu, Lei; Li, Xiao-Lan; Hu, Yi-Bing; Liu, Hui; Han, Lin-Tao; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2017-10-03

    The concept of cancer stem cells has been proposed in various malignancies including colorectal cancer. Recent studies show direct evidence for quiescence slow-cycling cells playing a role in cancer stem cells. There exists an urgent need to isolate and better characterize these slow-cycling cells. In this study, we developed a new model to enrich slow-cycling tumor cells using cell-cycle inducer combined with cell cycle-dependent chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo . Our results show that Short-term exposure of colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapy combined with cell-cycle inducer enriches for a cell-cycle quiescent tumor cell population. Specifically, these slow-cycling tumor cells exhibit increased chemotherapy resistance in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo . Notably, these cells are stem-cell like and participate in metastatic dormancy. Further exploration indicates that slow-cycling colorectal cancer cells in our model are less sensitive to cytokine-induced-killer cell mediated cytotoxic killing in vivo and in vitro . Collectively, our cell cycle inducer combined chemotherapy exposure model enriches for a slow-cycling, dormant, chemo-resistant tumor cell sub-population that are resistant to cytokine induced killer cell based immunotherapy. Studying unique signaling pathways in dormant tumor cells enriched by cell cycle inducer combined chemotherapy treatment is expected to identify novel therapeutic targets for preventing tumor recurrence.

  17. Exergoeconomical analysis of coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avgousti, A.; Knoche, K.F.; Poptodorov, H.; Hesselmann, K.; Roth, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on combined cycle power plants with integrated coal gasification for a better utilization of primary energy sources which gained more and more importance. The established coal gasification technology offers various possibilities e.g. the TEXACO or the PRENFLO method. Recommendation for processes with these gasification methods will be evaluated energetically and exergetically. The pure thermodynamical analysis is at a considerable disadvantage in that the economical consequences of certain process improvement measures are not subjected to investigation. The connection of the exergetical with the economical evaluation will be realized in a way suggested as exergoeconomical analysis. This consideration of the reciprocal influencing of the exergy destruction and the capital depending costs is resulting in an optimization of the process and a minimization of the product costs

  18. Combined Cycle Power Generation Employing Pressure Gain Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley, Adam [United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, CT (United States). Research Center

    2017-05-15

    The Phase I program assessed the potential benefit of applying pressure gain combustion (PGC) technology to a natural gas combined cycle power plant. A conceptual design of the PGC integrated gas turbine was generated which was simulated in a detailed system modeling tool. The PGC integrated system was 1.93% more efficient, produced 3.09% more power, and reduced COE by 0.58%. Since the PGC system used had the same fuel flow rate as the baseline system, it also reduced CO2 emissions by 3.09%. The PGC system did produce more NOx than standard systems, but even with the performanceand cost penalties associated with the cleanup system it is better in every measure. This technology benefits all of DOE’s stated program goals to improve plant efficiency, reduce CO2 production, and reduce COE.

  19. Parametric Study Conducted of Rocket- Based, Combined-Cycle Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Smith, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Having reached the end of the 20th century, our society is quite familiar with the many benefits of recycling and reusing the products of civilization. The high-technology world of aerospace vehicle design is no exception. Because of the many potential economic benefits of reusable launch vehicles, NASA is aggressively pursuing this technology on several fronts. One of the most promising technologies receiving renewed attention is Rocket-Based, Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion. This propulsion method combines many of the efficiencies of high-performance jet aircraft with the power and high-altitude capability of rocket engines. The goal of the present work at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to further understand the complex fluid physics within RBCC engines that govern system performance. This work is being performed in support of NASA's Advanced Reusable Technologies program. A robust RBCC engine design optimization demands further investigation of the subsystem performance of the engine's complex propulsion cycles. The RBCC propulsion system under consideration at Lewis is defined by four modes of operation in a singlestage- to-orbit configuration. In the first mode, the engine functions as a rocket-driven ejector. When the rocket engine is switched off, subsonic combustion (mode 2) is present in the ramjet mode. As the vehicle continues to accelerate, supersonic combustion (mode 3) occurs in the ramjet mode. Finally, as the edge of the atmosphere is approached and the engine inlet is closed off, the rocket is reignited and the final accent to orbit is undertaken in an all-rocket mode (mode 4). The performance of this fourth and final mode is the subject of this present study. Performance is being monitored in terms of the amount of thrust generated from a given amount of propellant.

  20. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  1. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A: Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary turbine design model, the details of the validation and a sensitivity analysis on the main parameters, in order to minimize the number of decision variables in the subsequent turbine design optimization. Part B analyzes the application of the combined turbine and cycle designs on a selected case study, which was performed in order to show the advantages of the adopted methodology. Part A presents a one-dimensional turbine model and the results of the validation using two experimental test cases from literature. The first case is a subsonic turbine operated with air and investigated at the University of Hannover. The second case is a small, supersonic turbine operated with an organic fluid and investigated by Verneau. In the first case, the results of the turbine model are also compared to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results of the validation suggest that the model can predict values of efficiency within ± 1.3%-points, which is in agreement with the reliability of classic turbine loss models such as the Craig and Cox correlations used in the present study. Values similar to computational fluid dynamics simulations at the midspan were obtained in the first case of validation. Discrepancy below 12 % was obtained in the estimation of the flow velocities and turbine geometry. The values are considered to be within a

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling for Open Combined Regenerative Brayton and Inverse Brayton Cycles with Regeneration before the Inverse Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an open combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles with regeneration before the inverse cycle is established in this paper by using thermodynamic optimization theory. The flow processes of the working fluid with the pressure drops and the size constraint of the real power plant are modeled. There are 13 flow resistances encountered by the working fluid stream for the cycle model. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining nine flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, regenerator inlet and outlet, combustion chamber inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle, and control the air flow rate, the net power output and the thermal efficiency. The analytical formulae about the power output, efficiency and other coefficients are derived with 13 pressure drop losses. It is found that the combined cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency but smaller power output than those of the base combined cycle at small compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel integrated solar combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ISCC scheme with two-stage DSG fields has been proposed and analyzed. • HRSG and steam turbine working parameters have been optimized to match the solar integration. • New scheme exhibits higher solar shares in the power output and solar-to-electricity efficiency. • Thermodynamic performances between new and reference systems have been investigated and compared. - Abstract: Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems have become more and more popular due to their high fuel and solar energy utilization efficiencies. Conventional ISCC systems with direct steam generation (DSG) have only one-stage solar input. A novel ISCC with DSG system has been proposed and analyzed in this paper. The new system consists two-stage solar input, which would significantly increase solar share in the total power output. Moreover, how and where solar energy is input into ISCC system would have impact on the solar and system overall efficiencies, which have been analyzed in the paper. It has been found that using solar heat to supply latent heat for vaporization of feedwater would be superior to that to be used for sensible heating purposes (e.g. Superheating steam). The study shows that: (1) producing both the high- and low-pressure saturated steam in the DSG trough collector could be an efficient way to improve process and system performance; (2) for a given live steam pressure, the optimum secondary and reheat steam conditions could be matched to reach the highest system thermal efficiency and net solar-to-electricity efficiency; (3) the net solar-to-electricity efficiency could reach up to 30% in the novel two-stage ISCC system, higher than that in the one-stage ISCC power plant; (4) compared with the conventional combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power system, lower stack temperature could be achieved, owing to the elimination of the approach-temperature-difference constraint, resulting in better thermal match in the heat recovery steam generator

  5. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  6. International project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, V. M.; Juhn, P. E.

    2003-01-01

    In response to two IAEA General Conference Resolutions in September 2000, the IAEA has launched the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) in May 2001. As of February 2003, 12 IAEA Member States and the European Commission have become members of INPRO. In total, 19 cost-free experts have been nominated by these Member States and the European Commission to work for the INPRO project at the IAEA. Four meetings of the INPRO Steering Committee (SC), which is the decision and review body of INPRO, were held, two in 2001 and another two in 2002. The objective of INPRO, which is composed of two phases (Phase 1 and Phase 2), is to support safe, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology, in a sustainable manner, to meet the global energy needs in the next 50 years and beyond. During Phase 1, work is also subdivided in two sub phases: The currently on-going Phase 1A is focussing on the selection of criteria and development of methodologies and guidelines for the comparison of different reactor and fuel cycle concepts and approaches, taking into account the compilation and review of such concepts and approaches, and determination of user requirements in the areas of economics; environment; safety; proliferation-resistance; and cross cutting issues. The preliminary results of Phase 1A with respect to user requirements are summarized in the paper

  7. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  8. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  10. Parametric analysis for a new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Zhang Taiyong; Ma Shaolin

    2009-01-01

    A new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle, and could produce both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously. This combined cycle, which originates from the cycle proposed by authors previously, introduces an ejector between the rectifier and the condenser, and provides a performance improvement without greatly increasing the complexity of the system. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of the key thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. It is shown that heat source temperature, condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. It is evident that the ejector can improve the performance of the combined cycle proposed by authors previously.

  11. Developing Asset Life Cycle Management capabilities through the implementation of Asset Life Cycle Plans – an Action Research project

    OpenAIRE

    Ruitenburg, Richard; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan

    2017-01-01

    Asset Life Cycle Management is a strategic approach to managing physical assets over their complete life cycle. However, the literature and the recent ISO 55,000 standard do not offer guidance as to how to develop such an approach. This paper investigates the main capabilities for Asset Life Cycle Management by means of a four year Action Research project implementing Asset Life Cycle Plans. Five main capabilities emerged: 1. strategic information use; 2. alignment of operations and strategy;...

  12. All-regime combined-cycle plant: Engineering solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezinets, P. A.; Tumanovskii, G. G.; Tereshina, G. E.; Krylova, I. N.; Markina, V. N.; Migun, E. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development of distributed power generation systems as a supplement to the centralized unified power grid increases the operational stability and efficiency of the entire power generation industry and improves the power supply to consumers. An all-regime cogeneration combined-cycle plant with a power of 20-25 mW (PGU-20/25T) and an electrical efficiency above 50% has been developed at the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (ATEI) as a distributed power generation object. The PGU-20/25T two-circuit cogeneration plant provides a wide electrical and thermal power adjustment range and the absence of the mutual effect of electrical and thermal power output regimes at controlled frequency and power in a unified or isolated grid. The PGU-20/25T combined-cycle plant incorporates a gas-turbine unit (GTU) with a power of 16 MW, a heat recovery boiler (HRB) with two burners (before the boiler and the last heating stage), and a cogeneration steam turbine with a power of 6/9 MW. The PGU-20/25T plant has a maximum electrical power of 22 MW and an efficiency of 50.8% in the heat recovery regime and a maximum thermal power output of 16.3 MW (14 Gcal/h) in the cogeneration regime. The use of burners can increase the electrical power to 25 MW in the steam condensation regime at an efficiency of 49% and the maximum thermal power output to 29.5 MW (25.4 Gcal/h). When the steam turbine is shut down, the thermal power output can grow to 32.6 MW (28 Gcal/h). The innovative equipment, which was specially developed for PGU-20/25T, improves the reliability of this plant and simplifies its operation. Among this equipment are microflame burners in the heat recovery boiler, a vacuum system based on liquid-ring pumps, and a vacuum deaerator. To enable the application of PGU-20/25T in water-stressed regions, an air condenser preventing the heat-transfer tubes from the risk of covering with ice during operation in frost air has been developed. The vacuum system eliminates the need for

  13. Pre-Combustion Carbondioxide Capture in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeki YILMAZOĞLU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants have a significant place big proportion in the production of electric energy. Thermal power plants are the systems which converts heat energy to mechanical energy and also mechanical energy to electrical energy. Heat energy is obtained from combustion process and as a result of this, some harmful emissions, like CO2, which are the reason for global warming, are released to atmosphere. The contribution of carbondioxide to global warming has been exposed by the previous researchs. Due to this fact, clean energy technologies are growing rapidly all around the world. Coal is generally used in power plants and when compared to other fossil energy sources unit electricity production cost is less than others. When reserve rate is taken into account, coal may be converted to energy in a more efficient and cleaner way. The aim for using the clean coal technologies are to eradicate the harmful emissions of coal and to store the carbondioxide, orginated from combustion, in different forms. In line with this aim, carbondioxide may be captured by either pre-combustion, by O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems or by post combustion. The integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC are available in pre-combustion capture systems, whereas in O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems there are ultrasuper critical boiler technologies and finally flue gas washing systems by amines exists in post combustion systems. In this study, a pre-combustion CO2 capture process via oxygen blown gasifiers is compared with a conventional power plant in terms of CO2 emissions. Captured carbondioxide quantity has been presented as a result of the calculations made throughout the study.

  14. Optimal sensor placement in integrated gasification combined cycle power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Adrian J.; Diwekar, Urmila M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addresses the sensor placement problem in advanced power system. ► Presents the problem as a stochastic programming problem. ► Considers fisher information based objectives along with the economics of sensor. ► For the first time addresses the problem of sensor placement in advanced power systems. -- Abstract: The optimal sensor placement problem involves determining the most effective locations to place a network of sensors across an array of measurable signals, in accordance with a set of specified objectives and constraints, such as cost, performance, and sensitivity to variations in uncertain environments. In advanced power systems, such as in pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle power plants, the placement of sensors on-line within the power generation process can be expensive or technically infeasible due to certain harsh environments. This paper uses advanced modeling techniques to simulate the system’s steady state behavior, and to capture the variability in unknown process variables using the accuracy information from a given set of online sensors. This variability and measurement error is analyzed using a technique from information theory to determine the most cost-effective network of on-line sensors by formulating a nonlinear, stochastic binary integer problem. The solution is achieved by using an efficient sampling technique, Better Optimization algorithm for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems. The key contribution of using Fisher information as a metric for observation order is that it generalizes the Gaussian assumption on representing process and measurement variability for systems governed by nonlinear dynamics.

  15. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  16. Job life cycle management libraries for CMS workflow management projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingen, Frank van; Wilkinson, Rick; Evans, Dave; Foulkes, Stephen; Afaq, Anzar; Vaandering, Eric; Ryu, Seangchan

    2010-01-01

    Scientific analysis and simulation requires the processing and generation of millions of data samples. These tasks are often comprised of multiple smaller tasks divided over multiple (computing) sites. This paper discusses the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) workflow infrastructure, and specifically the Python based workflow library which is used for so called task lifecycle management. The CMS workflow infrastructure consists of three layers: high level specification of the various tasks based on input/output data sets, life cycle management of task instances derived from the high level specification and execution management. The workflow library is the result of a convergence of three CMS sub projects that respectively deal with scientific analysis, simulation and real time data aggregation from the experiment. This will reduce duplication and hence development and maintenance costs.

  17. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  18. Deployable bamboo structure project: A building life-cycle report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Adrian; Prastyatama, Budianastas; Sagara, Altho; Wirabuana, Revian N.

    2017-11-01

    Bamboo is considered as a sustainable material in the world of construction, and it is vastly available in Indonesia. The general utilization of the material is increasingly frequent, however, its usage as a deployable structure-a recently-developed use of bamboo, is still untapped. This paper presents a report on a deployable bamboo structure project, covering the entire building life-cycle phase. The cycle encompasses the designing; fabrication; transportation; construction; operation and maintenance; as well as a plan for future re-use. The building is made of a configuration of the structural module, each being a folding set of bars which could be reduced in size to fit into vehicles for easy transportation. Each structural module was made of Gigantochloa apus bamboo. The fabrication, transportation, and construction phase require by a minimum of three workers. The fabrication and construction phase require three hours and fifteen minutes respectively. The building is utilized as cafeteria stands, the operation and maintenance phase started since early March 2017. The maintenance plan is scheduled on a monthly basis, focusing on the inspection of the locking mechanism element and the entire structural integrity. The building is designed to allow disassembly process so that it is reusable in the future.

  19. Combining AHP and DEA Methods for Selecting a Project Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruch Keren

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A project manager has a major influence on the success or failure of the project. A good project manager can match between the strategy and objectives of the organization and the goals of the project. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate project manager is a key factor for the success of the project. A potential project manager is judged by his or her proven performance and personal qualifications. This paper proposes a method to calculate the weighted scores and the full rank of candidates for managing a project, and to select the best of those candidates. The proposed method combines specific methodologies: the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP and uses DEA Ranking Methods to enhance selection.

  20. ECONOMICAL OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF CONDENSING PLANTS CAPACITY MODERNIZED BY COMBINED-CYCLE TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Morozov

    2009-01-01

    Economic evaluation of combined-cycle technologies as main direction of power industry development is considered in the article. Analysis of Belarusian energy system operating mode is carried out. Economical optimization model of condensing plants capacity modernized by combined-cycle technology is suggested. In accordance with author’s approach optimal value of thermal power station modernization by combined-cycle technology is defined on basis of minimum-cost criterion. It is argued that in...

  1. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart of a cohort of residents (n = 909 in the intervention area (n = 520 (Fairfield and Liverpool and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389 (Bankstown. Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels.

  2. ECONOMICAL OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF CONDENSING PLANTS CAPACITY MODERNIZED BY COMBINED-CYCLE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Morozov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic evaluation of combined-cycle technologies as main direction of power industry development is considered in the article. Analysis of Belarusian energy system operating mode is carried out. Economical optimization model of condensing plants capacity modernized by combined-cycle technology is suggested. In accordance with author’s approach optimal value of thermal power station modernization by combined-cycle technology is defined on basis of minimum-cost criterion. It is argued that in the medium-term period power station modernization on basis of combined-cycle plant is most effective direction of energy-supply system technological development.

  3. Parametric analysis and optimization for a combined power and refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Gao Lin

    2008-01-01

    A combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the absorption refrigeration cycle. This combined cycle uses a binary ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously with only one heat source. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic parameters on the performance of the combined cycle. It is shown that heat source temperature, environment temperature, refrigeration temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. A parameter optimization is achieved by means of genetic algorithm to reach the maximum exergy efficiency. The optimized exergy efficiency is 43.06% under the given condition

  4. International project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA's project INPRO was initiated in order to provide a forum for discussion of experts and policy makers on all aspects of nuclear energy planning as well as on the development and deployment of innovative nuclear energy systems (INS). It brings together technology holders users and potential users to consider jointly the international and national actions required for achieving desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, but it pays particular attention to the needs of developing countries. Currently INPRO members count 24 including even three countries, which are not yet operating nuclear reactors. Its initial phase has produced an outlook into the future of the energy markets and defined basic principles, user requirements and criteria in the following areas as TECDOC1362 in June 2003; Economics, Environment, Fuel Cycle and Waste, Safety, Proliferation Resistance and Crosscutting Issues. This assessment methodology can be applied for screening an INS, comparing different INS to find a preferred INS consistent with the needs of a given state, and identifying RD and D needs. The methodology has be validated through case studies and updated as TECDOC1434 in December 2004. Currently, besides producing a manual for each chapter of TECDOC1434, six assessment studies of various INS options are being carried out and the number of such studies is increasing. Further several tasks are ongoing including modeling and analysis of global and regional balance of resources and INS deployment scenarios in order to gain the better perspective of future implication of INS deployment as well as to identify challenges and opportunities of INS. It is envisioned that INPRO will continue to develop with three planned major pillars of activity; methodology, infrastructure and coordination for planning of R and D activities. The paper discusses the progress and status of INPRO as well as the future prospect of INPRO activities

  5. Gasification integrated to combined cycles; Gasificacion integrada a ciclos combinados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Alcaraz C, Agustin M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The mineral coal is one of the most abundant fuels in the planet, but it has important amounts of sulfur and ashes that make difficult their use. On the other hand, many countries at the present time prevent to use the fuel oil as combustible with conventional technologies due to the metal and sulfur contents. Finally, in the new schemes of oil refinement it is anticipated to use the coking to take advantage of the barrel bottoms. The remainder product of this process, known as refinery coke, has a low commercial value, a high calorific power and high sulfur content and metals. The gasification has been developed in the last the two decades, in the highly industrialized countries, as an alternative for the efficient and clean generation of electricity from dirty fuels, as well as for obtaining certain fuels in places where access to petroleum is not available, but to the coal. This technology fulfills the strictest regulations of the world in what polluting emissions refers and it is the only solution, next to the fluidized beds, for the problems that present some fuels that are difficult to burn with conventional technologies, as the mineral coal, the petroleum coke and even the liquid remainders of the refinement. With base in the former, it is possible to think about the integration of this technology to a combined cycle plant for the generation of electricity or to a refinery generating steam, electrical energy, hydrogen and other consumables at a competitive cost, in such a way that the problems of handling and storage of the remainders are solved; on the other hand the use of the primary power resources in the country is maximized. [Spanish] El carbon mineral es uno de los combustibles mas abundantes en el planeta, pero posee cantidades importantes de azufre y cenizas que dificultan su utilizacion. Por otra parte, muchos paises en la actualidad impiden utilizar el combustoleo como combustible para tecnologias convencionales debido a los contenidos de azufre y

  6. The Eye Diagram: A New Perspective on the Project Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Heiser, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    The project life cycle, a well-established concept in project management literature and education, is used to highlight the dynamic requirements placed on a typical project manager. As a project moves through the selection, planning, execution, and termination phases, the project manager and team are faced with different, vying areas of…

  7. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A NEW COMBINED POWER AND REFRIGERATION CYCLE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezvantalab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles. Using a binary ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid, this combined cycle produces both power and refrigeration output simultaneously by employing only one external heat source. In order to achieve the highest possible exergy efficiency, a secondary turbine is inserted to expand the hot weak solution leaving the boiler. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN is used to simulate the thermodynamic properties and the relationship between the input thermodynamic variables on the cycle performance. It is shown that turbine inlet pressure, as well as heat source and refrigeration temperatures have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the results of ANN are in excellent agreement with the mathematical simulation and cover a wider range for evaluation of cycle performance.

  8. Current status and prospects on Rokkasho nuclear fuel cycle project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    JNFL has been established aiming at fulfillment of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, as well as to contribute to the long-term and stable supply of nuclear power in Japan. 'Uranium Enrichment Plant' with its production of 1,050 SWU/y and planned to be expand to 1,500 SWU/y, 'Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center' with 150,000/200 l drums stored, out of its 400,000 drums capacity, and 'Vitrified Waste Storage Center' with 760 canisters stored, out of its 1440 canisters capacity, are already in its operation. It is now preparing for the operation of '800 t/y Reprocessing Plant' and construction of '130t HM/y MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant'. As for the Reprocessing Plant, 780t of spent fuels has been already received and stored in the storage pools. Main plant is now in the course of test operation and planned to start the commercial operation by July 2006. Due to some defects found during the course of its construction, JNFL is now reviewing the Total Quality Assurance Structure to improve and reinforce its system. And for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant, activities towards obtaining the local autonomy's agreement for the construction are being made energetically. It is essential to obtain the good understanding of the public community to promote these projects successfully; JNFL is putting its best efforts to dispatch all the necessary information to the public in a timely manner. (author)

  9. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- cycle (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and projections from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.

  10. A Thermodynamic Analysis of Two Competing Mid-Sized Oxyfuel Combustion Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egill Thorbergsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of two mid-sized oxyfuel combustion combined cycles is performed. The two cycles are the semiclosed oxyfuel combustion combined cycle (SCOC-CC and the Graz cycle. In addition, a reference cycle was established as the basis for the analysis of the oxyfuel combustion cycles. A parametric study was conducted where the pressure ratio and the turbine entry temperature were varied. The layout and the design of the SCOC-CC are considerably simpler than the Graz cycle while it achieves the same net efficiency as the Graz cycle. The fact that the efficiencies for the two cycles are close to identical differs from previously reported work. Earlier studies have reported around a 3% points advantage in efficiency for the Graz cycle, which is attributed to the use of a second bottoming cycle. This additional feature is omitted to make the two cycles more comparable in terms of complexity. The Graz cycle has substantially lower pressure ratio at the optimum efficiency and has much higher power density for the gas turbine than both the reference cycle and the SCOC-CC.

  11. Project Management Life Cycle Models to Improve Management in High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, Andrey; Siniavina, Maria; Iliashenko, Oksana

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a possibility to improve project management in high-rise buildings construction through the use of various Project Management Life Cycle Models (PMLC models) based on traditional and agile project management approaches. Moreover, the paper describes, how the split the whole large-scale project to the "project chain" will create the factor for better manageability of the large-scale buildings project and increase the efficiency of the activities of all participants in such projects.

  12. Project Management Life Cycle Models to Improve Management in High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrov Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a possibility to improve project management in high-rise buildings construction through the use of various Project Management Life Cycle Models (PMLC models based on traditional and agile project management approaches. Moreover, the paper describes, how the split the whole large-scale project to the "project chain" will create the factor for better manageability of the large-scale buildings project and increase the efficiency of the activities of all participants in such projects.

  13. Combined Rankin and Organic Rankin Cycles with Screw Expenders

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Low pressure saturated steam exists in a lot of industries. The recovery of the energy from the low pressure saturated steam can save tremendous power consumption for those industries. Although the Rankin cycle with a steam turbine can be used to generate the power from the low pressure saturated steam, the isotropic efficiency of the steam turbine is low, the reliability is questionable due to the two phase expansion, and the size is typically large due to the low pressure. This paper presen...

  14. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  15. Integrated gasification combined cycle versus supercritical pulverized coal for power generation from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants provide potential performance, environmental, and fuel flexibility advantages over more conventional combustion technologies such as Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) plants. Projected pollutant emissions from IGCC plants are the lowest of all coal power generation technologies. Mercury and carbon dioxide emissions reductions can be achieved at a much lower cost for IGCC plants than for conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Future IGCC developments, such as improvements in process technologies and development of larger, more efficient combustion turbines, offer the potential to further increase the competitiveness and performance of IGCC. For these reasons, IGCC is likely to evolve as the future technology of choice for generation of electricity from coal. An overview is presented of the components of an IGCC plant, along with a discussion of integration options and commercial status. IGCC plant performance and economics are compared against SCPC power generation for Chinese coals. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Application of life cycle assessment for an evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse project--case study of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q H; Wang, X C; Xiong, J Q; Chen, R; Cao, B

    2010-03-01

    In order to illuminate the benefit of a wastewater treatment and reuse project, a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was proposed by combining the process-based LCA and the input-output based LCA in one framework and using energy consumption as the sole parameter for quantitative evaluation of the project. The life cycle consumption was evaluated mainly by life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis taking into account the construction phase, operation phase and demolishment phase of the project. For evaluating the life cycle benefit of treated water reuse, attention was paid to the decrease of secondary effluent discharge and water saving. As a result of comprehensive LCA analysis of a case project in Xi'an, China, it was understood that the life cycle benefit gained from treated wastewater reuse much surpassed the life cycle energy consumption. The advantage of wastewater treatment and reuse was well shown by LCA analysis using the proposed model. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovative open air brayton combined cycle systems for the next generation nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohuri, Bahman

    The purpose of this research was to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a molten salt, or liquid metal, to gas heat exchanger reaching a peak temperature of 660 0C. The effects of adding a recuperator or a bottoming steam cycle have been addressed. The calculated results are intended to identify paths for future work on the next generation nuclear power plant (GEN-IV). This document describes the proposed system in sufficient detail to communicate a good understanding of the overall system, its components, and intended uses. The architecture is described at the conceptual level, and does not replace a detailed design document. The main part of the study focused on a Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle system and a Recuperated Brayton Cycle since they offer the highest overall efficiencies. Open Air Brayton power cycles also require low cooling water flows relative to other power cycles. Although the Recuperated Brayton Cycle achieves an overall efficiency slightly less that the Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle, it is completely free of a circulating water system and can be used in a desert climate. Detailed results of modeling a combined cycle Brayton-Rankine power conversion system are presented. The Rankine bottoming cycle appears to offer a slight efficiency advantage over the recuperated Brayton cycle. Both offer very significant advantages over current generation Light Water Reactor steam cycles. The combined cycle was optimized as a unit and lower pressure Rankine systems seem to be more efficient. The combined cycle requires a lot less circulating water than current power plants. The open-air Brayton systems appear to be worth investigating, if the higher temperatures predicted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant do materialize.

  18. Wide Temperature Cycling Tolerant Electronic Packaging Substrates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary exploration missions require electronics packaging that can withstand extreme temperatures and numerous temperature cycles (-230C to +350C). The present...

  19. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, May 1991--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990`s, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  20. Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods

    OpenAIRE

    Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...

  1. The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

    1999-12-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  2. Thermodynamic Study of Multi Pressure HRSG in Gas/Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meeta; Singh, Onkar

    2018-01-01

    Combined cycle power plants have a combination of gas based topping cycle and steam based bottoming cycle through the use of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). These HRSG may be either of single pressure (SP) or dual pressure (DP) or multiple pressure type. Here in this study thermodynamic analysis is carried out for optimal performance of HRSG using different types of HRSG layout for combined cycle efficiency improvement. Performance of single pressure HRSG and dual pressure HRSG, utilized in gas/steam combined cycle is analyzed and presented here. In comparison to single pressure, dual pressure HRSG offers 10 to 15% higher reduction in stack temperature due to greater heat recovery and thus improved plant efficiency.

  3. Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites' input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves

  4. Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites` input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves.

  5. The application of cycling and cycling combined with feedback in the rehabilitation of stroke patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, David; Santos, Cristina P; Martins, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disabilities, such as hemiparesis, inability to walk without assistance, and dependence of others in the activities of daily living. Motor function rehabilitation after stroke demands for methods oriented to the recovery of the walking capacity. Because of the similarities with walking, cycling leg exercise may present a solution to this problem. The aim of this article is to review the state of the art applications of cycling leg exercise as a (1) motor function rehabilitation method and an (2) aerobic training method for stroke patients as well as the commonly used (3) assessment tools. The cycling characteristics and applications, the applied test protocols as well as the tools used to assess the state and the recovery of patients and types of cycling devices are presented. In addition, the potential benefits of the use of other therapies, like feedback, together with cycling are explored. The application of cycling leg exercise alone and combined with feedback in stroke rehabilitation approaches has shown promising results. Positive effects on motor abilities were found in subacute and chronic patients. However, larger and normalized studies and assessments are needed because there is a high heterogeneity in the patients' characteristics, protocols and metrics. This wil allow the comparison between different studies related with cycling. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermodynamic efficiency analysis and cycle optimization of deeply precooled combined cycle engine in the air-breathing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Qinglian

    2017-09-01

    The efficiency calculation and cycle optimization were carried out for the Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) with deeply precooled combined cycle. A component-level model was developed for the engine, and exergy efficiency analysis based on the model was carried out. The methods to improve cycle efficiency have been proposed. The results indicate cycle efficiency of SABRE is between 29.7% and 41.7% along the flight trajectory, and most of the wasted exergy is occupied by the unburned hydrogen in exit gas. Exergy loss exists in each engine component, and the sum losses of main combustion chamber(CC), pre-burner(PB), precooler(PC) and 3# heat exchanger(HX3) are greater than 71.3% of the total loss. Equivalence ratio is the main influencing factor of cycle, and it can be regulated by adjusting parameters of helium loop. Increase the maximum helium outlet temperature of PC by 50 K, the total assumption of hydrogen will be saved by 4.8%, and the cycle efficiency is advanced by 3% averagely in the trajectory. Helium recirculation scheme introduces a helium recirculation loop to increase local helium flow rate of PC. It turns out the total assumption of hydrogen will be saved by 9%, that's about 1740 kg, and the cycle efficiency is advanced by 5.6% averagely.

  7. Advanced Low Temperature Geothermal Power Cycles (The ENTIV Organic Project) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugerwa, Michael [Technip USA, Inc., Claremont, CA (United States)

    2015-11-18

    Feasibility study of advanced low temperature thermal power cycles for the Entiv Organic Project. Study evaluates amonia-water mixed working fluid energy conversion processes developed and licensed under Kalex in comparison with Kalina cycles. Both cycles are developed using low temperature thermal resource from the Lower Klamath Lake Geothermal Area. An economic feasibility evaluation was conducted for a pilot plant which was deemed unfeasible by the Project Sponsor (Entiv).

  8. Economic competitiveness of small modular reactors versus coal and combined cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Bilbao, Sama; Valle, Edmundo del

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) may be an option to cover the electricity needs of isolated regions, distributed generation grids and countries with small electrical grids. Previous analyses show that the overnight capital cost for SMRs is between 4500 US$/kW and 5350 US$/kW, which is between a 6% and a 26% higher than the average cost of a current large nuclear reactor. This study analyzes the economic competitiveness of small modular reactors against thermal plants using coal and natural gas combined cycle plants. To assess the economic competitiveness of SMRs, three overnight capital costs are considered 4500 US$/kW, 5000 US$/kW and 5350 US$/kW along with three discount rates for each overnight cost considered, these are 3, 7, and 10%. To compare with natural gas combined cycle (CC) units, four different gas prices are considered, these are 4.74 US$/GJ (5 US$/mmBTU), 9.48 US$/GJ (10 US$/mmBTU), 14.22 US$/GJ (15 US$/mmBTU), and 18.96 US$/GJ (20 US$/mmBTU). To compare against coal, two different coal prices are considered 80 and 120 US$/ton of coal. The carbon tax considered, for both CC and coal, is 30 US$/ton CO 2 . The results show what scenarios make SMRs competitive against coal and/or combined cycle plants. In addition, because the price of electricity is a key component to guarantee the feasibility of a new project, this analysis calculates the price of electricity for the economically viable deployment of SMRs in all the above scenarios. In particular, this study shows that a minimum price of electricity of 175 US$/MWh is needed to guarantee the feasibility of a new SMR, if its overnight capital cost is 5350 US$/kWe and the discount rate is 10%. Another result is that when the price of electricity is around 100 US$/MWh then the discount rate must be around 7% or less to provide appropriate financial conditions to make SMRs economically feasible. - Highlights: • Small modular reactor (SMR) are economically assessed. • SMR are compared against gas and coal

  9. A participatory project management cycle: can it add value to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many agricultural research and development projects appear to be implemented without following any clear plan or management framework. Similarly, many of these projects do not involve the real participation of the local actors, such as the farmers. Subsequently, such projects do not achieve the desired or planned ...

  10. Advanced power cycles and configurations for solar towers: Modeling and optimization of the decoupled solar combined cycle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Olcoz, Asier; Sorbet, Fco. Javier

    2017-06-01

    CSP technologies are essential to allow large shares of renewables into the grid due to their unique ability to cope with the large variability of the energy resource by means of technically and economically feasible thermal energy storage (TES) systems. However, there is still the need and sought to achieve technological breakthroughs towards cost reductions and increased efficiencies. For this, research on advanced power cycles, like the Decoupled Solar Combined Cycle (DSCC) is, are regarded as a key objective. The DSCC concept is, basically, a Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle in which the bottoming cycle is decoupled from the operation of the topping cycle by means of an intermediate storage system. According to this concept, one or several solar towers driving a solar air receiver and a Gas Turbine (Brayton cycle) feed through their exhaust gasses a single storage system and bottoming cycle. This general concept benefits from a large flexibility in its design. On the one hand, different possible schemes related to number and configuration of solar towers, storage systems media and configuration, bottoming cycles, etc. are possible. On the other, within a specific scheme a large number of design parameters can be optimized, including the solar field size, the operating temperatures and pressures of the receiver, the power of the Brayton and Rankine cycles, the storage capacity and others. Heretofore, DSCC plants have been analyzed by means of simple steady-state models with pre-stablished operating parameters in the power cycles. In this work, a detailed transient simulation model for DSCC plants has been developed and is used to analyze different DSCC plant schemes. For each of the analyzed plant schemes, a sensitivity analysis and selection of the main design parameters is carried out. Results show that an increase in annual solar to electric efficiency of 30% (from 12.91 to 16.78) can be achieved by using two bottoming Rankine cycles at two different

  11. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  12. Exergy analysis, parametric analysis and optimization for a novel combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yiping; Wang Jiangfeng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    A new combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. This combined cycle produces both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously. It can be driven by the flue gas of gas turbine or engine, solar energy, geothermal energy and industrial waste heats. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. And a parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of the key thermodynamic parameters on the performance of the combined cycle. In addition, a parameter optimization is achieved by means of genetic algorithm to reach the maximum exergy efficiency. The results show that the biggest exergy loss due to the irreversibility occurs in heat addition processes, and the ejector causes the next largest exergy loss. It is also shown that the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine back pressure, the condenser temperature and the evaporator temperature have significant effects on the turbine power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. The optimized exergy efficiency is 27.10% under the given condition.

  13. Performance potential of combined cycles integrated with low-Btu gasifiers for future electric utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison and an assessment of 10 advanced utility power systems on a consistent basis and to a common level of detail were analyzed. Substantial emphasis was given to a combined cycle systems integrated with low-Btu gasifiers. Performance and cost results from that study were presented for these combined cycle systems, together with a comparative evaluation. The effect of the gasifier type and performance and the interface between the gasifier and the power system were discussed.

  14. Estimating the power efficiency of the thermal power plant modernization by using combined-cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, L.S.; Harutyunyan, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    The power efficiency of the thermal power plant (TPP) modernization by using combined-cycle technologies is introduced. It is shown that it is possible to achieve the greatest decrease in the specific fuel consumption at modernizing the TPP at the expense of introducing progressive 'know-how' of the electric power generation: for TPP on gas, it is combined-cycle, gas-turbine superstructures of steam-power plants and gas-turbines with heat utilization

  15. Combined gas and steam cycle for a gas-cooled solar tower power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B.; Finckh, H. H.; Meyer-Pittroff, R.

    1981-03-01

    The design and optimization of a combined gas and steam turbine cycle incorporating both solar heating and a waste heat steam generator are investigated. Several variants of the combined cycle are considered and efficiency-enhancing features introduced. It is demonstrated that both straight solar and fossil-fueled constant load requirements are met, for a system with 800 C solar receiver temperature and 20 MWe capacity.

  16. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  17. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  18. Can we combine symptom scales for collaborative research projects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John P

    2012-02-01

    Collaborative research projects have the potential to answer important research questions, which may otherwise require huge resources, funding, and time to complete. There are several scales for measuring psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, with the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) being among the most commonly used. High quality research efforts have used these three scales in different projects, and in order to merge study efforts, some means of combining data from these scales may be necessary. We reviewed correlations in published studies for these three scales, finding them to be highly correlated, however on comparison of the three scales there were considerable clinical differences between them. The paper discusses potential methods for combining the scales in collaborative research, including use of the recently developed standardised remission criteria for schizophrenia.

  19. A Framework for BIM-Enabled Life-Cycle Information Management of Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BIM has been widely used in project management, but on the whole the applications have been scattered and the BIM models have not been deployed throughout the whole project life-cycle. Each participant builds their own BIM, so there is a major problem in how to integrate these dynamic and fragmented data together. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on BIM-based life-cycle information management and builds a framework for BIM-enabled life-cycle information management. To organize the life-cycle information well, the information components and information flow during the project life-cycle are defined. Then, the application of BIM in life-cycle information management is analysed. This framework will provide a unified platform for information management and ensure data integrity.

  20. Interconnection of the Degree of Risk and Life Cycle of the “Green Construction” Investment Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lepehova Natalia; Shoshinov Vitaly

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses interconnection of the degree of risk and the life cycle of the “green building” investment projects, which is structured according to the life cycle. Main stages of the implementation of investment and construction project were considered, interconnection of the project life cycle and the level of project risk were presented in the form of graphical model, proposed a mathematical model of the risk calculation at different stages of the project life cycle, which is a fun...

  1. Comparative performance analysis of combined-cycle pulse detonation turbofan engines (PDTEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Bhattrai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Combined-cycle pulse detonation engines are promising contenders for hypersonic propulsion systems. In the present study, design and propulsive performance analysis of combined-cycle pulse detonation turbofan engines (PDTEs is presented. Analysis is done with respect to Mach number at two consecutive modes of operation: (1 Combined-cycle PDTE using a pulse detonation afterburner mode (PDA-mode and (2 combined-cycle PDTE in pulse detonation ramjet engine mode (PDRE-mode. The performance of combined-cycle PDTEs is compared with baseline afterburning turbofan and ramjet engines. The comparison of afterburning modes is done for Mach numbers from 0 to 3 at 15.24 km altitude conditions, while that of pulse detonation ramjet engine (PDRE is done for Mach 1.5 to Mach 6 at 18.3 km altitude conditions. The analysis shows that the propulsive performance of a turbine engine can be greatly improved by replacing the conventional afterburner with a pulse detonation afterburner (PDA. The PDRE also outperforms its ramjet counterpart at all flight conditions considered herein. The gains obtained are outstanding for both the combined-cycle PDTE modes compared to baseline turbofan and ramjet engines.

  2. Combining life cycle assessment and qualitative risk assessment: the case study of alumina nanofluid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) to support the sustainability assessment of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and impacts quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a case study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk assessment, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of impacts of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sankha.deepp@gmail.com; Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  4. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Hu, Weiqiang; Ou Congjie; Chen Jincan

    2009-01-01

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions

  5. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yue [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Hu, Weiqiang [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Ou Congjie [College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Chen Jincan [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-06-15

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions.

  6. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  7. Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Goll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon (C cycle models applied for climate projections simulate a strong increase in net primary productivity (NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. These models usually neglect the limited availability of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, nutrients that commonly limit plant growth and soil carbon turnover. To investigate how the projected C sequestration is altered when stoichiometric constraints on C cycling are considered, we incorporated a P cycle into the land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg, which already includes representations of coupled C and N cycles.

    The model reveals a distinct geographic pattern of P and N limitation. Under the SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario, the accumulated land C uptake between 1860 and 2100 is 13% (particularly at high latitudes and 16% (particularly at low latitudes lower in simulations with N and P cycling, respectively, than in simulations without nutrient cycles. The combined effect of both nutrients reduces land C uptake by 25% compared to simulations without N or P cycling. Nutrient limitation in general may be biased by the model simplicity, but the ranking of limitations is robust against the parameterization and the inflexibility of stoichiometry. After 2100, increased temperature and high CO2 concentration cause a shift from N to P limitation at high latitudes, while nutrient limitation in the tropics declines. The increase in P limitation at high-latitudes is induced by a strong increase in NPP and the low P sorption capacity of soils, while a decline in tropical NPP due to high autotrophic respiration rates alleviates N and P limitations. The quantification of P limitation remains challenging. The poorly constrained processes of soil P sorption and biochemical mineralization are identified as the main uncertainties in the strength of P limitation

  8. Optimised heat recovery steam generators for integrated solar combined cycle plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Jürgen H.; Huschka, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    The cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is decreasing but, due to the cost differences and the currently limited value of energy storage, implementation of new facilities is still slow compared to photovoltaic systems. One recognized option to lower cost instantly is the hybridization of CSP with other energy sources, such as natural gas or biomass. Various references exist for the combination of CSP with natural gas in combined cycle plants, also known as Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) plants. One problem with current ISCC concepts is the so called ISCC crisis, which occurs when CSP is not contributing and cycle efficiency falls below efficiency levels of solely natural gas only fired combined cycle plants. This paper analyses current ISCC concepts and compares them with two optimised designs. The comparison is based on a Kuraymat type ISCC plant and shows that cycle optimization enables a net capacity increase of 1.4% and additional daily generation of up to 7.9%. The specific investment of the optimised Integrated Solar Combined Cycle plant results in a 0.4% cost increase, which is below the additional net capacity and daily generation increase.

  9. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    lower for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning processes than for the conventional processes, the improved power plant capacity results in the potential for significant reductions in the plant cost-of-electricity, about 4.5% for the Current Standards case, and more than 7% for the Future Standards case. For Methanol Synthesis, the Novel Gas Cleaning process scheme again shows the potential for significant advantages over the conventional gas cleaning schemes. The plant generating capacity is increased more than 7% and there is a 2.3%-point gain in plant thermal efficiency. The Total Capital Requirement is reduced by about 13% and the cost-of-electricity is reduced by almost 9%. For both IGCC Methanol Synthesis cases, there are opportunities to combine some of the filter-reactor polishing stages to simplify the process further to reduce its cost. This evaluation has devised plausible humid-gas cleaning schemes for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process that might be applied in IGCC and Methanol Synthesis applications.

  10. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besarati, S.M.; Atashkari, K.; Jamali, A.; Hajiloo, A.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simultaneous optimization study of two outputs performance of a previously proposed combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. It has been carried out by varying the upper cycle pressure ratio, the expansion pressure of the bottom cycle and using variable, above atmospheric, bottom cycle inlet pressure. Multi-objective genetic algorithms are used for Pareto approach optimization of the cycle outputs. The two important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are net specific work (w s ) and thermal efficiency (η th ). It is shown that some interesting features among optimal objective functions and decision variables involved in the Baryton and inverse Brayton cycles can be discovered consequently.

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment innovative approaches developed in HeartCycle project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, S; Rocha, T; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Morais, J; Ferreira, J; Mendes, M

    2013-01-01

    Two innovative CVD event risk assessment strategies were developed in the scope of HeartCycle project: i) combination of individual risk assessment tools; ii) personalization of risk assessment based on grouping of patients. These approaches aimed to defeat some of the major limitations of the tools currently applied in the daily clinical practice, namely to: i) improve the risk prediction performance when comparing it to the one achieved by the individual current risk assessment tools; ii) consider the available knowledge provided by other risk assessment tools; iii) cope with missing risk factors; iv) incorporate additional clinical knowledge. Two different real patients' datasets were applied to validate the developed strategies: i) Santa Cruz Hospital, Portugal, N=460 ACS-NSTEMI1 patients; ii) Leiria Pombal Hospital Centre, Portugal, N=99 ACS-NSTEMI. Based on the gathered results, we propose a new strategy in order to improve patients' stratification.

  12. The combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    We investigated the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing, employing a monetary incentive delay task in combination with EEG. Females participated during late follicular and late luteal phases, performing in both control and stress conditions. We

  13. Projecting climate change impact on water-carbon cycling in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, K.; Sun, G.; Zhang, Y.; McNulty, S.

    2016-12-01

    The ongoing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission and associated atmospheric processes have extensive impacts on regional climate and water-carbon cycling at broad scales. We projected potential climate change and its influences on ecohydrology using datasets derived from multiple global and regional climate models over the conterminous U.S. (CONUS). We find that future warming climate may alter the water partitioning pattern profoundly by enhancing evapotranspiration (ET) and depressing runoff. Overall, the role of rising temperature is likely to outweigh that of precipitation in controlling annual runoff in the later part of the 21st century, leading to an overall decrease of 8 30 mm yr-1 (3% 11%) in runoff. Due to the tight linkage between water and carbon cycles, such decrease in runoff and increase in ET may cause significant divergence in future ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration. Our evaluation in the 170 National Forests and Grasslands across the CONUS suggests an average decrease by 18 31 mm yr-1 (4% 7%) in water yield and an increase by 76 229 g C m-2 yr-1 (8% 24%) in ecosystem productivity by 2100. Moreover, atmospheric aerosols may interact with GHGs and affect terrestrial hydrological cycle and ecosystem functions. We investigated the individual and combined impacts of climate change and air pollution on water-carbon cycling over the CONUS by connecting a regional climate model with sophisticated chemistry-aerosol modules and an ecohydrological model. The results indicate that regional air pollution may largely suppress water and carbon fluxes, and particularly aggravate regional climate change impacts on water shortage.

  14. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  15. DE-NE0000735 - FINAL REPORT ON THORIUM FUEL CYCLE NEUP PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahn, Steven [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Ault, Timothy [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The report is broken into six chapters, including this executive summary chapter. Following an introduction, this report discusses each of the project’s three major components (Fuel Cycle Data Package (FCDP) Development, Thorium Fuel Cycle Literature Analysis and Database Development, and the Thorium Fuel Cycle Technical Track and Proceedings). A final chapter is devoted to summarization. Various outcomes, publications, etc. originating from this project can be found in the Appendices at the end of the document.

  16. Regulation Of Hydraulic Fracturing In South Africa: A Project Life-Cycle Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This note deals with the 2015 regulations pertaining to hydraulic fracturing in South Africa from a project life-cycle approach. A brief history of the fragmentation of the regulation of environmental and mining related matters is provided, followed by a discussion of the application of the 2015 regulations during the project life cycle, ie the pre-commencement phase, the design and authorisation phase, the testing phase, the operational phase and the decommissioning and closure phase.

  17. Seismic safety margins research program. Project VIII load combination project: work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.K.; Vepa, K.; George, L.; Smith, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed load combination project has the following overall objectives: develop a methodology for appropriate combination of dynamic loads for nuclear power plants under normal plant operation, transients, accidents, and natural hazards; establish design criteria, load factors, and component service levels for appropriate combinations of dynamic loads or responses to be used in nuclear power plant design; determine the reliability of typical piping systems, both inside and outside the containment structure, and provide the NRC with a sound technical basis for defining the criteria for postulating pipe breaks; and determine the probabilities of a large LOCA induced directly and indirectly by a range of earthquakes

  18. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  19. International Projects Development: From Decision Cycle to Overseas Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Gaston J.

    The major elements of the industry-based planning process can be successfully applied to the development and implementation of international projects in educational institutions. International education programs share the following fundamental structural elements with business and industry: they compete in the market place, and exist by managing…

  20. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  1. A Framework for BIM-enabled Life-cycle Information Management of Construction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, n; Ma, Ling; Ding, Lieyun

    2014-01-01

    BIM has been widely used in project management, but on the whole the applications have been scattered and the BIM models have not been deployed throughout the whole project life-cycle. Each participant builds their own BIM, so there is a major problem in how to integrate these dynamic and fragmented data together. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on BIM- based life-cycle information management and builds a framework for BIM-enabled life-cycle information management. To organ...

  2. Minimization of the LCA impact of thermodynamic cycles using a combined simulation-optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Robert; Cortés, Daniel; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Boer, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: ► Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. ► Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. ► Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. ► Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.

  3. INFORMATION MODELING OF LIFE CYCLE OF HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, many years’ experience in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings has been accumulated. Its analysis reveals not only the engineering and organizational-technological specifics of such projects, but also systemic gaps in the field of management. In the implementation of large-scale and unique projects for high-rise buildings, the problems and tasks of improving approaches to managing the full life cycle of projects and methods, which will improve their competitiveness, become topical. The systems being used have largely exhausted their resource efficiency, which is associated with automation of traditional “inherited” processes and management structures, as well as development of IT-systems focused on digitalization of the activities of construction company, rather than the project. To solve these problems, it is proposed to carry out: reengineering of the schemes of information interaction between the project’s participants; formation of integrated digital environment for the life cycle of the project; development of systems for integrating data management and project management. Subject: problems, approaches and methods of digitalization of project’s life cycle management in relation to the specifics and features of high-rise buildings. Research objectives: substantiation of the most perspective approaches and methods of information modeling of high-rise construction as the basis for managing the full life cycle of the given project. Materials and methods: the experience of digitalization of design, construction, operation and development of high-rise buildings, presented in specialized literature, is analyzed. The methods for integrating information models of various stages of project’s life cycle and for information interaction of project’s participants are considered. Results: the concept of forming a single digital environment for the project is proposed, taking into account the features of the life

  4. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed.

  5. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B: Application on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo La Seta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle (ORC power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly-loaded stages in supersonic flow regimes. Part A of this two-part paper has presented the implementation and validation of the simulation tool TURAX, which provides the optimal preliminary design of single-stage axial-flow turbines. The authors have also presented a sensitivity analysis on the decision variables affecting the turbine design. Part B of this two-part paper presents the first application of a design method where the thermodynamic cycle optimization is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using the mean-line design tool described in part A. The high computational cost of the turbine optimization is tackled by building a model which gives the optimal preliminary design of an axial-flow turbine as a function of the cycle conditions. This allows for estimating the optimal expander performance for each operating condition of interest. The test case is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net power output of 8.3% compared to the case when the turbine efficiency is assumed to be 80%. This work also demonstrates that this approach can support the plant designer

  6. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  7. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  8. Regulation of hydraulic fracturing in South Africa: a project life-cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This note deals with the 2015 regulations pertaining to hydraulic fracturing in South Africa from a project life-cycle approach. A brief history of the fragmentation of the regulation of environmental and mining related matters is provided, followed by a discussion of the application of the 2015 regulations during the project life ...

  9. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  10. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  11. Power and efficiency optimization for combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanli; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for open combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles is established considering the pressure drops of the working fluid along the flow processes and the size constraints of the real power plant using finite time thermodynamics in this paper. There are 11 flow resistances encountered by the gas stream for the combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, combustion inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances control the air flow rate and the net power output. The relative pressure drops associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle. The analytical formulae about the relations between power output, thermal conversion efficiency, and the compressor pressure ratio of the top cycle are derived with the 11 pressure drop losses in the intake, compression, combustion, expansion, and flow process in the piping, the heat transfer loss to the ambient, the irreversible compression and expansion losses in the compressors and the turbines, and the irreversible combustion loss in the combustion chamber. The performance of the model cycle is optimized by adjusting the compressor inlet pressure of the bottom cycle, the air mass flow rate and the distribution of pressure losses along the flow path. It is shown that the power output has a maximum with respect to the compressor inlet pressure of the bottom cycle, the air mass flow rate or any of the overall pressure drops, and the maximized power output has an additional maximum with respect to the compressor pressure

  12. Thermal energy storage for an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, K.; Antoniak, Z.; Brown, D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-10-01

    This study investigates the use of molten nitrate salt thermal energy storage in an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant allowing the facility to economically provide peak- and intermediate-load electric power. The results of the study show that an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant with thermal energy storage can reduce the cost of coal-fired peak- or intermediate-load electric power by between 5% and 20% depending on the plants operating schedule. The use of direct-contact salt heating can further improve the economic attractiveness of the concept. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. GENETIC GAIN AND PROJECTED INCREASE IN STAND VOLUME FROM TWO CYCLES BREEDING PROGRAM OF Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cycles breeding program of Acacia mangium was practiced by Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research. Although improved seed from the breeding program have been used in operational plantation, the real amount of gains in productivity was not verified together yet. This study was aimed to observe realized genetic gain and projected increase in stand volume from the two cycles breeding of A. mangium, and to discuss the implications on plantation productivity and sustainable forestry in Indonesia. Improved seed from first and second-generation seed orchard were tested together with an unimproved seed in genetic gain trial in West Java, with spacing of 3 x 3 m. Measurements were done at three years ages for height, dbh, and stem volume. Realized genetic gain was calculated as the percentage increase of improved seed over the unimproved one. Results of study showed that improved seed performed better growth than the unimproved with realized gain of 5-24% (height, 3-44% (dbh and 11-90% (stem volume. Improved seed from second-generation outperformed that from the first-generation, with an improvement of 6-16% (height, 3-26% (dbh and 20-53% (stem volume. Genetic gains increased with increasing ages for height, but it tended to decrease for dbh and stem volume. At given site and silvicultural practices, projected increase in stand volume at 8 years rotation reached 290-325 m3/ha, which is equal to 30-50% of gains. The uses of high genetically improved seed, in combination with intensive silviculture, would provide significant impacts on plantation productivity and sustainable forestry in Indonesia.

  14. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of impact of inlet air cooling techniques on gas turbine and combined cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Alok Ku; Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The article is focused on the comparison of impact of two different methods of inlet air cooling (vapor compression and vapor absorption cooling) integrated to a cooled gas turbine based combined cycle plant. Air-film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. A parametric study of the effect of compressor pressure ratio, compressor inlet temperature (T i , C ), turbine inlet temperature (T i , T ), ambient relative humidity and ambient temperature on performance parameters of plant has been carried out. Optimum T i , T corresponding to maximum plant efficiency of combined cycle increases by 100 °C due to the integration of inlet air cooling. It has been observed that vapor compression cooling improves the efficiency of gas turbine cycle by 4.88% and work output by 14.77%. In case of vapor absorption cooling an improvement of 17.2% in gas cycle work output and 9.47% in gas cycle efficiency has been observed. For combined cycle configuration, however, vapor compression cooling should be preferred over absorption cooling in terms of higher plant performance. The optimum value of compressor inlet temperature has been observed to be 20 °C for the chosen set of conditions for both the inlet air cooling schemes. - Highlights: • Inlet air cooling improves performance of cooled gas turbine based combined cycle. • Vapor compression inlet air cooling is superior to vapor absorption inlet cooling. • For every turbine inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio. • The optimum compressor inlet temperature is found to be 293 K

  16. Optimum operating conditions for a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrameli, S.M.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The combined production of thermal power and cooling with an ammonia-water based cycle proposed by Goswami is under intensive investigation. In the cycle under consideration, simultaneous cooling output is produced by expanding an ammonia-rich vapor in an expander to sub-ambient temperatures and subsequently heating the cool exhaust. When this mechanism for cooling production is considered in detail, it is apparent that the cooling comes at some expense to work production. To optimize this trade-off, a very specific coefficient-of-performance has been defined. In this paper, the simulation of the cycle was carried out in the process simulator ASPEN Plus. The optimum operating conditions have been found by using the Equation Oriented mode of the simulator and some of the results have been compared with the experimental data obtained from the cycle. The agreement between the two sets proves the accuracy of the optimization results

  17. Conversion of a hard coal fired power plant into a modern combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandauer, M. [Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The repowering of a coal fired power plant into a modern combined cycle is described. The plant is located in Karlsruhe, Germany. The hard coal fired boiler is replaced by a gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator. The initial steam turbine as well as major components of the water-steam cycle were revised and integrated in the new plant. To guarantee fast start-up times, an unfired once through type steam generator was chosen. The heat recovery steam generator is connected to a gas turbine, firing natural gas or fuel oil no. 2. In repowering the plant, thermal efficiency increased from 38% for the steam power plant to about 58% in combined cycle application. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of Indirect Combined Cycle in Very High Temperature Gas--Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Robert Barner; Cliff Davis; Steven Sherman; Paul Pickard

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory are developing a very high temperature reactor to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is twofold: (a) efficient, low-cost energy generation and (b) hydrogen production. Although a next-generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual purpose, as assumed here. A dual-purpose design with a combined cycle of a Brayton top cycle and a bottom Rankine cycle was investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting heat to a hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and a helium-nitrogen mixture were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms of the cycle efficiency. The relative component sizes were estimated for the different working fluids to provide an indication of the relative capital costs. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the cycle were performed to determine the effects of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of the cycle to various operating conditions as well as trade-offs between efficiency and component size. Parametric studies were carried out on reactor outlet temperature, mass flow, pressure, and turbine cooling

  19. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  20. The optimization air separation plants for combined cycle MHD-power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Springmann, H.; Greenberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the design approaches being employed during a current supported study directed at developing an improved air separation process for the production of oxygen enriched air for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combustion are outlined. The ultimate objective is to arrive at conceptual designs of air separation plants, optimized for minimum specific power consumption and capital investment costs, for integration with MHD combined cycle power plants.

  1. COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE FOR THERMAL POWER STATIONS: EXPERIENCE IN DESIGNING AND OPERATION, PROSPECTS IN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karnitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has reviewed main world tendencies in power consumption and power system structure. Main schemes of combined cycle gas turbines have been considered in the paper. The paper contains an operational analysis of CCGT blocks that are operating within the Belarusian energy system. The analysis results have been given in tables showing main operational indices of power blocks

  2. Optimization of advenced liquid natural gas-fuelled combined cycle machinery systems for a high-speed ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveitaskog, Kari Anne; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at designing and optimizing combined cycles for marine applications. For this purpose, an in-house numerical simulation tool called DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis) and a genetic algorithm-based optimization routine are used. The top cycle is modeled as the aero-derivative gas....... Furthermore, practical and operational aspects of using these three machinery systems for a high-speed ferry are discussed. Two scenarios are evaluated. The first scenario evaluates the combined cycles with a given power requirement, optimizing the combined cycle while operating the gas turbine at part load....... The second scenario evaluates the combined cycle with the gas turbine operated at full load. For the first scenario, the results suggest that the thermal efficiencies of the combined gas and steam cycles are 46.3 % and 48.2 % for the single pressure and dual pressure steam cycles, respectively. The gas ORC...

  3. CO2-free power generation in combined cycles-Integration of post-combustion separation of carbon dioxide in the steam cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Bjoern Fredriksson; Assadi, Mohsen; Potts, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the release of the Kyoto protocol the demand for CO 2 -free processes have been increasing. One of the most expanding sources of electric power in the industrialised world today is the gas-fired combined cycle, combining high efficiency and low investment cost. In this paper, the integration of a post-combustion CO 2 -separation unit into a combined cycle is studied from a thermodynamic and economic point-of-view. A standard dual-pressure combined cycle is chosen as a reference cycle. It is compared to a dual-pressure combined cycle and a triple-pressure combined cycle with the lowest pressure level producing steam for a CO 2 -separation unit. The steam pressure levels in the different cycles are optimised for maximum efficiency and minimum specific cost, respectively, using genetic algorithms. The efficiency drop due to CO 2 -separation is approximately 8% points, from 54 to 46%. The specific cost of the power plant is expected to increase with almost 100% and the cost of electricity with approximately 30%. In several countries a carbon dioxide tax is already introduced as an incentive for more efficient power cycles and use of fuels with lower content of coal. The result above implies that the level of such a tax would be in the order of 30% of the price of electricity to encourage CO 2 -free power generation

  4. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  5. Improving building life-cycle information management through documentation and communication of project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.J.

    1995-08-01

    Most currently available computer tools for the building industry proffer little more than productivity improvement in the transmission of graphical drawings and textual specifications, without addressing more fundamental changes in building life-cycle information management. This paper describes preliminary research into the development of a framework for the documentation and communication of the project objectives of a building project. When implemented in an interactive networked environment, this framework is intended to promote multiple participant involvement in the establishment and use of a common set of explicit goals, from the earliest phase of a project throughout its life cycle. A number of potential applications for this framework are identified. The requirements for integrating this life-cycle information with a product model of the physical design of a building, in an attempt to document and communicate design intent, are also discussed.

  6. Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiments: System Identification Rack Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Randy; Stueber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The System Identification (SysID) Rack is a real-time hardware-in-the-loop data acquisition (DAQ) and control instrument rack that was designed and built to support inlet testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. This instrument rack is used to support experiments on the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiment (CCE? LIMX). The CCE?LIMX is a testbed for an integrated dual flow-path inlet configuration with the two flow paths in an over-and-under arrangement such that the high-speed flow path is located below the lowspeed flow path. The CCE?LIMX includes multiple actuators that are designed to redirect airflow from one flow path to the other; this action is referred to as "inlet mode transition." Multiple phases of experiments have been planned to support research that investigates inlet mode transition: inlet characterization (Phase-1) and system identification (Phase-2). The SysID Rack hardware design met the following requirements to support Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments: safely and effectively move multiple actuators individually or synchronously; sample and save effector control and position sensor feedback signals; automate control of actuator positioning based on a mode transition schedule; sample and save pressure sensor signals; and perform DAQ and control processes operating at 2.5 KHz. This document describes the hardware components used to build the SysID Rack including their function, specifications, and system interface. Furthermore, provided in this document are a SysID Rack effectors signal list (signal flow); system identification experiment setup; illustrations indicating a typical SysID Rack experiment; and a SysID Rack performance overview for Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments. The SysID Rack described in this document was a useful tool to meet the project objectives.

  7. Project risk management: A review of an institutional project life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiru Gachie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a desktop analysis of project risk management involving a project management institutional restructuring. The pragmatic nature of this research allows for the literature review and the document analysis to be integrated and presented as both a descriptive and analytical research. The analysis demonstrates that the project committee did not proactively manage project risk. The restructuring was a change management project, entailing the implementation of many organisational changes, such as restructuring, lay-off of some part of the administrative workforce, adoption of new technology, provision of new approaches to well-established procedures, and implementation of new performance initiative, the process which should have been managed with an effective integrated risk strategy and plan. Analysis of the restructuring project risk management exhibits little evidence of a systematic (computer based or manual record that should have provided policies, procedures, and structures for managing risk. The article concludes that the restructuring risk process was inadequate and it could not have ensured a successful project. An analysis of the restructuring project risk monitoring and control exhibits a reactive rather than proactive application of risk management procedures. The analysis further indicates that the committee failed to make use of the various project risk management processes, standards, and guidelines. Based on the conclusions, the article recommends that project risk planning, strategy, control, and monitoring should be put in place for future institutional projects. The project management team should also put in place procedures for primary stakeholders engagements, identify and address their nature of interest and power in future risk management projects

  8. Interconnection of the Degree of Risk and Life Cycle of the “Green Construction” Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepehova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses interconnection of the degree of risk and the life cycle of the “green building” investment projects, which is structured according to the life cycle. Main stages of the implementation of investment and construction project were considered, interconnection of the project life cycle and the level of project risk were presented in the form of graphical model, proposed a mathematical model of the risk calculation at different stages of the project life cycle, which is a function of depending on the different risk parameters.

  9. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, E. Bruce [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, Tim [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Mardiat, Ed [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc., Kansas City, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nation's best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission providing top quality medical care and instruction without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power

  10. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of sustainable product design strategies for combined cycle power plants; Lebenszyklusanalyse und Bestimmung von Einflussfaktoren zur nachhaltigen Produktgestaltung von GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthey, Falko

    2010-03-26

    The growth of the national GDP on a worldwide level and the associated increasing demand for primary energy inevitably result in higher emissions levels. According to recent international scientific studies the energy sector (including electricity generation, industrial activities and traffic) contributes up to 83 % to the worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change and the projection of its impacts have been acknowledged also on the political level and concise measures are being considered. Since access to electricity and sustainable development are inseparable, the question arises whether and how adequate answers can be given within the coming years. Furthermore, the definite lifetime of the existing power plant fleet will result in a gap of up to 12.000 MWh in 2020, depending on the scenario. One part of the answer lies in the sustainable design of power plants. The main contribu-tion of this work is therefore the life cycle analysis of a combined cycle power plant from of a manufacturer's perspective. The visualisation of the entire product system and the re-sults of the impact assessment facilitate the determination of improvement potential. The system boundaries for this study include all relevant phases of the product life cycle (materials, manufacturing, transport, operation, service and end of life). The life cycle inventory consists of all bills of materials and energy consumption for all components and life cycle phases. The interpretation of the results of the impact assessment showed the expected significant contribution in kg CO{sub 2}e for the emission of the full load operation. Nevertheless, the results for all impact categories over the entire lifecycle are given. Various operation scenarios and configurations can now be analysed based on the elaborated modules, and can now serve as decision support already during product development. The visualisation of impacts of design decisions on the ecological footprint of the product system in

  11. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This paper aims to make a sustainability assessment of different wine-growing scenarios located in Calabria (Southern Italy that combines conflicting insights, i.e., environmental and economic ones, by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC to identify the main hotspots and select the alternative scenarios closest to the ideal solution through the VIKOR multicriteria method. In particular, the latter allowed us to obtain synthetic indices for a two-dimensional sustainability assessment. Conventional practices associated to the espalier training system represent the best compromise from both environmental and economic points of view, due to the higher yield per hectare. The choices regarding Functional Unit (FU and indicators were shown to have a high influence on results.

  12. Optimization of fog inlet air cooling system for combined cycle power plants using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehyaei, Mehdi A.; Tahani, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Pouria; Esfandiari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combined cycle power plant is first conducted and the effects of gas turbine inlet fogging system on the first and second law efficiencies and net power outputs of combined cycle power plants are investigated. The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) considered for this study consist of a double pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to utilize the energy of exhaust leaving the gas turbine and produce superheated steam to generate electricity in the Rankine cycle. In order to enhance understanding of this research and come up with optimum performance assessment of the plant, a complete optimization is using a genetic algorithm conducted. In order to achieve this goal, a new objective function is defined for the system optimization including social cost of air pollution for the power generation systems. The objective function is based on the first law efficiency, energy cost and the external social cost of air pollution for an operational system. It is concluded that using inlet air cooling system for the CCPP system and its optimization results in an increase in the average output power, first and second law efficiencies by 17.24%, 3.6% and 3.5%, respectively, for three warm months of year. - Highlights: • To model the combined cycle power plant equipped with fog inlet air cooling method. • To conduct both exergy and economic analyses for better understanding. • To conduct a complete optimization using a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal design parameters of the system

  13. Numerical simulation of divergent rocket-based-combined-cycle performances under the flight condition of Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.

  14. Efficiency Growth of Combined-cycle Cogeneration Plant with the Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency of modern technologies of the combined production of heat and electricity and ways of energy saving on base of recycling secondary energy sources has been estimated. It is shown that the most effective for cogeneration are combined-cycle plants. The rational scheme of interaction of combined-cycle cogeneration plant with heat supply system has been offered. Theoretical bases of interaction of main installation with a contour of heat and hot water supply system has been developed. Numerical modeling of temperature parameters and the analysis of results of numerical modeling has been executed. The technology of increase of energy efficiency of installations on base of recycling heat is offered. Increase of effectiveness of system is achieved due to full use of heat and reduction of losses to environment. It is established, that the rational scheme of interaction of combined-cycle cogeneration plant with heat supply system allows increasing energy efficiency on 2 % that corresponds to economy of fuel 3 %.

  15. BrainCycles: Experimental Setup for the Combined Measurement of Cortical and Subcortical Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients during Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratkowski, Maciej; Storzer, Lena; Butz, Markus; Schnitzler, Alfons; Saupe, Dietmar; Dalal, Sarang S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that bicycling ability remains surprisingly preserved in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who suffer from freezing of gait. Cycling has been also proposed as a therapeutic means of treating PD symptoms, with some preliminary success. The neural mechanisms behind these phenomena are however not yet understood. One of the reasons is that the investigations of neuronal activity during pedaling have been up to now limited to PET and fMRI studies, which restrict the temporal resolution of analysis, and to scalp EEG focused on cortical activation. However, deeper brain structures like the basal ganglia are also associated with control of voluntary motor movements like cycling and are affected by PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted for therapy in PD patients provide rare and unique access to directly record basal ganglia activity with a very high temporal resolution. In this paper we present an experimental setup allowing combined investigation of basal ganglia local field potentials (LFPs) and scalp EEG underlying bicycling in PD patients. The main part of the setup is a bike simulator consisting of a classic Dutch-style bicycle frame mounted on a commercially available ergometer. The pedal resistance is controllable in real-time by custom software and the pedal position is continuously tracked by custom Arduino-based electronics using optical and magnetic sensors. A portable bioamplifier records the pedal position signal, the angle of the knee, and the foot pressure together with EEG, EMG, and basal ganglia LFPs. A handlebar-mounted display provides additional information for patients riding the bike simulator, including the current and target pedaling rate. In order to demonstrate the utility of the setup, example data from pilot recordings are shown. The presented experimental setup provides means to directly record basal ganglia activity not only during cycling but also during other movement tasks in patients who

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of combined cycle under design/off-design conditions for its efficient design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiongzhi; Xie, Angjun; Yang, Yongping; Liu, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on the PG9351FA gas turbine, two gas-steam combined cycles are redesigned. • Analysis of detailed off-design characteristics of the combined cycle main parts. • Suggestions for improving design and operation performance of the combined cycle. • Higher design efficiency has higher off-design efficiency in general PR range. • High pressure ratio combined cycles possess good off-design performance. - Abstract: To achieve a highly efficient design and operation of combined cycles, this study analyzed in detail the off-design characteristics of the main components of three combined cycles with different compressor pressure ratios (PRs) based on real units. The off-design model of combined cycle was built consisting of a compressor, a combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The PG9351FA unit is selected as the benchmark unit, on the basis of which the compressor is redesigned with two different PRs. Then, the design/off-design characteristics of the three units with different design PRs and the interactive relations between topping and bottoming cycles are analyzed with the same turbine inlet temperature (TIT). The results show that the off-design characteristics of the topping cycle affect dramatically the combined cycle performance. The variation range of the exergy efficiency of the topping cycle for the three units is between 11.9% and 12.4% under the design/off-design conditions. This range is larger than that of the bottoming cycle (between 9.2% and 9.5%). The HRSG can effectively recycle the heat/heat exergy of the gas turbine exhaust. Comparison among the three units shows that for a traditional gas-steam combined cycle, a high design efficiency results in a high off-design efficiency in the usual PR range. The combined cycle design efficiency of higher pressure ratio is almost equal to that of the PG9351FA, but its off-design efficiency is higher (maximum 0.42%) and the specific power decreases. As for

  17. Combining Optogenetics and Electrophysiology to Analyze Projection Neuron Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Naoki; Suter, Benjamin A; Wickersham, Ian R; Shepherd, Gordon M G

    2016-10-03

    A set of methods is described for channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-based synaptic circuit analysis that combines photostimulation of virally transfected presynaptic neurons' axons with whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from retrogradely labeled postsynaptic neurons. The approach exploits the preserved photoexcitability of ChR2-expressing axons in brain slices and can be used to assess either local or long-range functional connections. Stereotaxic injections are used both to express ChR2 selectively in presynaptic axons of interest (using rabies virus [RV] or adeno-associated virus [AAV]) and to label two types of postsynaptic projection neurons of interest with fluorescent retrograde tracers. In brain slices, tracer-labeled postsynaptic neurons are targeted for whole-cell electrophysiological recordings, and synaptic connections are assessed by sampling voltage or current responses to light-emitting diode (LED) photostimulation of ChR2-expressing axons. The data are analyzed to estimate the relative amplitude of synaptic input and other connectivity parameters. Pharmacological and electrophysiological manipulations extend the versatility of the basic approach, allowing the dissection of monosynaptic versus disynaptic responses, excitatory versus inhibitory responses, and more. The method enables rapid, quantitative characterization of synaptic connectivity between defined pre- and postsynaptic classes of neurons. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of a combined refrigeration and waste heat driven organic Rankine cycle system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and exergy analysis of a combined refrigeration and waste heat driven organic Rankine cycle system were studied theoretically in this paper. In order to complete refrigeration process, the obtained kinetic energy was supplied to the compressor of the refrigeration cycle. Turbine, in power cycle, was driven by organic working fluid that exits boiler with high temperature and pressure. Theoretical performances of proposed system were evaluated employing five different organic fluids which are R123, R600, R245fa, R141b, and R600a. Moreover, the change of thermal and exergy efficiencies were examined by changing the boiling, condensing, and evaporating temperatures. As a result of energy and exergy analysis of the proposed system, most appropriate organic working fluid was determined as R141b.

  19. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  20. Mapping of information and identification of construction waste at project life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Mochamad Agung; Handayani, Naniek Utami; Nurdiana, Asri; Sholeh, Moh Nur; Pamungkas, Gita Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The development of construction project towards green construction is needed in order to improve the efficiency of construction projects. One that needs to be minimized is construction waste. Construction waste is waste generated from construction project activities, both solid waste and non solid waste. More specifically, the waste happens at every phase of the project life cycle. Project life cycle are the stage of idea, design, construction, and operation/maintenance. Each phase is managed by different stakeholders. Therefore it requires special handling from the involved stakeholders. The objective of the study is to map the information and identify the waste at each phase of the project life cycle. The purpose of mapping is to figure out the process of information and product flow and with its timeline. This mapping used Value Stream Mapping (VSM). Identification of waste was done by distributing questionnaire to respondents to know the waste according to owner, consultant planner, contractor, and supervisory consultant. The result of the study is the mapping of information flow and product flow at the phases of idea, design, construction, and operation/ maintenance.

  1. Environmental impact efficiency of natural gas combined cycle power plants: A combined life cycle assessment and dynamic data envelopment analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gamboa, Mario; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2018-02-15

    The energy sector is still dominated by the use of fossil resources. In particular, natural gas represents the third most consumed resource, being a significant source of electricity in many countries. Since electricity production in natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants provides some benefits with respect to other non-renewable technologies, it is often seen as a transitional solution towards a future low‑carbon power generation system. However, given the environmental profile and operational variability of NGCC power plants, their eco-efficiency assessment is required. In this respect, this article uses a novel combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach in order to estimate -over the period 2010-2015- the environmental impact efficiencies of 20 NGCC power plants located in Spain. A three-step LCA+DEA method is applied, which involves data acquisition, calculation of environmental impacts through LCA, and the novel estimation of environmental impact efficiency (overall- and term-efficiency scores) through dynamic DEA. Although only 1 out of 20 NGCC power plants is found to be environmentally efficient, all plants show a relatively good environmental performance with overall eco-efficiency scores above 60%. Regarding individual periods, 2011 was -on average- the year with the highest environmental impact efficiency (95%), accounting for 5 efficient NGCC plants. In this respect, a link between high number of operating hours and high environmental impact efficiency is observed. Finally, preliminary environmental benchmarks are presented as an additional outcome in order to further support decision-makers in the path towards eco-efficiency in NGCC power plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance projection welding of complex metal combinations and geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars; Bay, Niels; Malberg, Michael Peter

    Final report about the results and research in the MUPII-project "Pressvejsning af komplekse geometrier og materialer"......Final report about the results and research in the MUPII-project "Pressvejsning af komplekse geometrier og materialer"...

  3. Economic optimization of the combined cycle integrated with multi-product gasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszka, M.; Ziebik, A.

    2009-01-01

    The system taken into consideration consists of the Corex unit, combined cycle power plant and air separation unit (ASU). The Corex process (trademark of Siemens-VAI) is one of technologies for cokeless hot metal production. Coal is gasified by oxygen in the hot metal environment. The excess gas can be used out of installation. It has been assumed that the Corex export gas is fired in combined cycle. The gas turbine (GT) structure was assumed as a fixed simple cycle while the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine arrangements are free for optimization. The examples of independent variables selected for optimization are number of HRSG pressure levels, GT pressure ratio, minimal temperature differences in HRSG, flow rate of compressed air form GT compressor to ASU. Finally, 16 independent variables have been qualified for optimization. The synthesis optimization is based on the superstructure method. The economic net present value (NPV) has been chosen as the objective function. All power plant facilities have been modeled on the GateCycle software. The off-design models include, among others, the GT blade cooling and HRSG heat transfer coefficient analyses. Two optimization methods - genetic algorithm and Powells conjugate directions have been coupled in one hybrid procedure. The whole optimization analysis has been repeated several times for different price scenarios on the coal, iron and electricity markets

  4. Performance simulation of a basic combined cycle cogeneration system. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, B.; Reddy, B.V.

    2005-01-01

    Combined cycle power plants with a gas turbine topping cycle and a steam turbine bottoming cycle are being employed for power generation. It would be advantageous if they are used to produce power and process heat in cogeneration mode, from the same fuel source. The objective of the present work is to analyze and simulate a natural gas fired combined cycle cogeneration (CCC) unit and to investigate the effect of different operating conditions, with the goal of improving the plant performance and efficiency. In the present work, two units are examined, a basic unit and a unit with supplementary firing. The operating conditions investigated include, pressure ratio, gas turbine inlet temperature, component efficiencies and process heat load variation. The preliminary results indicate that a CCC unit should be designed to operate with the highest possible pressure ratio in order to optimize performance. It is established that a CCC unit should employ gas turbines that operate at the maximum allowable temperature. This will optimize the system performance and increase all of the outputs of the system. Supplementary firing is an attractive option for industries with varying process heat load requirements. (author)

  5. Comparing Life-Cycle Costs of ESPCs and Appropriations-Funded Energy Projects: An Update to the 2002 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonder, John A.; Hughes, Patrick; Atkin, Erica

    2006-01-01

    A study was sponsored by FEMP in 2001 - 2002 to develop methods to compare life-cycle costs of federal energy conservation projects carried out through energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) and projects that are directly funded by appropriations. The study described in this report follows up on the original work, taking advantage of new pricing data on equipment and on $500 million worth of Super ESPC projects awarded since the end of FY 2001. The methods developed to compare life-cycle costs of ESPCs and directly funded energy projects are based on the following tasks: (1) Verify the parity of equipment prices in ESPC vs. directly funded projects; (2) Develop a representative energy conservation project; (3) Determine representative cycle times for both ESPCs and appropriations-funded projects; (4) Model the representative energy project implemented through an ESPC and through appropriations funding; and (5) Calculate the life-cycle costs for each project.

  6. TEPCO`s Yokohama 7 and 8 leading the world in advanced combined-cycle power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, D.L. [GE Power Systems (United States)

    1995-12-31

    TEPCO has contracted with GE to design and furnish power plant equipment for a 2800-MW addition to the Yokohama thermal power station, utilising the latest, state-of-the-art combined-cycle technology to achieve maximum efficiency and reliability with low environmental impact. The plant will consist of 8 combined-cycle stages and will have a gross thermal efficiency of 54%. NO{sub x} concentrations of 5 ppmvd or less at the stack will be achieved through the use of advanced dry-low-NO{sub x} combustion technology in the gas turbines, and selective catalytic reduction technology. Initial firing of the first unit es expected by the end of 1995, with commercial operation of the eight stages being phased in during 1996, 1997, and 1998.

  7. Design calculation of three-loop combined-cycle plants with steam reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhnii, A. D.; Parshina, N. S.

    2010-02-01

    We describe a procedure for carrying out an end-to-end calculation of the parameters of media and technical and economic indicators of three-loop heat-recovery-type combined-cycle plants with steam reheating that makes it possible to determine the parameters of gases and working fluid of a heat-recovery boiler and the thermal power of its heating surfaces, and to carry out an approximate calculation of the steam turbine for compartments and then for stages at the stage of design calculations using the parameters of gases exhausted from the gas turbine unit as initial data. The procedure is implemented in the form of a computer program in the DELPHI environment and makes it possible to quickly and reliably optimize a combined-cycle plant’s thermal circuit and steam turbine design.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  9. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  10. HTR-Based Power Plants’ Performance Analysis Applied on Conventional Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carbia Carril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In high temperature reactors including gas cooled fast reactors and gas turbine modular helium reactors (GT-MHR specifically designed to operate as power plant heat sources, efficiency enhancement at effective cost under safe conditions can be achieved. Mentioned improvements concern the implementation of two cycle structures: (a, a stand alone Brayton operating with helium and a stand alone Rankine cycle (RC with regeneration, operating with carbon dioxide at ultrasupercritical pressure as working fluid (WF, where condensation is carried out at quasicritical conditions, and (b, a combined cycle (CC, in which the topping closed Brayton cycle (CBC operates with helium as WF, while the bottoming RC is operated with one of the following WFs: carbon dioxide, xenon, ethane, ammonia, or water. In both cases, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHE is proposed to provide thermal energy to the closed Brayton or to the Rankine cycles. The results of the case study show that the thermal efficiency, through the use of a CC, is slightly improved (from 45.79% for BC and from 50.17% for RC to 53.63 for the proposed CC with He-H2O operating under safety standards.

  11. Thermoeconomic Analysis and Optimization of a New Combined Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Recompression Brayton/Kalina Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad S. Mahmoudi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new combined supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton/Kalina cycle (SCRB/KC is proposed. In the proposed system, waste heat from a supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle (SCRBC is recovered by a Kalina cycle (KC to generate additional electrical power. The performances of the two cycles are simulated and compared using mass, energy and exergy balances of the overall systems and their components. Using the SPECO (Specific Exergy Costing approach and employing selected cost balance equations for the components of each system, the total product unit costs of the cycles are obtained. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects on the SCRB/KC and SCRBC thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of key decision parameters. In addition, considering the exergy efficiency and total product unit cost as criteria, optimization is performed for the SCRBC and SCRB/KC using Engineering Equation Solver software. The results indicate that the maximum exergy efficiency of the SCRB/KC is higher than that of the SCRBC by up to 10%, and that the minimum total product unit cost of the SCRB/KC is lower than that of the SCRBC by up to 4.9%.

  12. Energetic and exergetic analysis of combined cycle Energas Boca de Jaruco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, F. J.; Tapanez, A.; Castillo, E. del; Castillo, R.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    The work shows the energy and exergy evaluation of the combined cycle Energas Boca de Jaruco, which consists of five gas turbines 30 MWh five heat recovery steam OTSGs type and a steam turbine of 150 MW. This evaluation is performed without additional burning and for different percentages of utilization of these burners. The results allow to have a criterion of the efficiency of the system with and without supplementary burned, which can define strategies most appropriate system operation. (full text)

  13. Simulation of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with Chemical-Looping Combustion and CO2 sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Alvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; González Fernández, M. Celina; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; Nieto Carlier, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion allows an integration of CO2 capture in a thermal power plant without energy penalty; secondly, a less exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation is achieved, leading to a greater overall thermal efficiency. This paper focus on the study of the energetic performance of this concept of combustion in an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant when synthesis gas is used as fuel for the gas turbines. After thermodynamic modelling and optimi...

  14. Generating power at high efficiency combined cycle technology for sustainable energy production

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, E

    2008-01-01

    Combined cycle technology is used to generate power at one of the highest levels of efficiency of conventional power plants. It does this through primary generation from a gas turbine coupled with secondary generation from a steam turbine powered by primary exhaust heat. Generating power at high efficiency thoroughly charts the development and implementation of this technology in power plants and looks to the future of the technology, noting the advantages of the most important technical features - including gas turbines, steam generator, combined heat and power and integrated gasification com

  15. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  16. Technical and economic assessment of the integrated solar combined cycle power plants in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Hosseini, M.; Hosseini, R.; Valizadeh, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal efficiency, capacity factor, environmental considerations, investment cost, fuel and O and M costs are the main parameters for technical and economic assessment of solar power plants. This analysis has shown that the Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System with 67 MW e solar field(ISCCS-67) is the most suitable plan for the first solar power plant in Iran. The Levelized Energy Costs of combined cycle and ISCCS-67 power plants would be equal if 49 million dollars of ISCCS-67 capital cost supplied by the international environmental organizations such as Global Environmental Facilities and World Bank. This study shows that an ISCCS-67 saves 59 million dollars in fuel consumption and reduces about 2.4 million ton in CO 2 emission during 30 years operating period. Increasing of steam turbine capacity by 50%, and 4% improvement in overall efficiency are other advantages of iSCCS-67 power plant. The LEC of ISCCS-67 is 10% and so 33% lower than the combined cycle and gas turbine, respectively, at the same capacity factor with consideration of environmental costs

  17. On algebraic cycles on complex Abelian schemes over smooth projective curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeev, S G

    2008-01-01

    If the Hodge conjecture holds for some generic (in the sense of Weil) geometric fibre X s of an Abelian scheme π:X→C over a smooth projective curve C, then numerical equivalence of algebraic cycles on X coincides with homological equivalence. The Hodge conjecture for all complex Abelian varieties is equivalent to the standard conjecture B(X) of Lefschetz type on the algebraicity of the Hodge operator * for all Abelian schemes π:X→C over smooth projective curves. We investigate some properties of the Gauss-Manin connection and Hodge bundles associated with Abelian schemes over smooth projective curves, with applications to the conjectures of Hodge and Tate

  18. Numerical analysis and field study of time dependent exergy-energy of a gas-steam combined cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barari Bamdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent exergy analysis of the Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle has been investigated. Exergy analysis has been used for investigating each part of actual combined cycle by considering irreversibility from Apr 2006 to Oct 2010. Performance analysis has been done for each part by evaluating exergy destruction in each month. By using of exergy analysis, aging of each part has been evaluated respect to time duration. In addition, the rate of lost work for each month has been calculated and variation of this parameter has been considered as a function of aging rate. Finally, effects of exergy destruction of each part have been investigated on exergy destruction of whole cycle. Entire analysis has been done for Unit 3 and 4 of gas turbine cycle which combined by Unit B of steam cycle in Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle located in Fars province in Iran.

  19. Performance analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle using Direct Steam Generation in parabolic trough collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Munoz, M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar hybridization improves the performance of CCGT in a very hot and dry weather. → The scheme analyzed is a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the Rankine cycle. → An annual simulation has been carried out for two locations: Almeria and Las Vegas. → Economical analysis shows that this scheme is a cheaper way to exploit solar energy. → For that, solar hybridization must be limited to a small fraction of the CCGT power. - Abstract: The contribution of solar thermal power to improve the performance of gas-fired combined cycles in very hot and dry environmental conditions is analyzed in this work, in order to assess the potential of this technique, and to feature Direct Steam Generation (DSG) as a well suited candidate for achieving very good results in this quest. The particular Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) power plant proposed consists of a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the bottoming steam cycle of a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power plant. For this analysis, the solar thermal power plant performs in a solar dispatching mode: the gas turbine always operates at full load, only depending on ambient conditions, whereas the steam turbine is somewhat boosted to accommodate the thermal hybridization from the solar field. Although the analysis is aimed to studying such complementary effects in the widest perspective, two relevant examples are given, corresponding to two well-known sites: Almeria (Spain), with a mediterranean climate, and Las Vegas (USA), with a hot and dry climate. The annual simulations show that, although the conventional CCGT power plant works worse in Las Vegas, owing to the higher temperatures, the ISCC system operates better in Las Vegas than in Almeria, because of solar hybridization is especially well coupled to the CCGT power plant in the frequent days with great solar radiation and high temperatures in Las Vegas. The complementary effect will be clearly seen in these cases, because the thermal

  20. The Analysis of Initial Parameters of Steam in the Combined-Cycle Plant with High Temperature Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov, Artem; Antonova, Aleksandra Mikhailovna; Vorobiev, Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Presents the results of studying the influence of initial steam parameters on the thermal efficiency of double-circuit combined-cycle plant based on a powerful high-temperature gas turbines of the last generation. The advantages of double-circuit combined-cycle plant without reheat in comparison with more complex schemes. Found optimal thermal efficiency values of initial parameters of steam.

  1. The life cycle of a genome project: perspectives and guidelines inspired by insect genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Alexie

    2016-01-01

    Many research programs on non-model species biology have been empowered by genomics. In turn, genomics is underpinned by a reference sequence and ancillary information created by so-called "genome projects". The most reliable genome projects are the ones created as part of an active research program and designed to address specific questions but their life extends past publication. In this opinion paper I outline four key insights that have facilitated maintaining genomic communities: the key role of computational capability, the iterative process of building genomic resources, the value of community participation and the importance of manual curation. Taken together, these ideas can and do ensure the longevity of genome projects and the growing non-model species community can use them to focus a discussion with regards to its future genomic infrastructure.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of engineering solutions aimed at raising the efficiency of integrated gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    Raising the efficiency and environmental friendliness of electric power generation from coal is the aim of numerous research groups today. The traditional approach based on the steam power cycle has reached its efficiency limit, prompted by materials development and maneuverability performance. The rival approach based on the combined cycle is also drawing nearer to its efficiency limit. However, there is a reserve for efficiency increase of the integrated gasification combined cycle, which has the energy efficiency at the level of modern steam-turbine power units. The limit of increase in efficiency is the efficiency of NGCC. One of the main problems of the IGCC is higher costs of receiving and preparing fuel gas for GTU. It would be reasonable to decrease the necessary amount of fuel gas in the power unit to minimize the costs. The effect can be reached by raising of the heat value of fuel gas, its heat content and the heat content of cycle air. On the example of the process flowsheet of the IGCC with a power of 500 MW, running on Kuznetsk bituminous coal, by means of software Thermoflex, the influence of the developed technical solutions on the efficiency of the power plant is considered. It is received that rise in steam-air blast temperature to 900°C leads to an increase in conversion efficiency up to 84.2%. An increase in temperature levels of fuel gas clean-up to 900°C leads to an increase in the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 3.42%. Cycle air heating reduces the need for fuel gas by 40% and raises the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 0.85-1.22%. The offered solutions for IGCC allow to exceed net efficiency of analogous plants by 1.8-2.3%.

  3. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO 2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO 2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO 2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  4. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  5. Optimization of thermoelectric topping combined steam turbine cycles for energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric on top of steam turbine cycle provides better energy economy. • There found an optimum partitioning temperature in between two engines. • Lower energy cost is found at the max-power at the beginning of operation. • Higher efficiency operation lowers the energy cost for longer hours. • Improving ZT provides a significant cost reduction for energy production. - Abstract: A mismatch between the fuel combustion temperature ∼2250 K (adiabatic) and the high pressure steam temperature up to 900 K, results in a large amount of thermodynamic losses in steam turbine (ST) cycles. A solid-state thermoelectric (TE) placed on top of a ST cycle will produce additional electrical power. By selecting the right materials for the TE generator for high temperature operation, the energy production from the same fuel consumption will increase. Recent nano-structured enhancements to the thermoelectric materials could provide practical performance benefits. We carried out a theoretical study on the optimization of the interface temperature connecting these two idealized engines for energy economy as a combined system. We also analytically studied the optimum point-of-operation between the maximum power output for minimizing the payback and the maximum efficiency to obtain the maximum fuel economy for each generator. The economic optimum ends up in a significant reduction in energy cost ($/kW h). The combined TE topping generator system provides a lower energy cost for any period of operational life and higher interface temperature compared to the ST cycle alone. The maximum power output is observed at around 700 K of interface temperature for 10,000 h of operation, while the minimum energy production cost from the combined system is observed at over 900 K with ZT = 1

  6. Simulation of an integrated gasification combined cycle with chemical-looping combustion and carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez Álvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; González Fernández, Celina; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; Nieto Carlier, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical-looping combustion based integrated gasification combined cycle is simulated. • The energetic performance of the plant is analyzed. • Different hydrogen-content synthesis gases are under study. • Energy savings accounting carbon dioxide sequestration and storage are quantified. • A notable increase on thermal efficiency up to 7% is found. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion is an interesting technique that makes it possible to integrate power generation from fuels combustion and sequestration of carbon dioxide without energy penalty. In addition, the combustion chemical reaction occurs with a lower irreversibility compared to a conventional combustion, leading to attain a somewhat higher overall thermal efficiency in gas turbine systems. This paper provides results about the energetic performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant based on chemical-looping combustion of synthesis gas. A real understanding of the behavior of this concept of power plant implies a complete thermodynamic analysis, involving several interrelated aspects as the integration of energy flows between the gasifier and the combined cycle, the restrictions in relation with heat balances and chemical equilibrium in reactors and the performance of the gas turbines and the downstream steam cycle. An accurate thermodynamic modeling is required for the optimization of several design parameters. Simulations to evaluate the energetic efficiency of this chemical-looping-combustion based power plant under diverse working conditions have been carried out, and a comparison with a conventional integrated gasification power plant with precombustion capture of carbon dioxide has been made. Two different synthesis gas compositions have been tried to check its influence on the results. The energy saved in carbon capture and storage is found to be significant and even notable, inducing an improvement of the overall power plant thermal efficiency of

  7. Energy-exergy analysis of compressor pressure ratio effects on thermodynamic performance of ammonia water combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Soheil; Chen, Wen; Zargar, T.; Lin, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy exergy analysis is conducted to find the effects of RP. • EES software is utilized to perform the detailed energy-exergy analyses. • Effects investigated through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy, yields, etc. • Detailed results are reported showing the performance of gas and combined cycle. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of compressor pressure ratio (RP) on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia-water combined cycle through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy temperature, yields, and flow velocity. The energy-exergy analysis is conducted on the ammonia water combined cycle and the Rankine cycle, respectively. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is utilized to perform the detailed analyses. Values and ratios regarding heat drop and exergy loss are presented in separate tables for different equipments. The results obtained by the energy-exergy analysis indicate that by increasing the pressure ratio compressor, exergy destruction of high-pressure compressors, intercooler, gas turbine and the special produced work of gas turbine cycle constantly increase and the exergy destruction of recuperator, in contrast, decreases continuously. In addition, the least amount of input fuel into the combined cycle is observed when the pressure ratio is no less than 7.5. Subsequently, the efficiency of the cycle in gas turbine and combined cycle is reduced because the fuel input into the combined cycle is increased.

  8. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  9. Coordinated optimization of the parameters of the cooled gas-turbine flow path and the parameters of gas-turbine cycles and combined-cycle power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of the coordinated solution to the optimization problem for the parameters of cycles in gas turbine and combined cycle power plants and to the optimization problem for the gas-turbine flow path parameters within an integral complex problem. We report comparative data for optimizations of the combined cycle power plant at coordinated and separate optimizations, when, first, the gas turbine and, then, the steam part of a combined cycle plant is optimized. The comparative data are presented in terms of economic indicators, energy-effectiveness characteristics, and specific costs. Models that were used in the present study for calculating the flow path enable taking into account, as a factor influencing the economic and energy effectiveness of the power plant, the heat stability of alloys from which the nozzle and rotor blades of gas-turbine stages are made.

  10. Effectiveness of cooling production with a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The combined production of power and cooling with an ammonia-water based cycle is under investigation. Cooling is produced by expanding an ammonia-rich vapor in an expander to sub-ambient temperatures and it is shown that a compromise exists between cooling and work production. A new parameter, termed the effective COP, is used to relate the gain in cooling to the compromise in work production. When the parameter is used to optimize conditions for the rectifier, the effective COP values are good, having values of up to 5. However, when combined operation is compared to work-optimized results, the maximum effective COP values are near 1.1. This implies that per unit of cooling production, nearly equal amounts of work are compromised for combined operation

  11. Numerical optimization of Combined Heat and Power Organic Rankine Cycles – Part A: Design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Emanuele; Capra, Federico; Consonni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This two-part paper proposes an approach based on state-of-the-art numerical optimization methods for simultaneously determining the most profitable design and part-load operation of Combined Heat and Power Organic Rankine Cycles. Compared to the usual design practice, the important advantages of the proposed approach are (i) to consider the part-load performance of the ORC at the design stage, (ii) to optimize not only the cycle variables, but also the main turbine design variables (number of stages, stage loads, rotational speed). In this first part (Part A), the design model and the optimization algorithm are presented and tested on a real-world test case. PGS-COM, a recently proposed hybrid derivative-free algorithm, allows to efficiently tackle the challenging non-smooth black-box problem. - Highlights: • Algorithm for the simultaneous optimization Organic Rakine Cycle and turbine. • Thermodynamic and economic models of boiler, cycle, turbine are developed. • Non-smooth black-box optimization problem is successfully tackled with PGS-COM. • Test cases show that the algorithm returns optimal solutions within 4 min. • Toluene outperforms MDM (a siloxane) in terms of efficiency and costs.

  12. High-Efficiency Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Organic Binary Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costante Mario Invernizzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-CHP (Combined Heat and Power systems are generally considered a valuable technological option to the conventional boilers, in a technology developed context. If small-CHP systems are associated with the use of renewable energies (biomass, for example they could play an important role in distributed generation even in developing countries or, in any case, where there are no extensive electricity networks. Traditionally the considered heat engines for micro- or mini-CHP are: the gas engine, the gas turbine (with internal combustion, the steam engine, engine working according to the Stirling and to the Rankine cycles, the last with organic fluids. In principle, also fuel cells could be used. In this paper, we focus on small size Rankine cycles (10–15 k W with organic working fluids. The assumed heat source is hot combustion gases at high temperature (900–950 ∘ C and we assume to use only single stages axial turbines. The need to work at high temperatures, limits the choice of the right organic working fluids. The calculation results show the limitation in the performances of simple cycles and suggest the opportunity to resort to complex (binary cycle configurations to achieve high net conversion efficiencies (15–16%.

  13. Numerical Model of a Variable-Combined-Cycle Engine for Dual Subsonic and Supersonic Cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Villace

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient high speed propulsion requires exploiting the cooling capability of the cryogenic fuel in the propulsion cycle. This paper presents the numerical model of a combined cycle engine while in air turbo-rocket configuration. Specific models of the various heat exchanger modules and the turbomachinery elements were developed to represent the physical behavior at off-design operation. The dynamic nature of the model allows the introduction of the engine control logic that limits the operation of certain subcomponents and extends the overall engine operational envelope. The specific impulse and uninstalled thrust are detailed while flying a determined trajectory between Mach 2.5 and 5 for varying throttling levels throughout the operational envelope.

  14. Thermal-CFD Analysis of Combined Solar-Nuclear Cycle Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, Nima [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); McDaniel, Patrick [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vorobieff, Peter [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); de Oliveira, Cassiano [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aleyasin, Seyed Sobhan [Univ. of Manitoba (Canada)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is evaluating the efficiency of a novel combined solar-nuclear cycle. CFD-Thermal analysis is performed to apply the available surplus heat from the nuclear cycle and measure the available kinetic energy of air for the turbine of a solar chimney power plant system (SCPPS). The presented idea helps to decrease the thermal pollution and handle the water shortage supply for water plant by replacing the cooling tower by solar chimney power plant to get the surplus heat from the available warm air in the secondary loop of the reactor. By applying this idea to a typical 1000 MW nuclear power plant with a 0.33 thermal efficiency, we can increase it to 0.39.

  15. Modern combined cycle power plant utilizing the GT11N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The requirement imposed on modern power plants are increasingly demanding. The limits of: efficiency; environmental sensitivity; reliability and availability; are constantly being pushed. Today's state of the art combined cycle power plants are positioned well to meet these challenges. This paper reports that these objectives can be achieved through the selection of the proper gas turbine generator in an optimized cycle concept. A balanced approach to the plant design is required. It must not sacrifice any one of these requirements, in order to achieve the others. They achieve their fullest potential when firing a clean fuel, natural gas. However, fuel oil, both light (No. 2) and heavy (No. 6), can be utilized but some efficiency and environmental impact will have to be sacrificed

  16. Report of study group 7.2: comparison of medium or large scale CHP and combined cycles, in various countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncato, J.P. [Finergaz (France); Macchi, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    At the turn of the third millennium, important changes are occurring in terms of energy policy and deregulation of the energy market, in numerous countries. It is clear that cogeneration has undergone an impressive development in a large number of countries, over the last five years. But it is also clear that gas fired electricity production will have to face a much more uncertain situation in the coming years with less predictability concerning both energy prices and costs of access to the grids in a de-regulated context, and more generally regarding economic environment of the projects. The aim of the present report is to show that even with different situations, concerning energy prices, conditions of access to the grid and incentives, there is a logical link between the profitability and the development rate of cogeneration or combined cycles in different countries. Detailed data have therefore been collected from a selection of countries, in order to compare on a consistent basis the profitability of several typical projects. From these data, the study group has then been able to compute the pay-back of these projects for each country, and to perform a sensitivity analysis to different parameters. Data were collected from Japan and 10 European countries represented in the study group. In spite of several contacts, it was unfortunately not possible to collect consistent data from a larger number of other countries, nevertheless the study group believes that the results obtained are representative of a significant range of situations. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of alternatives of exothermic methanization cycle for combined electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.

    1987-01-01

    The possibilities are discussed of using the ADAM-EVA system for remote heat supply from nuclear heat sources to district heating systems. Attention is devoted to the use of the exothermal methanization process (ADAM station) for the combined power and heat production, this making use of the existing hot water power distribution network. The basic parameter for the evaluation of the over-all efficiency of the combined power and heat production is the maximum methanization cycle temperature which depends on the life of the methanization catalyst. Upon temperature drop below 550 degC, the conversion process can only be secured by means of two-stage methanization, which leads to a simplification of the cycle and a reduction in investment cost. At a temperature lower than 500 degC, combined power and heat production cannot be implemented. On the contrary, a considerable amount of electric power supplied from outside the system would be needed for compression work. (Z.M.)

  18. Effect of combined β-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Phillip M; Howe, Samuel T; Shing, Cecilia M; Fell, James W

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 28 d of β-alanine supplementation on 4-min cycling time trial performance and to determine whether there was an additive effect of combined β-alanine and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on high-intensity cycling performance. Fourteen highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age = 25.4 ± 7.2 yr, mass = 71.1 ± 7.1 kg, V˙O(2max) = 66.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg·min) supplemented for 28 d with β-alanine (65 mg·kg body mass each day) or placebo. A maximal 4-min bout of cycling was performed before supplementation (baseline) and twice after supplementation: after ingestion of NaHCO3 (300 mg·kg body mass) and ingestion of a placebo using a randomized crossover design with 2 d between trials. Blood pH and HCO3 concentration were determined before loading (postsupplementation trials) and at pretest and posttest. In the acute NaHCO3 loading trials, blood pH and HCO3 were elevated from before loading to pretest, and the magnitude of the change in HCO3 from pretest to posttest was significantly greater compared with the acute placebo loading trial (P < 0.001). Average power output in the 4-min cycling performance trial was increased in placebo + NaHCO3 (+3.1% ± 1.8%) and β-alanine + NaHCO3 (+3.3% ± 3.0%) compared with baseline (P < 0.05). β-alanine + placebo did not significantly improve average power output compared with baseline (+1.6% ± 1.7%, P = 0.20); however, magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that β-alanine + placebo was associated with a 37% likelihood of producing average power improvements. In trained cyclists, β-alanine supplementation did not significantly improve 4-min cycling performance; however, there may be a small meaningful improvement in performance. Acute NaHCO3 supplementation significantly improved 4-min cycling performance. There seemed to be a minimal additive effect of combined β-alanine and NaHCO3 supplementation.

  19. Study on effective parameter of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Thamir K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic analyses of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle gas turbines with duct burner are presented and discussed in this paper. The overall performance of a combined cycle gas turbine power plant is influenced by the ambient temperature, compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature. These parameters affect the overall thermal efficiency, power output and the heat-rate. In this study a thermodynamic model was development on an existing actual combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT (In this case study, an effort has been made to enhance the performance of the CCGT through a parametric study using a thermodynamic analysis. The effect of ambient temperature and operation parameter, including compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature, on the overall performance of CCGT are investigated. The code of the performance model for CCGT power plant was developed utilizing the THERMOFLEX software. The simulating results show that the total power output and overall efficiency of a CCGT decrease with increase the ambient temperature because increase the consumption power in the air compressor of a GT. The totals power of a CCGT decreases with increase the compression rate, while the overall efficiency of a CCGT increases with increase the compression ratio to 21, after that the overall efficiency will go down. Far there more the turbine inlet temperature increases the both total power and overall efficiency increase, so the turbine inlet temperature has a strong effect on the overall performance of CCGT power plant. Also the simulation model give a good result compared with MARAFIQ CCGT power plant. With these variables, the turbine inlet temperature causes the greatest overall performance variation.

  20. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  1. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Wickett, M; Phillips, T J; Lobell, D B; Delire, C; Mirin, A

    2007-04-17

    The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO(2) to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global carbon-cycle and climate model. These simulations were performed by using a fully three-dimensional model representing physical and biogeochemical interactions among land, atmosphere, and ocean. We find that global-scale deforestation has a net cooling influence on Earth's climate, because the warming carbon-cycle effects of deforestation are overwhelmed by the net cooling associated with changes in albedo and evapotranspiration. Latitude-specific deforestation experiments indicate that afforestation projects in the tropics would be clearly beneficial in mitigating global-scale warming, but would be counterproductive if implemented at high latitudes and would offer only marginal benefits in temperate regions. Although these results question the efficacy of mid- and high-latitude afforestation projects for climate mitigation, forests remain environmentally valuable resources for many reasons unrelated to climate.

  2. Combined cycle power plant with indirect dry cooling tower forecasting using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Dehghani Samani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN in modeling of combined cycle power plant (CCPP with dry cooling tower (Heller tower has been investigated in this paper. Prediction of power plant output (megawatt under different working conditions was made using multi-layer feed-forward ANN and training was performed with operational data using back-propagation. Two ANN network was constructed for the steam turbine (ST and the main cooling system(MCS. Results indicate that the ANN model is effective in predicting the power plant output with good accuracy.

  3. Response Surface Modeling of Combined-Cycle Propulsion Components using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Three examples of response surface modeling with CFD are presented for combined cycle propulsion components. The examples include a mixed-compression-inlet during hypersonic flight, a hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustor during hypersonic flight, and a ducted-rocket nozzle during all-rocket flight. Three different experimental strategies were examined, including full factorial, fractionated central-composite, and D-optimal with embedded Plackett-Burman designs. The response variables have been confined to integral data extracted from multidimensional CFD results. Careful attention to uncertainty assessment and modeling bias has been addressed. The importance of automating experimental setup and effectively communicating statistical results are emphasized.

  4. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO): Status, Ongoing Activities and Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Azpitarte, Osvaldo

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference (2000) invited 'all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the IAEA in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology'. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The overall objectives of INPRO are to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21. century in a sustainable manner, and to bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. In order to fulfil these objectives, the first phase of INPRO dealt with the development of a methodology to assess and compare the performance of innovative nuclear energy systems. This methodology includes the definition of a set of Basic principles, User requirements and Criteria to be met in different areas (Economics, Sustainability and environment, Safety of nuclear installations, Waste management and Proliferation resistance). The result of this phase was presented in a IAEA document (IAEA-TECDOC-1362, Guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles) issued in June 2003. In the present phase of the project, case studies are being carried out in order to validate and improve the developed methodology and the defined set of Basic principles, User requirements and Criteria. This paper shortly summarizes the results published in IAEA-TECDOC-1362 and the ongoing actions related to case studies. Finally, an outlook of INPRO activities is presented. (authors)

  6. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle and its contributions to overall uncertainty in future climate projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    The contribution of carbon cycle uncertainty to the uncertainty in future climate projections is studied by means of numerical simulations with the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Three ensembles of 21st century climate simulations were carried out using input probability distributions for climate sensitivity, rate of heat uptake by the ocean and strength of aerosol forcing consistent with the changes in climate over 20th century. Uncertainties in the rate of oceanic carbon uptake and strength of CO2 fertilization were also included. Each ensemble consists of 400 simulations. In first ensemble all sub-components of the IGSM were fully coupled. To evaluate uncertainty in the feedback between climate and carbon cycle, an additional ensemble of radiatively uncoupled simulations was carried out. Because the terrestrial ecosystem model used in the IGSM takes into account nitrogen limitation on carbon uptake by vegetation, feedbacks associated with terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle have different signs. As a result, total feedback between climate and carbon cycle is rather weak and can be either positive or negative. This explains why the probability distribution for surface warming obtained from simulations with the IGSM is more symmetric than ones presented in the IPCC AR4. Reference greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions for business as usual scenario were used in first two ensembles. In all simulations of the third ensemble the IGSM was forced by the GHGs concentrations from the simulation with the median values of all climate parameter, thus eliminating uncertainty in the carbon cycle. Contribution of carbon cycle uncertainty to the uncertainties in projected climate changes turned out to be surprisingly small, at least for business as usual emission scenario.

  7. Monitoring climatic changes and carbon cycle in canyons and caves: the C6 project.

    OpenAIRE

    Madonia, P.

    2008-01-01

    The acronym C6 means "Climatic Changes and Carbon Cycle in Canyons and Caves". It is a monitoring project, for the evaluation of climate change signals, based on measuring sites located inside canyons and caves; it merged in the year 2005, under the scientific supervision of the Palermo Branch of the Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology (I.N.G.V.), two different monitoring programs active since 1999. The choice of these environments is based on their morpholog...

  8. The Software Life-Cycle Based Configuration Management Tasks for the KNICS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Se Woo; Kwon, Kee Choon

    2005-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) is an activity, which configures the form of a software system (e.g., design documents and programs) and systematically manages and controls the modifications used to compile the plans, development, and operations resulting from software development and maintenance. The SCM tool, NuSCM, has been specifically developed for the software life-cycle configuration management of developing the KNICS plant protection system (PPS). This paper presents the application of NuSCM to the KNICS project

  9. Energy analysis of technological systems of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B.; Roszkiewicz, J.; Sroka, K.; Szczerbowski, R. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper presents the energy analysis of technological systems of combined cycle power plants integrated with coal gasification. The mathematical model of the coal gasification process allows to calculate the composition and physical properties of gas obtained in the process of coal gasification. The paper presents an energy analysis of various technological systems of the gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification, based on energy and mass balances of gas generator, gas cooler, combustion chamber of gas turbine, gas turbine, steam generator, and steam turbine. The paper contains the following results of calculations: properties of gas obtained in the process of coal gasification, energy parameters of particular devices of power plants, total electric power, and efficiency of electric energy generation in the gas-steam power plants. The conclusions compare the efficiencies of electric energy generation in various technological systems of combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification. 5 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Combined cycle power plants with an integrated HTW-brown gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, R.; Schippers, K.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the fact that there is still a potential to improve the efficiency of classic brown coal power plants by various measures from 36% to approx. 40-41%, the essential big increase of the efficiency to values of approx. 46% can only be achieved by the transition to combined gas and steam turbine processes. This means for the solid fuel brown coal that a gasification is integrated into the power plant process. The combined cycle power plant with an integrated brown coal gasification represents this new power plant concept. The applied High Temperature Winkler method (HTW-method) is an advancement of the Winkler method that works at environmental pressure and was developed by the Rheinbraun AG. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: environmental assessment of alternative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report provides a basis for the comparative assessment of the potential performance capability, technological development, and economic and environmental impact associated with the operation of integrated low-Btu coal-gasification/combined-cycle power systems. Characterization of the integrated power system in terms of fuel processing, power production, and auxiliary systems is followed up with comparisons of alternative integrated-plant-design/fuel combinations with reference to the conventional coal-fired power plant, taking into account both economic and environmental factors. The report includes an assessment of the effects of recent regulatory changes on the prospects for integrated power systems and establishes a timetable for the probable commercial development of such systems by the utilities.

  12. Complex technical and economic studies of combined-cycle units with flow gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Nozdrenko, G. V.; Shchinnikov, P. A.; Borush, O. V.; Kuz'min, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    The method for determining the technical and economical indices of combined-cycle power plants (CCPPs) operating on coal with a low-charged steam generator and with a flow gasifier in combined production of electricity and heat, synthesis gas and hydrogen is considered. The results of analysis are presented and it is shown that such CCPPs have a higher technical and economical efficiency as compared to cogeneration plants (CPs) operating on pulverized coal and reconstructed with a gas-turbine topping. The material of this article is prepared in the framework of the Federal Targeted Program "Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Specialists of Innovative Russia for 2009-2013," application 1.2.2, the program "Research Works on Production of Fuels and Power from Organic Raw Materials."

  13. The combination of an Environmental Management System and Life Cycle Assessment at the territorial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, Anna; Toniolo, Sara; Catto, Stella; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A framework to include a Life Cycle Assessment in the significance evaluation of the environmental aspects of an Environmental Management System has been studied for some industrial sectors, but there is a literature gap at the territorial level, where the indirect impact assessment is crucial. To overcome this criticality, our research proposes the Life Cycle Assessment as a framework to assess environmental aspects of public administration within an Environmental Management System applied at the territorial level. This research is structured in two parts: the design of a new methodological framework and the pilot application for an Italian municipality. The methodological framework designed supports Initial Environmental Analysis at the territorial level thanks to the results derived from the impact assessment phase. The pilot application in an Italian municipality EMAS registered demonstrates the applicability of the framework and its effectiveness in evaluating the environmental impact assessment for direct and indirect aspects. Through the discussion of the results, we underline the growing knowledge derived by this research in terms of the reproducibility and consistency of the criteria to define the significance of the direct and indirect environmental aspects for a local public administration. - Highlights: • The combination between Environmental Management System and LCA is studied. • A methodological framework is elaborated and tested at the territorial level. • Life Cycle Impact Assessment supports the evaluation of aspects significance. • The framework assures consistency of evaluation criteria on the studied territory.

  14. Exergoeconomic analysis with reliability and availability considerations of a nuclear energy-based combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.

    2016-01-01

    The reliability and availability considerations are introduced in the exergoeconomic investigation of a combined cycle power plant in which an organic Rankine cycle is employed to recover the waste heat from a GT-MHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor) power plant. The SPECO (specific exergy costing) theory is employed to investigate the exergoeconomic performance of the system and assess the specific cost of the output power. For the reliability analysis, however, the SSM (state-space method) along with the probabilistic analysis of Markov processes is employed. After conducting a parametric analysis, the performance of the cycle is optimized with respect to the specific cost of output power, with and without reliability considerations. The effects of the system failure and repair rates are examined on the cost of power and availability of the combined cycle by the sensitivity analysis. The optimization results show that, the specific cost of output power for the combined cycle is around 12% lower than that for the stand alone GT-MHR. However, availability of the combined cycle is lower than that of the GT-MHR as the former has more components and a complicated system. - Highlights: • Specific exergy costing approach is applied to the combined GT-MHR/ORC plant. • Reliability and availability considerations are taken into account. • A reduction of 12% in specific cost of power for the combined cycle is achieved. • The reliability inclusion in the analysis increases the cost of power by about 4%.

  15. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  16. Exergetic Analysis of a Novel Solar Cooling System for Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed exergetic analysis of a novel high-temperature Solar Assisted Combined Cycle (SACC power plant. The system includes a solar field consisting of innovative high-temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collectors, a double stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, mixers, diverters, controllers and a simple single-pressure Combined Cycle (CC power plant. Here, a high temperature solar cooling system is coupled with a conventional combined cycle, in order to pre-cool gas turbine inlet air in order to enhance system efficiency and electrical capacity. In this paper, the system is analyzed from an exergetic point of view, on the basis of an energy-economic model presented in a recent work, where the obtained main results show that SACC exhibits a higher electrical production and efficiency with respect to the conventional CC. The system performance is evaluated by a dynamic simulation, where detailed simulation models are implemented for all the components included in the system. In addition, for all the components and for the system as whole, energy and exergy balances are implemented in order to calculate the magnitude of the irreversibilities within the system. In fact, exergy analysis is used in order to assess: exergy destructions and exergetic efficiencies. Such parameters are used in order to evaluate the magnitude of the irreversibilities in the system and to identify the sources of such irreversibilities. Exergetic efficiencies and exergy destructions are dynamically calculated for the 1-year operation of the system. Similarly, exergetic results are also integrated on weekly and yearly bases in order to evaluate the corresponding irreversibilities. The results showed that the components of the Joule cycle (combustor, turbine and compressor are the major sources of irreversibilities. System overall exergetic efficiency was around 48%. Average weekly solar collector

  17. Performance Analysis of Solar Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Cycle Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kasaeian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model of a solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system has been considered. The system is equipped with an internal heat exchanger to enhance the performance of the cycle. The effects of working fluid and operating conditions on the system performance including COP, entrainment ratio (ω, compression ratio (rp and exergy efficiency were investigated. Some working fluids suggested are: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e and R1234ze(z. The results show that R114 and R1234ze(e yield the highest COP and exergy efficiency followed by R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a and R600a. It is noticed that the COP value of the new solar ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle is higher than that of the conventional ejector cycle with R1234ze(e for all operating conditions. This paper also demonstrates that R1234ze(e will be a suitable refrigerant in the solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system, due to its environmental friendly properties and better performance. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisa model baru sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor-wap solar.Sistem ini dilengkapi dengan penukar haba dalaman untuk meningkatkan prestasi kitaran.Kesan bendalir bekerja dan keadaan operasi pada prestasi sistem termasuk COP, nisbah pemerangkapan (ω, nisbah mampatan (rp dan kecekapan eksergi telah disiasat.Beberapa bendalir bekerja yang dicadangkan adalah: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e dan R1234ze(z.Hasil kajian menunjukkan R114 dan R1234ze(e menghasilkan COP dan kecekapan eksergi tertinggi diikuti oleh R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a dan R600a.Didapati nilai COP kitaran penyejukan mampatan bagi ejektor-wap solar baru adalah lebih tinggi daripada kitaran ejektor konvensional dengan R1234ze(e bagi semua keadaan operasi.Kertas kerja ini juga menunjukkan bahawa R1234ze(e boleh menjadi penyejuk yang sesuai dalam sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor

  18. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  19. Unsteady flow characteristic analysis of turbine based combined cycle (TBCC inlet mode transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A turbine based combined cycle (TBCC propulsion system uses a turbine-based engine to accelerate the vehicle from takeoff to the mode transition flight condition, at which point, the propulsion system performs a “mode transition” from the turbine to ramjet engine. Smooth inlet mode transition is accomplished when flow is diverted from one flowpath to the other, without experiencing unstart or buzz. The smooth inlet mode transition is a complex unsteady process and it is one of the enabling technologies for combined cycle engine to become a functional reality. In order to unveil the unsteady process of inlet mode transition, the research of over/under TBCC inlet mode transition was conducted through a numerical simulation. It shows that during the mode transition the terminal shock oscillates in the inlet. During the process of inlet mode transition mass flow rate and Mach number of turbojet flowpath reduce with oscillation. While in ramjet flowpath the flow field is non-uniform at the beginning of inlet mode transition. The speed of mode transition and the operation states of the turbojet and ramjet engines will affect the motion of terminal shock. The result obtained in present paper can help us realize the unsteady flow characteristic during the mode transition and provide some suggestions for TBCC inlet mode transition based on the smooth transition of thrust.

  20. Modelling and optimization of combined cycle power plant based on exergoeconomic and environmental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjehkaviri, A.; Mohd Jaafar, M.N.; Ahmadi, P.; Barzegaravval, H.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper presents a study on a comprehensive thermodynamic modelling of a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). The effects of economic strategies and design parameters on the plant optimization are also studied. Exergoeconomic analysis is conducted in order to determine the cost of electricity and cost of exergy destruction. In addition, a comprehensive optimization study is performed to determine the optimal design parameters of the power plant. Next, the effects of economic parameters variations on the sustainability, carbon dioxide emission and fuel consumption of the plant are investigated and are presented for a typical combined cycle power plant. Therefore, the changes in economic parameters caused the balance between cash flows and fix costs of the plant changes at optimum point. Moreover, economic strategies greatly limited the maximum reasonable carbon emission and fuel consumption reduction. The results showed that by using the optimum values, the exergy efficiency increases for about 6%, while CO 2 emission decreases by 5.63%. However, the variation in the cost was less than 1% due to the fact that a cost constraint was implemented. In addition, the sensitivity analysis for the optimization study was curtailed to be carried out; therefore, the optimization process and results to two important parameters are presented and discussed.

  1. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  2. Prospective gas turbine and combined-cycle units for power engineering (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed.

  3. Thermoeconomic optimization of a combined-cycle solar tower power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelling, James; Favrat, Daniel; Martin, Andrew; Augsburger, Germain

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic model of a pure-solar combined-cycle power plant has been developed in order to allow determination of the thermodynamic and economic performance of the plant for a variety of operating conditions and superstructure layouts. The model was then used for multi-objective thermoeconomic optimization of both the power plant performance and cost, using a population-based evolutionary algorithm. In order to examine the trade-offs that must be made, two conflicting objectives will be considered, namely minimal investment costs and minimal levelized electricity costs. It was shown that efficiencies in the region of 18–24% can be achieved, and this for levelized electricity costs in the region of 12–24 UScts/kWh e , depending on the magnitude of the initial investment, making the system competitive with current solar thermal technology. -- Highlights: ► Pure-solar combined-cycle studied using thermoeconomic tools. ► Multi-objective optimization conducted to determine Pareto-optimal power plant designs. ► Levelised costs between 12 and 24 UScts/kWhe predicted. ► Efficiencies between 18 and 24% predicted.

  4. Optimization of controlled processes in combined-cycle plant (new developments and researches)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverskoy, Yu S.; Muravev, I. K.

    2017-11-01

    All modern complex technical systems, including power units of TPP and nuclear power plants, work in the system-forming structure of multifunctional APCS. The development of the modern APCS mathematical support allows bringing the automation degree to the solution of complex optimization problems of equipment heat-mass-exchange processes in real time. The difficulty of efficient management of a binary power unit is related to the need to solve jointly at least three problems. The first problem is related to the physical issues of combined-cycle technologies. The second problem is determined by the criticality of the CCGT operation to changes in the regime and climatic factors. The third problem is related to a precise description of a vector of controlled coordinates of a complex technological object. To obtain a joint solution of this complex of interconnected problems, the methodology of generalized thermodynamic analysis, methods of the theory of automatic control and mathematical modeling are used. In the present report, results of new developments and studies are shown. These results allow improving the principles of process control and the automatic control systems structural synthesis of power units with combined-cycle plants that provide attainable technical and economic efficiency and operational reliability of equipment.

  5. Combined cycles, impacts of technological requirements; Ciclos combinados, impactos de requerimientos tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Santalo, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The fundamental growth of the Mexican electrical sector for the next ten years is planned on base of the installation of 20 thousand Mw plants of combined cycle. This article presents an analysis of the impact of these power stations finding out that the power stations of combined cycle are at the moment cheaper - from 600 to 700 dollars by installed kW- than the alternative coal options or fuel oil, that are in the range of 900 to 1200 dollars per kW, in addition to which the time required for their construction is shorter. [Spanish] El crecimiento fundamental del sector electrico mexicano para los proximos diez anos esta planeado con base en la instalacion de 20 mil Mw de plantas de ciclo combinado. Este articulo presenta un analisis del impacto de dichas centrales encontrando que las centrales de ciclo combinado actualmente resultan mas baratas - de 600 a 700 dolares por kW instalado - que las opciones alternativas de carbon o combustoleo que estan en el rango de 900 a 1200 dolares por kW, ademas de que los tiempos requeridos para su construccion son menores.

  6. Effective energy management by combining gas turbine cycles and forward osmosis desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Young; Shin, Serin; Kim, Eung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative gas turbine system and FO integrated system was proposed. • The feasibility of the integrated system was analyzed thermodynamically. • GOR of the FO–gas turbine system is 17% higher than those of MED and MSF. • Waste heat utilization of the suggested system is 85.7%. • Water production capacity of the suggested system is 3.5 times higher than the MSF–gas turbine system. - Abstract: In the recent years, attempts to improve the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycles have been made. In order to enhance the energy management of the gas turbine cycle, a new integration concept has been proposed; integration of gas turbine cycle and forward osmosis desalination process. The combination of the gas turbine cycle and the forward osmosis (FO) desalination process basically implies the coupling of the waste heat from the gas turbine cycle to the draw solute recovery system in the FO process which is the most energy consuming part of the whole FO process. By doing this, a strong system that is capable of producing water and electricity with very little waste heat can be achieved. The feasibility of this newly proposed system was analyzed using UNISIM program and the OLI property package. For the analysis, the thermolytic draw solutes which has been suggested by other research groups have been selected and studied. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on the integration system in order to understand and identify the key parameters of the integrated system. And the integrated system was further evaluated by comparing the gain output ratio (GOR) values with the conventional desalination technologies such as multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect distillation (MED). The suggested integrated system was calculated to have a GOR of 14.8, while the MSF and MED when integrated to the gas turbine cycle showed GOR value of 12. It should also be noted that the energy utilization of the suggested integrated system is significantly higher by 27

  7. Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern inActinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Kati; Meyer, Fabian; Rhomberg, Agata; Kalinowski, Jörn; Donovan, Catriona; Bramkamp, Marc

    2017-06-06

    Bacteria regulate chromosome replication and segregation tightly with cell division to ensure faithful segregation of DNA to daughter generations. The underlying mechanisms have been addressed in several model species. It became apparent that bacteria have evolved quite different strategies to regulate DNA segregation and chromosomal organization. We have investigated here how the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum organizes chromosome segregation and DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid under all of the conditions tested and that these organisms have overlapping C periods during replication, with both origins initiating replication simultaneously. On the basis of experimental data, we propose growth rate-dependent cell cycle models for C. glutamicum IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell cycles are known for few model organisms and can vary significantly between species. Here, we studied the cell cycle of Corynebacterium glutamicum , an emerging cell biological model organism for mycolic acid-containing bacteria, including mycobacteria. Our data suggest that C. glutamicum carries two pole-attached chromosomes that replicate with overlapping C periods, thus initiating a new round of DNA replication before the previous one is terminated. The newly replicated origins segregate to midcell positions, where cell division occurs between the two new origins. Even after long starvation or under extremely slow-growth conditions, C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid, likely as an adaptation to environmental stress that may cause DNA damage. The cell cycle of C. glutamicum combines features of slow-growing organisms, such as polar origin localization, and fast-growing organisms, such as overlapping C periods. Copyright © 2017 Böhm et al.

  8. Optimal production of power in a combined cycle from manure based biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Erick; Martín, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Manure based biogas is a promising renewable source to add value to waste. • Mathematical optimization is used to design a process including gas and steam turbines. • Two schemes for steam production and the effect of animal headcount are compared. • Direct use of flue gas for steam production is recommended. • Digestate economics is key for a competitive price of electricity. - Abstract: In this work, the production of power using a combined cycle gas turbine/steam turbine, which operates with biogas as fuel, is evaluated. The process begins with the production of biogas from pig and/or cattle slurry manure(s) using anaerobic digestion. Afterwards, the gas is cleaned up to remove humidity, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and ammonia. The cleaned gas (biomethane) is then used in a Brayton cycle (gas turbine) to produce energy. The flue gas that exits the Brayton cycle is typically at high temperature and it is further utilized to produce steam that generates power in a regenerative Rankine cycle (steam turbine). Two alternative steam production schemes are evaluated: either splitting the flue gas to have high temperature gas for the reheating step of the steam or sequential heating up. The model is formulated as a Mixer Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) solved in GAMS® for the optimal production of power. For a typical production capacity of manure in farms, 2.6 MW are produced. The investment for the plant turns out to be 26 M€ and the production cost of the electricity is 0.35 €/kW h before including the credit from the conditioned digestate, that could be sold as fertilizer. The electricity cost goes down to 0.15 €/kW h considering a reasonable credit from the digestate, whose composition depends on the feedstock processed in the facility.

  9. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined power cycle using low grade heat source and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis was performed for a combined cycle utilizing LNG cold energy. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle and LNG Rankine cycle was combined. • A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters. • Characteristics of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability were proposed. • The system performance was influenced significantly by the ammonia mass fraction

  10. Gasification and combined cycles: Present situation and future prospects; Gassificazione e ciclo combinato: Situazione attuale e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustia, G.F.; Bressan, L.; Domenichini, R.

    1992-12-31

    The gasification of coal and/or residual fuels from refineries together with the use of combined cycle power generation systems represents a technically and economically feasible method for the conversion of poor quality fossil fuels into electric power. The conversion is accomplished with maximum respect for the severest environmental normatives. In addition, foreseen technical improvements for components and plant systems are expected to heighten the marketing potential of gasification/combined cycle power plants. After Italy`s moratorium on nuclear energy, the passing eras of conventional fossil fuel and then combined cycle power plants, the need for highly competitive industrial production technologies and the urgency of nation-wide energy conservation appear to be ushering in the new era of gasification with combined cycles.

  11. Conversion of coal-fired power plants to cogeneration and combined-cycle thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    This book covers methodology, calculation procedures and tools to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to cogeneration and combined-cycle forms. It examines the optimum selection of the structure of heat exchangers in a 370 MW power block.

  12. The combined effect of cycling cadence and crank resistance on hamstrings and quadriceps muscle activities during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, P; Pilissy, T; Tihanyi, A; Laczkó, József

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cycling cadence and crank resistance on the activity of hamstrings and quadriceps muscles was investigated during cycling movements of able-bodied subjects on a stationary bike with slow and fast speed against different resistance conditions. The ratio of average EMG amplitudes obtained in the two speed conditions (fast/slow) was computed in each resistance condition. This ratio is higher for both muscles if cycling against higher resistance. This shows that in higher resistance condition muscle activities are not only increased but the change of muscle activities with respect to cadence change varied according to resistance condition. Average EMG amplitudes increased at a higher rate with respect to change of cadence when cycling was performed in higher resistance condition. Besides, when cycling faster, hamstrings activity increased generally at a higher rate than that of quadriceps. The correlation between cadence and EMG amplitudes were also investigated. Considering hamstrings, this correlation was low and decreased as resistance increased. The correlation between the time required to drive one cycle and EMG amplitude is negative but in absolute value it is larger than the correlation of cadence and EMG amplitude.

  13. Performance analysis of a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression cycle for power and refrigeration cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of cogeneration of power and refrigeration activated by low-grade sensible energy is presented in this work. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for power production and a vapor compression cycle (VCC) for refrigeration using the same working fluid are linked in the analysis, including the limiting case of cold production without net electricity production. We investigate the effects of key parameters on system performance such as net power production, refrigeration, and thermal and exergy efficiencies. Characteristic indexes proportional to the cost of heat exchangers or of turbines, such as total number of transfer units (NTU tot ), size parameter (SP) and isentropic volumetric flow ratio (VFR) are also examined. Three important system parameters are selected, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, and the flow division ratio. The analysis is conducted for several different working fluids. For a few special cases, isobutane is used for a sensitivity analysis due to its relatively high efficiencies. Our results show that the system has the potential to effectively use low grade thermal sources. System performance depends both on the adopted parameters and working fluid. - Highlights: • Waste heat utilization can reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. • The ORC/VCC cycle can deliver power and/or refrigeration using waste heat. • Efficiencies and size parameters are used for cycle evaluation. • The cycle performance is studied for eight suitable refrigerants. Isobutane is used for a sensitivity analysis. • The work shows that the isobutene cycle is quite promising.

  14. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2008 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the work is to review the progress of the IAEA international project for innovative reactors and fuel cycle technologies (INPRO). The publication reports about the recognition of INPRO and on general Information on INPRO, its strengths, memberships, collaboration with other international initiatives, the INPRO organization and management and the history of INPRO. The section on the progress of INPRO in 2008 contains task 1: INPRO Methodology, task 2: Assessment Studies, task 3: Nuclear Energy Visions for the 21st Century, task 4: Infrastructure and Institutional Innovation, task 5: Common User Considerations and task 6: Collaborative Projects. Conclusions and New Trends are followed by a bibliography. Annex I deals with the INPRO project management in 2008 and Annex II provides a selection of photographs from 2008. Finally a list of acronyms is provided

  15. Data Flow in Relation to Life-Cycle Costing of Construction Projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolek, Vojtěch; Hanák, Tomáš; Marović, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Life-cycle costing is an important part of every construction project, as it makes it possible to take into consideration future costs relating to the operation and demolition phase of a built structure. In this way, investors can optimize the project design to minimize the total project costs. Even though there have already been some attempts to implement BIM software in the Czech Republic, the current state of affairs does not support automated data flow between the bill of costs and applications that support building facility management. The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate the current situation and outline a future framework that should allow for the use of the data contained in the bill of costs to manage building operating costs.

  16. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Alison; Micks, Elizabeth; Gallo, Maria F; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Grimes, David A

    2014-07-29

    The avoidance of menstruation through continuous or extended (greater than 28 days) administration of combination hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) has gained legitimacy through its use in treating endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menstruation-associated symptoms. Avoidance of menstruation through extended or continuous use of CHCs for reasons of personal preference may have additional advantages to women, including improved compliance, greater satisfaction, fewer menstrual symptoms, and less menstruation-related absenteeism from work or school. To determine the differences between continuous or extended-cycle CHCs (pills, patch, ring) in regimens of greater than 28 days of active hormone compared with traditional cyclic dosing (21 days of active hormone and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormones and 4 days of placebo). Our hypothesis was that continuous or extended-cycle CHCs have equivalent efficacy and safety but improved bleeding profiles, amenorrhea rates, adherence, continuation, participant satisfaction, and menstrual symptoms compared with standard cyclic CHCs. We searched computerized databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PUBMED, EMBASE, POPLINE, LILACS) for trials using continuous or extended CHCs (oral contraceptives, contraceptive ring and patch) during the years 1966 to 2013. We also searched the references in review articles and publications identified for inclusion in the protocol. Investigators were contacted regarding additional references. All randomized controlled trials in any language comparing continuous or extended-cycle (greater than 28 days of active hormones) versus traditional cyclic administration (21 days of active hormones and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormones and 4 days of placebo) of CHCs for contraception. Titles and abstracts identified from the literature searches were assessed for potential inclusion. Data were extracted onto data collection forms and then entered into RevMan 5. Peto

  17. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    M.N.Khan; K.P.Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbi...

  18. Developing Asset Life Cycle Management capabilities through the implementation of Asset Life Cycle Plans – an Action Research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Richard; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan

    2017-01-01

    Asset Life Cycle Management is a strategic approach to managing physical assets over their complete life cycle. However, the literature and the recent ISO 55,000 standard do not offer guidance as to how to develop such an approach. This paper investigates the main capabilities for Asset Life Cycle

  19. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  20. Evaluation of ejector performance for an organic Rankine cycle combined power and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Xue; Markides, Christos N.; Yang, Yong; Shen, Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of an ejector in an Organic Rankine Cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle (EORC) was evaluated. • The achieved entrainment ratio and COP of an EORC system is affected significantly by the evaporator conditions (such as temperature, pressure and flow rate). • An optimum distance of 6 mm nozzle position was found that ensures a maximum entrainment ratio, the best efficiency and lowest loss in the ejector. • A reduced total pressure loss between the nozzle inlet and exit leads to a lower energy loss, a higher entrainment ratio and better overall ejector performance. - Abstract: Power-generation systems based on organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are well suited and increasingly employed in the conversion of thermal energy from low temperature heat sources to power. These systems can be driven by waste heat, for example from various industrial processes, as well as solar or geothermal energy. A useful extension of such systems involves a combined ORC and ejector-refrigeration cycle (EORC) that is capable, at low cost and complexity, of producing useful power while having a simultaneous capacity for cooling that is highly desirable in many applications. A significant thermodynamic loss in such a combined energy system takes place in the ejector due to unavoidable losses caused by irreversible mixing in this component. This paper focuses on the flow and transport processes in an ejector, in order to understand and quantify the underlying reasons for these losses, as well as their sensitivity to important design parameters and operational variables. Specifically, the study considers, beyond variations to the geometric design of the ejector, also the role of changing the external conditions across this component and how these affect its performance; this is not only important in helping develop ejector designs in the first instance, but also in evaluating how the performance may shift (in fact, deteriorate) quantitatively when the device

  1. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  2. Real-world experience of women using extended-cycle vs monthly-cycle combined oral contraception in the United States: the National Health and Wellness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Lete, Iñaki; Lee, Lulu K; Flores, Natalia M; Micheletti, Marie-Christine; Tang, Boxiong

    2018-01-18

    The real-world experience of women receiving extended-cycle combined oral contraception (COC) versus monthly-cycle COC has not been reported. Data were from the United States 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey. Eligible women (18-50 years old, premenopausal, without hysterectomy) currently using extended-cycle COC (3 months between periods) were compared with women using monthly-cycle COC. Treatment satisfaction (1 "extremely dissatisfied" to 7 "extremely satisfied"), adherence (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale © ), menstrual cycle-related symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health state utilities (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey-36v2®), depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), sleep difficulties, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health, and healthcare resource use were assessed using one-way analyses of variance, chi-square tests, and generalized linear models (adjusted for covariates). Participants included 260 (6.7%) women using extended-cycle and 3616 (93.3%) using monthly-cycle COC. Women using extended-cycle COC reported significantly higher treatment satisfaction (P = 0.001) and adherence (P = 0.04) and reduced heavy menstrual bleeding (P = 0.029). A non-significant tendency toward reduced menstrual pain (39.5% versus 47.3%) and menstrual cycle-related symptoms (40.0% versus 48.7%) was found in women using extended-cycle versus monthly-cycle COC. Significantly more women using extended-cycle COC reported health-related diagnoses, indicating preferential prescription for extended-cycle COC among women reporting more health problems. Consistent with this poorer health, more women using extended-cycle COC reported fatigue, headache, and activity impairment (P values < 0.05). There were no other significant differences between groups. This real-world observational study supports extended-cycle COC as a valuable treatment option with high satisfaction, high adherence, and reduced

  3. Development of Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plant for Tri-Generation of Power, Cooling and Clean Water Using Waste Heat Recovery: Techno-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowtham Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tri-generation is one of the most efficient ways for maximizing the utilization of available energy. Utilization of waste heat (flue gases liberated by the Al-Hamra gas turbine power plant is analyzed in this research work for simultaneous production of: (a electricity by combining steam rankine cycle using heat recovery steam generator (HRSG; (b clean water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD plant; and (c cooling by single stage vapor absorption chiller (VAC. The flue gases liberated from the gas turbine power cycle is the prime source of energy for the tri-generation system. The heat recovered from condenser of steam cycle and excess heat available at the flue gases are utilized to drive cooling and desalination cycles which are optimized based on the cooling energy demands of the villas. Economic and environmental benefits of the tri-generation system in terms of cost savings and reduction in carbon emissions were analyzed. Energy efficiency of about 82%–85% is achieved by the tri-generation system compared to 50%–52% for combined cycles. Normalized carbon dioxide emission per MW·h is reduced by 51.5% by implementation of waste heat recovery tri-generation system. The tri-generation system has a payback period of 1.38 years with cumulative net present value of $66 million over the project life time.

  4. Evaluation of a combined cycle based on an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine heat recovery employing two organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaljani, M.; Saray, R. Khoshbakhti; Bahlouli, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a combined power cycle which includes a HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine and two ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) is introduced. In the proposed cycle, the waste heats from the engine cooling water and exhaust gases are utilized to drive the ORCs. A parametric study is conducted to show the effects of decision parameters on the performance and on the total cost rate of cycle. Results of the parametric study reveal that increasing the pinch point temperature difference of evaporator and temperature of the condenser leads to reduction in both exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the bottoming cycle. There is a specific evaporator temperature where exergy efficiency is improved, but the total cost rate of the bottoming cycle is maximized. Also, a multi-objective optimization strategy is performed to achieve the best system design parameters from both thermodynamic and economic aspects. The exergy efficiency and the total cost rate of the system have been considered as objective functions. Optimization results indicate that the exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% for the base case to 46.02%. Also, approximately1.3% reduction in the cost criteria is achieved. Results of the multi-objective optimization justify the results obtained through the parametric study and demonstrate that the design parameters of both ORCs have conflict effect on the objective functions. - Highlights: • Two Organic Rankine bottoming cycles are coupled with an HCCI Engine. • Exergetic and Exergo-economic analysis of the bottoming cycle are reported. • The system is optimized using multi-objective genetic algorithm. • Objective functions are exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the system. • The exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% to 46.02%.

  5. On Brazil's participation in the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuels Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho

    2007-01-01

    In response to a resolution of its 44th General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21) held in September 2000, the International Atomic Energy Agency launched in May 2001 the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuels Cycles (INPRO) with the objective of supporting the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation-resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs of the 21st century. Brazil joined the project from its beginnings and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the screening assessment using INPRO methodology of two small-size light-water reactors as potential components of an innovative nuclear reactor system (INS) completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle. The INS reactor components currently being assessed are the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) that is being developed by an international consortium made of 21 organizations from 10 countries (Brazil included) led by the Westinghouse Company, and the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is being developed at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper gives an overview of Brazil's participation in INPRO, highlighting the objective, scope and intermediate results of the assessment study being performed, and the possibilities for participation in one or two collaborative research projects under INPRO Phase 2 Action Plan for 2008-2009. (author)

  6. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): current and future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Upon resolutions of the IAEA General Conference in 2000, the IAEA initiated International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO, which comprises two phases, is to support sustainable deployment and use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs in the next 50 years and beyond. During Phase I, work is subdivided into two sub phases. Phase 1A focused on determining user requirements in the areas of economics, environment, safety, proliferation resistance, and recommendations in the area of so-called crosscutting issues, which are legal, institutional, and infrastructure issues accompanying the deployment of nuclear power, and is targeted at developing a methodology and guidelines for the assessment of various nuclear reactor and fuel cycle concepts and approaches. Phase 1A was finalised in June 2003 with its results now available as IAEA TECDOC-1362. Phase 1B has started in July 2003. During this phase interested Member States are performing case studies to validate the INPRO methodology and, later on, to assess selected innovative nuclear energy systems using the updated INPRO methodology. In accordance with the INPRO Terms of Reference, after successful completion of Phase I, Phase II may be initiated to examine the feasibility of commencing international projects on innovative nuclear energy systems. The paper contains a description of the current and future activities of INPRO and summarizes the outcome of the project.(author)

  7. Process modelling and techno-economic analysis of natural gas combined cycle integrated with calcium looping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erans María

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium looping (CaL is promising for large-scale CO2 capture in the power generation and industrial sectors due to the cheap sorbent used and the relatively low energy penalties achieved with this process. Because of the high operating temperatures the heat utilisation is a major advantage of the process, since a significant amount of power can be generated from it. However, this increases its complexity and capital costs. Therefore, not only the energy efficiency performance is important for these cycles, but also the capital costs must be taken into account, i.e. techno-economic analyses are required in order to determine which parameters and configurations are optimal to enhance technology viability in different integration scenarios. In this study the integration scenarios of CaL cycles and natural gas combined cycles (NGCC are explored. The process models of the NGCC and CaL capture plant are developed to explore the most promising scenarios for NGCC-CaL integration with regards to efficiency penalties. Two scenarios are analysed in detail, and show that the system with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG before and after the capture plant exhibited better performance of 49.1% efficiency compared with that of 45.7% when only one HRSG is located after the capture plant. However, the techno-economic analyses showed that the more energy efficient case, with two HRSGs, implies relatively higher cost of electricity (COE, 44.1€/MWh, when compared to that of the reference plant system (33.1€/MWh. The predicted cost of CO2 avoided for the case with two HRSGS is 29.3 €/ton CO2.

  8. Thermoeconomic evaluation and optimization of a Brayton–Rankine–Kalina combined triple power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Omendra Kumar; Kaushik, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion chamber performance can improve much by investment in efficient design. • Steam turbine performance would also improve by investment in efficient design. • Minimum total cost rate of plant found at gas cycle pressure ratio of around 14. • Total cost rate decreases significantly by decreasing the inlet air temperature. • Total cost rate decreases a little by increasing the inlet air relative humidity. - Abstract: This paper presents thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of a Brayton–Rankine–Kalina combined triple power cycle using Specific Exergy Costing (SPECO) methodology. Cost-balance and auxiliary equations are formulated for each component and for each node and solved through a MATLAB program to get the average cost per unit exergy at different state points. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of the system, the values of thermoeconomic variables for each component are calculated. Large relative cost difference is observed in the steam turbine, HRSG’s, combustion chambers, compressors, recuperators and ammonia–water evaporator. Therefore, these components require greater attention. The performance of steam turbine, combustion chambers, recuperators and ammonia–water evaporator can be appreciably improved by capital investment into more efficient design due to their low values of exergoeconomic factor. The performance of HRSG’s can be improved only marginally due to slightly higher value of exergoeconomic factor but no such recommendation can be made for the compressors which have a quite high value of exergoeconomic factor. The objective function of the thermoeconomic optimization is the minimization of the total cost rate for the whole plant. Its minimum value is found to occur at a gas cycle pressure ratio of around 14. Decreasing inlet air temperature decreases this objective function parameter significantly while increasing relative humidity causes a small decrease in it

  9. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  10. A New Superalloy Enabling Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Wheels for Improved Combined Cycle Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detor, Andrew [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; DiDomizio, Richard [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; McAllister, Don [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sampson, Erica [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research; Shi, Rongpei [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Ning [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States). GE Global Research

    2017-01-03

    The drive to increase combined cycle turbine efficiency from 62% to 65% for the next-generation advanced cycle requires a new heavy duty gas turbine wheel material capable of operating at 1200°F and above. Current wheel materials are limited by the stability of their major strengthening phase (gamma double prime), which coarsens at temperatures approaching 1200°F, resulting in a substantial reduction in strength. More advanced gamma prime superalloys, such as those used in jet engine turbine disks, are also not suitable due to size constraints; the gamma prime phase overages during the slow cooling rates inherent in processing thick-section turbine wheels. The current program addresses this need by screening two new alloy design concepts. The first concept exploits a gamma prime/gamma double prime coprecipitation reaction. Through manipulation of alloy chemistry, coprecipitation is controlled such that gamma double prime is used only to slow the growth of gamma prime during slow cooling, preventing over-aging, and allowing for subsequent heat treatment to maximize strength. In parallel, phase field modeling provides fundamental understanding of the coprecipitation reaction. The second concept uses oxide dispersion strengthening to improve on two existing alloys that exhibit excellent hold time fatigue crack growth resistance, but have insufficient strength to be considered for gas turbine wheels. Mechanical milling forces the dissolution of starting oxide powders into a metal matrix allowing for solid state precipitation of new, nanometer scale oxides that are effective at dispersion strengthening.

  11. Diagnosis of Combined Cycle Power Plant Based on Thermoeconomic Analysis: A Computer Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo-Suk Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, diagnosis of a 300-MW combined cycle power plant under faulty conditions was performed using a thermoeconomic method called modified productive structure analysis. The malfunction and dysfunction, unit cost of irreversibility and lost cost flow rate for each component were calculated for the cases of pre-fixed malfunction and the reference conditions. A commercial simulating software, GateCycleTM (version 6.1.2, was used to estimate the thermodynamic properties under faulty conditions. The relative malfunction (RMF and the relative difference in the lost cost flow rate between real operation and reference conditions (RDLC were found to be effective indicators for the identification of faulty components. Simulation results revealed that 0.5% degradation in the isentropic efficiency of air compressor, 2% in gas turbine, 2% in steam turbine and 2% degradation in energy loss in heat exchangers can be identified. Multi-fault scenarios that can be detected by the indicators were also considered. Additional lost exergy due to these types of faulty components, that can be detected by RMF or RDLC, is less than 5% of the exergy lost in the components in the normal condition.

  12. Promising Direction of Perfection of the Utilization Combine Cycle Gas Turbine Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullina Albina I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues of improving the efficiency of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT recovery type have been presented. Efficiency gas turbine plant reaches values of 45 % due to rise in temperature to a gas turbine to 1700 °C. Modern technologies for improving the cooling gas turbine components and reducing the excess air ratio leads to a further increase of the efficiency by 1-2 %. Based on research conducted at the Tomsk Polytechnic University, it shows that the CCGT efficiency can be increased by 2-3 % in the winter time due to the use of organic Rankine cycle, low-boiling substances, and air-cooled condensers (ACC. It is necessary to apply the waste heat recovery with condensation of water vapor from the flue gas, it will enhance the efficiency of the CCGT by 2-3 % to increase the efficiency of the heat recovery steam boiler (HRSB to 10-12 %. Replacing electric pumps gas turbine engine (GTE helps to reduce electricity consumption for auxiliary needs CCGT by 0.5-1.5 %. At the same time the heat of flue gas turbine engine may be useful used in HRSB, thus will increase the capacity and efficiency of the steam turbine.

  13. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  14. Combined nutritional and environmental life cycle assessment of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ; 35 μDALY/serving fruit benefit compared to a factor 10 lower impact. Replacing detrimental foods, such as trans-fat and red meat, with fruits or vegetables further enhances health benefit. This study illustrates the importance of considering nutritional effects in food-LCA.......Nutritional health effects from the ‘use stage’ of the life cycle of food products can be substantial, especially for fruits and vegetables. To assess potential one-serving increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe, we employ the Combined Nutritional and Environmental LCA (CONE......-LCA) framework that compares environmental and nutritional effects of foods in a common end -point metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In the assessment, environmental health impact categories include green house gases, particulate matter (PM), and pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables, while...

  15. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  16. Graded Cycling Test Combined With the Talk Test Is Responsive in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Grøn; Vinther, Anders

    2016-01-01

    changes in watts (W) were compared with the standard error of measurement (SEM95) for groups and the smallest real difference (SRD) for individuals. Minimal clinically important difference was assessed by comparing patient perceived changes in physical fitness with the test changes. RESULTS......PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical assessment outcome of cardiac rehabilitation, a simple and reliable submaximal exercise test, not based on heart rate, is warranted. The Talk Test (TT) has been found to correlate well with the ventilatory threshold, and excellent reliability was observed for TT...... combined with the Graded Cycling Test (GCT-TT) in cardiac patients. The purpose was to investigate responsiveness of GCT-TT in cardiac rehabilitation patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 93) referred to 8 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation were included. Pre- and posttests were performed using GCT-TT. Mean test...

  17. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  18. Performance analysis of the MHD-steam combined cycle, including the influence of cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G. F.; Dennis, C. B.

    1980-08-01

    A range of possible performance variables is explored in order to determine the sensitivity of a specific plant design to variation in key system parameters and, ultimately, to establish probable system performance limits. The comprehensive computer code that was developed analyzes and simulates an MHD plant for any number of different configurations, and holds constraints automatically while conducting either sensitivity studies or optimization. A summary of a sensitivity analysis conducted for a combined cycle, MHD steam power plant is presented. The influence of several of the more important system parameters were investigated and the results are presented in graphical form. The ANL cost algorithm is described and it is demonstrated that good agreement is obtained for the calculated cost of electricity.

  19. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a gas turbine combined cycle plant with oxy-combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a gas turbine combined cycle plant with oxy-combustion and carbon dioxide capture. A gas turbine part of the unit with the operating parameters is presented. The methodology and results of optimization by the means of a genetic algorithm for the steam parts in three variants of the plant are shown. The variants of the plant differ by the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) construction: the singlepressure HRSG (1P), the double-pressure HRSG with reheating (2PR), and the triple-pressure HRSG with reheating (3PR). For obtained results in all variants an economic evaluation was performed. The break-even prices of electricity were determined and the sensitivity analysis to the most significant economic factors were performed.

  20. Optimization of the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to determine what, if any, improvements could be made on the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which could be reflected in higher thermal efficiency and a reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. A systematic analysis of air separation process varitions which showed that the specific energy consumption could be minimized when the product stream oxygen concentration is about 70 mole percent was conducted. The use of advanced air compressors, having variable speed and guide vane position control, results in additional power savings. The study also led to the conceptual design of a new air separation process, sized for a 500 MW sub e MHD plant, referred to a internal compression is discussed. In addition to its lower overall energy consumption, potential capital cost savings were identified for air separation plants using this process when constructed in a single large air separation train rather than multiple parallel trains, typical of conventional practice.

  1. Effect of the combined stress on the life of components under thermal cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowski, R.; Zietkowski, L.

    1987-01-01

    The life of structural components subjected to temperature changes is affected, among other factors, by the nature of the stress field. If life prediction for axially stressed components can be accomplished with a number of well established techniques, the behaviour under a complex state of stress and varying temperature conditions still is the object of intensive research. The present study was aimed at assessing the influence of the stress field upon the life of specimens made of chromium-nickel H23N18 steel under thermal cycling conditions. The designation of steel is in accordance with Polish Standards. The experiments were made on thin-walled tubular specimens loaded with various combinations of a static axial force and a static torque. (orig./GL)

  2. Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

  3. Integrated evaluation framework. Based on the logical framework approach for project cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Integrated Evaluation Framework (IEF) was developed by TC Evaluation with the aim of presenting in a comprehensive manner the logic of thinking used when evaluating projects and programmes. Thus, in the first place, the intended audience for this report are evaluation officers, so that when applying the evaluation procedures and check lists, data can be organized following a systematic and logical scheme and conclusions can be derived ''objectively''. The value of such a framework for reporting on performance and in providing a quality reference for disbursements represents one of its major advantages. However, when developing and applying the IEF, it was realized that a Logical Framework Approach (LFA), like the one upon which the IEF is based, needs to be followed throughout the project life cycle, from the Country Programme Framework planning stage, through project design and implementation. Then, the helpful consequences flow into project design quality and smooth implementation. It is only in such an environment that meaningful and consistent evaluation can take place. Therefore the main audience for this report are Agency staff involved in planning, designing and implementing TC projects as well as their counterparts in Member States. In this understanding, the IEF was subjected to review by a consultants meeting, which included both external consultants and Agency staff. This Consultants Review Meeting encouraged the Secretariat to further adopt the LFA into the TC management process

  4. Valuing flexibility: The case of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Luis M.; Chamorro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the choice between two technologies for producing electricity. In particular, the firm has to decide whether and when to invest either in a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant or in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, which may burn either coal or natural gas. Instead of assuming that fuel prices follow standard geometric Brownian motions, here they are assumed to show mean reversion, specifically to follow an inhomogeneous geometric Brownian motion. First we consider the opportunity to invest in a NGCC power plant. We derive the optimal investment rule as a function of natural gas price and the remaining life of the right to invest. In addition, the analytical solution for a perpetual option to invest is obtained. Then we turn to the IGCC power plant. We analyse the valuation of an operating plant when there are switching costs between modes of operation, and the choice of the best operation mode. This serves as an input to evaluate the option to invest in this plant. Finally we derive the value of an opportunity to invest either in a NGCC or IGCC power plant, i.e. to choose between an inflexible and a flexible technology, respectively. Depending on the opportunity's time to maturity, we derive the pairs of coal and gas prices for which it is optimal to invest in NGCC, in IGCC, or simply not to invest. Numerical computations involve the use of one- and two-dimensional binomial lattices that support a mean-reverting process for coal and gas prices. Basic parameter values are taken from an actual IGCC power plant currently in operation. Sensitivity of some results with respect to the underlying stochastic process for fuel price is also checked

  5. Future Projections and Consequences of the Changing North American Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Cooley, S. R.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily due to human-caused fossil fuel emissions and land-use change, has been dampened by carbon uptake by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. Nevertheless, today's atmospheric CO2 levels are higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. Over the past decade, there has been considerable effort to understand how carbon cycle changes interact with, and influence, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus climate. Here, we summarize the key findings related to projected changes to the North American carbon cycle and the consequences of these changes as reported in Chapters 17 and 19 of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2). In terrestrial ecosystems, increased atmospheric CO2 causes enhanced photosynthesis, plant growth, and water-use efficiency. Together, these may lead to changes in vegetation composition, carbon storage, hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. In the ocean, increased uptake of atmospheric CO2 causes ocean acidification, which leads to changes in reproduction, survival, and growth of many marine species. These direct physiological responses to acidification are likely to have indirect ecosystem-scale consequences that we are just beginning to understand. In all environments, the effects of rising CO2 also interact with other global changes. For example, nutrient availability can set limits on growth and a warming climate alters carbon uptake depending on a number of other factors. As a result, there is low confidence in the future evolution of the North American carbon cycle. For example, models project that terrestrial ecosystems could continue to be a net sink (of up to 1.19 PgC yr-1) or switch to a net source of carbon to the atmosphere (of up to 0.60 PgC yr-1) by the end of the century under business-as-usual emission scenarios. And, while North American coastal areas have historically been a sink of carbon (e.g., 2.6 to 3.5 PgC since 1995) and are projected to continue to take up

  6. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  7. Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle Power Conversion Design, Physical Performance Estimation and Economic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreades, Charalampos

    The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The

  8. Control Activity in Support of NASA Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Control research for a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system is the current focus of the Hypersonic Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) discipline team. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports the Hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of control algorithms to manage a TBCC airbreathing propulsion system during a critical operating period. The critical operating period being addressed in this paper is the span when the propulsion system transitions from one cycle to another, referred to as mode transition. One such tool, that is a basic need for control system design activities, is computational models (hereto forth referred to as models) of the propulsion system. The models of interest for designing and testing controllers are Control Development Models (CDMs) and Control Validation Models (CVMs). CDMs and CVMs are needed for each of the following propulsion system elements: inlet, turbine engine, ram/scram dual-mode combustor, and nozzle. This paper presents an overall architecture for a TBCC propulsion system model that includes all of the propulsion system elements. Efforts are under way, focusing on one of the propulsion system elements, to develop CDMs and CVMs for a TBCC propulsion system inlet. The TBCC inlet aerodynamic design being modeled is that of the Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Testbed. The CCE Testbed is a large-scale model of an aerodynamic design that was verified in a small-scale screening experiment. The modeling approach includes employing existing state-of-the-art simulation codes, developing new dynamic simulations, and performing system identification experiments on the hardware in the NASA GRC 10 by10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The developed CDMs and CVMs will be available for control studies prior to hardware buildup. The system identification experiments on the CCE Testbed will characterize the necessary dynamics to be represented in CDMs for control design. These

  9. Using Model-Based System Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This is the presentation for the AIAA Space conference in September 2017. It highlights key information from Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews paper.

  10. The life cycle management of the analogical I and C in NPP modernization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    The existing NPPS (nuclear power plants) are subject for the ageing and obsolete problems of the analogue I and C systems. The large scope I and C upgrade project based on the DCS technology has the following challenged characteristics: the complicated technology, the broad impacts, the big investment and the long implementation period. This document gives a preliminary introduction and analysis from the aspects including the motives for the upgrade, I and C design base, the digital technology characteristics, I and C function analysis, I and C safety classification, I and C architecture, life-cycle-management mission for the related stages. Considering the experiences and lessons learned from the similar I and C upgrade projects in foreign NPPS, the conclusion and recommendation is given for I and C modernization based on the digital technology. (author)

  11. Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant; Wakamatsu PFBC jissho shiken no genkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takanishi, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    At the Wakamatsu Coal Utilization Research Center, the verification test was conducted of atmospheric pressure fluidized bed boilers and ultra-high temperature turbines. The Wakamatsu PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) is a combined cycle power generation system combining steam turbine power generation in which the turbine is driven by steam generated from the fluidized bed boiler installed inside the pressure vessel and gas turbine power generation in which high temperature/pressure exhaust gas is used from the boiler, having a total output of 71 MW. The operation started in fiscal 1995, stopped due to damage of the tube of CTF (ceramic tube filter), and is now continuing after the repair. As a result of the test conducted in fiscal 1995, it was confirmed in the two-stage cyclone test that the diameter of ash particle and cyclone efficiency change by kind of coal and amount of limestone and that by coal kind gas turbine blades show different states of abrasion, indicating greater abrasion when there is much SiO2 in ash. As a result of the continued high load operation of CTF, ash blockade inside the tube occurred and tube damage was generated by thermal shock, etc. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. An optimization method for gas refrigeration cycle based on the combination of both thermodynamics and entransy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Xu, Yun-Chao; Hao, Jun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization method for practical thermodynamic cycle is developed. • The entransy-based heat transfer analysis and thermodynamic analysis are combined. • Theoretical relation between system requirements and design parameters is derived. • The optimization problem can be converted into conditional extremum problem. • The proposed method provides several useful optimization criteria. - Abstract: A thermodynamic cycle usually consists of heat transfer processes in heat exchangers and heat-work conversion processes in compressors, expanders and/or turbines. This paper presents a new optimization method for effective improvement of thermodynamic cycle performance with the combination of entransy theory and thermodynamics. The heat transfer processes in a gas refrigeration cycle are analyzed by entransy theory and the heat-work conversion processes are analyzed by thermodynamics. The combination of these two analysis yields a mathematical relation directly connecting system requirements, e.g. cooling capacity rate and power consumption rate, with design parameters, e.g. heat transfer area of each heat exchanger and heat capacity rate of each working fluid, without introducing any intermediate variable. Based on this relation together with the conditional extremum method, we theoretically derive an optimization equation group. Simultaneously solving this equation group offers the optimal structural and operating parameters for every single gas refrigeration cycle and furthermore provides several useful optimization criteria for all the cycles. Finally, a practical gas refrigeration cycle is taken as an example to show the application and validity of the newly proposed optimization method

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a Kalina-based combined cooling and power cycle driven by low-grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liyan; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Hongyang; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Kalina-based combined cooling and power cycle is proposed to recover low-grade heat source. • The effects of several parameters on cycle performance are examined. • An optimization is conducted by GA to obtain optimum performance. - Abstract: This paper investigates a Kalina-based combined cooling and power (CCP) cycle driven by low-grade heat source. The proposed cycle consists of a Kalina cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle. By establishing the mathematical model, numerical simulation is conducted and parametric analysis is performed to examine the effects of five key parameters on the thermodynamic performances of Kalina-based CCP cycle. A performance optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum exergy efficiency. According to parametric analysis, an optimum expander inlet pressure can be achieved; exergy efficiency increases with expander inlet pressure and concentration of ammonia-water basic solution, but exergy efficiency decreases when terminal temperature difference of high-temperature recuperator and low-temperature recuperator increases. Refrigeration exergy increases with expander inlet pressure and decreases as expander inlet temperature and concentration of ammonia-water basic solution rise. However, the refrigeration exergy keeps constant as the terminal temperature difference of high-temperature recuperator and low-temperature recuperator vary. Furthermore, the optimized Kalina-based CCP cycle is compared with a separate generation system which is also optimized. The optimization results show that the exergy efficiency and net power output of Kalina-based CCP are higher than those of separate generation system.

  14. A Framework for Economic Evaluation of Highway Development Projects Based on Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ziari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For economic evaluation of a highway development project, multiple criteria must be considered on a timeframe longer than the project implementation interval and a geographical area larger than the project zone. In this study, a framework is proposed based on the Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis (NL-LCCA to assess the effect of highway development projects on mobility, safety, economy, environment and other monetizable criteria. In this approach, project impacts are estimated within physical boundaries of highway network over the network life cycle. This framework can be used as a decision-making support for evaluation and ranking of pre-defined development projects, proposing new cost-effective development projects, assessment of cost efficiency of existing highway network and budget allocation optimization.

  15. ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Inventory Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutnik, Steven E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-06-19

    The goal of this project, “ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Depletion Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment" is to create a physics-based reactor depletion and decay module for the Cyclus nuclear fuel cycle simulator in order to assess nuclear fuel inventories over a broad space of reactor operating conditions. The overall goal of this approach is to facilitate evaluations of nuclear fuel inventories for a broad space of scenarios, including extended used nuclear fuel storage and cascading impacts on fuel cycle options such as actinide recovery in used nuclear fuel, particularly for multiple recycle scenarios. The advantages of a physics-based approach (compared to a recipe-based approach which has been typically employed for fuel cycle simulators) is in its inherent flexibility; such an approach can more readily accommodate the broad space of potential isotopic vectors that may be encountered under advanced fuel cycle options. In order to develop this flexible reactor analysis capability, we are leveraging the Origen nuclear fuel depletion and decay module from SCALE to produce a standalone “depletion engine” which will serve as the kernel of a Cyclus-based reactor analysis module. The ORIGEN depletion module is a rigorously benchmarked and extensively validated tool for nuclear fuel analysis and thus its incorporation into the Cyclus framework can bring these capabilities to bear on the problem of evaluating long-term impacts of fuel cycle option choices on relevant metrics of interest, including materials inventories and availability (for multiple recycle scenarios), long-term waste management and repository impacts, etc. Developing this Origen-based analysis capability for Cyclus requires the refinement of the Origen analysis sequence to the point where it can reasonably be compiled as a standalone sequence outside of SCALE; i.e., wherein all of the computational aspects of Origen (including reactor cross-section library processing and interpolation, input and output

  16. Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

    1990-07-01

    There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Oil fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.; Runte, K.-H.; Kortum, G.; Weltschev, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988), Ottinger et al. (1990) and Friedrich and Voss (1993) provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. It is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  19. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Lignite fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988] and Ottinger et al. [1990] provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature [Friedrich, Voss, 1993]. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. If is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  20. Methodology Proposal for Increasing Swift Trust within Virtual Teams in the Inception Phase of a Project Life-Cycle: Project Manager’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Bojan Morić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes team building methodology for project managers in virtual teams as means to develop swift trust between new team members in the inception phase of the project life cycle. Proposed methodology encompasses activities within the first three days after the team formation and proposes the measuring tools for monitoring and managing trust development within the project team. Aim of this paper is to provide new insights to various decision makers potentially interested in increasing the performance of project teams operating in virtual environment, such as: investors, business owners and project managers working in virtual environment.

  1. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): Status, ongoing activities and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Khorochev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference (2000) invited 'all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the IAEA in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology'. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The overall objectives of INPRO are to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21 st century in a sustainable manner; and to bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. INPRO is addressing the identification of full spectrum of user requirements for innovative technologies as well as the development of methodologies and guidelines for the comparison of different innovative approaches taking into account variations in potential demands across countries. INPRO can make major contributions by focusing on economic aspects, and societal acceptability issues and those areas where IAEA can make unique contributions such as proliferation resistance, nuclear safety, waste management and sustainability issues and providing assistance to the user community. To enhance the potential for the deployment of innovative technologies, some changes in the infrastructure under which nuclear energy is developed and used; should be envisaged. In order to fulfil these objectives, the first phase of INPRO dealt with the development of a methodology to assess and compare the performance of innovative nuclear energy systems (INS). This methodology includes the definition of a set of Basic principles, User requirements and Criteria to be met in different areas (Economics, Sustainability and environment, Safety of nuclear installations, Waste management and Proliferation resistance). The result of

  2. Modelling and exergoeconomic-environmental analysis of combined cycle power generation system using flameless burner for steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Barzegaravval, Hasan; Ganjehkaviri, Abdolsaeid; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Mohd Jaafar, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Using flameless burner as a supplementary firing system after gas turbine is modeled. • Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of this model are performed. • Efficiency of the plant increases about 6% and CO 2 emission decreases up to 5.63% in this design. • Available exergy for work production in both gas cycle and steam cycle increases in this model. - Abstract: To have an optimum condition for the performance of a combined cycle power generation, using supplementary firing system after gas turbine was investigated by various researchers. Since the temperature of turbine exhaust is higher than auto-ignition temperature of the fuel in optimum condition, using flameless burner is modelled in this paper. Flameless burner is installed between gas turbine cycle and Rankine cycle of a combined cycle power plant which one end is connected to the outlet of gas turbine (as primary combustion oxidizer) and the other end opened to the heat recovery steam generator. Then, the exergoeconomic-environmental analysis of the proposed model is evaluated. Results demonstrate that efficiency of the combined cycle power plant increases about 6% and CO 2 emission reduces up to 5.63% in this proposed model. It is found that the variation in the cost is less than 1% due to the fact that a cost constraint is implemented to be equal or lower than the design point cost. Moreover, exergy of flow gases increases in all points except in heat recovery steam generator. Hence, available exergy for work production in both gas cycle and steam cycle will increase in new model.

  3. Exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System (ISCCS) using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghernejad, A.; Yaghoubi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We applied thermoeconomic concept for optimization of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System (ISCCS) using genetic algorithm. → Optimization process improves the total performance of the system in a way that the objective function is decreased by 10.98%, the exergetic efficiency of the system is increased from about 43.79% to 46.8% and the rate of fuel cost is decreased by 7.23%. → Cost of electricity produced by steam turbine and gas turbine in the optimum design condition of the ISCCS are about 7.1% and 1.17% lower with respect to the base case. → Increasing solar field operation periods from 1000 to 2000 hours per year reduces the unit cost of electricity produced by steam turbine about 14%. → The unit cost of electricity has a linear and remarkable increase with fuel cost. Also by increasing the system construction period from 3 to 6 years, the unit cost of electricity produced by steam turbine increased about 13%. -- Abstract: In this study, thermoeconomic concept is applied using genetic algorithm for optimization of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System (ISCCS) that produces 400 MW of electricity. Attempt is made to minimize objective function including investment cost of equipments and cost of exergy destruction. Optimization process carried out by using exergoeconomic principles and genetic algorithm. The developed code first validated with a thermal system and good comparison is observed. Then the analysis is made for the ISCCS, and it shows that objective function for the optimum operation reduced by about 11%. Also cost of electricity produced by steam turbine and gas turbine in the optimum design of the ISCCS are about 7.1% and 1.17% lower with respect to the base case. These objectives are achieved with 13.3% increase in capital investment. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the effect of changes in the unit cost of electricity for the system important parameters such as interest rate, plant

  4. Multi-objective optimization of an advanced combined cycle power plant including CO{sub 2} separation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Marechal, Francois; Burer, Meinrad; Favrat, Daniel [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland). Laboratory for Industrial Energy Systems

    2006-12-15

    This paper illustrates a methodology developed to facilitate the analysis of complex systems characterized by a large number of technical, economical and environmental parameters. Thermo-economic modeling of a natural gas combined cycle including CO{sub 2} separation options has been coupled within a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to characterize the economic and environmental performances of such complex systems within various contexts. The method has been applied to a case of power generation in Germany. The optimum options for system integration under different boundary conditions are revealed by the Pareto Optimal Frontiers. Results show the influence of the configuration and technical parameters on the electrical efficiencies of the Pareto optimal plants and their sub-systems. The results provide information on the relationship between power generation cost and CO{sub 2} emissions, and allow sensitivity analyses of important economical parameters like natural gas and electricity prices. Such a tool is of interest for power generation technology suppliers, for utility owners or for project investors, and for policy makers in the context of CO{sub 2} mitigation schemes including emission trading. (author)

  5. Performance Assessment of Passive Gaseous Provisions (PGAP). Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000 on the basis of IAEA General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/21. INPRO helps to ensure the availability of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century and seeks to bring together all interested Member States - both technology holders and technology users - to consider joint actions to achieve desired innovations. To contribute to an international consensus on the definition of the reliability of passive systems that involve natural circulation, and on a methodology to assess this reliability, INPRO initiated a collaborative project on Performance Assessment of Passive Gaseous Provisions (PGAP) in 2007. Advanced nuclear reactor designs incorporate several passive systems in addition to active ones, not only to enhance the operational safety of the reactors but also to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident should one occur. However, the reliability of passive safety systems is crucial and must be assessed before they are used extensively in future nuclear power plants. Several physical parameters affect the performance of a passive safety system, and their values at the time of operation are a priori unknown. The functions of many passive systems are based on thermohydraulic principles, which until recently were considered as not being subject to any kind of failure. Hence, large and consistent efforts are required to quantify the reliability of such systems. Three participants from three INPRO Member States were involved in this collaborative project. Reliability methods for passive systems (RMPS) and assessment of passive system reliability (APSRA) methodologies were used by the participants to assess the performance and reliability of the passive decay heat removal system of the French gas cooled fast reactor design for station blackout and a loss of coolant accident combined with loss of off-site power, respectively. This publication presents the

  6. Combined use of semantics and metadata to manage Research Data Life Cycle in Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Gómez, Fernando; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Pertinez, Esther; Palacio, Aida

    2017-04-01

    The use of metadata to contextualize datasets is quite extended in Earth System Sciences. There are some initiatives and available tools to help data managers to choose the best metadata standard that fit their use cases, like the DCC Metadata Directory (http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/metadata-standards). In our use case, we have been gathering physical, chemical and biological data from a water reservoir since 2010. A well metadata definition is crucial not only to contextualize our own data but also to integrate datasets from other sources like satellites or meteorological agencies. That is why we have chosen EML (Ecological Metadata Language), which integrates many different elements to define a dataset, including the project context, instrumentation and parameters definition, and the software used to process, provide quality controls and include the publication details. Those metadata elements can contribute to help both human and machines to understand and process the dataset. However, the use of metadata is not enough to fully support the data life cycle, from the Data Management Plan definition to the Publication and Re-use. To do so, we need to define not only metadata and attributes but also the relationships between them, so semantics are needed. Ontologies, being a knowledge representation, can contribute to define the elements of a research data life cycle, including DMP, datasets, software, etc. They also can define how the different elements are related between them and how they interact. The first advantage of developing an ontology of a knowledge domain is that they provide a common vocabulary hierarchy (i.e. a conceptual schema) that can be used and standardized by all the agents interested in the domain (either humans or machines). This way of using ontologies is one of the basis of the Semantic Web, where ontologies are set to play a key role in establishing a common terminology between agents. To develop an ontology we are using a graphical tool

  7. Lifetime Assessment of Combined Cycles for Cogeneration of Power and Heat in Offshore Oil and Gas Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Riboldi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of combined cycles for offshore cogeneration of power and heat is an attractive option to reduce the CO2 emissions directly related to the oil and gas sector. Main challenges for their efficient implementation are the potentially large heat-to-power ratios and the variability of power and heat requirements throughout the different stages of a field’s lifetime. This paper aimed to provide the first elements for an assessment of the technology. Two combined cycle configurations were evaluated (backpressure and extraction steam turbine cycle, as well as different scenarios of power and heat requirements. The optimum design approach was firstly investigated. Designing the combined cycle at the end-life conditions, rather than at peak conditions, demonstrated to return better overall performance, when the entire plant’s lifetime is considered. A comparative analysis between the defined optimum designs was then carried out. Although the backpressure steam turbine cycle demonstrated to be feasible in all the cases analyzed, it showed to be effective only for offshore installations characterized by low temperature large process heat demands. On the other hand, the extraction steam turbine cycle could not meet large process heat demands but it was very attractive when the heat requirements were more limited, irrespective of the temperature at which this heat was requested.

  8. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  9. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Combined Power Cycle Using the Organic Rankine Cycle and the Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yong Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for a combined cycle consisting of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC and a liquefied natural gas (LNG Rankine cycle for the recovery of low-grade heat sources and LNG cold energy. The effects of the turbine inlet pressure and the working fluid on the system performance are theoretically investigated. A modified temperature-enthalpy diagram is proposed, which can be useful to see the characteristics of the combined cycle, as well as the temperature distributions in the heat exchangers. Results show that the thermal efficiency increases with an increasing turbine inlet pressure and critical temperature of the working fluid. However, the exergy efficiency has a peak value with respect to the turbine inlet pressure, and the maximum exergy efficiency and the corresponding optimum turbine inlet pressure are significantly influenced by the selection of the working fluid. The exergy destruction at the condenser is generally the greatest among the exergy destruction components of the system.

  10. Exergoeconomic assessment and parametric study of a Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor combined with two Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadkhani, F.; Shokati, N.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Yari, M.; Rosen, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    An exergoeconomic analysis is reported for a combined system with a net electrical output of 299 MW in which waste heat from a Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is utilized by two Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). A parametric study is also done to reveal the effects on the exergoeconomic performance of the combined system of such significant parameters as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, temperatures of evaporators, pinch point temperature difference in the evaporators and degree of superheat at the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) turbines inlet. Finally the combined cycle performance is optimized from the viewpoint of exergoeconomics. The results show that the precooler, the intercooler and the ORC condensers exhibit the worst exergoeconomic performance. For the overall system, the exergoeconomic factor, the capital cost rate and the exergy destruction cost rate are determined to be 37.95%, 6876 $/h and 11,242 $/h, respectively. Also, it is observed that the unit cost of electricity produced by the GT-MHR turbine increases with increasing GT-MHR turbine inlet temperature but decreases as the other above mentioned parameters increase. - Highlights: • An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for the GT-MHR/ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) combined cycle. • The effects of decision parameters on the exergoeconomic performance are studied. • The highest exergy destructions occur in the precooler, intercooler and condenser. • Superheating the working fluid at the ORC turbine inlet is not necessary. • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic optimal conditions differ from each other

  11. New regimens with combined oral contraceptive pills--moving away from traditional 21/7 cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Christine M

    2010-12-01

    The practice of extending combined oral contraceptive use (COC) and eliminating or reducing the hormone free interval has been in use for many years. More recently a range of products with new dosing options has been developed and marketed. Women and physicians in developed countries are comfortable with and many prefer the use of extended COC regimens which provide an option to eliminate or reduce the frequency of regular withdrawal bleeding. The extension of active pill taking and the reduction or elimination of the hormone-free interval have been shown to be beneficial for women who experience menstrual cycle-related problems such as heavy bleeding or dysmenorrhoea. The hormone-free interval of less than seven days has additional benefits in managing hormone withdrawal symptoms and efficacy may be improved in situations where pills are inadvertently missed or in women who are perceived as 'poor' pill takers. This paper provides a descriptive review highlighting the development of new dosing options that alter the traditional 21/7 COC regimen. The rationale for and the acceptability of COCs developed with alternative dosing regimens is examined.

  12. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  13. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant: Part-1 Operation and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Almutairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energetic and exergetic analyses are conducted using operating data for Sabiya, a combined cycle power plant (CCPP with an advanced triple pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the HRSG using a recent approach to differentiate between the sources of irreversibility. The proposed system was modelled using the IPSEpro software and further validated by the manufacturer’s data. The performance of the Sabiya CCPP was examined for different climatic conditions, pressure ratios, pinch point temperatures, high-pressure steam, and condenser pressure values. The results confirmed that 60.9% of the total exergy destruction occurs in the combustion chamber, which constitutes the main source of irreversibilities within a system. The exergy destruction was significantly affected by both the pressure ratio and the high-pressure steam, where the relation between them was seen to be inversely proportional. The high-pressure stage contributes about 50% of the exergy destruction within the HRSG compared to other stages and the reheat system, due to the high temperature difference between the streams and the large number of components, which leads to high energy loss to the surroundings. Numerous possibilities for improving the CCPP’s performance are introduced, based on the obtained results.

  14. Performance analysis of the MHD-steam combined cycle, including the influence of cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G. F.; Dennis, C. B.

    1980-08-01

    The MHD Systems group of the ANL Engineering Division is conducting overall system studies, utilizing the computer simulation code that has been developed at ANL. This analytical investigation is exploring a range of possible performance variables, in order to determine the sensitivity of a specific plant design to variation in key system parameters and, ultimately, to establish probable system performance limits. The comprehensive computer code that has been developed for this task will analyze and simulate an MHD power plant for any number of different configurations, and will hold constraints automatically while conducting either sensitivity studies or optimization. A summary of a sensitivity analysis conducted for a combined cycle, MHD-steam power plant is presented. The influence of several of the more important systems parameters were investigated in a systematic fashion, and the results are presented in graphical form. The report is divided into four sections. Following the introduction, the second section describes in detail the results of a validation study conducted to insure that the code is functioning correctly. The third section includes a description of the ANL cost algorithm and a detailed comparison between the ANL cost results and published OCMHD cost information. it is further demonstrated in this section that good agreement is obtained for the calculated cost of electricity. The fourth section is a sensitivity study and optimization for a specific OCMHD configuration over several key plant parameters.

  15. The C-N-cycle additional channels through the combinative resonances phenomenon (CIRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafarov, A.A.; Khugaev, A.V.; Koblik, Yu.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Combinative Isobar Resonances are shown as new channels of the C-N-cycle. In 1994 we had firstly used our new developed approach - the M ethod of Spectra Superposition p roviding measurement of d σ (E) /d ω at every accelerator (including colliders ) with highest energy-resolution depending (for thin targets) only on energy-resolution of detectors [1-5]. Rarely one can read about this[6].That time the Excitation Function (EF) of the l2 C(p,p o ) elastic scattering with energy-resolution ∼10 keV for E p =16 ∼ 19.5 MeV of cyclotron protons by using the multi angular magnetic spectrograph as detector was measured.It was wonderful when after data processing so surprised curve with a saturated structure of overlapped resonances - fluctuations of cross-section (Fig.1) was obtained (in contrary to EF obtained by M.J. LeVine and P.D.Parker in 60 Th at the tandem generator [7]). The precise agreement between well known thresholds and nuclear levels with the brightest anomalies in our curve and not disappearing fine structures in full-events curve (stat.err. 3%) - all this, only, had satisfied me that these structures are not just a joke of statistics. Fig.l shows a comparison of our obtained EF with thresholds and levels of well known product-nuclei

  16. Analysis and Optimization of a Compressed Air Energy Storage—Combined Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a commercial, utility-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage with fast ramp rates and good part-load operation. It is a promising storage technology for balancing the large-scale penetration of renewable energies, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. This study proposes a CAES-CC system, which is based on a conventional CAES combined with a steam turbine cycle by waste heat boiler. Simulation and thermodynamic analysis are carried out on the proposed CAES-CC system. The electricity and heating rates of the proposed CAES-CC system are lower than those of the conventional CAES by 0.127 kWh/kWh and 0.338 kWh/kWh, respectively, because the CAES-CC system recycles high-temperature turbine-exhausting air. The overall efficiency of the CAES-CC system is improved by approximately 10% compared with that of the conventional CAES. In the CAES-CC system, compressing intercooler heat can keep the steam turbine on hot standby, thus improving the flexibility of CAES-CC. This study brought about a new method for improving the efficiency of CAES and provided new thoughts for integrating CAES with other electricity-generating modes.

  17. Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle for heat and power at ethanol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kam, Matthew J.; Vance Morey, R. [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Tiffany, Douglas G. [Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 1994 Buford Avenue St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) technology can be used to generate process heat and significant amounts of electricity at dry-grind ethanol facilities by utilizing the ethanol process co-products and other biomass sources. These systems can reduce fuel costs for ethanol plants, improve the renewable energy balance of dry-grind ethanol production, and provide reliable renewable electricity for process use and for sale to the local utility. An Aspen Plus model of the dry-grind ethanol process is used as the basis for a subsequent gasification system model. A twin fluidized bed steam gasification configuration based on the SilvaGas process is used to generate synthesis gas. The results show that a dry-grind ethanol facility with a capacity of 190 million liters per year could produce 30.4 MW{sub e} of power while supplying all its process heat needs using ethanol co-products and corn cobs. This configuration results in a three fold improvement in the amount of renewable energy produced per unit of fossil energy used compared to a conventional ethanol production process using natural gas. (author)

  18. The effectiveness of combined-cycle power plants hot startups simulating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Yu. A.; Kontorovich, T. S.; Molchanov, K. A.

    2015-09-01

    Activities aimed at substantiating the maneuverability characteristics of power-generating equipment installed at district heating power plants (DHPP) and especially at combined-cycle power plants (CCPPs) are quite topical for the modern conditions and involve calculations of thermally stressed state and analysis of the cyclic strength of steam path critical elements at different loading rates. Until recently, such problems have been solved in two possible ways: based on the results of tests carried out on operating equipment and using the mathematical models of heavily stressed parts of CCPP equipment. In this article, preference is given to the second way. The results of mathematical modeling represented as time dependences of the temperature state of equipment critical parts were taken as initial data for calculating their thermally stressed state and for analyzing their damageability according to the criterion of the equivalent operating hours. This criterion is an integral indicator characterizing the extent of damage accumulated in equipment parts and can be used for elaborating equipment maintenance programs. A dependence of the equivalent operating hours on the initial temperature of the metal of the high-pressure steam superheater's outlet header, the component imposing the strongest limitations on the power unit loading rate, is obtained. It is shown that the number of equivalent operating hours of the CCPP steam circuit part equipment accumulated during hot startups does not have any essential effect on the equipment service life (heat-recovery steam generators, steam turbine, and steam lines).

  19. Combustion oscillation study in a kerosene fueled rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Wei; He, Guo-Qiang; Qin, Fei; Xue, Rui; Wei, Xiang-Geng; Shi, Lei

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the combustion oscillation features in a three-dimensional (3D) rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine combustor under flight Mach number (Mflight) 3.0 conditions both experimentally and numerically. Experiment is performed on a direct-connect ground test facility, which measures the wall pressure along the flow-path. High-speed imaging of the flame luminosity and schlieren is carried out at exit of the primary rocket. Compressible reactive large eddy simulation (LES) with reduced chemical kinetics of a surrogate model for kerosene is performed to further understand the combustion oscillation mechanisms in the combustor. LES results are validated with experimental data by the time-averaged and root mean square (RMS) pressure values, and show acceptable agreement. Effects of the primary rocket jet on pressure oscillation in the combustor are analyzed. Relation of the high speed rocket jet oscillation, which is thought to among the most probable sources of combustion oscillation, with the RBCC combustor is recognized. Results reveal that the unsteady over-expanded rocket jet has significant impacts on the combustion oscillation feature of the RBCC combustor, which is different from a thermo-acoustics type oscillation. The rocket jet/air inflow physical interactions under different rocket jet expansion degrees are experimentally studied.

  20. A comparative study of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power systems: Performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Guiyan; Tejasvi, Sharma; Ratner, Albert; Lora, Electo Silva

    2018-05-01

    The Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) power system is believed to potentially be a highly efficient way to utilize biomass to generate power. However, there is no comparative study of BIGCC systems that examines all the latest improvements for gasification agents, gas turbine combustion methods, and CO 2 Capture and Storage options. This study examines the impact of recent advancements on BIGCC performance through exergy analysis using Aspen Plus. Results show that the exergy efficiency of these systems is ranged from 22.3% to 37.1%. Furthermore, exergy analysis indicates that the gas turbine with external combustion has relatively high exergy efficiency, and Selexol CO 2 removal method has low exergy destruction. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis shows that the system exergy efficiency is more sensitive to the initial temperature and pressure ratio of the gas turbine, whereas has a relatively weak dependence on the initial temperature and initial pressure of the steam turbine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ju-hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall thermal efficiency of the integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC has not been sufficiently improved. In order to achieve higher power generation efficiency,the advanced technology of IGCC has been developed which is on the basis of the concept of exergy recovery. IGCC systems and devices from the overall structure of opinion,this technology will generate electricity for the integration of advanced technology together,the current utilization of power generation technology and by endothermic reaction of steam in the gasifier,a gas turbine exhaust heat recovery or the solid oxide fuel cell. It is estimated that such the use of exergy recycling has the advantage of being easy to use,separating,collecting fixed CO2,making it very attractive,and can increase the overall efficiency by 10% or more. The characteristics of fluidized bed gasifier,one of the core equipment of the IGCC system,and its effect on the whole system were studied.

  2. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10 -12 ). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  3. Oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC) - an efficient iron-making and power generation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianwei, Y.; Guolong, S.; Cunjiang, K.; Tianjun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A new iron and power generating process, oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC), is presented. In order to support the opinion, the features of the oxygen blast furnace and integrated coal gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) are summarized. The relation between the blasting parameters and the output gas quantity, as well as caloric value is calculated based on mass and energy balance. Analysis and calculation indicate that the OBF-CC will be an efficient iron-making and power generation process with higher energy efficiency and less pollution

  4. Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation

  5. Public Acceptance Activities Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle Project in Amour Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizuki, Harumi; Manager, Deputy

    1993-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, a campaign against the use of nuclear power was staged throughout the prefecture. However, after a series of elections, including the Amour Prefecture elections held in February 1991, opposition against the use of nuclear power has gradually diminished. According to an opinion poll conducted by a local paper prior to the Upper House elections of July last year, over 60% of Amour residents approved of the construction of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. In July last year, the project management organization was incorporated and the head office moved to Amour Prefecture. Prompted by this, the company, intends to show Amour residents that it is committed to living in harmony with the prefecture

  6. Expanding uses of building information modeling in life-cycle construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannele, Kerosuo; Reijo, Miettinen; Tarja, Mäki; Sami, Paavola; Jenni, Korpela; Teija, Rantala

    2012-01-01

    BIM is targeted at providing information about the entire building and a complete set of design documents and data stored in an integrated database. In this paper, we study the use of BIM in two life-cycle construction projects in Kuopio, Finland during 2011. The analysis of uses of BIM and their main problems will constitute a foundation for an intervention. We will focus on the following questions: (1) How different partners use the composite BIM model? (2) What are the major contradictions or problems in the BIM use? The preliminary findings reported in this study show that BIM has been adopted quite generally to design use but the old ways of collaboration seem to prevail, especially between designers and between designers and building sites. BIM has provided new means and demands for collaboration but expansive uses of BIM for providing new interactive processes across professional fields have not much come true.

  7. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the main, general-perspective themes of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's leadership and long and varied work are: the effect of present and future nuclear energy projects on society, not only in the United States but throughout the world; analysis, comparison, and combination of various sources of energy; extensive multiple use of nuclear energy complexes (so-called NUPLEX, for nuclear complex) for various areas of the world; and use of ''Big Technology'' and ''Big Science'' for solving, or helping to solve, political problems. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production is discussed, as well as two other energy-related engineering projects. Some of the projects originated or were inspired by work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the leadership of Dr. Alvin Weinberg. Also reported are the technical characteristics and interrelationships of the three components of the envisaged hydronuclear-solar project

  8. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Pattison, John R; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute supplementation effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance. Using a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind Latin-square design, 14 competitive female cyclists (age: 31 ± 7 years; height: 1.69 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 61.6 ± 6.0 kg) completed four 20-km time trials on a racing bicycle fitted to a turbo trainer. Approximately 2.5 hours before each trial, subjects consumed a 70-ml dose of concentrated beetroot juice containing either 0.45 g of dietary nitrate or with the nitrate content removed (placebo). One hour before each trial, subjects consumed a capsule containing either 5 mg·kg of caffeine or maltodextrin (placebo). There was a significant effect of supplementation on power output (p = 0.001), with post hoc tests revealing higher power outputs in caffeine (205 ± 21 W) vs. nitrate (194 ± 22 W) and placebo (194 ± 25 W) trials only. Caffeine-induced improvements in power output corresponded with significantly higher measures of heart rate (caffeine: 166 ± 12 b·min vs. placebo: 159 ± 15 b·min; p = 0.02), blood lactate (caffeine: 6.54 ± 2.40 mmol·L vs. placebo: 4.50 ± 2.11 mmol·L; p caffeine: 0.95 ± 0.04 vs. placebo: 0.91 ± 0.05; p = 0.03). There were no effects (p ≥ 0.05) of supplementation on cycling cadence, rating of perceived exertion, (Equation is included in full-text article.), or integrated electromyographic activity. The results of this study support the well-established beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. In contrast, acute supplementation with dietary nitrate seems to have no effect on endurance performance and adds nothing to the benefits afforded by caffeine supplementation.

  9. The international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steur, R.; Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During the last fifty years remarkable results are achieved in the application of nuclear technology for the production of electricity. Looking ahead to the next fifty years it is clear that the demand for energy will grow considerably and also new requirements for the way the energy will be supplied have to be fulfilled. Following a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA in the year 2000 an International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, referred to as INPRO, was initiated. The main objectives of INPRO are to: Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; and Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Within INPRO the future of the energy demand and supply was explored and several scenario's identified. A leading requirement for energy supply is coming up and will play a crucial role: sustainability of the way the energy supply will be realized. Fulfilling the growing need for energy in developing countries is as well an important issue. Based on these scenario's for the next fifty years, requirements for the different aspects of the future of nuclear energy systems, such as economics, sustain ability and environment, safety, waste and proliferation resistance have been identified as well a methodology developed. to assess innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles. On the base of this assessment, the need for innovations and breakthroughs in existing technology can be defined. To facilitate the deployment of innovative nuclear systems also different aspects of the infrastructure, technical as well institutional have been reviewed and recommendations for changes are made to anticipate main developments in the world such as the ongoing globalisation. As a contribution to the conference

  10. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  11. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles: Introduction and Education and Training Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, G.; Kuznetsov, V.; Phillips, J.R.; Rho, K.; Grigoriev, A.; Korinny, A.; Ponomarev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA’s International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was established in 2000 through IAEA General Conference resolution with aim to ensure that sustainable nuclear energy is available to help meet the energy needs of the 21st century. INPRO seeks to bring together technology holders, users and newcomers to consider jointly the international and national actions required for achieving desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, with a particular focus on sustainability and needs of developing countries. It is a mechanism for INPRO Members to collaborate on topics of joint interest. INPRO activities are undertaken in close cooperation with Member States in the following main areas: Global Scenarios, Innovations, Sustainability Assessment and Strategies, Policy and Dialogue. The paper presents short introduction in INPRO and specifically the distant Education and Training INPRO activity on important topics of nuclear energy sustainability to audiences in different Member States. These activities can support capacity building and national human resource development in the nuclear energy sector. The main benefit of such training courses and workshops is that it is not only targeted to students, but also to lecturers of technical and nuclear universities. Moreover, young professionals working at nuclear energy departments, electric utilities, energy ministries and R&D institutions can participate in such training and benefit from it. (authors)

  12. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined oral contraceptives for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, A B; Gallo, M F; Jensen, J T; Nichols, M D; Schulz, K F; Grimes, D A

    2005-07-20

    The avoidance of menstruation through extended or continuous administration (greater than 28 days of active pills) of combination oral contraceptives (COCs) has gained legitimacy through its use in treating endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menstruation-associated symptoms. Avoidance of menstruation through continuous use of COCs for reasons of personal preference may have additional advantages to women, including improved compliance, greater satisfaction, fewer menstrual symptoms, and less menstruation-related absenteeism from work or school. To determine the differences between COCs dosed continuously (greater than 28 days of active pills) compared with traditional cyclic dosing (21 days of active pills and 7 days of placebo). Our hypothesis was that continuously administered COCs have equivalent efficacy and safety but improved bleeding profiles, amenorrhea rates, adherence, continuation, participant satisfaction, and menstrual symptoms compared with cyclic COCs. We searched computerized databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, LILACS) for trials using continuous or extended COCs during the years 1966 to 2005. We also searched the references in review articles and publications identified for inclusion in the protocol. Investigators were contacted regarding additional references. All randomized controlled trials in any language comparing continuous (greater than 28 days of active pills) versus traditional cyclic administration (21 days of active pills and 7 days of placebo) of COCs for contraception. Titles and abstracts identified from the literature searches were assessed for potential inclusion. Data were extracted onto data collection forms and then entered into RevMan 4.2. Peto odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all outcomes for dichotomous outcomes. Weighted mean difference was calculated for continuous outcomes. The trials were critically appraised by examining the following factors

  13. Maintaining project consistency with transportation plans throughout the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This document was developed for transportation professionals responsible for project : development and has three basic goals: : 1. Define project consistency and identify the causes of project inconsistencies and the : critical junctures in the proje...

  14. Thermo-economic optimization of low-grade waste heat recovery in Yazd combined-cycle power plant (Iran) by a CO2 transcritical Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali; Mirkhani, Nima; Pakjesm Pourfard, Pedram; Ashjaee, Mehdi; Khodkar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    A transcritical CO 2 Rankine cycle is proposed for recovering low-grade waste heat of Yazd combined-cycle power plant in Iran. Each power generation module of this plant consists of two 159 MW Siemens SGT-5-2000E gas turbines and one 132 MW steam turbine. Reducing exhaust gas temperature from 150 °C to 70 °C, the plant can generate excessive power. From thermodynamics approach, it is demonstrated that by fixing the maximum temperature at 145 °C and varying the maximum pressure, the efficiency and the net power output are maximized at P max  = 185 bar. In the aforementioned operating point, about 6.3 MW is retained for the selected power plant with a nominal 450 MW of power generation. A more actual case considering thermodynamic losses and economic considerations is then investigated. Genetic algorithm is implanted to conduct a parametric optimization to maximize the benefit-cost ratio which is defined on the basis of total bare module cost and net power output. The results indicate that the cycle costs are more influenced by the maximum pressure rather than the maximum temperature. Through this parametric optimization, the CO 2 cycle can produce about 4.04 MW. This is about 0.9% of the plant capacity and increases the total efficiency about 0.4%. - Highlights: • CO 2 transcritical Rankine cycle is used to recover heat in Yazd 450 MW power plant. • The cycle behavior is examined as its maximum temperature and maximum pressure vary. • 6.3 MW could be retained for the plant on the basis of ideal thermodynamic behavior. • Thermo-economic optimization is conducted subject to actual operating conditions. • 4.04 MW is recovered considering the actual thermo-economic conditions

  15. Effects of carbohydrate combined with caffeine on repeated sprint cycling and agility performance in female athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Caffeine (CAF) has been shown to improve performance during early phase of repeated sprint exercise; however some studies show that CAF also increases the magnitude of physical stress represented by augmented blood lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations during latter phase of repeated sprint exercise. No studies have investigated the efficacy of combined carbohydrate (CHO) and CAF consumption during repeated sprint exercise (RSE) in female athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CAF with CHO supplementation on RSE and agility. Methods Eleven female athletes completed four experimental trials performed 7 d apart in a double-blind, randomized, and counter-balanced crossover design. Treatments included CAF + PLA (placebo), CAF + CHO, PLA + CHO, and PLA + PLA. Participants ingested capsules containing 6 mg · kg−1 of CAF or PLA 60-min prior to RSE, and 0.8 g · kg−1 of CHO solution or PLA immediately before the RSE, which consisted of ten sets of 5 × 4-s sprints on the cycle ergometer with 20-s active recovery. The agility T-test (AT-test) was performed before and after the RSE. Blood samples were acquired to assess glucose, lactate, testosterone, and cortisol. Results During Set 6 of RSE, peak power and mean power were significantly higher in PLA + CHO than those in CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA, respectively (p  .05). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were significantly higher under CAF + CHO, CAF + PLA, and PLA + CHO versus PLA + PLA (p  .05). Conclusions Findings indicate that CAF + PLA or CAF + CHO ingestion did not improve repeated sprint performance with short rest intervals or agility. However, CHO ingested immediately prior to exercise provided a small but significant benefit on RSE performance in female athletes. PMID:24855458

  16. Effects of carbohydrate combined with caffeine on repeated sprint cycling and agility performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lun; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Astorino, Todd A; Lee, Chia-Jung; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (CAF) has been shown to improve performance during early phase of repeated sprint exercise; however some studies show that CAF also increases the magnitude of physical stress represented by augmented blood lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations during latter phase of repeated sprint exercise. No studies have investigated the efficacy of combined carbohydrate (CHO) and CAF consumption during repeated sprint exercise (RSE) in female athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CAF with CHO supplementation on RSE and agility. Eleven female athletes completed four experimental trials performed 7 d apart in a double-blind, randomized, and counter-balanced crossover design. Treatments included CAF + PLA (placebo), CAF + CHO, PLA + CHO, and PLA + PLA. Participants ingested capsules containing 6 mg · kg(-1) of CAF or PLA 60-min prior to RSE, and 0.8 g · kg(-1) of CHO solution or PLA immediately before the RSE, which consisted of ten sets of 5 × 4-s sprints on the cycle ergometer with 20-s active recovery. The agility T-test (AT-test) was performed before and after the RSE. Blood samples were acquired to assess glucose, lactate, testosterone, and cortisol. During Set 6 of RSE, peak power and mean power were significantly higher in PLA + CHO than those in CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA, respectively (p  .05). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were significantly higher under CAF + CHO, CAF + PLA, and PLA + CHO versus PLA + PLA (p  .05). Findings indicate that CAF + PLA or CAF + CHO ingestion did not improve repeated sprint performance with short rest intervals or agility. However, CHO ingested immediately prior to exercise provided a small but significant benefit on RSE performance in female athletes.

  17. A simple model for the earthquake cycle combining self-organized complexity with critical point behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. I. Newman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a hybrid model combining the forest-fire model with the site-percolation model in order to better understand the earthquake cycle. We consider a square array of sites. At each time step, a "tree" is dropped on a randomly chosen site and is planted if the site is unoccupied. When a cluster of "trees" spans the site (a percolating cluster, all the trees in the cluster are removed ("burned" in a "fire." The removal of the cluster is analogous to a characteristic earthquake and planting "trees" is analogous to increasing the regional stress. The clusters are analogous to the metastable regions of a fault over which an earthquake rupture can propagate once triggered. We find that the frequency-area statistics of the metastable regions are power-law with a negative exponent of two (as in the forest-fire model. This is analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of seismicity. This "self-organized critical behavior" can be explained in terms of an inverse cascade of clusters. Small clusters of "trees" coalesce to form larger clusters. Individual trees move from small to larger clusters until they are destroyed. This inverse cascade of clusters is self-similar and the power-law distribution of cluster sizes has been shown to have an exponent of two. We have quantified the forecasting of the spanning fires using error diagrams. The assumption that "fires" (earthquakes are quasi-periodic has moderate predictability. The density of trees gives an improved degree of predictability, while the size of the largest cluster of trees provides a substantial improvement in forecasting a "fire."

  18. Planning data book for gasification-combined-cycle plants: phased capacity additions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, W.G.; Le, T.T.; Smith, J.T.; Sander, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    In today's environment of highly uncertain electric load growth forecasts, new generation facilities which can be constructed in small capacity increments offer the increasingly desirable characteristic of flexibility. By constructing small capacity additions, a utility can minimize its ''at risk'' capital and retain the opportunity to rapidly respond to unpredicted changes in load growth. Gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) plants, due to their modular nature, are well-suited to this sort of phased approach to capacity additions. Typically, matching load growth with small capacity additions is attended by inefficiencies and diseconomies of scale. While the modularity of GCC plants suggested that these scale penalties would be minimized, the cost and performance implications of phased GCC capacity addition required quantification. The purpose of the effort described in this report was to quantify the cost and performance impact associated with phased GCC capacity addition. Fluor Technology, Inc. carried out this quantification by maximizing the use of Texaco-based GCC design work previously performed for EPRI. More than ten utilities participated in the planning of this work, and, through their efforts, ten cases were developed for evaluation. Together, these cases provide a basis for evaluating various phasing scenarios and various GCC design options. As would be predicted, the diseconomies associated with phased GCC capacity addition are quite small. This planning data book represents a summary of the results of the Fluor work. It has been written in a form which will be most useful as a working document. The function of this report should be that of a starting point for more utility-specific evaluations.

  19. Simulation of a solar assisted combined heat pump – Organic rankine cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Stefan; Span, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of an ORC to a solar thermal and ground source heat pump system. • Reverse operation of the scroll compressor in ORC mode. • Annual simulations for application in a single-family house at three locations. • By introducing the ORC the net electricity demand is reduced by 1–9%. • Over the lifetime of the system savings can cover additional investments. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal and ground source heat pump system that harnesses the excess heat of the collectors during summer by an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is simulated. For the ORC the heat pump process is reversed. In this case the scroll compressor of the heat pump runs as a scroll expander and the working fluid is condensed in the ground heat exchanger. Compared to a conventional solar thermal system the only additional investments for the combined system are a pump, valves and upgraded controls. The goal of the study is to simulate and optimize such a system. A brief overview of the applied models and the evolutionary algorithm for the optimization is given. A system with 12 m 2 of flat plate collectors installed in a single family house is simulated for the locations Ankara, Denver and Bochum. The ORC benefits add up to 20–140 kW h/a, which reduces the net electricity demand of the system by 1–9%. Overall 180–520 € are saved over a period of 20 years, which can be enough to cover the additional investments

  20. Smart Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Plants : Prediction and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency at Part Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, S.Z.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates various operational aspects of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants (GTCC). GTCC power plants are expected to play an increasingly important role in the balancing of supply and demand in the electricity grid. Although originally meant for predominantly base load operation

  1. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, VA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (flue gas) stream of a heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) design of the Elcogas plant adopted from previous studies. The underlying support for this idea was the direct relationship between efficiency of the IGCC and the boiler feedwater...

  2. Highlights from a Mach 4 Experimental Demonstration of Inlet Mode Transition for Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Hypersonic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lancert E.; Saunders, John D., Jr.; Sanders, Bobby W.; Weir, Lois J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is focused on technologies for combined cycle, air-breathing propulsion systems to enable reusable launch systems for access to space. Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems offer specific impulse (Isp) improvements over rocket-based propulsion systems in the subsonic takeoff and return mission segments along with improved safety. Among the most critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from the low speed propulsion system to the high speed propulsion system, 2) high Mach turbine engine development and 3) innovative turbine based combined cycle integration. To address these challenges, NASA initiated an experimental mode transition task including analytical methods to assess the state-of-the-art of propulsion system performance and design codes. One effort has been the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE-LIMX) which is a fully integrated TBCC propulsion system with flowpath sizing consistent with previous NASA and DoD proposed Hypersonic experimental flight test plans. This experiment was tested in the NASA GRC 10 by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) Facility. The goal of this activity is to address key hypersonic combined-cycle engine issues including: (1) dual integrated inlet operability and performance issues-unstart constraints, distortion constraints, bleed requirements, and controls, (2) mode-transition sequence elements caused by switching between the turbine and the ramjet/scramjet flowpaths (imposed variable geometry requirements), and (3) turbine engine transients (and associated time scales) during transition. Testing of the initial inlet and dynamic characterization phases were completed and smooth mode transition was demonstrated. A database focused on a Mach 4 transition speed with limited off-design elements was developed and will serve to guide future TBCC system studies and to validate higher level analyses.

  3. A novel nuclear combined power and cooling system integrating high temperature gas-cooled reactor with ammonia–water cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Chending; Zhao, Fuqiang; Zhang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel nuclear ammonia–water power and cooling cogeneration system. • The high temperature reactor is inherently safe, with exhaust heat fully recovered. • The thermal performances are improved compared with nuclear combined cycle. • The base case attains an energy efficiency of 69.9% and exergy efficiency of 72.5%. • Energy conservation and emission reduction are achieved in this cogeneration way. - Abstract: A nuclear ammonia–water power and refrigeration cogeneration system (NAPR) has been proposed and analyzed in this paper. It consists of a closed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) topping Brayton cycle and a modified ammonia water power/refrigeration combined bottoming cycle (APR). The HTGR is an inherently safe reactor, and thus could be stable, flexible and suitable for various energy supply situation, and its exhaust heat is fully recovered by the mixture of ammonia and water in the bottoming cycle. To reduce exergy losses and enhance outputs, the ammonia concentrations of the bottoming cycle working fluid are optimized in both power and refrigeration processes. With the HTGR of 200 MW thermal capacity and 900 °C/70 bar reactor-core-outlet helium, the system achieves 88.8 MW net electrical output and 9.27 MW refrigeration capacity, and also attains an energy efficiency of 69.9% and exergy efficiency of 72.5%, which are higher by 5.3%-points and 2.6%-points as compared with the nuclear combined cycle (NCC, like a conventional gas/steam power-only combined cycle while the topping cycle is a closed HTGR Brayton cycle) with the same nuclear energy input. Compared with conventional separate power and refrigeration generation systems, the fossil fuel saving (based on CH 4 ) and CO 2 emission reduction of base-case NAPR could reach ∼9.66 × 10 4 t/y and ∼26.6 × 10 4 t/y, respectively. The system integration accomplishes the safe and high-efficiency utilization of nuclear energy by power and refrigeration

  4. Gas-steam combined cycles for power generation: Current state-of-the-art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, E.; Chiesa, P.; Consonni, S.; Lozza, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper points out the many factors which, after years of stagnation in the electric power industry, are giving rise to a true revolution in power generation engineering: the passing from closed cycles, using steam as the working fluid and energy sources external to the power cycle, to the use of open cycles, in which the primary energy source, in the form of a fuel, is directly immersed in the working fluid of the engine. Attention is given to the advantages in terms of energy and cost savings, greater flexibility in energy policy options and pollution abatement which are now being afforded through the use of gas turbines with combined gas-steam cycles. The second part of the paper deals with an assessment of the current state-of-the-art of the technology relative to these innovative power systems. The assessment is followed by a review of foreseen developments in combined cycle system design, choice of construction materials, type of cooling systems, operating temperatures and performance capabilities

  5. Exergoenvironmental optimization of Heat Recovery Steam Generators in combined cycle power plant through energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaviri, Abdolsaeid Ganjeh; Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd.; Lazim, Tholudin Mat; Barzegaravval, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a heat recovery steam generator used in CCPP. ► To conduct exergy analysis to find the location of reversibility. ► To increase the system performance using optimization. ► Better performance assessment of the system. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are preferred technology for electricity generation due to less emission and high efficiency. These cycles are made of a gas turbine, a steam turbine and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). In the present research study, a combined cycle power plant with dual pressure and supplementary firing is selected. The optimum design procedure included designing objective function, exergy destruction per unit of inlet gas to the HRSG subject to a list of constraints. The design parameters (design variables) were drum pressure and pinch temperature difference as well as steam mass flow of HRSG high and low pressure levels. The influence of HRSG inlet gas temperature on the steam cycle efficiency is discussed. The result show increasing HRSG inlet gas temperature until 650 °C leads to increase the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the cycle and after that has less improvement and start to decrease them. And also from the exergy analysis of each part of HRSG, it is cleared that the HP-EV and 2st HP-SH have the most exergy destruction respectively. In other hand, effects of HRSG inlet gas temperature on SI (sustainability index) and CO 2 emission are considered

  6. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depisch, F.; Kupitz, J.; Sokolov, Y.; Omoto, A.

    2005-01-01

    During the last fifty years remarkable results have been achieved in the application of nuclear technology for the production of electricity. Looking ahead to the next fifty years it is clear that the demand for energy will grow considerably and also new requirements have to be fulfilled for the way nuclear energy will be supplied. Following a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA in the year 2000 an International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, referred to as INPRO, was initiated. Based on scenarios for the next fifty years, requirements for the different aspects of the future of nuclear energy systems, such as economics, environment, safety, waste, proliferation resistance and infrastructure have been identified as well a methodology developed to assess innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles. On the basis of this assessment, the need for innovations in existing nuclear technology, to be achieved via research, development and demonstration (RD and D), can be defined. INPRO developed the above mentioned requirements during its first step, called Phase 1A, which lasted from 2001 to middle of 2003. In the following second step, called Phase 1B (first part), INPRO organized 14 case studies (8 by national teams and 6 by individuals) to test and validate the methodology. INPRO has finished end of 2004 the first part of Phase 1B, by issuing an IAEA report (TECDOC1434) with an upgraded methodology based on the recommendations given in the case studies. The paper summarizes the status of INPRO as well as the main results and provides an outlook on the future activities. (authors)

  7. Combination of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine synergistically induces cell cycle deregulation and apoptosis in mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinotti, Simona [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale T. Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Ranzato, Elia, E-mail: ranzato@unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale T. Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Parodi, Monica [IRCCS A.O.U. S. Martino-IST, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova (Italy); DI.ME.S., Università degli Studi di Genova, Via L. Alberti 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Vitale, Massimo [IRCCS A.O.U. S. Martino-IST, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova (Italy); Burlando, Bruno [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale T. Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a poor-prognosis tumor in need of innovative therapies. In a previous in vivo study, we showed synergistic anti-MMe properties of the ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine combination. We have now focused on the mechanism of action, showing the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through measurements of caspase 3, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, annexin V, and DNA content. StellArray™ PCR technology and Western immunoblotting revealed DAPK2-dependent apoptosis, upregulation of cell cycle promoters, downregulation of cell cycle checkpoints and repression of NFκB expression. The complex of data indicates that the mixture is synergistic in inducing cell cycle deregulation and non-inflammatory apoptosis, suggesting its possible use in MMe treatment. - Highlights: • Ascorbate/epigallocathechin-gallate/gemcitabine has been tested on mesothelioma cells • A synergistic mechanism has been shown for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis • PCR-array analysis has revealed the de-regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle genes • Maximum upregulation has been found for the Death-Associated Protein Kinase-2 gene • Data suggest that the mixture could be used as a clinical treatment.

  8. Intertidal foraminifera (Protista) and carbon-nitrogen cycling: combined effects of temperature and diet quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Oberrauch, Max; Watzka, Margarete; Wanek, Wolfgang; Heinz, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera (eukaryotic protists) are to a large extent acting as detrivores, feeding on microalgal detritus. Phytodetritus constitutes a main component of the intertidal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool, thus making foraminifera important players in intertidal nutrient fluxes. These fluxes are strongly dependent on interactions between biotic and abiotic environmental factors, as e.g. the energetic value or the quality of phytodetritus that depends on environmental nutrient availability. Increased inorganic C concentrations in coastal water bodies (e.g. due to increased atmospheric CO2) can have a negative effect on the phytodetrital quality by increasing microalgal C:N ratios. Simultanous warming of the environment can cause increased metabolic rates of exposed heterotrophic organisms, like foraminifera. The combination of lower food quality and increased metabolic rates is supposed to cause cascading effects on organismic C cycling, potentially diminishing the role of detrivorous food as a C sink in marine food webs by increased discharge of excess C. In this study, the above described scenario was tested in laboratory feeding experiments on a common and abundant intertidal foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, collected in the German Wadden Sea). Two batches of artificially produced and dual isotope labeled (13C and 15N) chlorophyte detritus (1.5 gDW m-2) with different C:N ratios (5.5 and 7.6) and one batch of isotopically labelled diatom detritus (C:N 5.6) were fed under controlled conditions at three different temperatures. Results were extrapolated to the in situ abundance of live H. germanica individuals in the sampling area (sediment core data), to estimate the magnitude of the effect on an areal basis within the natural habitat. The study revealed significant, temperature induced variations in the carbon and nitrogen processing of H. germanica. The food source with an increased C:N ratio doubled the release of carbon from the H. germanica

  9. Guidance for the evaluation of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Report of Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 invited all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the IAEA in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology. Resolutions of the UN General Assembly in 2001 and 2002 provided additional endorsement for INPRO, by emphasizing the unique role that the IAEA can play in developing user requirements and in addressing safeguards, safety, and environmental questions for innovative reactors and their fuel cycles and stressing the need for international collaboration in the development of innovative nuclear technology. As of April 2003, INPRO had 15 members: Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Germany, India, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Turkey and the European Commission. The main objectives of INPRO are to: Help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; and to Bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. The 21st century promises the most competitive, globalized markets in human history, the most rapid pace of technological change ever, and the greatest expansion of energy use, particularly in developing countries. For a technology to make a truly substantial contribution to energy supplies, innovation is essential. It will be the defining feature of a successful nuclear industry and a critical feature of international co-operation in support of that industry, co-operation that ranges from joint scientific and technological initiatives, to safety standards and guidelines, and to security and safeguards activities. Innovation is also essential to attract a growing, high-quality pool of talented scientists, engineers and

  10. Development of a strategic plan for an international R and D project on innovative nuclear fuel cycles and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term outlook for nuclear energy should be considered in a broader perspective of future energy needs, operational safety, proliferation and environmental impacts. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Development of a Strategic Plan for an International R and D Project on Innovative Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Power Plants was convened in Vienna in October 1999 to assess the criteria, the needs for international cooperation, and to formulate a strategic plan for project integration. (author)

  11. Fuel reactivity and release of pollutants and alkali vapours in pressurized combustion for combined cycle power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Plasma Technology

    1996-12-01

    This project forms a part of the overall Pressurized Power Coal Combustion Project Area (PPFC) which aims at an assessment of the viability and technical merits of pressurized pulverized coal combustion, in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas and oxygen in a coordinated and harmonized programme. The objective of the research at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is aimed at determining the consequences of solid fuel burning in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gases. Combustion conditions of a pressurized entrained flow of pulverized coal and char particles in PEFR are determined with high precision. The effects of experimental parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxides (N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2}) and gaseous alkali compounds (indicated as NaX(g) and KX(g)) are studied. An effective on-line analysis method for vaporised Na and K compounds was developed. The dependency between particle temperatures and the vaporisation of Na and K was measured with three coals. The results show that alkali removal before gas turbines is always necessary with these coals if combusted in combined cycles. Pressure decreases the formation of NO and has usually no clear effect on the formation of N{sub 2}O. The order of NO/N{sub 2}O ratios correspond to fuel-O/fuel-N ratios. Increase of PO{sub 2} (oxygen concentration) of combustion gas increases the formation of NO{sub 2}. Remarkable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were often measured at high PO{sub 2} at 800-850 deg C. Therefore, NO{sub 2} should be measured from pressurized fluidized bed reactors. Some trends of the formation of NO{sub 2} with coal differ clearly from those with its parent char: N{sub 2}O formation is not strongly temperature dependent with char, and the concentrations of N{sub 2}O formed from char are much lower than those of coal. PO{sub 2} does not effect on the formation of NO from char in the studied range

  12. Risk Identification and Assessment in PPP Infrastructure Projects using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Life-Cycle Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To fulfil the increasing demands of the public,Public Private Partnership (PPP has beenincreasingly used to procure infrastructureprojects, such as motor ways, bridges, tunnelsand railways. However, the risks involved inPPP projects are unique and dynamic due tolarge amount of investment and longconcession period. This paper aims to developa risk identification framework from theperspectives of project life cycle, and anassessment framework for risks associatedwith PPP project using fuzzy analyticalhierarchy process (AHP. First the paperreviews the current literature to identifycommon risks in PPP infrastructure projectsand classification methods used. The risksidentified from the literature were classifiedusing project life cycle perspectives. Followingthat, the paper presents the advantages offuzzy AHP. Furthermore, the paper provides aframework for assessment of risks in PPPprojects followed by an illustrative examplewhere the data was obtained from surveyquestionnaires. The paper concludes that risksassociated in PPP infrastructure projects areunique and therefore it is beneficial to classifythem from project life cycle perspectives, andthe proposed fuzzy AHP method is suitable forthe assessment of these risks.

  13. Improving Students' Argumentation Skills through a Product Life-Cycle Analysis Project in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, M. K.; Aksela, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study discussed in this paper was to link existing research about the argumentation skills of students to the teaching of life-cycle analysis (LCA) in order to promote an evidence-based approach to the teaching of and learning about materials used in consumer products. This case-study is part of a larger design research project that…

  14. Increasing Teachers' Metacognition Develops Students' Higher Learning during Content Area Literacy Instruction: Findings from the Read-Write Cycle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwen, Margaret Sauceda; Miller, Roxanne Greitz; White-Smith, Kimberly A.; Calfee, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Success in the 21st century, for individuals and societies, requires competence in comprehending and communicating in the academic disciplines--the natural sciences, history, geography, and more. The Read-Write Cycle (RWC) Project, a three year longitudinal research study conducted from 2005-2008 in ten public elementary schools in southern…

  15. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    ) are essential. Many life cycle assessments of product systems are performed without the inclusion of toxicity data and indicators. Ecodesign processes for products are often based upon just one, or very few, environmental indicators. Regulatory issues are sometimes addressed in an ad hoc fashion, often late......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...... in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...

  16. Cytotoxicity and cell-cycle effects of paclitaxel when used as a single agent and in combination with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nalin; Hu, Lily J.; Deen, Dennis F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the extent of paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and cell-cycle perturbations when used alone and in combination with radiation in human glioma cells. Methods and Materials: The effect of paclitaxel alone on three human glioma cells lines--SF-126, U-87 MG, and U-251 MG--was assessed after 24, 48, 72, or 96 h treatment. For experiments in combination with radiation, cells were exposed to either a long (48-h) or short (8-h) duration of paclitaxel treatment prior to irradiation. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle perturbations were assessed by using flow cytometry to measure the proportion of cells in G 1 , S, and G 2 /M phases. Results: When cells were treated with paclitaxel alone for ≥24 h, cytotoxicity increased up to a threshold dose, after which it plateaued. When treatment duration was ≤24 h, cytotoxicity was appreciably greater in U-251 MG cells than in SF-126 and U-87 MG cells. After 24 h of paclitaxel treatment, cells in plateau phase growth had increased survival compared to cells in log phase growth. In contrast, after 8 h paclitaxel treatment, mitotic cells had reduced survival compared to cells from an asynchronous population. Cell-cycle perturbations were consistent with the presence of a mitotic block after paclitaxel treatment, although changes in other cell-cycle phase fractions varied among cell lines. For experiments in combination with radiation, cytotoxicity was increased when cells were irradiated after 48 h of paclitaxel treatment but not after 8 h of treatment. Conclusion: The duration of paclitaxel treatment and the location of cells in the cell cycle modify the degree of radiation cytotoxicity. The mechanisms of paclitaxel cytotoxicity are likely to be multifactorial because varying effects are seen in different cell lines. Furthermore, it is clear that simply increasing the number of cells in G 2 /M is insufficient in itself to increase the response of cells to radiation

  17. The SMAP Level-4 ECO Project: Linking the Terrestrial Water and Carbon Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Qing; Koster, Randal D.

    2017-01-01

    The SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) Level-4 projects aims to develop a fully coupled hydrology-vegetation data assimilation algorithm to generate improved estimates of modeled hydrological fields and carbon fluxes. This includes using the new NASA Catchment-CN (Catchment-Carbon-Nitrogen) model, which combines the Catchment land surface hydrology model with dynamic vegetation components from the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). As such, Catchment-CN allows a more realistic, fully coupled feedback between the land hydrology and the biosphere. The L4 ECO project further aims to inform the model through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) brightness temperature observations as well as observations of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Preliminary results show that the assimilation of SMAP observations leads to consistent improvements in the model soil moisture skill. An evaluation of the Catchment-CN modeled vegetation characteristics showed that a calibration of the model's vegetation parameters is required before an assimilation of MODIS FPAR observations is feasible.

  18. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Hydro fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrud, S.; Riise, J.; Strand, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the External Costs of Fuel Cycles (ExternE) study is to develop methods to measure and monetize all the externalities associated with incremental investments in electric power production, taking account of the different stages of the fuel cycles. Since fuel cycle externalities are characterised by being very site-specific, the impact pathway damage function approach, developed in ExternE, has been implemented in different European countries for each of the selected fuel cycles. This is done to demonstrate that this methodological framework can be used at different locations, to motivate further development of the methods, and to look at the sensitivity of the estimates to different locations. Electricite de France (EdF) in France and ENCO Environmental Consultants a.s. in Norway have taken on a joint responsibility for adapting the methodological framework for hydroelectric fuel cycle analyses in Europe. We report the first implementation of the hydroelectric fuel cycle within ExternE. Choice of reference site and technology Two stages of the hydroelectric fuel cycle have been identified: 1. Electricity generation 2. Transmission There are three phases of each of these stages: construction, operation and dismantling. We have assumed a construction period of 5 years (starting in 1990) and an operation period of 40 years. Dismantling after 40 years is not a realistic option. Therefore, we have focused on the construction and operation phases, of both electricity generation and transmission. The Sauda Hydroelectric Development Project (SHDP) was selected, because it illustrates upgrading and extention of an existing hydro power project. Such projects are likely to be the dominating strategy for future hydroelectric development in Norway, many other European countries and in the U.S., due to the lack of new sites available for development. SHDP consists of an extention of a previously developed area (Basis project) and six new diversion projects. The

  19. Improving crystal size distribution by internal seeding combined cooling/antisolvent crystallization with a cooling/heating cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Maheswata; Sarkar, Debasis

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the effect of internal seeding and an initial cooling/heating cycle on the final crystal size distribution (CSD) during a combined cooling/antisolvent crystallization of L-asparagine monohydrate from it's aqueous solution using isopropyl-alcohol as antisolvent. Internal seeds were generated by one-pot addition of various amounts of antisolvent to the crystallizer. It was then followed by a cooling/heating cycle to dissolve the fines produced and thus obtain a suitable initial seed. A combined cooling/antisolvent crystallization was then followed by employing a linear cooling profile with simultaneous addition of antisolvent with a constant mass flow rate to promote the growth of the internally generated seeds. The amount of initial antisolvent influences the characteristics of the internal seeds generated and the effect of initial amount of antisolvent on the final CSD is investigated. It was found that the introduction of a single cooling/heating cycle significantly improves the reproducibility of final CSD as well as the mean size. Overall, the study indicates that the application of internal seeding with a single cooling/heating cycle for fines dissolution is an effective technique to tailor crystal size distribution.

  20. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels; Cicli combinati e cogenerazione con gas naturale e combustibili alternativi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusso, R. [Turbotecnica SpA, Florence (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels.

  1. Integrated solar combined cycles using gas turbines with partial recuperation and solar integration at different pressure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Antonio; Sánchez, Consuelo; Fernández, Santiago; Muñoz, Marta; Barbero, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    This work studies and compares two alternatives to improve the solar-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency in integrated solar combined cycle power plants (ISCC), which are based on the use of combined cycles including partial recuperative gas turbines. Each alternative has been integrated into dual and triple pressure levels with reheat heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). Partial recuperation conveys lower heat recovery at the steam generator than in conventional plants, because each MW exchanged in the recuperator is not available at the HRSG. This thermal power decrease at the HRSG may be overcome by the integration of solar energy that is implemented using parabolic trough collectors. Moreover, with such an implementation each solar thermal MW integrated allows a MW of heat recuperation and, thus a MW of fossil fuel saving, thus the solar heat-to-electricity energy conversion rate may reach values up to 50 %, which makes the proposal interesting.

  2. Combining optimization and machine learning techniques for genome-wide prediction of human cell cycle-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marianna; Rinaldi, Francesco; Falcone, Emmanuela; Lucidi, Stefano; Piaggio, Giulia; Gurtner, Aymone; Farina, Lorenzo

    2014-01-15

    The identification of cell cycle-regulated genes through the cyclicity of messenger RNAs in genome-wide studies is a difficult task due to the presence of internal and external noise in microarray data. Moreover, the analysis is also complicated by the loss of synchrony occurring in cell cycle experiments, which often results in additional background noise. To overcome these problems, here we propose the LEON (LEarning and OptimizatioN) algorithm, able to characterize the 'cyclicity degree' of a gene expression time profile using a two-step cascade procedure. The first step identifies a potentially cyclic behavior by means of a Support Vector Machine trained with a reliable set of positive and negative examples. The second step selects those genes having peak timing consistency along two cell cycles by means of a non-linear optimization technique using radial basis functions. To prove the effectiveness of our combined approach, we use recently published human fibroblasts cell cycle data and, performing in vivo experiments, we demonstrate that our computational strategy is able not only to confirm well-known cell cycle-regulated genes, but also to predict not yet identified ones. All scripts for implementation can be obtained on request.

  3. High-efficiency low LCOE combined cycles for sour gas oxy-combustion with CO[subscript 2] capture

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2015-01-01

    The growing concerns over global warming and carbon dioxide emissions have driven extensive research into novel ways of capturing carbon dioxide in power generation plants. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion has been considered as a promising technology. One unconventional fuel that is considered is sour gas, which is a mixture of methane, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. In this paper, carbon dioxide is used as the dilution medium in the combustor and different combined cycle configurat...

  4. Functioning of nitric oxide cycle in gastric mucosa of rats under excessive combined intake of sodium nitrate and fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ye. Akimov; V. O. Kostenko

    2016-01-01

    In the article the function of nitric oxide (·NO) cycle in rat’s gastric mucosa was assessed under excessive combined chronic fluoride and nitrate intake during 30 days. It was estimated that general nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) was increased during excessive sodium fluoride intake meanwhile influence on gene­ral nitrate reduction was not statistically significant, but general nitrite reduction was increased. General arginase activity decreased. Excessive sodium nitrate intake decreas...

  5. Combined gas-steam turbine cycle using coal derived liquid fuel - A viable alternative to direct combustion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, R.; Mesko, J. E.

    An alternative to direct coal-combustion for electric power generation is liquefaction of coal prior to combustion in a combined gas-steam turbine plant. For optimization of the overall efficiency of the power plant, individual subsystem efficiencies must be analyzed, but the prevailing energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics is insufficient for this purpose and can be misleading. The paper presents a complete thermodynamic analysis of an 873 MWe combined gas-steam turbine cycle, which utilizes semiclean fuel from the H-Coal process.

  6. Single and combined effects of beetroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stephen C; Hawley, John A; Desbrow, Ben; Jones, Andrew M; Blackwell, James R; Ross, Megan L; Zemski, Adam J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    Both caffeine and beetroot juice have ergogenic effects on endurance cycling performance. We investigated whether there is an additive effect of these supplements on the performance of a cycling time trial (TT) simulating the 2012 London Olympic Games course. Twelve male and 12 female competitive cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials in a double-blind Latin square design. Trials were undertaken with a caffeinated gum (CAFF) (3 mg·kg(-1) body mass (BM), 40 min prior to the TT), concentrated beetroot juice supplementation (BJ) (8.4 mmol of nitrate (NO3(-)), 2 h prior to the TT), caffeine plus beetroot juice (CAFF+BJ), or a control (CONT). Subjects completed the TT (females: 29.35 km; males: 43.83 km) on a laboratory cycle ergometer under conditions of best practice nutrition: following a carbohydrate-rich pre-event meal, with the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and regular oral carbohydrate contact during the TT. Compared with CONT, power output was significantly enhanced after CAFF+BJ and CAFF (3.0% and 3.9%, respectively, p caffeine (-0.9%, p = 0.4 compared with CAFF). We conclude that caffeine (3 mg·kg(-1) BM) administered in the form of a caffeinated gum increased cycling TT performance lasting ∼50-60 min by ∼3%-4% in both males and females. Beetroot juice supplementation was not ergogenic under the conditions of this study.

  7. 75 FR 17397 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... regarding Class II wells under section 1425 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, DOGGR has responsibility for... drinking and sanitary use would be supplied by the West Kern Water District, located to the southeast of... emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, and particulates compared to conventional coal-fired...

  8. Optimization of Initial Parameters and Fuel Afterburning Ratio in Heat-Recovery Boiler of Single- and Two-Loop Combined-Cycle Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of influence of initial parameters and fuel afterburning ratio on efficiency of sin­gle- and two-loop combined-cycle plant has been done in the paper.The paper contains fundamentals of combined-cycle plants initial parameters’ optimization and examples for the sets with gas turbines of various efficiency.

  9. Integrating invasive grasses into carbon cycle projections: Cogongrass spread in southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, T. D.; Flory, S. L.; Wiesner, S.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forested ecosystems are currently being disrupted by invasive species. One example is the invasive grass Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass), which is widespread in southeastern US pine forests. Pines forests dominate the forest cover of the southeast, and contribute to making the Southeast the United States' largest carbon sink. Cogongrass decreases the colonization of loblolly pine fine roots. If cogongrass continues to invade,this sink could be jeopardized. However, the effects of cogongrass invasion on carbon sequestration are largely unknown. We have projected the effects of elevated CO2 and changing climate on future cogongrass invasion. To test how pine stands are affected by cogongrass, cogongrass invasions were modeled using the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model, and parameterized using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn). ED2 takes into account local meteorological data, stand populations and succession, disturbance, and geochemical pools. PEcAn is a workflow that uses Bayesian sensitivity analyses and variance decomposition to quantify the uncertainty that each parameter contributes to overall model uncertainty. ED2 was run for four NEON and Ameriflux sites in the Southeast from the earliest available census of the site into 2010. These model results were compared to site measures to test for model accuracy and bias. To project the effect of elevated CO2 on cogongrass invasions, ED was run from 2006-2100 at four sites under four separate scenarios: 1) RPC4.5 CO2 and climate, 2) RPC4.5 climate only, with constant CO2 concentrations, 3) RPC4.5 Elevated CO2 only, with climate randomly selected from 2006-2026, 4) Present Day, made from randomly selected measures of CO2 and radiation from 2006-2026. Each scenario was run three times; once with cogongrass absent, once with a low cogongrass abundance, and once with a high cogongrass abundance. Model results suggest that many relevant parameters have high uncertainty due to lack of measurement. Further field

  10. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator's success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning

  11. Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC) - A Field Campaign Scoping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimates in time and space of organic carbon export to the ocean interior via plankton net community production (NCP) for the global oceans (the biological pump) are essential for understanding the feedback between NCP, atmospheric CO2 and climate. Since integrated, multi-sensor satellite and in situ observations of many ocean variables are required to estimate NCP from space, this is a complex, interdisciplinary challenge. Satellite ocean color sensors are a fundamental component in estimating spatial and temporal variations in NCP. Therefore, NASA's PACE mission (NASA-PACE 2012), a mission included in NASA's Climate Architecture Plan (NASA-CAP, 2010), specifies a need for field programs to improve satellite algorithms and models to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NCP. Diverse data from sediment and glacial cores, and climate models, indicate that the Southern Ocean plays a large role in the glacial-interglacial variations in the biological pump, with considerable implications for variations in atmospheric CO2. The "Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC)" project is a NASA-funded field campaign scoping (planning) effort. Over 18 months and many public meetings and workshops, the ICESOCC team of 13 interdisciplinary scientists has integrated the input from scientific experts in ocean, atmosphere, ice physics, biogeochemistry, advanced observational tools (ship, autonomous, atmospheric gases and dust, cryosphere dynamics, winds), and models, to create a draft recommendation to NASA for field observations required to constrain uncertainty of NCP for the Southern Ocean. The ICESOCC team requests and encourages careful review and comments of the draft to ensure the most robust final recommendations are submitted in early 2016 for NASA consideration.

  12. Development of TRU transmuters for optimization of the global fuel cycle. Final Report for the NERI Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research activities during the entire performance period of the NERI grant, including the extra 9 months granted under a no-cost time extension. Building up on the 14 quarterly reports submitted through October 2008, we present here an overview of the research accomplishments under the five tasks originally proposed in July 2004, together with citations for publications resulting from the project. The AFCI-NERI project provided excellent support for two undergraduate and 10 graduates students at the University of Michigan during a period of three years and nine months. Significant developments were achieved in three areas: (1) Efficient deterministic fuel cycle optimization algorithms both for PWR and SFR configurations, (2) Efficient search algorithm for PWR equilibrium cycles, and (3) Simplified Excel-based script for dynamic fuel cycle analysis of diverse cycles. The project resulted in a total of 8 conference papers and three journal papers, including two that will be submitted shortly. Three pending publications are attached to the report

  13. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO2-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  14. Life-cycle performance of structures: combining expert judgment and results of inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Luis Canhoto

    2008-01-01

    Life-Cycle Civil Engineering – Biondini & Frangopol Current bridge management systems base decisions on the results of visual inspections. These systems consider visual inspection results as accurate and disregard any further information available. In the present study, the result of each inspection is considered as a random variable, dependent of a wide range of factors, that can be integrated with other sources of information, including expert judgment and results of other inspections...

  15. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  16. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamirano, A.; Chamorro, A.; Hurtado, K.; Romero, C.; Wahl, D.; Zamudio, A.; Rueda, A.; Solano Salinas, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing

  17. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, A.; Chamorro, A.; Hurtado, K.; Romero, C.; Rueda, A.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Wahl, D.; Zamudio, A.

    2007-10-01

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing.

  18. Analysis of an electricity–cooling cogeneration system based on RC–ARS combined cycle aboard ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Youcai; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao; Liu, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel electricity–cooling cogeneration system was used to recover waste heat aboard ships. • Performance of such RC–ARS system was investigated theoretically. • Optimal exergy output can be obtained when the vaporization pressure of RC is 300 kPa. • The exergy efficiency of cogeneration system is 5–12% higher than that of basic Rankine cycle only. - Abstract: In this paper, an electricity–cooling cogeneration system based on Rankine–absorption refrigeration combined cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat of the engine coolant and exhaust gas to generate electricity and cooling onboard ships. Water is selected as the working fluid of the Rankine cycle (RC), and a binary solution of ammonia–water is used as the working fluid of the absorption refrigeration cycle. The working fluid of RC is preheated by the engine coolant and then evaporated and superheated by the exhaust gas. The absorption cycle is powered by the heat of steam at the turbine outlet. Electricity output, cooling capacity, total exergy output, primary energy ratio (PER) and exergy efficiency are chosen as the objective functions. Results show that the amount of additional cooling output is up to 18 MW. Exergy output reaches the maximum 4.65 MW at the vaporization pressure of 300 kPa. The study reveals that the electricity–cooling cogeneration system has improved the exergy efficiency significantly: 5–12% increase compared with the basic Rankine cycle only. Primary energy ratio (PER) decreases as the vaporization pressure increases, varying from 0.47 to 0.40

  19. Effects of cytokine combinations on the cell cycle and early apoptosis of irradiated umbilical cord blood AC133+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulong; Dai Hong; Jiang Zhong; Zhou Liying; Guo Xiaokui; Zhou Jianying

    2005-01-01

    The cell cycle and early apoptosis of 2.5 Gy 6 MV-X ray irradiated umbilical cord blood AC133 + cells cultured with cytokine combinations (IL-3 + FL + SCF) were immunolabelled and analyzed by flow cytometry at d 0, 1, 2, 3 and 7. The result of flow cytometry analysis showed that majority of irradiated umbilical cord blood AC133 + cells were in G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle at d 0. Under the influence of cytokine combinations (IL-3 + FL + SCF), nearly 50% of cells were in S phase on 3rd day. AC133 + cells irradiated were in vitro incubated in the medium without cytokines, nearly all cells died by apoptosis. However, when we incubated cells with cytokine combinations (IL-3 + FL + SCF), (38.0 ± 6.8)% of cells were saved from apoptosis at d 2. The more percent of saved AC133 + cells became to proliferate with the extension of culture. In short, cytokine combinations (IL-3 + FL + SCF) could have a key role to protect irradiated cells and partially avoid induction of apoptosis by ionizing radiation in hematopoietics stem/progenitor cells. (authors)

  20. Application of direct contact heat exchangers to geothermal power production cycles. Project review, December 1, 1974--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Hansen, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Work performed on the development of direct contact heat exchanger power cycles for geothermal applications is reviewed. The period covered in the report is from the inception of the project in 1974 through May 31, 1977. Results from a large experimental program on heat exchanger develpment as well as from many analyses of components and cycle performance and economics are given. A number of working fluids and operating conditions have been considered, and no major obstacles for the implementation of the concept have been discovered.

  1. The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

    2009-12-01

    National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbon’s role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

  2. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    safety under normal and design basis accident conditions is a key requirement for the development of nuclear power. Severe accident prevention and mitigation measures received increased attention following the Fukushima accident. Parallel to the above mentioned development, the INPRO Methodology shall be updated in the areas of safety and infrastructure, taking into account new requirements and guidelines. The INPRO Methodology requires that a major release of radioactivity from a nuclear installation should be prevented for all practical purposes, so that in the case of an accident there is no need for evacuation measures outside the plant site. Although the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant did not reveal any new phenomena, some relevant areas have to be analysed in more depth. Following the 'stress tests' which were performed for operating power plants in many countries, INPRO's nuclear energy systems assessment for innovative nuclear installations will have to consider the combined effects of extreme external hazards, including the implications of having multiple nuclear units on one site with shared services. The accident also revealed the importance of the safety culture during all phases of a nuclear project. In that light, the INPRO Methodology in the area of infrastructure will be reviewed. For a newcomer country, it is also important to assess the levels of support or concerns about nuclear technology both within the country and in neighbouring countries. The development of new and innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles will be a key pillar in further strengthening the safe use of nuclear energy in the long term. Under INPRO, a new project will be developed to study the nuclear safety issues impacting innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles using the INPRO Methodology including consideration of combined multiple simultaneous natural and technical disasters and/or human error. The plan is to evaluate advanced nuclear energy

  3. Economic, energy and environmental evaluations of biomass-based fuel ethanol projects based on life cycle assessment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suiran; Tao Jing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research of Monte Carlo simulation-based Economic, Energy and Environmental (3E) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the three Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol (BFE) projects in China. Our research includes both theoretical study and case study. In the theoretical study part, 3E LCA models are structured, 3E Index Functions are defined and the Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to address uncertainties in BFE life cycle analysis. In the case study part, projects of Wheat-based Fuel Ethanol (WFE) in Central China, Corn-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Northeast China, and Cassava-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Southwest China are evaluated from the aspects of economic viability and investment risks, energy efficiency and airborne emissions. The life cycle economy assessment shows that KFE project in Guangxi is viable, while CFE and WFE projects are not without government's subsidies. Energy efficiency assessment results show that WFE, CFE and KFE projects all have positive Net Energy Values. Emissions results show that the corn-based E10 (a blend of 10% gasoline and 90% ethanol by volume), wheat-based E10 and cassava-base E10 have less CO 2 and VOC life cycle emissions than conventional gasoline, but wheat-based E10 and cassava-based E10 can generate more emissions of CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 , PM 10 and corn-based E10 can has more emissions of CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO, PM 10 .

  4. Solving Fatigue Problems for Reversed and Repeated Biaxial Combined Stress Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyak, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    An approach to the analysis of the limit state and the fatigue life of simplest structural members subject to a combination of inphase cyclic tension/compression and cyclic torsion or a combination of cyclic bending and cyclic torsion is proposed. The solution is constructed using a limit-state model that relates the fatigue strengths in terms of a power transcendental function. The calculated results are validated experimentally for solid prismatic rods and thin-walled tubes subject to fatigue failure

  5. IGCC, a queer plant for a clean power; La gazeification integree a un cycle combine. Une usine a gaz au pays de l'energie propre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevennement, E.; Lora Ronco, Th. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Dept. Machines et Systemes de Production

    1999-10-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a thermal power generation technology which allies partial oxidation of several types of feedstocks (coal, heavy oil residues, biomass) to gas turbines. It includes a wide range of processes and shows a high efficiency and very good environmental performance. IGCC has been held for several demonstration plants and EDF takes part in two of these projects: Puertollano (coal/peat-coke) and Varnamo (biomass). Now, one development path that must be considered is the heavy oil residues gasification, which can be used to produce power but also steam and hydrogen, on industrial sites. IGCC takes advantage of the gas turbines; nevertheless, its future is dependent on the decrease in the costs that remain relatively high, for coal at least, compared with competing technologies. (authors)

  6. Using the Engineering Design Cycle to Develop Integrated Project Based Learning in Aerospace Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders-Smits, G.N.; Roling, P.; Brügemann, V.; Timmer, N.; Melkert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four years the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands has redeveloped its BSc curriculum to mimic an engineering design cycle. Each semester represents a step in the design cycle: exploration; system design; sub-system design; test,

  7. Dual capillary tube / heat exchanger in combination with cycle priming for reducing charge migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-07-04

    A refrigerator appliance including a multi-capacity compressor and a refrigerant circuit with two conduits and pressure reducing devices arranged in parallel between an evaporator and a condenser. Refrigerant can flow through one, both or none of the conduits and pressure reducing devices. The appliance also has a heat exchanger in contact with either one pressure reducing device, or one conduit between the pressure reducing device and the valve system. The appliance also includes a controller for priming the compressor above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration at the beginning of an ON-cycle.

  8. An Integrated Assessment Framework of Offshore Wind Power Projects Applying Equator Principles and Social Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Che Tseng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews offshore wind power project finance and provides an integrated assessment that employs Equator Principles, life cycle assessment, risk assessment, materiality analysis, credit assessment, and ISAE 3000 assurance. We have not seen any comprehensive review papers or book chapters that covers the entire offshore wind power project finance process. We also conducted an SWancor Formosa Phase 1 case study to illustrate the application of integrated assessment to better assist policymakers, wind farm developers, practitioners, potential investors and observers, and stakeholders in their decisions. We believe that this paper can form part of the effort to reduce information asymmetry and the transaction costs of wind power project finance, as well as mobilize green finance investments from the financial sector to renewable energy projects to achieve a national renewable energy policy.

  9. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    human health effects associated with the addition of one serving of fluid milk to the present average adult US diet. Epidemiology-based nutritional impacts and benefits linked to milk intake, such as colorectal cancer, stroke, and prostate cancer, were compared to selected environmental impacts......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional......Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE...

  10. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    to improve the plant performance, a bottoming cycle unit can be added to the gas turbine topping module, thus constituting a combined cycle plant. This paper aims at developing and testing the numerical model simulating the part-load and dynamic behavior of a novel power system, composed of two gas turbines......-load with the mass flow rate. Thermodynamic variables and dynamic metrics, such as the rise time and the frequency undershooting/ overshooting, are predicted. Considering a load ramp of 0.5 MW/s, an undershooting of 4.9% and an overshooting of 3.0% are estimated. The rise time is approximately 30 s. Moreover......, findings suggest that decreasing the core weight of the recuperator leads to limiting the frequency fluctuations, thus minimizing the risk of failure of the power system....

  11. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-03

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents.

  12. Combination contraceptive effects on monthly cycle of plasma aldosterone, renin activity and renin substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, F H; Romfh, P; Smith, J A; Roper, E F; Barnes, J S

    1975-06-01

    A post-ovulatory peak of fasting supine plasma aldosterone (PA) preceded or accompanied by an increase in plasma renin activity (PRA) was previously reported. These studies have now been extended in 4 additional normal menstruating women and 4 women taking oestrogen-progestogen oral contraceptive pills (OCP), all studied daily for an entire cycle. Distinct luteal phase increases in PRA were seen in the 4 normals, with 2 also demonstrating a rise in PA. Plasma renin substrate (PRS) was usually unvarying throughout the control cycles. The women taking OCP, on the other hand, all had PA and PRA peaks that were apparent by the fourth or fifth day of taking "the pill". All 4 of the treated women had elevated PRS levels but only one woman showed an increase which preceded the elevation of PRA and PA. Plasma cortisol levels were usually above the normal range in the women taking OCP. This study thus indicates that factors other than oestrogen-induced increased substrate production may be responsible for the PRA and PA rise during OCP treatment. Such factors might be the natri-uretic effects of oestrogens and progestogens or a direct effect on renin secretion by one of these steroids.

  13. Development of a thermal scheme for a cogeneration combined-cycle unit with an SVBR-100 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    At present, the prospects for development of district heating that can increase the effectiveness of nuclear power stations (NPS), cut down their payback period, and improve protection of the environment against harmful emissions are being examined in the nuclear power industry of Russia. It is noted that the efficiency of nuclear cogeneration power stations (NCPS) is drastically affected by the expenses for heat networks and heat losses during transportation of a heat carrier through them, since NPSs are usually located far away from urban area boundaries as required for radiation safety of the population. The prospects for using cogeneration power units with small or medium power reactors at NPSs, including combined-cycle units and their performance indices, are described. The developed thermal scheme of a cogeneration combined-cycle unit (CCU) with an SBVR-100 nuclear reactor (NCCU) is presented. This NCCU should use a GE 6FA gasturbine unit (GTU) and a steam-turbine unit (STU) with a two-stage district heating plant. Saturated steam from the nuclear reactor is superheated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) to 560-580°C so that a separator-superheater can be excluded from the thermal cycle of the turbine unit. In addition, supplemental fuel firing in HRSG is examined. NCCU effectiveness indices are given as a function of the ambient air temperature. Results of calculations of the thermal cycle performance under condensing operating conditions indicate that the gross electric efficiency η el NCCU gr of = 48% and N el NCCU gr = 345 MW can be achieved. This efficiency is at maximum for NCCU with an SVBR-100 reactor. The conclusion is made that the cost of NCCU installed kW should be estimated, and the issue associated with NCCUs siting with reference to urban area boundaries must be solved.

  14. Exergic, economic and environmental impacts of natural gas and diesel in operation of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi Khoshkar Vandani, Amin; Joda, Fatemeh; Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of natural gas and diesel on the power plant performance. • Exergy, economic and environmental evaluation of a combined cycle power plant. • Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to perform the environmental evaluation. • Optimizing the power plant in terms of exergy and economic. • Better performance of natural gas with respect to diesel. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) play an important role in electricity production throughout the world. Their energy efficiency is relatively high and their production rates of greenhouse gases are considerably low. In a country like Iran with huge oil and gas resources, most CCPP’s use natural gas as primary fuel and diesel as secondary fuel. In this study, effect of using diesel instead of natural gas for a selected power plant will be investigated in terms of exergy, economic and environmental impacts. The environmental evaluation is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the second step, the operation of the plant will be optimized using exergy and economic objective functions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the plant with natural gas as fuel is equal to 43.11%, while this efficiency with diesel will be 42.03%. Furthermore, the annual cost of plant using diesel is twice as that of plant using natural gas. Finally, diesel utilization leads to more contaminants production. Thus, environmental effects of diesel are much higher than that of natural gas. The optimization results demonstrate that in case of natural gas, exergy efficiency and annual cost of the power plant improve 2.34% and 4.99%, respectively. While these improvements for diesel are 2.36% and 1.97%.

  15. Utilization of waste heat from GTMHR for hydrogen generation via combination of organic Rankine cycles and PEM electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Hossein; Mohammadkhani, Farzad; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system is proposed to produce power and hydrogen. • The effects of some decision parameters on the produced hydrogen have investigated. • An optimization is performed using Search Direct Method. - Abstract: Energy and exergy analyses are carried out for hydrogen production via Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor/Organic Rankine Cycle (GTMHR/ORC) system coupled with a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer. A comprehensive parametric study is performed and the effects of some significant variables as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, evaporators’ temperature, pinch point temperature difference in the evaporators and degree of superheat at the ORC turbines inlet on the exergy efficiency, rate of produced hydrogen and sustainability index of the integrated system are investigated. Using direct search method by the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software, the combined system is optimized to achieve the maximum exergy efficiency. Results show that the exergy efficiency difference between the combined system and GTMHR cycle increases with an increase in pressure ratio. Also, it is observed that the rate of produced hydrogen increases with increasing turbine inlet temperature and takes the maximum value with change in evaporators’ temperature. Under the optimized condition, exergy efficiency, rate of the produced hydrogen and sustainability index of the proposed combined system are calculated to be 49.21%, 56.2 kg/h and 1.972, respectively.

  16. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  17. Status and trends of nuclear technologies - Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in the year 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO intends to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider, jointly, actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. This IAEA publication is part of Phase 1 of INPRO. It intends to provide an overview on history, present situation and future perspectives of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. While this overview focuses on technical issues, nevertheless, the aspects of economics, environment, and safety and proliferation resistance are important background issues for this study. After a brief description about the INPRO project and an evaluation of existing and future reactor designs the publication covers nuclear fuel cycle issues in detail. It is expected that this documentation will provide IAEA Member States and their nuclear engineers and designers, as well as policy makers with useful information on status and trends of future nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Due to the size of the full report it was decided to create a summary of the information and attach a CD-ROM in the back of this summary report with the full text of the report

  18. Oral Presence of Carbohydrate and Caffeine in Chewing Gum: Independent and Combined Effects on Endurance Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin-Brown, Katherine T; Siegel, Rodney; Kilding, Andrew E; Laursen, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    The oral presence of carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) may independently enhance exercise performance, but their influence on performance during prolonged exercise is less known. To determine the independent and combined effects of CHO and CAF administered in chewing gum during a cycling time trial (TT) after prolonged exercise. Eleven male cyclists (32.2 ± 7.5 y, 74.3 ± 6.8 kg, 60.2 ± 4.0 mL · kg-1 · min-1 VO2peak) performed 4 experimental trials consisting of 90-min constant-load cycling at 80% of their second ventilatory threshold (207 ± 30 W), followed immediately by a 20-km TT. Under double-blinded conditions, cyclists received placebo (PLA), CHO, CAF, or a combined CHO+CAF chewing gum at 0-, 5-, 10-, and 15-km points of the TT. Overall TT performance was similar across experimental and PLA trials (%mean difference ± 90%CL 0.2% ± 2.0%, 0.4% ± 2.2%, 0.1% ± 1.8% for CHO, CAF, and CHO+CAF). Compared with PLA, mean power output tended to be higher in the first 2 quarters of the TT with CHO (1.6% ± 3.1% and 0.8% ± 2.0%) and was substantially improved in the last 2 quarters during CAF and CHO+CAF trials (4.2% ± 3.0% and 2.0% ± 1.8%). There were no differences in average heart rate (ES performance. Blood lactate was substantially higher post-TT for CAF and CHO+CAF (ES >0.6). After prolonged constant-load cycling, the oral presence of CHO and CAF in chewing gum, independently or in combination, did not improve overall performance but did influence pacing.

  19. Conceptual study of SCRUM and CCPM combined application in multiple project flexible management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilton Marchi de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Project Management (PM has gained a major role in the viability of organizational strategic objectives. The development of products and services has been under increasing market pressure, demanding frequent releases in ever-shorter time periods. To meet these new requirements, PM has to provide the information needed to make decisions in multiple complex projects that are exposed to uncertainty and volatility. Regarding the opportunities to improve PM practices in order to deal with this unstable and ambiguous environment, the aim of this paper is to propose, by means of a conceptual literature analysis, the combined application of two PM methodologies: Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM, and SCRUM. The results of this study indicate that integration of these methodologies can enhance the benefits and mitigate the weaknesses of each of them. This hybrid model could enable better articulation and coordination of project tasks, allowing more effective decisions to be made in multiple project environments affected by volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA.

  20. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  1. Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales—Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Kati; Meyer, Fabian; Rhomberg, Agata; Kalinowski, Jörn; Donovan, Catriona

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria regulate chromosome replication and segregation tightly with cell division to ensure faithful segregation of DNA to daughter generations. The underlying mechanisms have been addressed in several model species. It became apparent that bacteria have evolved quite different strategies to regulate DNA segregation and chromosomal organization. We have investigated here how the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum organizes chromosome segregation and DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid under all of the conditions tested and that these organisms have overlapping C periods during replication, with both origins initiating replication simultaneously. On the basis of experimental data, we propose growth rate-dependent cell cycle models for C. glutamicum. PMID:28588128

  2. Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales—Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Bohm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria regulate chromosome replication and segregation tightly with cell division to ensure faithful segregation of DNA to daughter generations. The underlying mechanisms have been addressed in several model species. It became apparent that bacteria have evolved quite different strategies to regulate DNA segregation and chromosomal organization. We have investigated here how the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum organizes chromosome segregation and DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid under all of the conditions tested and that these organisms have overlapping C periods during replication, with both origins initiating replication simultaneously. On the basis of experimental data, we propose growth rate-dependent cell cycle models for C. glutamicum.

  3. Combined-cycle steam section parametric analysis by thermo-economic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, A.; Reini, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the case of industrial cogeneration plants, thermal power production is, in general, strictly dependent on the technological requirements of the production cycle, whereas, the electrical power which is produced can be auto- consumed or ceded to the utility grid. In both cases, an economic worth is given to this energy which influences the overall economic feasibility of the plant. The purpose of this paper is to examine parametric inter-relationships between economic and thermodynamic performance optimization techniques. Comparisons are then made of the results obtained with the use of the thermo- economic analysis technique suggested in this paper with those obtained with the use of indicators in other exergo-economic analysis techniques

  4. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - a life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used...... separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in...

  5. A study for the optimal operating conditions of the gas turbine based combined cycle cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Bin; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Ro, Sung Tack

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the existence of optimal operation conditions for minimum fuel consumption of the gas turbine based combined cycle cogeneration power plant. Optimal operational condition means the optimal distribution of the power generated by each gas turbine and the heat generated by each HRSG. Total fuel consumption is calculated by the sum of the fuels for gas turbines and supplementary boiler. Fuel consumption is calculated by numerical methods of energy equations which contain the power generated from gas and steam turbines, the heat generated by HRSG and the heat extracted from high pressure steam turbine

  6. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and a combined gas turbine coupled with an air bottoming cycle plant. The case study is the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform, located in the North Sea, Norway. The normal electricity demand is 19 MW, currently covered by two gas turbines generating each 50% of the power demand, while the third turbine...... is on stand-by. During oil export operations the power demand increases up to 25 MW. The model of the new power plant proposed in this work is developed in the Modelica language using basic components acquired from ThermoPower, a library for power plant modelling. The dynamic model of the gas turbine...

  7. Importance of cell cycle perturbations on the effectiveness of N-methylformamide and anti-neoplastic drugs in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, C; D'Agnano, I; Marangolo, M; Candiloro, A; Zupi, G

    1991-05-01

    The effect of N-methylformamide (NMF) in combination with Adriamycin (ADM) and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) on the cell survival and cell cycle kinetics of two human tumour lines was assessed: HT29 colon carcinoma and M14 melanoma cells were exposed to ADM and DDP alone or in combination with a non-cytotoxic dose of NMF, according to different schedules. The results demonstrate that NMF exposure sensitized both tumour cell lines to the lethal activity of ADM and DDP; however, reverse sequences had to be applied to reach an increase in the lethal activity of the two different drugs. The ADM-NMF combination determined a powerful decrease in the surviving fraction of the two cell lines when ADM was given as the first agent (ADM----NMF), while the reverse sequence did not increase the ADM cytotoxic effect. With respect to the DDP-NMF association, the sequence which accounted for a greater sensitizing effect was NMF administration followed by DDP treatment (NMF----DDP). This work demonstrates the importance of timing in combined treatments which involve NMF. A delay in cell proliferation elicited by NMF exposure could be responsible for the effectiveness of the combined treatment.

  8. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering To Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of systems engineers to use model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to generate self-consistent, up-to-date systems engineering products for project life-cycle and technical reviews is an important aspect for the continued and accelerated acceptance of MBSE. Currently, many review products are generated using labor-intensive, error-prone approaches based on documents, spreadsheets, and chart sets; a promised benefit of MBSE is that users will experience reductions in inconsistencies and errors. This work examines features of SysML that can be used to generate systems engineering products. Model elements, relationships, tables, and diagrams are identified for a large number of the typical systems engineering artifacts. A SysML system model can contain and generate most systems engineering products to a significant extent and this paper provides a guide on how to use MBSE to generate products for project life-cycle and technical reviews. The use of MBSE can reduce the schedule impact usually experienced for review preparation, as in many cases the review products can be auto-generated directly from the system model. These approaches are useful to systems engineers, project managers, review board members, and other key project stakeholders.

  9. Impact of organizational influences on project performance and outcome through its life cycle - An empirical investigation-

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazinejad, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Since organizational influences affect project performance and outcome either positively or negatively, it is critical to take into account the importance of role they play in project success. The goal of this research is to investigate the impact of shared values, as the most important organizational influence and as a level of organizational culture, on project performance and outcome. This study focuses on three important shared values, that is, trust, openness, and commitment and examines...

  10. Holistic energy system modeling combining multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Sebastian; Budzinski, Maik

    2017-12-01

    Making the global energy system more sustainable has emerged as a major societal concern and policy objective. This transition comes with various challenges and opportunities for a sustainable evolution affecting most of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We therefore propose broadening the current metrics for sustainability in the energy system modeling field by using industrial ecology techniques to account for a conclusive set of indicators. This is pursued by including a life cycle based sustainability assessment into an energy system model considering all relevant products and processes of the global supply chain. We identify three pronounced features: (i) the low-hanging fruit of impact mitigation requiring manageable economic effort; (ii) embodied emissions of renewables cause increasing spatial redistribution of impact from direct emissions, the place of burning fuel, to indirect emissions, the location of the energy infrastructure production; (iii) certain impact categories, in which more overall sustainable systems perform worse than the cost minimal system, require a closer look. In essence, this study makes the case for future energy system modeling to include the increasingly important global supply chain and broaden the metrics of sustainability further than cost and climate change relevant emissions.

  11. Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plants with Chemical Looping Reforming of Natural Gas and Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareq Mohd Nazir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gas-fired combined cycle power plant subjected to a pre-combustion CO2 capture method has been analysed under different design conditions and different heat integration options. The power plant configuration includes the chemical looping reforming (CLR of natural gas (NG, water gas shift (WGS process, CO2 capture and compression, and a hydrogen fuelled combined cycle to produce power. The process is denoted as a CLR-CC process. One of the main parameters that affects the performance of the process is the pressure for the CLR. The process is analysed at different design pressures for the CLR, i.e., 5, 10, 15, 18, 25 and 30 bar. It is observed that the net electrical efficiency increases with an increase in the design pressure in the CLR. Secondly, the type of steam generated from the cooling of process streams also effects the net electrical efficiency of the process. Out of the five different cases including the base case presented in this study, it is observed that the net electrical efficiency of CLR-CCs can be improved to 46.5% (lower heating value of NG basis by producing high-pressure steam through heat recovery from the pre-combustion process streams and sending it to the Heat Recovery Steam Generator in the power plant.

  12. Optimization and the effect of steam turbine outlet quality on the output power of a combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjehkaviri, A.; Mohd Jaafar, M.N.; Hosseini, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of combined cycle power plant. • Multi-objective optimization of a CCPP with genetic algorithm. • To improve the system performance by using an optimization approach. • To compare the performance of three different systems with different quality. - Abstract: A narrow path exists to a sustainable solution which passes through careful steps of efficiency improvement (resource management) and provides environmental friendly energies. Thermal power plants are more common in many power production sites around the world. Therefore, in this current research study a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combined cycle power plant with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator is presented. Since the steam turbine outlet quality is a restrictive parameter, optimization of three cases with different steam quality are conducted and discussed. In other hand, energy and exergy analysis of each components for these three different cases estimated and compared. Obtained results show that it is really important to keep the quality of the vapor at turbine outlet constant in 88% for the results to be more realistic and also optimization and data are more technically feasible and applicable

  13. Parametric based thermo-environmental and exergoeconomic analyses of a combined cycle power plant with regression analysis and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Harijan, Khanji; Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-environmental and exergoeconomic models of a combined cycle power plant are defined. • Effects of various operating parameters on performance, CO 2 emissions and costs are deliberated. • Multiple polynomial regression models are developed. • For various operating conditions, optimal operating parameters are determined. - Abstract: A combined cycle power plant is analyzed through thermo-environmental, exergoeconomic and statistical methods. The plant is first modeled and parametrically studied to deliberate the effects of various operating parameters on the thermo-environmental quantities, like net power output, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency and CO 2 emissions. These quantities are then correlated with operating parameters through multiple polynomial regression analysis. Moreover, exergoeconomic analysis is performed to look into the impact of operating parameters on fuel cost, capital cost and exergy destruction cost. The optimal operating parameters are then determined using the Nelder-Mead simplex method by defining two objective functions, namely exergy efficiency (maximized) and total cost (minimized). According to the parametric analysis, the operating parameters impart significant effects on the performance and cost rates. The regression models are appearing to be a good estimator of the response variables since appended with satisfactory R 2 values. The optimization results exhibit that the exergy efficiency is increased and cost rates are decreased by selecting the best trade-off values at different power output conditions

  14. A Technology Pathway for Airbreathing, Combined-Cycle, Horizontal Space Launch Through SR-71 Based Trajectory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloesel, Kurt J.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Clark, Casie M.

    2011-01-01

    Access to space is in the early stages of commercialization. Private enterprises, mainly under direct or indirect subsidy by the government, have been making headway into the LEO launch systems infrastructure, of small-weight-class payloads of approximately 1000 lbs. These moderate gains have emboldened the launch industry and they are poised to move into the middle-weight class (roughly 5000 lbs). These commercially successful systems are based on relatively straightforward LOX-RP, two-stage, bi-propellant rocket technology developed by the government 40 years ago, accompanied by many technology improvements. In this paper we examine a known generic LOX-RP system with the focus on the booster stage (1st stage). The booster stage is then compared to modeled Rocket-Based and Turbine-Based Combined Cycle booster stages. The air-breathing propulsion stages are based on/or extrapolated from known performance parameters of ground tested RBCC (the Marquardt Ejector Ramjet) and TBCC (the SR-71/J-58 engine) data. Validated engine models using GECAT and SCCREAM are coupled with trajectory optimization and analysis in POST-II to explore viable launch scenarios using hypothetical aerospaceplane platform obeying the aerodynamic model of the SR-71. Finally, and assessment is made of the requisite research technology advances necessary for successful commercial and government adoption of combined-cycle engine systems for space access.

  15. Improving the exergy efficiency of a cryogenic air separation unit as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, L.V. van der

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cryogenic air separation as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle. ► Considerable improvements in the exergy efficiency of a two-column design. ► Heating the separation products using heat of compression. ► Improving heat integration of the columns using heat-integrated distillation stages. - Abstract: The efficiency of a two-column cryogenic ASU (air separation unit) that is part of an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) can be increased significantly by making better use of the heat of compression and by improving the heat integration of the distillation columns. The rational exergy efficiency of the ASU, which is defined as the desired increase in exergy content of the products divided by the amount of work that is added to the process, can be increased from 35% to over 70%. The exergy destruction per amount of feed is reduced with 1.6 kJ/mol air, corresponding to a 0.74% increase in the net electric efficiency of the IGCC. The efficiencies are expected to increase even further because the full potential of using heat-integrated distillation columns is not yet achieved.

  16. The impact of using the combined oral contraceptive pill for cycle scheduling on gene expression related to endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Alfonso; Iglesias, Carlos; Ruiz-Alonso, María; Blesa, David; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; García-Velasco, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Does the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) change endometrial gene expression when used for cycle programming? COCP used for scheduling purposes does not have a significant impact on endometrial gene expression related to endometrial receptivity. Controversy exists around COCP pretreatment for IVF cycle programming, as some authors claim that it might be detrimental to the live birth rate. Microarray technology applied to the study of tissue gene expression has previously revealed the behavior of genes related to endometrial receptivity under different conditions. Proof-of-concept study of 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Microarray data were obtained from endometrial biopsies from 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing COS with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH. In group A (n = 5), COCP pretreatment was used for 12-16 days, and stimulation began after a 5-day pill-free interval. Stimulation in group B (n = 5) was initiated on cycle day 3 after a spontaneous menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected 7 days after triggering with hCG. No individual genes exhibited increased or decreased expression (fold change (FC) >2) in patients with prior COCP treatment (group A) compared with controls (group B). However, the results of the functional analysis showed a total of 11 biological processes that were significantly enriched in group A compared with group B (non-COCP). The Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) has only been validated on endometrial samples obtained in natural cycles and after hormonal replacement treatment (HRT). Therefore, it was not possible in this study to classify the endometrial samples as receptive or non-receptive. We used the ERA to focus on 238 genes that are intimately related to endometrial receptivity, thus simplifying the analysis and understanding of the data. Cycle scheduling is common in IVF units and is used to avoid weekend

  17. Functioning of nitric oxide cycle in gastric mucosa of rats under excessive combined intake of sodium nitrate and fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, O Ye; Kostenko, V O

    2016-01-01

    In the article the function of nitric oxide (·NO) cycle in rat’s gastric mucosa was assessed under excessive combined chronic fluoride and nitrate intake during 30 days. It was estimated that general nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) was increased during excessive sodium fluoride intake meanwhile influence on gene­ral nitrate reduction was not statistically significant, but general nitrite reduction was increased. General arginase activity decreased. Excessive sodium nitrate intake decreased NOS activity, but increased nitrate, nitrite reduction and general arginase activity. Combined sodium nitrate and fluoride intake increased NOS by 18.9%, nitrate reduction by 71.7%, nitrite by 161.5%, arginase activity increase by 61.4%. The highest amounts of peroxynitrite were obtained from excessive sodium fluoride intake group, excessive sodium nitrate intake showed the lowest levels and combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake levels had intermediate results. Summarizing the data obtained, the authors have made a conclusion that combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake creates optimal conditions for functioning of nitrate-nitrite reductases.

  18. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the natural gas fuel cycle for electricity generation. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission, 1994a; 1995, in preparation). The reader is referred to these earlier reports for wider discussion of many of the issues underlying this type of work. The increased desire for economic assessment of environmental damage reflects growing awareness of problems such as global warming, ozone depletion and the acidification and nutrification of ecosystems. A wide range of receptors are affected, including human health, forests, crops, and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. At the political level there are a variety of reasons for the growing interest in the quantification of the environmental impacts of energy use and the related external costs. These include the need to integrate environmental concerns when selecting between different fuels and energy technologies and the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. These issues are reflected in European Union policy, through, for example, the Maastricht Treaty, the 5th Environmental Action Programme 'towards sustainability', the European Commission's White Paper 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and ways forward to the 21st century' and the establishment of the European Environmental Agency. The proposal for an Energy-Carbon tax is the first concrete proposal by the European Union for the direct use of economic instruments in environmental policy in the energy sector. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not

  19. Specific safety aspects of the water-steam cycle important to nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The water-steam cycle in a nuclear power plant is similar to that used in conventional power plants. Some systems and components are required for the safe nuclear power plant operation and therefore are designed according to the safety criteria, rules and regulations applied in nuclear installations. The aim of this report is to present the safety characteristics of the water-steam cycle of a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor, as applied for the design of the nuclear power plants Angra 2 and Angra 3. (Author) [pt

  20. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eduardo J

    2008-05-01

    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  1. Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

  2. Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle Reliability, Availability & Maintainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2005-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established Operation and Maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that, in real time, interpret data to assess the 'total health' of combustion turbines. The 'Combustion Turbine Health Management System' (CTHMS) will consist of a series of 'Dynamic Link Library' (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. CTHMS interprets sensor and instrument outputs, correlates them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, the CTHMS enables real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  3. Assessing the Impact of a Combined Sewer Separation Project on Water Quality in Blackwater Creek, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, K.; Warren, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    Over a century ago, the City of Lynchburg constructed a sanitary sewer system to deal with the increasing need for waste water treatment. State and federal environmental mandates require cities to eliminate sewer overflows, so in the 1990s, the City of Lynchburg devised a plan to fix the problem of combined sewer overflow. Since Lynchburg's Combined Sewer Separation (CSS) work began approximately twenty years ago, many of the overflow points have been eliminated, leaving 30 points to be closed in the future. It remains unclear, however, whether Blackwater Creek's freshwater ecosystems have begun to show improvement as a result of the City's CSS separation project. As recently as 2012, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality characterized Blackwater Creek as a Category 5 Impaired Waterway, as assessed by benthic rapid bioassessment methods. Since 2003, the intro environmental science class at Randolph College has conducted stream assessment and water quality monitoring at two sites in Blackwater Creek, as a required field project. This work has involved nearly 300 students over that time, and includes rapid bioassessment (RBA) of aquatic macroinvertebrates, chemical and physical analysis, and riparian and channel vegetation assessment. Over this same period, the City has progressed through separation of the CSS system in a significant portion of Blackwater Creek's subwatershed, including our study area. We analyzed ten years of stream monitoring data in tandem with a geographic analysis of the progression of the CSS project to determine whether there has been resultant improvement in water quality. When analyzed in conjunction with the progress of the CSS project, the data did not exhibit a detectable difference between data collected before and after 2006. However, a simple linear regression of the data did show improvement in chemical and biological indicators of stream health, with a greater increase in results pertaining to the RBA. Further sampling is

  4. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  5. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  6. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Coal fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.E.; Holland, M.R.; Watkiss, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Background to the ExternE Project Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors; The need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies. The need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. Increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy. The need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. Major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good

  7. The Single Cell Proteome Project - Cell-Cycle Dependent Protein Expression in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dovichi, Norman J

    2005-01-01

    .... Capillary sieving electrophoresis and capillary micellar electrophoresis were used to characterize proteins in single cells in one-dimensional separations, while the two techniques were combined...

  8. Application of the Combined Cycle LWR-Gas Turbine to PWR for NPP Life Extension Safety Upgrade and Improving Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, some of the most important problem for the nuclear industry are life extension, advance competitiveness and safety of aging LWR NPPs. Based on results of studies performed in the USA (Battelle Memorial Institute) and in Russia (NIKIET), a new power technology, using a combined cycle gas-turbine facility CCGT - LWR, so called TD-Cycle, can significantly help in resolution of some problems of nuclear power industry. The nuclear steam and gas topping cycle is used for re-powering a light water pressurized reactor of PWR or VVER type. An existing NPP is topped with a gas turbine facility with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) generating steam from waste heat. The superheated steam of high pressure (P=90-165 bar, T=500-550 C) generated in the HRSG, is expanded in a high pressure (HP) turbine for producing electricity. The HP turbine can work on one shaft with the the gas turbine or at one shaft with intermediate (IP) or low (LP) pressure parts of the main nuclear steam turbine, or with a separate electric generator. The exhausted steam from the HP turbine is injected into the steam mixer where it is mixed with the saturated steam from the NPP steam generator (SG). The mixer is intended to superheat the main nuclear steam and should be characterized by minimum losses during mixing superheated and saturated steam. Steam from the mixer superheated by 20-60 C directs to the existing IP turbine, and then, through a separator-reheater flows into the LP turbine. Feed water re-heaters of LP and HP are actually unchanged in this case. Feed water extraction to the HRSG is supplied after one of LP water heaters. This proposal is intended to re-power existing LWR NPPs. To minimize cost, the IP and LP turbines and electric generator would remain the same. The reactor thermal power and fast neutron flux to the reactor vessel would decrease by 30-50 percent of nominal values. The external peripheral row of fuel elements can be replaced with metal absorber rods to

  9. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  10. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  11. Knowledge Management in the Project Life Cycle - Initial Research on Polish Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapuńka Iwona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary organizations run their activities in an environment, which might be defined as fully uncertain and turbulent. Due to variations that occur in the surrounding environment, an increased attention of management practitioners and theoreticians is paid to new management concepts frequently in an integrated version. The authors express a deep belief that consolidation of approaches to project management and knowledge management constitutes a response to challenge for modern organizations. Research into the issue was based on an attempt to determine significance of the knowledge management issue in a life of projects performed by Polish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Systemizing of desired knowledge management results in a project, from the point of view of its crucial success factors, is essentially substantiated in providing success of projects performed.

  12. A CMMI-based approach for medical software project life cycle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Jen; Su, Wu-Chen; Wang, Pei-Wen; Yen, Hung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    In terms of medical techniques, Taiwan has gained international recognition in recent years. However, the medical information system industry in Taiwan is still at a developing stage compared with the software industries in other nations. In addition, systematic development processes are indispensable elements of software development. They can help developers increase their productivity and efficiency and also avoid unnecessary risks arising during the development process. Thus, this paper presents an application of Light-Weight Capability Maturity Model Integration (LW-CMMI) to Chang Gung Medical Research Project (CMRP) in the Nuclear medicine field. This application was intended to integrate user requirements, system design and testing of software development processes into three layers (Domain, Concept and Instance) model. Then, expressing in structural System Modeling Language (SysML) diagrams and converts part of the manual effort necessary for project management maintenance into computational effort, for example: (semi-) automatic delivery of traceability management. In this application, it supports establishing artifacts of "requirement specification document", "project execution plan document", "system design document" and "system test document", and can deliver a prototype of lightweight project management tool on the Nuclear Medicine software project. The results of this application can be a reference for other medical institutions in developing medical information systems and support of project management to achieve the aim of patient safety.

  13. NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux-Pilot Project: A Multi-Component Analysis System for Carbon-Cycle Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S.; Gunson, M.; Potter, C.; Jucks, K.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of greenhouse gas increases for climate motivates NASA s observing strategy for CO2 from space, including the forthcoming Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) mission. Carbon cycle monitoring, including attribution of atmospheric concentrations to regional emissions and uptake, requires a robust modeling and analysis infrastructure to optimally extract information from the observations. NASA's Carbon-Monitoring System Flux-Pilot Project (FPP) is a prototype for such analysis, combining a set of unique tools to facilitate analysis of atmospheric CO2 along with fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere or ocean. NASA's analysis system is unique, in that it combines information and expertise from the land, oceanic, and atmospheric branches of the carbon cycle and includes some estimates of uncertainty. Numerous existing space-based missions provide information of relevance to the carbon cycle. This study describes the components of the FPP framework, assessing the realism of computed fluxes, thus providing the basis for research and monitoring applications. Fluxes are computed using data-constrained terrestrial biosphere models and physical ocean models, driven by atmospheric observations and assimilating ocean-color information. Use of two estimates provides a measure of uncertainty in the fluxes. Along with inventories of other emissions, these data-derived fluxes are used in transport models to assess their consistency with atmospheric CO2 observations. Closure is achieved by using a four-dimensional data assimilation (inverse) approach that adjusts the terrestrial biosphere fluxes to make them consistent with the atmospheric CO2 observations. Results will be shown, illustrating the year-to-year variations in land biospheric and oceanic fluxes computed in the FPP. The signals of these surface-flux variations on atmospheric CO2 will be isolated using forward modeling tools, which also incorporate estimates of transport error. The

  14. Human influence on the global mercury cycle: understanding the past and projecting the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos H. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans have been releasing mercury (Hg to the environment since antiquity. Due to the toxicity of Hg, the extent of anthropogenic enrichment is a global health concern. Here we use a global biogeochemical box model to quantify anthropogenic enrichment, investigate the timescales required to remove anthropogenic Hg from actively cycling reservoirs, and explore future anthropogenic emission scenarios and their impact on Hg accumulation. By considering the full history of anthropogenic emissions, we find that the global ocean has been substantially enriched by human activity, with implications for exposures of marine fish. Model simulations show anthropogenic Hg entering surface reservoirs is removed on the order of years. Future emission scenarios that achieve substantial reductions in global anthropogenic Hg emissions have the dual benefit of decreasing atmospheric deposition and decreasing the pool of legacy Hg actively cycling in terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems.

  15. Research Project: Analysis of environmental life cycle of nuclear fuel in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Pablo E.; Pasquevich, D.

    2009-01-01

    The growing World energy demand together with the run down of fossil fuel resources and the climate change threat has produced the resurgence of interest in nuclear energy as a clean electricity source in the electricity mix of the current century. Into this international context the study of primary energy sources sustainable has also became an important issue. The sustainable concept takes into account the good practice in renewable and nonrenewable resources exploitation and the minimization of the environmental impact generated by each energy source. The nuclear energy instead that shows low gaseous emissions, need to be assessed with this point of view also. Furthermore the electricity generation step in a nuclear power plant shows zero emissions of greenhouse gases, the upstream and downstream processes do (as it is the case of the nuclear fuel cycle supply, the heavy water fabrication and the spent fuel management). The upstream and downstream processes are usually known as the nuclear fuel cycle. The emissions assessment of each step of the nuclear electricity generation is very useful to quantify its sustainable against other electricity generation options. The sustainable assessment also allow to quantify the energy consumption in the overall supply chain and optimize the raw material and feedstock consumption. In the present work the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is presented and applied to the nuclear fuel cycle. The LCA is a mature and internationally accepted methodology in both fields scientific and industrial. Some of the applications of LCA are: product development, policy definition, marketing, product, process and services selection based on environmental aspect and decision making assistance. (author)

  16. Hypersonic ramjet experiment project. Phase 1: Computer program description, ramjet and scramjet cycle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. J.; Wang, T. T.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program was developed to describe the performance of ramjet and scramjet cycles. The program performs one dimensional calculations of the equilibrium, real-gas internal flow properties of the engine. The program can be used for the following: (1) preliminary design calculation and (2) design analysis of internal flow properties corresponding to stipulated flow areas. Only the combustion of hydrogen in air is considered in this case.

  17. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  18. Heber Geothermal Project, binary-cycle demonstration plant. Volume II. Proposal abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, R.G.

    1979-12-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E) believes that the binary-cycle offers an improved method of converting moderate temperature geothermal resources into electric power. The process, shown schematically in figure 1-1, has significant advantages over existing methods of geothermal power generation. The advantages of the binary process are that greater amounts of power can be generated from a given resource, fewer wells are needed to support a given power output, and the binary-cycle is expected to be more economical than the flash process for this type of resource. Another advantage is that the binary-cycle is a closed process and thus enhances environmental acceptability. In addition, this process is applicable to a larger range of the nations geothermal reservoirs. It is estimated that 80% of the nation's hydrothermal resources can be classified as moderate temperature (300 to 410 F) resources. The flash process, commonly used to convert high temperature geothermal resources to electric power, is technically feasible for moderate temperature resources. However, when compared to the binary process for moderate temperature applications, the flash process conversion efficiency is lower, environmental impacts may require abatement, and power production costs may not be commercially competitive.

  19. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  20. Combining data from morphological traits and genetic markers to determine transmission cycles in the tape worm, Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, A J

    1998-08-01

    Species of Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) require 2 mammalian hosts to complete their life-cycle; a carnivorous definitive host, and a herbivorous or omnivorous intermediate host. For most species of Echinococcus, the definitive host range is restricted to 1 or a few species, but the intermediate host range is very broad. Programmes to control hydatid disease attempt to break the life-cycle of the parasite and their effectiveness is therefore enhanced by an understanding of local patterns of transmission. Although it is known that the rostellar hooks of protoscoleces may be influenced by the species of intermediate host in which they develop, the application of this knowledge to infer transmission cycles has been limited, because the intermediate host effect has not been isolated from other environmental and genetic components of phenotypic variance. This study presents a method for separating these potentially confounding genetic and environmental effects, by combining quantitative genetic analyses of hook traits with data on population structure from neutral genetic markers. The method was applied to 5 hook traits (hook number, total length of large hooks, blade length of large hooks, total length of small hooks, blade length of small hooks) measured on protoscoleces from 2 intermediate host types (sheep and macropod marsupials) in Australia. Although genetic variance was similar for all traits, they differed markedly in the extent of environmental variance attributed to development in different host types. Total length of small hooks was the trait most affected, with 49-60% of phenotypic variance being explained by environmental differences between intermediate host species. Blade length of small hooks was least affected, with none of the phenotypic variance due to intermediate host origin. These data suggest that hook measurements of adult worms from naturally infected definitive hosts could be used to determine the intermediate host species from which

  1. Model for deployment of a Quality Assurance System in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities using Project Management techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Ricardo F.; Ribeiro, Saulo F.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety is the main goal in any nuclear facility. In this sense the Norm CNEN-NN-1.16 classifies the quality assurance issue as a management system to be deployed and implemented by the organization to achieving security goals. Quality Assurance is a set of systematic and planned actions necessary to provide adequate confidence ensuring that a structure, system, component or installation will work satisfactorily in s. Hence, the Quality Assurance System (QAS) is a complete and comprehensive methodology, going far beyond a management plan quality from the perspective of project management. The fundamental of QAS requirements is all activities that influence the quality, involving organizational, human resources, procurement, nuclear safety, projects, procedures and communication. Coordination of all these elements requires a great effort by the team responsible because it usually involves different areas and different levels of hierarchy within the organization. The objectives and desired benefits should be well set for everyone to understand what it means to be achieved and how to achieve. The support of senior management is critical at this stage, providing guidelines and resources necessary to get the job elapse clearly and efficiently, on time, cost and certain scope. The methodology of project management processes can be applied to facilitate and expedite the implementation of this system. Many of the principles of the QAS are correlated with knowledge areas of project management. The proposed model for implementation of a QAS in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considered the best project management practices according to the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK - 5th edition) of the Project Management Institute (PMI). This knowledge is considered very good practices around the world. Since the model was defined, the deployment process becomes more practical and efficient, providing reduction in deployment time, better management of human

  2. Model for deployment of a Quality Assurance System in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities using Project Management techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Ricardo F.; Ribeiro, Saulo F.Q., E-mail: rflage@gmail.com, E-mail: quintao.saulo@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety is the main goal in any nuclear facility. In this sense the Norm CNEN-NN-1.16 classifies the quality assurance issue as a management system to be deployed and implemented by the organization to achieving security goals. Quality Assurance is a set of systematic and planned actions necessary to provide adequate confidence ensuring that a structure, system, component or installation will work satisfactorily in s. Hence, the Quality Assurance System (QAS) is a complete and comprehensive methodology, going far beyond a management plan quality from the perspective of project management. The fundamental of QAS requirements is all activities that influence the quality, involving organizational, human resources, procurement, nuclear safety, projects, procedures and communication. Coordination of all these elements requires a great effort by the team responsible because it usually involves different areas and different levels of hierarchy within the organization. The objectives and desired benefits should be well set for everyone to understand what it means to be achieved and how to achieve. The support of senior management is critical at this stage, providing guidelines and resources necessary to get the job elapse clearly and efficiently, on time, cost and certain scope. The methodology of project management processes can be applied to facilitate and expedite the implementation of this system. Many of the principles of the QAS are correlated with knowledge areas of project management. The proposed model for implementation of a QAS in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considered the best project management practices according to the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK - 5th edition) of the Project Management Institute (PMI). This knowledge is considered very good practices around the world. Since the model was defined, the deployment process becomes more practical and efficient, providing reduction in deployment time, better management of human

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined-cycle solar thermal power plant with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qi; Bader, Roman; Kreider, Peter; Lovegrove, Keith; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750-1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5-6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.

  4. Performance evaluation of atmospheric biomass integrated gasifier combined cycle systems under different strategies for the use of low calorific gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Monica; Walter, Arnaldo; Faaij, Andre

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at a performance evaluation of atmospheric BIGCC (biomass integrated gasifier combined cycle) systems operating under different strategies for the use of low calorific fuel in gas turbines. The fuel is a synthetic gas derived from gasification of sugar cane residues. Two analysed strategies for surge control on gas turbines originally designed for operation on natural gas are de-rating and air extraction from the compressor. Another strategy for use of biomass derived gas is the retrofit of a gas turbine through modification of the expander geometry. Three generic gas turbines, whose main parameters have been taken from off the shelf machines, are proposed as representative of certain classes of gas turbines. Results are compared to the hypothetical situation in which it is possible to accept any increase in gas turbine pressure ratio. According to the results, de-rating is the worst surge control strategy, both from the point of view of power production and thermal efficiency. Conversely, results showed considerable gains that can be obtained on cycle power production when the gas turbine expander is modified. Additionally, an overview of issues concerning the suitability of sugar cane residues (bagasse and trash) for the production of gasified gas and its use in BIGCC plants is presented

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined-cycle solar thermal power plant with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750–1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5–6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.

  6. A Co-Powered Biomass and Concentrated Solar Power Rankine Cycle Concept for Small Size Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Tortora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the matching of an advanced small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP Rankine cycle plant with end-user thermal and electric load. The power plant consists of a concentrated solar power field co-powered by a biomass furnace to produce steam in a Rankine cycle, with a CHP configuration. A hotel was selected as the end user due to its high thermal to electric consumption ratio. The power plant design and its operation were modelled and investigated by adopting transient simulations with an hourly distribution. The study of the load matching of the proposed renewable power technology and the final user has been carried out by comparing two different load tracking scenarios, i.e., the thermal and the electric demands. As a result, the power output follows fairly well the given load curves, supplying, on a selected winter day, about 50 GJ/d of thermal energy and the 6 GJ/d of electric energy, with reduced energy dumps when matching the load.

  7. Economic assessment of combined cycle gas turbines in Australia Some effects of microeconomic reform and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Australian electricity markets and natural gas markets are undergoing rapid reform. Choosing among electricity generation modes is a key issue. Such choices are affected by expectations about the future structure of these markets and future technologies, and how they affect costs and emissions. In the research reported in this paper, the MARKAL model of the Australian energy system is used to evaluate the competitive position of natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) in the energy sector as a whole. Competing in the sector are large-scale electricity generation technologies such as refurbished existing coal fired stations and advanced forms of coal fired generation. The modelling incorporates new data on electricity supply technologies and options

  8. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  9. The graded cycling test combined with the talk test is reliable for patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Grøn; Buus, Lise; Hage, Tine

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess relative reliability and measurement error of the Graded Cycling Test (GCT) with the Talk Test (TT) for patients with cardiac disease. METHODS: Patients (N = 64; women, n = 30) with ischemic heart disease performed the GCT with the TT twice in 1 day. Every minute the patient.......81 and 0.88. SEM95 ranged between 17.2 and 18.3 watts (W), with corresponding SRD values between 24.4 and 25.9 W for the patient ratings. The PT ratings ranged between 15.8 and 21.4 W (SEM95) and between 22.3 and 30.3 W (SRD). CONCLUSIONS: The TT, combined with the GCT, was well tolerated by patients...

  10. Mathematical Modeling – The Impact of Cooling Water Temperature Upsurge on Combined Cycle Power Plant Performance and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra Siswantara, Ahmad; Pujowidodo, Hariyotejo; Darius, Asyari; Ramdlan Gunadi, Gun Gun

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the mathematical modeling analysis on cooling system in a combined cycle power plant. The objective of this study is to get the impact of cooling water upsurge on plant performance and operation, using Engineering Equation Solver (EES™) tools. Power plant installed with total power capacity of block#1 is 505.95 MWe and block#2 is 720.8 MWe, where sea water consumed as cooling media at two unit condensers. Basic principle of analysis is heat balance calculation from steam turbine and condenser, concern to vacuum condition and heat rate values. Based on the result shown graphically, there were impact the upsurge of cooling water to increase plant heat rate and vacuum pressure in condenser so ensued decreasing plant efficiency and causing possibility steam turbine trip as back pressure raised from condenser.

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis and thermoeconomic optimization of a dual pressure combined cycle power plant with a supplementary firing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Pouria; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A comprehensive study on a dual pressure combined cycle power plant with supplementary firing unit. → A new integrated thermodynamic modeling and thermoeconomic optimization. → Better performance assessment. → Utilization genetic algorithms to improve efficiency and reduce exergy destructions and cost. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with a supplementary firing system is first thermodynamically analyzed through energy and exergy. The optimal design of operating parameters of the plant is then performed by defining an objective function and applying a generic algorithm (GA) type optimization method. In order to optimally find the design parameters, a thermo-economic method is employed. An objective function representing the total cost of the plant in terms of dollar per second is defined as the sum of the operating cost related to the fuel consumption and the capital investment for equipment purchase and maintenance costs. Subsequently, different parts of the objective function are expressed in terms of decision variables. Finally, the optimal values of decision variables are obtained by minimizing the objective function using a GA. Moreover, the influences of changes in the demanded power and fuel cost are studied by considering three different output powers (i.e., 160, 180 and 200 MW). To validate the present model, the results of the present simulation code are compared with the actual data. The results show that the average difference between the model results and the actual data is about 1.41%. Moreover, various cases are investigated to determine how to decrease the objective function (cost, mass flowrate, etc.) for the optimized design and operating parameters (fuel cost, power output, etc.).

  13. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  14. The Constant Cycle: Day to Day Critical Action of the QUIPPED Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medves, Jennifer M.; Paterson, Margo; Schroder, Cori; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Chapman, Christine; O'Riordan, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Action research in the critical paradigm involves a process of continual refection in and on action including the research process itself. In the second in a series of several papers we report on the day-to-day management of the QUIPPED project. The aim was to facilitate patient centred care through inter-professional collaboration with health…

  15. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO):status, development of approaches and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshev, M.; Sokolov, Y.; Facer, I.

    2005-01-01

    During the last fifty years remarkable results have been achieved in the application of nuclear technology for the production of electricity. Looking ahead to the next fifty years it is clear that the demand for energy will grow considerably and also new requirements have to be fulfilled for the way nuclear energy will be supplied, UNCSD, WSSD, IPCC and others have emphasized the substantial growth in 21st century energy supplies needed to meet sustainable development (SD) goals. This will be driven by continuing population growth, economic development and aspiration to provide access to modern energy systems to be 1,6 billion people now without such access, the growth demand on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing the risk oaf climate change. A key factor to the future of nuclear power is the degree to which innovative nuclear technologies can be developed to meet challenges of economic competitiveness, safety,waste and proliferation concerns. There are two major international initiatives in the area of innovative nuclear technology: the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle (INPRO) and the Generation IV International Forum. Following a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA in the year 2000 an International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, referred to as INPRO, was initiated (Authors)

  16. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  17. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2016-10-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house acidification and separation on marine eutrophication potential compared to these technologies individually. The model was sensitive to the chosen ammonia emission coefficients and to the choice of inclusion of indirect nitrous oxide emissions, since scenarios changed ranking for certain impact categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimized polymer flooding projects via combination of experimental design and reservoir simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bengar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach for an EOR process is to compare the reservoir properties with those of successful worldwide projects. However, some proper cases may be neglected due to the lack of reliable data. A combination of experimental design and reservoir simulation is an alternative approach. In this work, the fractional factorial design suggests some numerical experiments which their results are analyzed by statistical inference. After determination of the main effects and interactions, the most important parameters of polymer flooding are studied by ANOVA method and Pareto and Tornado charts. Analysis of main effects shows that the oil viscosity, connate water saturation and the horizontal permeability are the 3 deciding factors in oil production. The proposed methodology can help to select the good candidate reservoirs for polymer flooding. Keywords: Polymer flooding, Fractional factorial design, Reservoir simulation, P-value, ANOVA

  19. Performance evaluation of project management system based on combination of EFQM and QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ahmadi Digehsara

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Project management system (PMS is broadly recognized as the effective management tool for several organizations. European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM model provides some advantages for companies to be successful in current competitive environment. This paper is based on the combination of EFQM and Quality function deployment (QFD in order to eval-uate a PMS in an aviation organization. Although, an integration of these models increases the system complexity, the implementation of EFQM-QFD helps us identify all noteworthy success factors of PMS within the organization. In addition, the current status of PMS performance is evaluated based on these factors. This study attempts to find out how organizations ought to be managed to take full advantage of PMS tools. This study uses a comprehensive questionnaire to find all critical factors influencing on the success of the organization. The method of this paper is implemented in an organization in aviation industry with several management departments.

  20. GPR used in combination with other NDT methods for assessing pavements in PPP projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, Andreas; Plati, Christina

    2014-05-01

    In the recent decades, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) has been adopted for highway infrastructure procurement in many countries. PPP projects typically take the form of a section of highway and connecting roadways which are to be construction and managed for a given concession period. Over the course of the highway concession period, the private agency takes over the pavement maintenance and rehabilitation duties. On this purpose, it is critical to find the most cost effective way to maintain the infrastructure in compliance with the agreed upon performance measures and a Pavement Management Systems (PMS) is critical to the success of this process. For the prosperous operation of a PMS it is necessary to have appropriate procedures for pavement monitoring and evaluation, which is important in many areas of pavement engineering. Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has played a major role in pavement condition monitoring, assessments and evaluation accomplishing continuous and quick collection of pavement data. The analysis of this data can lead to indicators related to trigger values (criteria) that define the pavement condition based on which the pavement "health" is perceived helping decide whether there is the need or not to intervene in the pavement. The accomplished perception appoints required management activities for preserving pavements in favor not only of the involved highway/road agencies but also of users' service. Amongst NDT methods Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) seems to be a very powerful toll, as it provides a range of condition and construction pavement information. It can support effectively the implementation of PMS activities in the framework of pavement monitoring and evaluation. Given that, the present work aims to the development and adaptation of a protocol for the use of GPR in combination with other NDT methods, such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD), for assessing pavements in PPP projects. It is base