Sample records for combat system fcs

  1. The Army's Future Combat System (FCS): Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felckert, Andrew


    .... The FCS program has been characterized by the Army and others as a high-risk venture due to the advanced technologies involved and the challenge of networking all of the FCS subsystems together...

  2. An Analysis of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) Spin Out 1 Low-Rate of Initial Production (LRIP) Contract (United States)


    Between Failures NGSS – Northrop Grumman Ship Systems NLOS-C – Non-Line-of-Sight - Cannon NMD – National Missile Defense PEO – Program Executive...Northrop Grumman Ship Systems ( NGSS ) to oversee the Coast Guard’s Deepwater Program. Deepwater refers to a collection of more than a dozen Coast Guard

  3. Value of Embedded Training - Future Combat Systems Example

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilgrim, Kevin H


    .... It has been included as a required capability in the Future Combat Systems. Purpose- To develop an analytic approach to determine the value of embedded training as it is introduced in the FCS System of Systems (SoS...

  4. Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) for densified, normal boiling point, and two-phase cryogenic flows, capable of...

  5. Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The product of the Phase II effort will be a Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) for densified, normal boiling point, and two-phase cryogenic...

  6. Research of Embedded Tower Crane Monitoring System Based on FCS


    Xijian Zheng; Jinbao Zeng; Hong Zhang; Zhengyi Xie


    To compensate for the lack of traditional safety limit device of tower crane, a design scheme of embedded tower crane intelligent monitoring system based on Fieldbus Control System was proposed. By this, online collection and transmission of tower crane real-time conditions were achieved, which could effectively improve the reliability and anti-interference of the system. Embedded development technology was used to build ARM-based master control platform. Embedded Linux cross-compiler envir...

  7. Supporting Training Strategies for Brigade Combat Teams Using Future Combat Systems (FCS) Technologies (United States)


    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Captain James Malcom , HQ USAF/A8XP, Room 4D1083, 1070 Air more-complex cognitive skills and tasks that involve applying knowl - edge to problem-solving. Here the issue is developing and maintaining high...skills and knowledge that do not map onto actual, needed skills/ knowl - edge and are detrimental to soldier or unit behavior.7 6 Michael Peck, “Training

  8. In vivo characterization of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Baudendistel (Nina); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); T. Weidemann (Thomas); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)


    textabstractThe aim of these studies is the quantitative investigation of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system in vivo. First results of FCS measurements show an exchange in the nucleus of the proteins Fos-CFP and Jun-YFP in the stably mono-transfected HeLa-Cells. This is also shown by

  9. Embedded diagnostics in combat systems (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Bankowski, Elena N.


    Diagnostics capability of combat systems shall be compatible with the Army Diagnostic Improvement Program. Present systems are capable of performing health monitoring and health checks using internal embedded resources. They employ standard sensors and data busses that monitor data signals and built-in test (BIT). These devices provide a comprehensive source of data to accomplish an accurate system level diagnostics and fault isolation at line replaceable unit (LRU) level. Prognostics routines provide capability to identify the cause of predicted failure and corrective action to prevent unscheduled maintenance action. Combat system"s health status and prognostic information are displayed to operator, crew, and maintenance personnel. Present systems use common data/information interchange network in accordance with standards defined in the Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) to provide access to vehicle"s health data. The technologies utilized in present systems include embedded diagnostics, combat maintainer, schematic viewer, etc. Implementation of these technologies significantly reduced maintenance hours of combat systems. Health monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics of future systems will utilize federated software and probes approach. Gauges will determine if the system operates within acceptable performance bands by monitoring data provided by the probes. Health monitoring system will use models of missions to make intelligent choices considering tasks criticality.

  10. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS) (United States)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William


    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  11. Suitability of Agent Technology for Military Command and Control in the Future Combat System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potok, TE


    The U.S. Army is faced with the challenge of dramatically improving its war fighting capability through advanced technologies. Any new technology must provide significant improvement over existing technologies, yet be reliable enough to provide a fielded system. The focus of this paper is to assess the novelty and maturity of agent technology for use in the Future Combat System (FCS). The FCS concept represents the U.S. Army's ''mounted'' form of the Objective Force. This concept of vehicles, communications, and weaponry is viewed as a ''system of systems'' which includes net-centric command and control (C{sup 2}) capabilities. This networked C{sup 2} is an important transformation from the historically centralized, or platform-based, C{sup 2} function since a centralized command architecture may become a decision-making and execution bottleneck, particularly as the pace of war accelerates. A mechanism to ensure an effective network-centric C{sup 2} capacity (combining intelligence gathering and analysis available at lower levels in the military hierarchy) is needed. Achieving a networked C{sup 2} capability will require breakthroughs in current software technology. Many have proposed the use of agent technology as a potential solution. Agents are an emerging technology, and it is not yet clear whether it is suitable for addressing the networked C{sup 2} challenge, particularly in satisfying battlespace scalability, mobility, and security expectations. We have developed a set of software requirements for FCS based on military requirements for this system. We have then evaluated these software requirements against current computer science technology. This analysis provides a set of limitations in the current technology when applied to the FCS challenge. Agent technology is compared against this set of limitations to provide a means of assessing the novelty of agent technology in an FCS environment. From this analysis we

  12. Developing the Class I Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Win; Jones, David L


    .... They need the Class I UAS. The UAS team within the Future Combat Systems (Brigade Combat Team) (FCS(BCT)) is capitalizing on the lessons learned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  14. Design considerations for effective control of an afterburner sub-system in a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system (FCS) (United States)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    This article investigates various control strategies for a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system (FCS), with a specific focus on the afterburner sub-system. The afterburner sub-system recovers heat and by-products from the excess fuel and oxidant not consumed within the fuel cell. The overall performance of a CHP FCS depends crucially on the control of the afterburner sub-system because the control of this sub-system (1) determines the extent of thermal energy recovered from the system, between 35 and 55% of fuel energy input; (2) establishes the rate limiting step in the control of the overall CHP FCS because the rate at which the afterburner can combust excess fuel and oxidant safely and raise steam affects the rate at which the fuel cell's electrical power output can change; and (3) impacts upstream mass and energy flows strongly, such as the system's overall water balance and also the raising of steam for the upstream fuel processor and cathode humidification, as this is the point in the system where the CHP FCS becomes closed loop for heat and mass flows. Using an Aspen Plus ® chemical engineering model of the CHP FCS, this article (1) identifies potential challenges in operating the afterburner sub-system, (2) discusses various options for ameliorating those challenges, and (3) recommends viable solutions. The two challenges it discusses in detail are (1) the danger of overheating the afterburner, and (2) the danger of overheating a downstream steam generator. Regarding the first challenge, in the low anode hydrogen utilization (AHU) range (66-85%) specified by some fuel cell manufacturers, the afterburner is in danger of overheating beyond its maximum rated operating point. Regarding the second challenge, also at low anode hydrogen utilizations, the steam generator is in danger of overheating beyond its maximum rated operating point. This article demonstrates that one solution for overcoming these challenges is to dilute the afterburner's stream

  15. Coping with Atmospheric Turbulence in the Selection of Laser Hardening Technology for FCS Targeting Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, Timothy M


    ... by frequency-agile battlefield lasers at both long and short range. Evidently, the selection of sensor protection technologies for incorporation into the final targeting system will be based on their optical limiting performance under field conditions...

  16. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chun Shin


    Full Text Available System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  17. SF-SCTP: a new transport protocol to support QoS for FCS applications (United States)

    Zou, Jianping; Uyar, M. Ümit; Fecko, Mariusz A.; Samtani, Sunil


    The communication of Future Combat Systems (FCS), with rigid timing and reliability requirements, has posed a great challenge for the existing popular transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), first designed to transmit telephony signaling messages over Internet, is a promising transport layer candidate for FCS networks. The new SCTP features such as multi-homing, multi-streaming, and enhanced security can significantly improve the performance of FCS applications. In this paper, we propose modifications to the congestion control and multi-streaming parts of current SCTP specifications to allow the support of QoS for FCS applications. Multiple streams in an SCTP association provide an aggregation mechanism to accommodate heterogeneous objects, which belong to the same application but may require different types of QoS from the network. However, the current SCTP specification lacks an internal mechanism to support the preferential treatment among its streams. Our work introduces the concept of grouping SCTP streams into subflows based on their required QoS. We propose to modify the current SCTP to implement subflows (named SF-SCTP), each with its own flow and congestion mechanism to prevent the so-called false sharing problem. To improve the fairness of SF-SCTP towards the original SCTP, we integrate Fractional Congestion Control into the design. The throughput performance evaluation of SF-SCTP is studied through ns-2 experiments in a simplified Diff-Serv network. The simulation results prove the SF-SCTP's capability to support QoS among its streams, confirm the accuracy of the analytic models, and justify our effects to integrate FCC into SF-SCTP since it improves the fairness between SF-SCTP and the original SCTP.

  18. Modeling, materials, and metrics: the three-m approach to FCS signature solutions (United States)

    Gonda, Teresa G.; Thomas, David J.; Namburu, Raju; Edwards, Timothy


    There is a push in the Army to develop lighter vehicles that can get to remote parts of the world quickly. This objective force is not some new vehicle, but a whole new way of fighting wars. The Future Combat System (FCS), as it is called, has an extremely aggressive timeline and must rely on modeling and simulation to aid in defining the goals, optimizing the design and materials, and testing the performance of the various FCS systems concepts. While virtual prototyping for vehicles (both military and commercial) has been around as a concept for well over a decade and its use is promoted heavily in tours and in boardrooms, the actual application of virtual protoyping is often limited and when successful has been confined to specific physical engineering areas such as weight, space, stress, mobility, and ergonomics. If FCS is to succeed in its acquisition schedule, virtual prototyping will have to be relied on heavily and its application expanded. Signature management is an example of an area that would benefit greatly from virtual prototyping tools. However, there are several obstacles to achieving this goal. To rigorously analyze a vehicle's IR and visual signatures extensively in several different environments over different weather and seasonal conditions could result millions of potentially unique signatures to evaluate. In addition, there is no real agreement on what evaluate means or even what value is used to represent signature; Delta T( degree(s)C), Probability of Detection? What the user really wants to know is: how do I make my system survivable? This paper attempts to describe and then bound the problem and describe how the Army is attempting to deal with some of these issues in a holistic manner using SMART (Simulation and Modeling for Acquisition, Requirements, and Training) principles.

  19. Fucose-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of the fcs Operon by FcsR in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (United States)

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Afzal, Muhammad; Kuipers, Oscar P


    In this study, we explore the impact of fucose on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae D39. The expression of various genes and operons, including the fucose uptake PTS and utilization operon (fcs operon) was altered in the presence of fucose. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and β-galactosidase analysis, we demonstrate the role of the transcriptional regulator FcsR, present upstream of the fcs operon, as a transcriptional activator of the fcs operon. We also predict a 19-bp putative FcsR regulatory site (5'-ATTTGAACATTATTCAAGT-3') in the promoter region of the fcs operon. The functionality of this predicted FcsR regulatory site was further confirmed by promoter-truncation experiments, where deletion of half of the FscR regulatory site or full deletion led to the abolition of expression of the fcs operon. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Systems thinking in combating infectious diseases. (United States)

    Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming


    The transmission of infectious diseases is a dynamic process determined by multiple factors originating from disease pathogens and/or parasites, vector species, and human populations. These factors interact with each other and demonstrate the intrinsic mechanisms of the disease transmission temporally, spatially, and socially. In this article, we provide a comprehensive perspective, named as systems thinking, for investigating disease dynamics and associated impact factors, by means of emphasizing the entirety of a system's components and the complexity of their interrelated behaviors. We further develop the general steps for performing systems approach to tackling infectious diseases in the real-world settings, so as to expand our abilities to understand, predict, and mitigate infectious diseases.

  1. FCS Vehicle Transportability, Survivability, and Reliability Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dion-Schwarz, Cynthia; Hirsch, Leon; Koehn, Phillip; Macheret, Jenya; Sparrow, Dave


    .... The investigation into metrics for transportability revealed that the C130 Transportability requirement for FCS vehicles is a constraint that leads to a less survivable platform but without improving Unit of Action (UA) transportability...

  2. National Shielding for Pulsed Power in Combat Systems (United States)

    Zielinski, Alex E.; Kohlberg, Ira; Bennett, John; Le, Calvin D.; Sarjeant, W. J.


    A model was developed for determining the space and time behavior of the magnetic field external to a system of conductors. A moving conductor is in relative close proximity to a stationary conductor that provides the source current. An additional conductor provides attenuation of the environmental field. The space and time periodicity of the field is related to the parameters of the system. A numerical example predicts the magnitude of the magnetic field as a function of distance from the stationary conductor. Initial shielding considerations for mitigating the environmental effects produced by this class of emerging technologies are developed. The assessment indicates that conventional engineering design, based on the principals of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), can reduce the magnetic fields to levels consistent with the notional requirements of electric combat vehicles.

  3. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.


    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  4. Analyzing FCS Professionals in Higher Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Harden, Amy; Pucciarelli, Deanna L.


    A national study of family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals in higher education was analyzed as a case study to illustrate procedures useful for investigating issues related to FCS. The authors analyzed response rates of more than 1,900 FCS faculty and administrators by comparing those invited to participate and the 345 individuals who…

  5. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter


    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  6. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey


    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  7. Motion analysis systems as optimization training tools in combat sports and martial arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Polak


    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past years, a few review papers about possibilities of using motion analysis systems in sport were published, but there are no articles that discuss this problem in the field of combat sports and martial arts. Aim: This study presents the diversity of contemporary motion analysis systems both, those that are used in scientific research, as well as those that can be applied in daily work of coaches and athletes in combat sports and martial arts. An additional aim is the indication of example applications in scientific research and range of applications in optimizing the training process. It presents a brief description of each type of systems that are currently used in sport, specific examples of systems and the main advantages and disadvantages of using them. The presentation and discussion takes place in the following sections: motion analysis utility for combat sports and martial arts, systems using digital video and systems using markers, sensors or transmitters. Conclusions: Not all types of motion analysis systems used in sport are suitable for combat sports and martial arts. Scientific studies conducted so far showed the usefulness of video-based, optical and electromechanical systems. The use of research results made with complex motion analysis systems, or made with simple systems, local application and immediate visualization is important for the preparation of training and its optimization. It may lead to technical and tactical improvement in athletes as well as the prevention of injuries in combat sports and martial arts.

  8. Warship Combat System Selection Methodology Based on Discrete Event Simulation (United States)


    Naval “Almirante Padilla” Cartagena, Colombia 6. Señor Mayor General Director Escuela Superior de Guerra Bogotá, Colombia 7. Dr. Clifford...German Howaldtswerke (HDW) shipyard in the 1980s. This is the first attempt by Colombia to build its own middle tonnage combatant ship, and the Science...order to build the operational environment and does not refer to real intelligence. B. BACKGROUND Colombia faces a hostile strategic environment where

  9. Spring 2008 Industry Study. Land Combat Systems Industry (United States)


    National Defense University Fort McNair , Washington, D.C. 20319-5062 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Armed Forces,National Defense University,Fort McNair ,Washington,DC,20319-5062 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...the 2012 -2017 POM cycle. Given the cost of current combat operations, some Congressional leaders are increasingly questioning the affordability and

  10. Lessons from the Army’s Future Combat Systems Program (United States)


    commercial use only. Unauthorized posting of RAND electronic documents to a non-RAND website is prohibited . RAND electronic documents are protected under... prohibited . RAND documents are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the R AND permissions...Terror HAS Hit Avoidance Suite HBCT Heavy Brigade Combat Team HEMP High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse HFE Heavy Fuel Engine HMMWV High Mobility

  11. Fucose-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of the fcs Operon by FcsR in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Afzal, Muhammad; Kuipers, Oscar P


    In this study, we explore the impact of fucose on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae D39. The expression of various genes and operons, including the fucose uptake PTS and utilization operon (fcs operon) was altered in the presence of fucose. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and β-galactosidase

  12. Global Combat Support System Army Increment 1 (GCSS-A Inc 1) (United States)


    Ready established requirements and meeting critical logistics functions to include property accountability, supply operations, maintenance operations...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System-Army Increment 1 (GCSS-A Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management... Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  13. Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) (United States)


    for the program include meeting the Net-Ready established requirements and meeting critical logistics functions to include adding Aviation Enterprise...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...MAIS - Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  14. Global Combat Support System-Marine Corps proof-of-concept for dashboard analytics


    Leonard, Timothy J.; Gallo, Philip


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Global Combat Support System – Marine Corps (GCSS-MC) was created to combine both Logistics and Supply capabilities into one system. The existing systems of Asset Tracking Logistics and Supply System (Atlass) and PC Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance Management System (MIMMS) required external interfaces to merge data. This new system was established to streamline the way the Marine Corps allowed commanders to make logistic and supply...

  15. Grief and the Internet: Insights for FCS Professionals (United States)

    Gianatassio, Heather M.; Kimberly, Claire


    Working with individuals dealing with death and loss can be particularly challenging for family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals, but what is unknown is how FCS practitioners can utilize social media to understand and assist in the mourning process. The purpose of this study was to gather information about grieving via online social…

  16. Fostering Collaboration: FCS Teachers and Cooperative Extension Faculty (United States)

    Bartley, Sharon Jeffcoat; Abdul-Rahman, Fahzy; Cummings, Merrilyn N.; O'Brien, David P.


    Commonalities exist between family and consumer sciences (FCS) middle and secondary teachers and Cooperative Extension Service (CES) state and county faculty. From educational backgrounds to the content and societal issues of concern, FCS teachers and CES faculty follow similar paths, with differences in the audiences they reach and the settings…

  17. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum (United States)

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.


    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  18. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Instantiation within a Hard Real-Time, Deterministic Combat System Environment (United States)

    Moreland, James D., Jr


    This research investigates the instantiation of a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) within a hard real-time (stringent time constraints), deterministic (maximum predictability) combat system (CS) environment. There are numerous stakeholders across the U.S. Department of the Navy who are affected by this development, and therefore the system…

  19. Student Characteristics and Achievement in Online and On-Campus FCS Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tripp


    Full Text Available With a growth in online course offering in recent years, there is much research focusing on student performance and student learning outcomes. However, research focusing on characteristics and achievement in Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS higher education courses was not found. The purpose of this study was to compare student characteristics and achievements in online and on-campus FCS courses. The original study collected data from students enrolled in either the online or face-to-face section of the same junior-level course so variables were consistent. The study was later extended to another university using the same research set-up, but with a freshman-level course. This small, limited study provides preliminary insights that cannot be generalized, yet allow FCS faculty to distinguish student characteristics and achievements associated with on-campus and online courses. While student characteristics varied slightly, student achievement for online and on-campus students were similar. Additional studies are needed to provide more in-depth comparisons of these delivery systems. Since few FCS studies have reported this topic, the findings from this study provide baseline data for designing more in-depth comparisons of students.

  20. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization (United States)


    22, 2011. 3 David Vergun, “Four Myths About Combat Vehicles, Debunked by LTG McMaster,” Army News Service, November 2, 2016. 4 Connie Lee, “Army...and often fight “among the people” to maximize their effectiveness. The 2006 Lebanon Conflict19 The 2006 conflict between Hezbollah and Israel

  1. Using Heuristics for Supportability Analysis of Adaptive Weapon Systems in Combat (United States)


    USING HEURISTICS for Supportability Analysis of Adaptive Weapon Systems in Combat Samuel H. Amber The new U.S. Army vision contends that heuristics ...weapon systems in a constrained data environment involves heuristics . This modeling effort is achieved by modifying a decision matrix to include... heuristics as an alternative field data source. DOI: Keywords: innovation, logistics, decision matrix

  2. SCTP subflows for survivable FCS applications (United States)

    Zou, Jianping; Uyar, M. Umit; Fecko, Mariusz A.; Samtani, Sunil


    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), a general-purpose transport layer protocol standardized by the IETF, has been a promising candidate to join UDP and TCP as a core protocol. The new SCTP features such as multi-homing, multi-streaming, and enhanced security can significantly improve the performance of FCS applications. Multi-streaming provides an aggregation mechanism in an SCTP association to accommodate heterogeneous objects, which belong to the same application but may require different type of QoS from the network. However, the current SCTP specification lacks an internal mechanism to support the preferential treatment among its streams. We introduce the concept of subflow and propose to modify the current SCTP such that the streams are grouped into several subflows according to their required QoS. It is also proposed that each subflow should implement its own congestion control to prevent the so-called false sharing. To compare the throughput differences, analytic models have been derived for the current SCTP and for the subflow-capable SCTP with different congestion control mechanisms. Simulations with ns-2 have been used to qualitatively demonstrate the throughput differences of these designs in a simplified diff-serv network. The analytical models are confirmed to accurately reflect the SCTP behavior. The simulation also shows that our proposed solution is able to efficiently support QoS among the SCTP streams.

  3. A System Dynamics Analysis of the Factors Affecting Combat Readiness (United States)


    capability of those weapon systems ( ASCAP ) and then modifying this value by an aircrew capability factor (ACCF) and weapon systems availability factor...NOTE USR - UNITED STATES READINESS NOTE ACCF - AIRCREW CAPABILITY FACTOR w NOTE ASCAP - AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS CAPABILITY NOTE LOWS - LEVEL OF WEAPON SYSTEMS

  4. Determination of Equilibrium Constant and Relative Brightness in FRET-FCS by Including the Third-Order Correlations. (United States)

    Meng, Lingyi; He, Shanshan; Zhao, Xin Sheng


    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information on the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k+ and k-) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence autocorrelation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Among 12 total second-order and third-order pre-exponential factors in a relaxation process probed by the FRET-FCS technique, 3 are independent. We presented and discussed 3 sets of explicit solutions to use these pre-exponential factors to calculate K and Q. Together with the relaxation time, the acquired K will allow people to obtain k+ and k-, so that the goal of deciphering the FRET-FCS data will be fully reached. The theory is verified by extensive computer simulations and tested experimentally on a system of oligonucleotide hybridization.

  5. Adaptive Automation in a Naval Combat Management System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Greef, T.E. de; Delft, J.H. van


    There is a continuing trend of letting fewer people deal with larger amounts of information in more complex situations using highly automated systems. In such circumstances, there is a risk that people are overwhelmed by information during intense periods or, on the other hand, do not build

  6. The use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS in combat operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GUGAŁA


    Full Text Available In this publication has been presented selected aspects of the wide spectrum of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS/UAV adaptation within the military structures. With regard to many years of experience of the author within the national and NATO Integrated Air Defence Command and Control System, the objective paper is also related to the Airspace Management (ASM in the light of present and future use of UAS in this environment. Wider and wider application of UAS in many areas of human life as well as in military and civilian services is forcing to take the definite steps in connection with elaboration of “New Concept of Polish Airspace Management in Context of UAS Development”, what is currently under consideration of the author. The respective publication is simultaneously the specific trial for inspiration of the civilian society to take an initiative heading for implementation of UAS out of military service.

  7. Estimating Production Cost While Linking Combat Systems and Ship Design (United States)


    Meverden, USCG; CAPT Brad Fabling , USCG; Mr. Geoffrey Pawlowski, NAVSEA/SPAWAR for providing OPV cost data necessary for the analysis in this thesis...Mathematical Theory of Discrete Systems provides an early basis for the conceptualization of SE driven by a model-based framework (Estefan, 2008). MBSE...developed a unit- theory learning curve from the four data points, and we used this learning curve to estimate costs for ships beyond a four-ship class

  8. Enhancing Combat Survivability of Existing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    reaching the UA. Examples of expendables include chaff, Active Towed Decoy Systems, flares, and aerosols (e.g., smokes and fogs ). 2. Reducing...the tank is surrounded by one or more layers of sealant (such as uncured rubber). When the tank is punctured, exposure of the sealant to the fuel...will result in a swelling of the sealant and closure of the wound. Active damage suppression incorporates features that, upon sensing that damage has

  9. Combating Impairments in Multi-carrier Systems: A Compressed Sensing Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shuhail, Shamael


    Multi-carrier systems suffer from several impairments, and communication system engineers use powerful signal processing tools to combat these impairments and keep up with the capacity/rate demands. Compressed sensing (CS) is one such tool that allows recovering any sparse signal, requiring only a few measurements in a domain that is incoherent with the domain of sparsity. Almost all signals of interest have some degree of sparsity, and in this work we utilize the sparsity of impairments in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and its variants (i.e., orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) and single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA)) to combat them using CS. We start with the problem of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM. OFDM signals suffer from high PAPR and clipping is the simplest PAPR reduction scheme. However, clipping introduces inband distortions that result in compromised performance and hence needs to be mitigated at the receiver. Due to the high PAPR nature of the OFDM signal, only a few instances are clipped, these clipping distortions can be recovered at the receiver by employing CS. We then extend the proposed clipping recovery scheme to an interleaved OFDMA system. Interleaved OFDMA presents a special structure that result in only self-inflicted clipping distortions. In this work, we prove that distortions do not spread over multiple users (while utilizing interleaved carrier assignment in OFDMA) and construct a CS system that recovers the clipping distortions on each user. Finally, we address the problem of narrowband interference (NBI) in SC-FDMA. Unlike OFDM and OFDMA systems, SC-FDMA does not suffer from high PAPR, but (as the data is encoded in time domain) is seriously vulnerable to information loss owing to NBI. Utilizing the sparse nature of NBI (in frequency domain) we combat its effect on SC-FDMA system by CS recovery.

  10. Future Combat System Spinout 1 Technical Field Test - Establishing and Implementing Models and Simulations System of Systems Verification, Validation and Accreditation Practices, Methodologies and Procedures (United States)


    IV&V Independent Verification and Validation JTRS Joint Tactical Radio System JVMF Joint Variable Message Format LDAP Lightweight Directory Access...Protocol LDIF LDAP Data Interchange Format LSI Lead Systems Integrator LUT Limited User Test MCS Mounted Combat System / Mobility Computer System

  11. Sustainable Design Practices and Consumer Behavior: FCS Student Perceptions (United States)

    Ulasewicz, Connie; Vouchilas, Gus


    The purpose of this study was to gather information on the perceptions of sustainability in design held by family and consumer sciences (FCS) students majoring in interior design and apparel design/merchandising. Likert-scale responses were used to explore differences and similarities between students in the two majors. Overall, interior design…

  12. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha


    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  13. Community Health: FCS Extension Educators Deliver Diabetes Education in PA (United States)

    Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn


    For decades, family and consumer sciences (FCS) Extension educators have provided health related education to consumers through Cooperative Extension programming at land grant universities. However, offering diabetes education can be extra challenging due to the complicated nature of the disease and the multi-faceted treatment required. Faced with…

  14. AAFCS Resources for Elevating Research and Scholarship in FCS (United States)

    Myers, Lori A.


    Elevating research and supporting scholarship are both a responsibility and core value of all family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals. This responsibility may involve: (1) Introducing the research process under graduate students; (2) Guiding the research of graduate students; (3) Mentoring a junior faculty member to establish a research…

  15. Promoting a Healthy Body: Collaboration among FCS Majors (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju


    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals educate leaders who will contribute to the well-being of individuals, families, and communities. A description of a collaborative classroom project designed to enhance students' understanding of healthy body images is shared. Students are provided with opportunities to work with their collegiate…

  16. Heart of the FCS Body of Knowledge: Relational Ethic (United States)

    Roubanis, Jody L.


    The Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) provides an ideological stance that is universal to all practitioners of the profession, and it has major implications for the normative ethics that guide professional practice. The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework to reveal the relational ethic inherent in…

  17. Collaboration: Perceptions of FCS Professionals in Teaching, Research, and Service (United States)

    Kandiah, Jay; Saiki, Diana


    The purpose of this study is to investigate family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals' perceptions of multidisciplinary collaboration in teaching, research, and service. A focus group and survey were participants identified projects, strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions related to collaboration.Topics and projects that incorporated…

  18. Improving FCS Accountability: Increasing STEM Awareness with Interior Design Modules (United States)

    Etheredge, Jessica; Moody, Dana; Cooper, Ashley


    This paper demonstrates ways in which family and consumer sciences (FCS) educators can explore more opportunities to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) principles into secondary education curriculum. Interior design is used as a case study for creating learning modules that incorporate STEM principles in a creative and…

  19. Wearable Biomedical Measurement Systems for Assessment of Mental Stress of Combatants in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seoane


    Full Text Available The Spanish Ministry of Defense, through its Future Combatant program, has sought to develop technology aids with the aim of extending combatants’ operational capabilities. Within this framework the ATREC project funded by the “Coincidente” program aims at analyzing diverse biometrics to assess by real time monitoring the stress levels of combatants. This project combines multidisciplinary disciplines and fields, including wearable instrumentation, textile technology, signal processing, pattern recognition and psychological analysis of the obtained information. In this work the ATREC project is described, including the different execution phases, the wearable biomedical measurement systems, the experimental setup, the biomedical signal analysis and speech processing performed. The preliminary results obtained from the data analysis collected during the first phase of the project are presented, indicating the good classification performance exhibited when using features obtained from electrocardiographic recordings and electrical bioimpedance measurements from the thorax. These results suggest that cardiac and respiration activity offer better biomarkers for assessment of stress than speech, galvanic skin response or skin temperature when recorded with wearable biomedical measurement systems.

  20. S.A.C.I.: Incident Combat Support System; S.A.C.I.: Sistema de Apoio ao Combate de Incidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Antonio R.L. [ARMTEC Tecnologia em Robotica, Fotrtaleza, CE (Brazil); Macedo, Antonio R.M. [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)


    The incidents that occur in the petrochemical industry are extremely dangerous, because of the range of temperature that it reaches and the radius of the explosion. For this reason the S.A.C.I. that is an Incident's Combat Support System was developed. The purpose of this paper is to present the complete operational capability of this machine, and also some of the construction design calculations. It is a controlled-by-distance robot that carries one water cannon that generates fog, stream or foam with a limit pressure of 125 psi. It works within 90 m from the operator, has 3 degrees of freedom and a minimum autonomy of 3 hours. Before this prototype was made, only the United Kingdom by Qinetiq and the Japan by the Tokyo Fire Department had this technology. This prototype is around 70% of the investment of the ones in the market. The tests shown in the paper were made in the training bunker of Ceara's Military Fire Corp. Headquarters and in an arena in the Gloria Marine in Rio de Janeiro. The results of this project is a national product that improves the incident's combat response time, saving the most important resource, that is the human been. (author)

  1. Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) (United States)

    Maynell, Jon


    Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

  2. Linking Combat Systems Capabilities and Ship Design Through Modeling and Computer Simulation (United States)


    Figure 9. Bivariate Fit of Life/Drag Ratio by Froude Number .......................................42 Figure 10. Figure 10. Brazilian Amazonas Class OPV...4 (McKesson) (Hypothetical) Amazonas Class-OPV Modified Operational Requirements: Cargo Ship: Combat Ship: Combat Ship: Combat Ship: Full is to be pursued. 53 Figure 10. Figure 10. Brazilian Amazonas Class OPV (Net International 2012) As a separate but related metric

  3. Combating Curse of Dimensionality in Resilient Monitoring Systems: Conditions for Lossless Decomposition. (United States)

    Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T


    Resilient monitoring systems (RMSs) are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under cyber-attacks on their sensors. The recently developed RMSs, while being effective in the attacked sensors identification and isolation, exhibited a drawback in their operation-an exponentially increasing assessment time as a function of the number of sensors in the network. To combat this curse of dimensionality, a decomposition approach has been proposed, which led to a dramatic reduction of the assessment time, irrespective of the sensor network dimensionality. However, information losses and, thus, reductions in the level of resiliency due to the decomposition, have not been investigated. This paper is intended to carry out such an investigation. Specifically, it derives conditions for lossless decomposition in terms of the Renyi-2 entropy. The development is based on the analysis of matrices, which characterize coupling of process variables and on a monotonicity property of the Dempster-Shafer combination rule on a class of functions, which arise within the RMS operation.

  4. Legionella - Combating their spreading in domestic water systems; Legionellen - Bekaempfung ihrer Verbreitung in Hausinstallationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.


    This comprehensive article discusses the ways in which water systems that are infected by legionella bacteria can be cleaned up and the very high demands placed on companies that conduct the disinfection. The various species of legionella bacteria are listed and their rates of multiplication at various temperatures presented. Also, the time taken to kill them off at various temperatures is examined. The history of the legionnaires illness, the discovery of its cause and various other topics concerned such as risk factors, endangered locations - such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons and residential estates with centralised hot water systems - are examined, as is the presence of legionella in aerosols and biofilms. Ways of avoiding and combating legionella using thermal, chemical as well as physical methods such UV-light and ozone disinfection and membrane filters are discussed. Recommendations are made on which materials should or should not be used in the hot water systems. Specific recommendations are made concerning the design of hot water boilers, temperature controllers and the installations and fittings to be used. Methods of ensuring that hot water systems are sufficiently protected, such as by avoiding long pipes and standing water, are discussed.

  5. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alper, Irfan


    ... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...

  6. A wireless-sensor scoring and training system for combative sports (United States)

    Partridge, Kane; Hayes, Jason P.; James, Daniel A.; Hill, Craig; Gin, Gareth; Hahn, Allan


    Although historically among the most popular of sports, today, combative sports are often viewed as an expression of our savage past. Of primary concern are the long term effects of participating in these sports on the health of participants. The scoring of such sports has also been the subject of much debate, with a panel of judges making decisions about very quick events involving large sums of prize money. This paper describes an electronic system for use primarily in the sport of boxing, though it is suitable for martial arts such as karate and taekwondo. The technology is based on a previously described sensor platform and integrates a network of sensors on the athlete"s head, body and hands. Using a Bluetooth network, physical contacts are monitored in near real-time or post event on a remote computer to determine legal hits and hence derivative measures like scoring and final outcomes. It is hoped that this system can be applied to reduce the need for full contact contests as well as provide a more reliable method of determining the outcome of a bout. Other benefits presented here include the ability to analyse an athlete's performance post match or training session, such as assessing the efficacy of training drills and effects of fatigue.

  7. τFCS: multi-method global analysis enhances resolution and sensitivity in fluorescence fluctuation measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Anthony

    Full Text Available Fluorescence fluctuation methods have become invaluable research tools for characterizing the molecular-level physical and chemical properties of complex systems, such as molecular concentrations, dynamics, and the stoichiometry of molecular interactions. However, information recovery via curve fitting analysis of fluctuation data is complicated by limited resolution and challenges associated with identifying accurate fit models. We introduce a new approach to fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy that couples multi-modal fluorescence measurements with multi-modal global curve fitting analysis. This approach yields dramatically enhanced resolution and fitting model discrimination capabilities in fluctuation measurements. The resolution enhancement allows the concentration of a secondary species to be accurately measured even when it constitutes only a few percent of the molecules within a sample mixture, an important new capability that will allow accurate measurements of molecular concentrations and interaction stoichiometry of minor sample species that can be functionally important but difficult to measure experimentally. We demonstrate this capability using τFCS, a new fluctuation method which uses simultaneous global analysis of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime data, and show that τFCS can accurately recover the concentrations, diffusion coefficients, lifetimes, and molecular brightness values for a two component mixture over a wide range of relative concentrations.

  8. Evaluation of a Job Aid System for Combat Leaders: Rifle Platoon and Squad (United States)


    assist the modern combat leader in performance of his job under conditions of great fatigue or stress . The CLG work was monitored by ARI’s Fort...some of the effects of fatigue and stress operating on the leader in a combat environment. Thus, the CLG’s effectiveness may not be limited solely as an...caused by f stress and fatigue . For each task that was considered to be deficient, a decision was made as to whether the task would be treated by a job

  9. Trends that FCS Education Should Address: A Delphi Study Reveals Top 16 (United States)

    Alexander, Karen L.; Davis, Kimberlee


    This study used the Delphi method to identify trends of importance to family and consumer sciences (FCS) education. A panel of 21 FCS education experts identified 16 trends and evaluated them by importance, desirability, feasibility, and confidence in validity of the trend. Nutrition appeared as a top priority, followed by consumer economics. The…

  10. Process versus Product: What Ethic Does the FCS-BOK Uphold? (United States)

    Roubanis, Jody L.


    Fundamental moral implications for professional practice inherent to the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) are revealed by using paradigms conventional to normative ethics. A product-oriented teleological ethic is linked to the FCS-BOK core concepts: basic human needs, individual well-being, family strengths, and community…

  11. Data File Standard for Flow Cytometry, Version FCS 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Parks, David; Goldberg, Michael; Bray, Chris; Gorombey, Peter; Hyun, Bill; Hubbard, Mark; Lange, Simon; Lefebvre, Ray; Leif, Robert; Novo, David; Ostruszka, Leo; Treister, Adam; Wood, James; Murphy, Robert F.; Roederer, Mario; Sudar, Damir; Zigon, Robert; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Brierre, Pierre


    The flow cytometry data file standard provides the specifications needed to completely describe flow cytometry data sets within the confines of the file containing the experimental data. In 1984, the first Flow Cytometry Standard format for data files was adopted as FCS 1.0. This standard was modified in 1990 as FCS 2.0 and again in 1997 as FCS 3.0. We report here on the next generation flow cytometry standard data file format. FCS 3.1 is a minor revision based on suggested improvements from the community. The unchanged goal of the standard is to provide a uniform file format that allows files created by one type of acquisition hardware and software to be analyzed by any other type. The FCS 3.1 standard retains the basic FCS file structure and most features of previous versions of the standard. Changes included in FCS 3.1 address potential ambiguities in the previous versions and provide a more robust standard. The major changes include simplified support for international characters and improved support for storing compensation. The major additions are support for preferred display scale, a standardized way of capturing the sample volume, information about originality of the data file, and support for plate and well identification in high throughput, plate based experiments. Please see the normative version of the FCS 3.1 specification in Supporting Information for this manuscript (or at in the Current standards section) for a complete list of changes.

  12. Preparing FCS Professionals for a Multilingual Society: Building Community through the Experiences of Multilingual Families (United States)

    Duncan, Janine; Duncan, Daniel


    As demographics in the United States shift, family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals must be prepared to foster healthy communities that embrace multilingual families. Because hegemonic language ideologies challenge multilingual families, FCS professionals need to know how to inclusively reframe communities to honor multilingual families.…

  13. Process versus Product: What Ethic Does the FCS-BOK Uphold? (United States)

    Roubanis, Jody L.

    Fundamental moral implications for professional practice inherent to the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) are revealed by using paradigms conventional to normative ethics. A product-oriented teleological ethic is linked to the FCS-BOK core concepts: basic human needs, individual well-being, family strengths, and community…

  14. A medium-range air combat game solution by a pilot advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.; Gold, Y.I.


    Air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft , both equipped with medium-range guided missiles, is .a key element of future air warfare. This dynamic coni lict can be viewed as an interaction of a twotarget diiferential game (between the air--craft) and two independent missileaircraft

  15. Analytical Performance Verification of FCS-MPC Applied to Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Mateja; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Since the introduction of finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) in power electronics the algorithm has been missing an important aspect that would speed up its implementation in industry: a simple method to verify the algorithm performance. This paper proposes to use a statistical...... model checking (SMC) method for performance evaluation of the algorithm applied to power electronics converters. SMC is simple to implement, intuitive and it requires only an operational model of the system that can be simulated and checked against properties. Device under test for control algorithm...... application in this paper is a standard 2-level voltage source converter (VSC) with LC output filter used for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems. The performance of control algorithm is verified using the UPPAAL SMC toolbox and the behavior is compared to simulation results obtained from equivalent...

  16. Combat Leadership (United States)


    concern that the Army and other services will breed managers instead of leaders, and they will lack the leadership skills necessary for combat. Colonel...General Lewis H. Brereton (USAF retired) best explained when he noted that to try to define leadership limits its scope. " Leadership is much too complex to...AD-A 2 4 1 101 AiL WAR COLLEGE COMBAT LEADERSHIP LIEUTENANT COLONEL J.kyMES M. FISHER, USA 1990 i 91-12129 -. ROVED F R PUBLIC AIR UNIVERSPL" A

  17. A Revolutionary Approach for the Development of Future Ground Combat System Specifications (United States)


    of the MOE and the corresponding effects. ............................. 97 Figure 33. Pareto plot showing (blue line) how much additional variance length taken from Google Earth. The area represents terrain on the western border of the state of Colorado in the United States along the...forces achieved their main objective of restoring the international border , and their units did not lose substantial combat power (lowest strength

  18. Air Weapon Systems in the Third World: A Combat Potential Assessment Technique. (United States)


    factor which measures the deL -ee to which the variable is involved in the factor. In other words, a variable loading represents the correlation...measurement of the contribution of multi- pie variables to the value of a specific attribute. 5.2.4 Summary Each of the data reduction techniques...Illustrated Guide to Modern Airborne Missiles. Arco , New York, 1983 and Mike Spick. Modern Air Combat. Crecent Books, New York, 1983. tlandel, Michael

  19. A Falls Concern Scale for people with spinal cord injury (SCI-FCS). (United States)

    Boswell-Ruys, C L; Harvey, L A; Delbaere, K; Lord, S R


    Observational study and cross-sectional survey. To develop a scale assessing concern about falling in people with spinal cord injuries who are dependent on manual wheelchairs, and to evaluate psychometric properties of this new scale. Community and hospitals, Australia. The Spinal Cord Injury-Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS) was developed in consultation with SCI professionals. The SCI-FCS addressed concern about falling during 16 activities of daily living associated with falling and specific to people with SCI. One hundred and twenty-five people with either acute or chronic SCI who used manual wheelchairs were assessed on the SCI-FCS and asked questions related to their SCI and overall physical abilities. A subgroup of 20 people was reassessed on the SCI-FCS within 7 days. The SCI-FCS had excellent internal and test-retest reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.92, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.93). Factor analysis revealed three underlying dimensions of the SCI-FCS addressing concern about falling during activities that limit hand support and require movement of the body's centre of mass. The discriminative ability of the SCI-FCS between different diagnostic groups indicated good construct validity. Subjects with a high level of SCI, few previous falls, dependence in vertical transfers and poor perceived sitting ability demonstrated high levels of concern about falling. This study suggests that the SCI-FCS is a valid and reliable tool for assessing concern about falling in people with SCI dependent on manual wheelchairs. The SCI-FCS could also assist in determining the effectiveness of fall minimization programs.

  20. 2008 Combat Vehicles Conference (United States)


    General Michael M. Brogan Combat Vehicles Conference Marine Corps Systems Command 21 October 2008 2 MCSC •LAV •AAV •Tank •HMMWV/ ECV •MRAP PEO LS...34,226 Total 56,649 1985 IOC 1996 M1114 armored HMMWV Limited Production 2006 M1100 series begins fielding scalable armor 2009-10 ECV II

  1. CASTE (Course Assembly System and Tutorial Environment) and CVI: (Combat Vehicle Identification) A First Application of an Intelligent Tutorial System to Combat Vehicle Identification. (United States)


    Maturana , and Uribe’s (1974) living systems theory, and the new theoretical foundations for post-Einsteinian physics (Zukav, 1979) .’ Pedagogy...emerges as the same system. Maturana (1981) claims autopoiesis to be necessary and sufficient for a system to be living; in our case, the system is...System Research and Applied Epistemology. Montreal: Concordia University. Maturana , H. R. (1981). Autopoiesis. In M. Zeleny (Ed.), Autopoiesis: A

  2. Implementation of a Methodology Supporting a Comprehensive System-of-systems Maturity Analysis for Use by the Littoral Combat Ship Mission Module Program (United States)


    LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP MISSION MODULE PROGRAM Published: 22 April 2009 by Eric Forbes, Richard Volkert, Peter Gentile and Ken Michaud 6th Annual...Engineering. Mr. Peter Gentile is an Associate Systems Engineering Fellow for the Northrop Grumman Corporation currently working as the Technical...Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority (MBTA) in the mid 1990’s and took a full eight years to resolve (Fraser, Leary & Pellegrini , 2003). MBTA operates the

  3. Trade Study: A Two- Versus Three-Soldier Crew for the Mounted Combat System (MCS) and Other Future Combat System Platforms (United States)


    Powers, J.; Tillman, B.; Davilla, D.; Hutchins, C. Crew Reduction in Armored Vehicles Ergonomie Study (CRA VES); Report No. ARL-CR-80; U.S. Army...Rucker, AL, 1984. Nachreiner, F. Standards for Ergonomie Principles Relating to the Design of Work Systems and to Mental Workload. Applied Ergonomics

  4. Fuel management inside the reactor. Project AZ-101 (ININ). Report of the generation of the nuclear bank 'L1PG3826' of the assemblies GE5 and GE9B 'collapsed' of the CNLV for the FCS-II program of the FMS system; Administracion de combustible dentro del reactor. Proyecto AZ-101 (ININ). Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear 'L1PG3826' de los ensambles GE5 y GE9B 'colapsados' de la CNLV para el programa FCS-II del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Torres A, C


    In order to be able to carry out studies but next to the operation of the reactor of the CNLV with the program FCS-II of the package of codes for the fuel management FMS, it was generated a 'collapsed' nuclear bank integrating the generated information with RECORD of each one of those assemblies of the initial load and of the first recharge. To generate the bank, the different ones RECORD 'cells' that compose each assemble were 'collapsed' to an alone one, representing this, to the one complete assemble in what refers to the fuel bars distribution and enrichments. The one collapsed of each assemble it is made averaging the content of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in each fuel bar by the volumetric fraction occupied by each axial section of the fuel bar where the content of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were constant, by this way the x-y fuel bars arrangement is conserved but a representative fuel cell of all the assemble is obtained. Of the five different assemblies that will be load in the reactor of the CNLV (3 of the initial load and 2 of the first recharge), only 4 were collapsed; the remaining one to be totally formed by natural uranium it was not necessary to collapse. From the collapsing process new enrichment values in U-235 and in content of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} for each fuel bar, for what according to the generation procedure of nuclear information it was generated the required information by RECORD for each fuel bar with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the ECLIPSE code. Once generated this information it was proceeded to generate the homogenized nuclear information, with RECORD, for the whole cell. According to the requirements of nuclear information of FCS-II, the nuclear Information generated with RECORD only was of the defined type as series 1 in the procedure of generation of nuclear banks '6F3/1/CN029/90/P1'; that which means that only it was generated nuclear information as function of the burnup of the fuel and of

  5. Evaluacion de los efectos de FCS-304 en modelos de depresión en roedores


    Moreno Hernández, Laura Mercedes


    Se condujeron cinco diferentes experimentos para evaluar los potenciales efectos antidepresivos de la cumarina semisintética FCS-304, para ello se utilizaron 30 ratas Wistar y 30 ratones ICR del Departamento de Farmacia de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Los animales fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en cinco diferentes grupos: vehículo, patrón (imipramina), dosis alta FCS-304 (150 mg/kg), dosis media (75 mg/kg) y dosis baja (50 mg/kg). El grupo de ratas fue a...

  6. Design of low power DTMOS based FCS and its notch filter application for ECG signals


    UGRANLI, Hatice Gül; YILDIRIM, Melih; KAÇAR, Fırat


    Inthis study, p-MOSFETs in floating current source circuit are converted todynamic threshold voltage MOSFET structure and a second order notch filterapplication is carried out by using the DTMOS based FCS circuit. The proposedmodel is simulated in LTSPICE simulator by using Taiwan SemiconductorManufacturing Company 0,18μm CMOS technology. DTMOS structure allows theoperation of the circuit at lower power about 4,95nW. Operating frequency ofnotch filter consisting of the DTMOS-FCS circuit is se...

  7. Underlying Principles for Joint Systems Studies of a New Aerospace Combat Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Terry


    .... From these principles broad systems attributes are identified. Assessments of these attributes are considered important for subsequent investment decisions and development of capabilities from a broad systems perspective...

  8. A Review of Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing Techniques for Evaluation of Flight Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang


    Full Text Available Wind tunnel based Virtual Flight Testing (VFT is a dynamic wind tunnel test for evaluating flight control systems (FCS proposed in recent decades. It integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and FCS as a whole and is a more realistic and reliable method for FCS evaluation than traditional ground evaluation methods, such as Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS. With FCS evaluated by VFT before flight test, the risk of flight test will be further reduced. In this paper, the background, progress, and prospects of VFT are systematically summarized. Specifically, the differences among VFT, traditional dynamic wind tunnel methods, and traditional FCS evaluation methods are introduced in order to address the advantages of evaluating FCS with VFT. Secondly, the progress of VFT is reviewed in detail. Then, the test system and key technologies of VFT for FCS evaluation are analyzed. Lastly, the prospects of VFT for evaluating FCS are described.

  9. Expansion of a VR Exposure Therapy System for Combat-Related PTSD to Medics/Corpsman and Persons Following Military Sexual Trauma. (United States)

    Rizzo, Albert; Hartholt, Arno; Rothbaum, Barbara; Difede, Joann; Reist, Chris; Kwok, David; Leeds, Andrew; Spitalnick, Josh; Talbot, Thomas; Adamson, Todd; Buckwalter, J Galen


    The stressful experiences that have been characteristic of the combat environments in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced significant numbers of returning service members at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychosocial/behavioral health conditions. This paper describes a set of projects that are expanding the content for inclusion in a newly updated "Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan" Virtual Reality system for the delivery of exposure therapy (VRET) for PTSD with Service Members and Veterans. In addition to the complete rebuilding of this VRET system using the latest version of the Unity Game Engine, the system's content and functionality has been expanded to now support the use of VRET with combat medics/corpsmen and persons who have experienced military sexual trauma (MST). The focus of this paper is to present the rationale and general overview of the progress on these projects that will provide new relevant and customizable options for conducting VRET with a wider range of trauma experiences.

  10. An Examination of the Feasibility of Integrating Motivational Interviewing Techniques into FCS Cooperative Extension Programming (United States)

    Radunovich, Heidi Liss; Ellis, Sarah; Spangler, Taylor


    Demonstrating program impact through behavior change is critical for the continued success of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Cooperative Extension programming. However, the literature suggests that simply providing information to participants does not necessarily lead to behavior change. This study pilot tested the integration of Motivational…

  11. Accountability of FCS Education to a Sustainability Ethos: Focus on Sustainable Consumption (United States)

    Wuest, Beth; Hustvedt, Gwendolyn; Kang, Jiyun


    The American Association of Family & Consumer Sciences' (AAFCS) brand, "creating healthy and sustainable families," implies accountability in promoting sustainable consumer behavior. This study compared students majoring in family and consumer sciences (FCS) and its specializations to those majoring in other fields on constructs of…

  12. ns-time resolution for multispecies STED-FLIM and artifact free STED-FCS (United States)

    Koenig, Marcelle; Reisch, Paja; Dowler, Rhys; Kraemer, Benedikt; Tannert, Sebastian; Patting, Matthias; Clausen, Mathias P.; Galiani, Silvia; Eggeling, Christian; Koberling, Felix; Erdmann, Rainer


    Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy has evolved into a well established method offering optical superresolution below 50 nm. Running both excitation and depletion lasers in picosecond pulsed modes allows for highest optical resolution as well as fully exploiting the photon arrival time information using time-resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Non-superresolved contributions can be easily dismissed through time-gated detection (gated STED) or a more detailed fluorescence decay analysis (FLIM-STED), both leading to an even further improved imaging resolution. Furthermore, these methods allow for accurate separation of different fluorescent species, especially if subtle differences in the excitation and emission spectra as well as the fluorescence decay are taken into account in parallel. STED can also be used to shrink the observation volume while studying the dynamics of diffusing species in Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) to overcome averaging issues along long transit paths. A further unique advantage of STED-FCS is that the observation spot diameter can be tuned in a gradual manner enabling, for example, determining the type of hindered diffusion in lipid membrane studies. Our completely pulsed illumination scheme allows realizing an improved STED-FCS data acquisition using pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE). PIE-STED-FCS allows for a straightforward online check whether the STED laser has an influence on the investigated diffusion dynamics.

  13. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jamsheer K

    Full Text Available Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  14. Multiplexed measurement of protein diffusion in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with SPIM-FCS (United States)

    Struntz, Philipp; Weiss, Matthias


    Quantifying the diffusion behavior of proteins in different environments, e.g. on cellular membranes, is a key step in uncovering the vital action of protein networks in living organisms. While several established techniques for local diffusion measurements exist, the life sciences are currently in need of a multiplexed, i.e. spatially parallelized, data acquisition that allows for obtaining diffusion maps with high spatiotemporal resolution. Following this demand, the combination of camera-based single-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has recently emerged as a promising approach. So far, SPIM-FCS has mainly been used to assess the diffusion of soluble particles and proteins in vitro and in culture cells, but due to a particularly low photobleaching and -toxicity the method is also well applicable to developmental organisms. Here, we have probed the performance of SPIM-FCS on an established developmental model organism, the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we have quantified the diffusion of the peripheral membrane protein PLC1δ 1 in the embryo’s cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. As a result, we were able to derive diffusion maps of PLC1δ 1 in both compartments in multiple individuals, showing the spatially varying diffusion coefficients across the embryo. Our data also report on the dissociation kinetics of PLC1δ 1 from the plasma membrane, hence underlining that SPIM-FCS can be used to explore key features of peripheral membrane proteins in fragile developmental model organisms.

  15. FCS Academic Programs and Financial Planning Industry: Partnering to Meet Growing Demand (United States)

    Lytton, Ruth H.; Grable, John E.


    Since the turn of the 20th century and the coalescence of home economics, the use of money within the household has been an issue of study. Now known as family and consumer sciences (FCS), the profession can boast of a century of financial education of youth and adults in a variety of formal and informal settings. In recent decades, financial…

  16. Nutrition Instruction in Seventh Grade: A Comparison of Teachers with and without FCS Background (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W.; Sample, Alicia; Hunt, Alice


    This study compared attitudes and confidence levels, regarding classroom nutrition education, of seventh grade teachers of nutrition, family and consumer sciences (FCS), or health education. A 17-item online questionnaire was used to obtain the data from randomly selected schools in Louisiana. Teachers who reported an educational background in FCS…

  17. University of Idaho's FCS Extension Educators Develop Leaders to Serve in Public Office (United States)

    Hoffman, Katie; Cummins, Melissa; Hansen, Lyle; Petty, Barbara; Tifft, Kathee; Laumatia, Laura


    In order to meet clientele needs and strengthen family and consumer sciences (FCS) programming, University of Idaho Extension educators expanded their roles through the Horizons program--a community leadership program, funded by the Northwest Area Foundation, aimed at reducing poverty in small rural and reservation communities. This study measured…

  18. Serving Clientele with Disabilities: An Assessment of Texas FCS Agents' Needs for Implementing Inclusive Programs (United States)

    Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl; Benz, Michael R.; Zhang, Dalun; Resch, J. Aaron; Mireles, Gerardo; Mahadevan, Lakshmi


    This article reports on a qualitative study to assess Texas Family Consumer Science (FCS) Extension professionals' experiences working with individuals with disabilities and their perceived skills in promoting and delivering inclusive educational programming for this audience. Study results indicate that overall Extension educators viewed…

  19. Layered autonomous overwatch: the necessity and feasability of multiple unmanned systems in combat support (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Digney, Bruce; Broten, Greg; Penzes, Steve


    Unmanned systems simultaneously reduce risk and magnify the impact of soldier-operators. For example, in Afghanistan UAVs routinely provide overwatch to manned units while UGVs support IED identification and disposal roles. Expanding these roles requires greater autonomy with a coherent unmanned "system of systems" approach that leverages one platform's strengths against the weakness of another. Specific collaborative unmanned systems such as shared sensing, communication relay, and distributed computing to achieve greater autonomy are often presented as possible solutions. By surveying currently deployed systems, this paper shows that the spectrum of air and ground systems provide an important mixture of range, speed, payload, and endurance with significant implications on mission structure. Rather than proposing UxV teams collaborating towards specific autonomous capabilities, this paper proposes that basic physical and environmental constraints will drive tactics towards a layered, unmanned battlespace that provides force protection and reconnaissance in depth to a manned core.

  20. Artificial Neural Systems Application to the Simulation of Air Combat Decision Making (United States)


    unit, the CPU , whereas neural networks utilize the effects of many, simple processing elements. Traditional computing is done in a step-by-step, serial...Nielsen Neurocomputers (HNC). The ANZA-Plus coprocessor is part of an 80386 -based computer system which is optimized for training and executing computer for this program is a Zenith 386/16 system running under the DOS 3.31 operating system. The 80386 microprocessor in this machine operates

  1. Distributed Bus Signaling Control for a DC Charging Station with Multi Paralleled Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos


    Fast charging stations (FCS) will become an essential part of future transportation systems with an increasing number of electrical vehicles. However, since these FCS plugs have power ratings of up to 100 kW, serious stress caused by large number of FCS could threaten the stability of the main po...

  2. Technical Objective Document for Combat Clothing, Uniforms and Integrated Protective Systems (United States)


    conjunction with 3M, the FDxore tehnology was exploited to develcp sorbent seipermtble ,rtranes loaded with mipnrsorbent active carbon. Membrane laminates...Soldier Sleeping System (CSSS) Complete developnent of Comw ncatiors/Aaaral Protective System (CAPS) Omplete development of Artillery Cmmications/Aural

  3. Combat Identification Modeling Using Robust Optimization Techniques (United States)


    friendly forces, warfighters must use a combination of on-board Cooperative and Non-cooperative Identification systems , along with Tactics, Techniques...COMBAT IDENTIFICATION MODELING USING ROBUST OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES THESIS TaeHo Kim, Captain, ROKA...the United States Government. AFIT/GOR/ENS/08-11 COMBAT IDENTIFICATION MODELING USING ROBUST

  4. The Sources of Inequity in the Education System of Serbia and How to Combat Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pešikan


    Full Text Available The concept of equal opportunity for all students is deeply embedded in the Serbian constitution and in education laws. On that level, there is no doubt that everyone is ensured an opportunity to receive quality education. Many measures in education policy have been created specifically to achieve this objective and make the system fair and inclusive. The Coleman Report was linked to a wave of optimism that certain educational measures would help in achieving these noble goals. This aim is a high priority in education in a democratic country, and due to its importance needs to be re-examined. Thus, the present research examines the equity of students in the Serbian education system, detecting areas on all educational levels that could be (or already are systemic sources of inequity (e.g., criteria for preschool institution enrolment, the system of student awards, rationalisation of the school network, the concept of entrance exams to secondary school or university, etc.. A number of measures have already been taken in the system specifically to deal with inequity (e.g., the Preschool Preparatory Programme, dropout measures, inclusion, scholarships, etc.. The effects of these measures in particular are analysed in the present work. In addition to an analysis of the systemic sources of inequity in the Serbian education system, the article also makes recommendations for their overcoming.

  5. Development and identification of fully human scFv-Fcs against Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Nian, Siji; Wu, Tong; Ye, Yingchun; Wang, Xu; Xu, Wenfeng; Yuan, Qing


    Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive pathogen, causes many human infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the most common drug-resistance bacteria. Nearly all MRSA bacteria are resistant to several drugs. Specific antibodies are the main components of the host's humoral immunity, and play a significant role in the process of the host's resistance to bacterial infection. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library was constructed using mRNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of S. aureus infected volunteers. After the scFv library DNA was transformed into Escherichia coli TG1, ~1.7 × 10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. The scFv library was screened by phage display for three rounds using S. aureus as an antigen. The single clones were chosen at random and the scFvs were expressed for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assessment. Approximately 50 % of the clones were positive with good binding activity to S. aureus. To improve the stability of scFvs, scFv-fragment crystallizable regions (-Fcs) were constructed and expressed in E. coli DH5α. The expressed scFv-Fcs were purified and identified by western blot. These antibodies were further characterized and analyzed for bioactivity. The results showed that the expression level and folding of scFv-Fcs induced at 25 °C without isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) were higher than that induced at 32 °C with 1.0 mmol/L IPTG. scFv-Fcs had good bioactivity and could specifically bind with S. aureus. scFv-Fcs against S. aureus were successfully constructed and are good candidates for the development of future adjunctive therapy for severe S. aureus infections.

  6. Management systems for struggling with energy waste; Sistemas de gerenciamento no combate ao desperdicio de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueiras, Jose Eduardo de Oliveira; Pinto, Danilo Pereira; Rodrigues, Claudio Roberto Barbosa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia]. E-mail:;;


    This article presents the advantages and disadvantages of implantation of energy management systems and also alternatives for replacement in some cases, such as the punctual measurements or the supplying in various points by the concessionaire. Besides, it is presented some examples of intervention by using the management and also some real examples of application in the electric system of the Federal University of Jazz de F ora - Minas Gerais - Brazil.

  7. Developing Human-Machine Interfaces to Support Appropriate Trust and Reliance on Automated Combat Identification Systems (United States)


    making system. In Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems 2000 (pp. 81-85). Urbana -Champaign, IL. Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck... Forestry Sometimes 19 R 10/10 10/7.5 19.00 M Mechanical Engineering regularly 20 R 10/7.5 10/10 19.00 F Physiology Rarely 21 R 10/10 10/10 23.00 F math

  8. Automated and Autonomous Systems for Combat Service Support: Scoping Study and Technology Prioritisation (United States)


    are developing rapidly in an environment of low barriers to innovation and globalised access to technology. Their growing presence on the battlefield...initiatives for investigation of swarming impacts , for use of human augmentation systems, for employment of automated health systems, or for use of...the use of more reliable and durable components. Use of stronger materials can help reduce the impacts of extreme operational environments with

  9. Network and adaptive system of systems modeling and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E. Dr. (.; .); Anderson, Dennis James; Eddy, John P.


    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled ''Network and Adaptive System of Systems Modeling and Analysis'' that was conducted during FY 2005 and FY 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine and implement ways to incorporate network communications modeling into existing System of Systems (SoS) modeling capabilities. Current SoS modeling, particularly for the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, is conducted under the assumption that communication between the various systems is always possible and occurs instantaneously. A more realistic representation of these communications allows for better, more accurate simulation results. The current approach to meeting this objective has been to use existing capabilities to model network hardware reliability and adding capabilities to use that information to model the impact on the sustainment supply chain and operational availability.

  10. Combatting Global Infectious Diseases: A Network Effect of Specimen Referral Systems. (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Alemnji, George A; Kebede, Yenew; Opio, Alex; Mwangi, Christina; Spira, Thomas J; Beard, R Suzanne; Nkengasong, John N


    The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa clearly demonstrated the critical role of laboratory systems and networks in responding to epidemics. Because of the huge challenges in establishing functional laboratories at all tiers of health systems in developing countries, strengthening specimen referral networks is critical. In this review article, we propose a platform strategy for developing specimen referral networks based on 2 models: centralized and decentralized laboratory specimen referral networks. These models have been shown to be effective in patient management in programs in resource-limited settings. Both models lead to reduced turnaround time and retain flexibility for integrating different specimen types. In Haiti, decentralized specimen referral systems resulted in a 182% increase in patients enrolling in human immunodeficiency virus treatment programs within 6 months. In Uganda, cost savings of up to 62% were observed with a centralized model. A platform strategy will create a network effect that will benefit multiple disease programs.

  11. Combating Climate Change through Eco-innovation - Towards the Green Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch


    This book presents more than 20 innovative policies that, instead of framing mitigation as a burden, are conducive to the shift to a low-emission world-system that is sustainable in all its pillars (environment, society, economy), both in developed and in developing countries.......This book presents more than 20 innovative policies that, instead of framing mitigation as a burden, are conducive to the shift to a low-emission world-system that is sustainable in all its pillars (environment, society, economy), both in developed and in developing countries....

  12. Improving the Future of the Army’s Future Combat Systems Program (United States)


    suggested that the Army leadership has become addicted to video teleconferencing, which is why the Army is currently experiencing difficulty in keeping...credo that “only an all-in-one “system-of-systems” approach can ensure that all the individual gadgets work together.” However, they have become

  13. Mirage 2000 Combat Aircraft Upgrade in Dassault Aviation. Solution for NWDS System Open and Affordable (United States)


    service within several Air Forces since 1983. FUNCTIONS The outstanding structural sturdiness of the Marketing approach followed in the Mirage...Dassault Aviation - Dassault efficiency, while reducing impacts on Electronique - Sextant), recurring and no recurring costs - a new system and software

  14. 21st Century HVAC System for Future Naval Surface Combatants - Concept Development Report (United States)


    advanced components could be integrated into a representative portion of a ship and the bundled benefits determined and demonstrated. A companion ...VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS (HVAC), 30 JUL 2002 • S9248-AB- DSP -010, TECHNICAL MANUAL, TEXTILE DUCTING DESIGN GUIDE, 27 JUL 2001 • S9248

  15. Fort Ord’s Merit-Reward System: A Contingency Management Program in Basic Combat Training, (United States)


    classroom instruction, throwing grenades, saluting, stacking arms, blousing boots, reviewing for the Graded Test, and going through the Confidence Course...panel of experts (commanders and drill sergeants), and much empirical trial and error. Our system underwent many jugglings and revisions before it was...Clean rough dry standards, trousers properly bloused and gig line aligned. 3. Poncho - Rolled one tent pin in length. One wrap of a shoestring on

  16. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations (United States)


    According to Wei, engineers placed multiple converging lenses around a vehicle, and used an optical fiber delay line to connect the lenses together (2007...probability that a hostile weapon detects the ground vehicle, using C4ISR and situational awareness to avoid contact with the enemy forces, using...corresponding wires and connection points also means that it can be more difficult for engineers to integrate distributed architecture systems onto

  17. Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8) (United States)


    SCHENCK.ALFRED.A.1057426639,OU=DISA,OU= PKI ,OU=DoD,O=U.S. Government,C=US Date: 4/8/2014 02:40 PM GCSS-J Inc 8 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 6 Business Case... secure manner to enhance mission effectiveness. The capability, system, and/or service must continuously provide survivable, interoperable, secure processes. Met Threshold Security : Ensure data security and integrity by complying with all applicable DoD Security regulations and directives

  18. Biomechanics Analysis of Combat Sport (Silat) By Using Motion Capture System (United States)

    Zulhilmi Kaharuddin, Muhammad; Badriah Khairu Razak, Siti; Ikram Kushairi, Muhammad; Syawal Abd. Rahman, Mohamed; An, Wee Chang; Ngali, Z.; Siswanto, W. A.; Salleh, S. M.; Yusup, E. M.


    ‘Silat’ is a Malay traditional martial art that is practiced in both amateur and in professional levels. The intensity of the motion spurs the scientific research in biomechanics. The main purpose of this abstract is to present the biomechanics method used in the study of ‘silat’. By using the 3D Depth Camera motion capture system, two subjects are to perform ‘Jurus Satu’ in three repetitions each. One subject is set as the benchmark for the research. The videos are captured and its data is processed using the 3D Depth Camera server system in the form of 16 3D body joint coordinates which then will be transformed into displacement, velocity and acceleration components by using Microsoft excel for data calculation and Matlab software for simulation of the body. The translated data obtained serves as an input to differentiate both subjects’ execution of the ‘Jurus Satu’. Nine primary movements with the addition of five secondary movements are observed visually frame by frame from the simulation obtained to get the exact frame that the movement takes place. Further analysis involves the differentiation of both subjects’ execution by referring to the average mean and standard deviation of joints for each parameter stated. The findings provide useful data for joints kinematic parameters as well as to improve the execution of ‘Jurus Satu’ and to exhibit the process of learning a movement that is relatively unknown by the use of a motion capture system.

  19. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries. (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Ngogang, Jeane Yonkeu


    quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions.

  20. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for a Brigade Combat Team Complex (United States)


    building enve- lope, ventilation, advanced “low exergy ” heating and cooling systems, central energy plants with co- This material is declared a work of the...from the mains increases from centralized to decentralized by 21% or 4.3 GWh/yr. The fact that heat is a local commodity with a lower exergy factor...and electricity is a non-local commod- ity with an exergy factor of 1 that cannot be stored easily like heat, indicates that this is a good path to

  1. Combating obesity through healthy eating behavior: a call for system dynamics optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin

    Full Text Available Poor eating behavior has been identified as one of the core contributory factors of the childhood obesity epidemic. The consequences of obesity on numerous aspects of life are thoroughly explored in the existing literature. For instance, evidence shows that obesity is linked to incidences of diseases such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, and some cancers, as well as psychosocial problems. To respond to the increasing trends in the UK, in 2008 the government set a target to reverse the prevalence of obesity (POB back to 2000 levels by 2020. This paper will outline the application of system dynamics (SD optimization to simulate the effect of changes in the eating behavior of British children (aged 2 to 15 years on weight and obesity. This study also will identify how long it will take to achieve the government's target. This paper proposed a simulation model called Intervention Childhood Obesity Dynamics (ICOD by focusing the interrelations between various strands of knowledge in one complex human weight regulation system. The model offers distinct insights into the dynamics by capturing the complex interdependencies from the causal loop and feedback structure, with the intention to better understand how eating behaviors influence children's weight, body mass index (BMI, and POB measurement. This study proposed a set of equations that are revised from the original (baseline equations. The new functions are constructed using a RAMP function of linear decrement in portion size and number of meal variables from 2013 until 2020 in order to achieve the 2020 desired target. Findings from the optimization analysis revealed that the 2020 target won't be achieved until 2026 at the earliest, six years late. Thus, the model suggested that a longer period may be needed to significantly reduce obesity in this population.

  2. Are treatment guides and rational drug use policies adequately exploited in combating respiratory system diseases? (United States)

    Dogan, Mustafa; Mutlu, Levent C; Yilmaz, İbrahim; Bilir, Bulent; Varol Saracoglu, Gamze; Yildirim Guzelant, Aliye


    The aim of the present study was to increase awareness regarding the rational use of medicines. The data were obtained via the Material Resources Management System Module of the Ministry of Health. For the appropriateness of treatments, the Global Initiative for Asthma, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, and the guidelines for the rational use of medicines were used. We also investigated whether any de-escalation method or physical exercise was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics to determine the mean, standard deviation, and frequency. The results showed that healthcare providers ignored potential drug reactions or adverse interactions, and reflecting the lack of adherence to the current treatment guides, 35.8% irrational use of medicines was recorded. Thus, de-escalation methods should be used to decrease costs or narrow the antibiotic spectrum, antibiotic selection should consider the resistance patterns, culturing methods should be analyzed, and monotherapy should be preferred over combination treatments. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Citizenship and Combating Corruption Proposals Extrapenais of Brazilian Legal System Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Salomão Cambi


    Full Text Available Corruption is one of the serious Brazilian problems. The embezzlement of public funds prevents the realization of fundamental social rights and delays national develop- ment prevent inhibiting the real access to citizenship. Brazil needs to face the paradox of being the eighth world’s largest economy, and having low human development indexes. Social justice does not coexist with impunity. Public funds, paid by taxpayers, sidetracked by corruption schemes, fail to reach the investments in the enlargement of public health, education, security and infrastructure. Moreover, the opportunity of corruption increases corruption when there is impunity. To reduce corruption levels in Brazil, it is urgent to think about legal system improvement alternatives, a task which is also entrusted to the academy. Although positive law does not change social reality, the lack of appropriate legal mechanisms prevents the equating of part of the Brazilian’s society problems, such as corruption. In the extrapenal sphere, beginning with constitutional law, it is important to emphasize the need to improve issues such as the strengthening of internal and external controls, reforming constitutional institutions, such as the Courts of Auditors. In addi- tion, the enlargement of transparency and social control of the prosecution performance in infra constitutional sphere requires fundamental legislative reforms, in order to provide for the realization of the human rights enshrined in the 1988 Constitution.

  4. Convergence of lateral dynamic measurements in the plasma membrane of live cells from single particle tracking and STED-FCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Andrade, Débora M.; Clausen, Mathias P.


    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in combination with the super-resolution imaging method STED (STED-FCS), and single-particle tracking (SPT) are able to directly probe the lateral dynamics of lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells at spatial scales much below...... the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy. However, a major disparity in interpretation of data from SPT and STED-FCS remains, namely the proposed existence of a very fast (unhindered) lateral diffusion coefficient, ≥5 μm2 s-1, in the plasma membrane of live cells at very short length scales, ≈ 100 nm...... that these errors have on the measurement outputs. We subsequently demonstrate that STED-FCS and SPT data, following careful consideration of the experimental errors of the SPT data, converge to a common interpretation which for the case of a diffusing phospholipid analogue in the plasma membrane of live mouse...

  5. Land Combat Systems Industry (United States)


    The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense University Fort McNair , Washington, D.C. 20319-5062 Report Documentation Page...Industrial College of the Armed Forces,National Defense University,Fort McNair ,Washington,DC,20319-5062 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...procurement in time of war. The POM cycle, even with supplementals, does not respond quickly enough. Congress should authorize an emergency fund

  6. Land Combat Systems Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Sheybah, Yousef; Atkins, Robert T; Beal, Jean; Caputo, Michael; Cole, William; Farghal, Mohammad; Foskey, Ron; Gilmour, John; Glover, Robert; Hall, David


    .... Funding fluctuations, Berry Amendment requirements, and long lead times contributed to delays in some procurements, leading the study to make recommendations for improvements to wartime acquisition processes...

  7. Spontaneous autoimmune gastritis and hypochlorhydria are manifest in the ileitis-prone SAMP1/YitFcs mice. (United States)

    Ernst, P B; Erickson, L D; Loo, W M; Scott, K G; Wiznerowicz, E B; Brown, C C; Torres-Velez, F J; Alam, M S; Black, S G; McDuffie, M; Feldman, S H; Wallace, J L; McKnight, G W; Padol, I T; Hunt, R H; Tung, K S


    SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4(+) T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract.

  8. Spontaneous autoimmune gastritis and hypochlorhydria are manifest in the ileitis-prone SAMP1/YitFcs mice (United States)

    Erickson, L. D.; Loo, W. M.; Scott, K. G.; Wiznerowicz, E. B.; Brown, C. C.; Torres-Velez, F. J.; Alam, M. S.; Black, S. G.; McDuffie, M.; Feldman, S. H.; Wallace, J. L.; McKnight, G. W.; Padol, I. T.; Hunt, R. H.; Tung, K. S.


    SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4+ T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract. PMID:21921286


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adkins, Erica; (Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; van Deurs, Bo

    targets for many psychotropic drugs, including cocaine, antidepressants, and amphetamine. We have used a confocal single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy technique, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), to asses directly the mobility of YFP-tagged DAT in living cells. In both stably...... FCS measurements in transiently transfected N2A neuroblastoma cells were impaired by photobleachning suggesting immobilization of the transporter in the membrane. This was confirmed by the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which showed clear recovery of YFP-DAT fluorescence...

  10. Defining and Assessing the Impact to the Combat/Weapon Systems of a Ship Post Major Overhaul (United States)


    Strike Warfare ( STW )  Surface Warfare (SUW)  Undersea Warfare (USW)  Expeditionary Warfare (EXW)  Electronic Warfare (EW) CSSQT assess all combat...quadrants one and four are recommended for CSSQT which means if funding and resources are available then these ships should be designated to perform a...CSSQT. Ships in quadrant two would benefit the most from a CSSQT and it those ships should be the first to be allocated funding and resources . 46



    1 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE...providers such as nurse practitioners to aid in achieving patient care goals, there is little published to support their use in the also reduces overall cost to the patient. Currently the cost of a trauma critical care bed is $2,841.47/night while critical care nursing is

  12. Effect of alcohol on the structure of cytochrome C: FCS and molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Amin, Md. Asif; Halder, Ritaban; Ghosh, Catherine; Jana, Biman; Bhattacharyya, Kankan


    Effect of ethanol on the size and structure of a protein cytochrome C (Cyt C) is investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. For FCS studies, Cyt C is covalently labeled with a fluorescent probe, alexa 488. FCS studies indicate that on addition of ethanol, the size of the protein varies non-monotonically. The size of Cyt C increases (i.e., the protein unfolds) on addition of alcohol (ethanol) up to a mole fraction of 0.2 (44.75% v/v) and decreases at higher alcohol concentration. In order to provide a molecular origin of this structural transition, we explore the conformational free energy landscape of Cyt C as a function of radius of gyration (Rg) at different compositions of water-ethanol binary mixture using MD simulations. Cyt C exhibits a minimum at Rg ˜ 13 Å in bulk water (0% alcohol). Upon increasing ethanol concentration, a second minimum appears in the free energy surface with gradually larger Rg up to χEtOH ˜ 0.2 (44.75% v/v). This suggests gradual unfolding of the protein. At a higher concentration of alcohol (χEtOH > 0.2), the minimum at large Rg vanishes, indicating compaction. Analysis of the contact map and the solvent organization around protein indicates a preferential solvation of the hydrophobic residues by ethanol up to χEtOH = 0.2 (44.75% v/v) and this causes the gradual unfolding of the protein. At high concentration (χEtOH = 0.3 (58% v/v)), due to structural organization in bulk water-ethanol binary mixture, the extent of preferential solvation by ethanol decreases. This causes a structural transition of Cyt C towards a more compact state.

  13. Formulation and analysis of some combat-logistics problems


    Al-Zayani, Abdul-Latif Rashid


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Models are developed to study the readiness and subsequent combat performance of an air-interceptor squadron facing sudden attack. These models necessarily link combat with logistics. The models are mainly analytical and not a Monte Carlo simulation, and can be used to indicate the optimal weapon system to be procured and to study the effect of peacetime decisions on combat outcomes. The logistics models use the ma...

  14. The Agile Rapid Global Combat Support (ARGCS) System: A Cost and Benefit Analysis of Including the ARGCS Technologies in the Acquisition of the Enhanced Consolidated Support System (ECASS) (United States)


    Franck and Carmelita Troy in January 2007. Revised in May of 2007, this interim BCA, based on the data then available, offered an assessment of Franck, Raymond and Carmelita Troy, Agile Rapid Global Combat Support, Business Case Analysis, Version 1.0. Naval

  15. Evaluation of FCS self and peer-assessment approach based on Cooperative and Engineering Design learning. (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Dean


    The Cooperative Learning in Engineering Design curriculum can be enhanced with structured and timely self and peer assessment teaching methodologies which can easily be applied to any Biomedical Engineering curriculum. A study was designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of this structured and timely self and peer assessment on student team-based projects. In comparing the 'peer-blind' and 'face-to-face' Fair Contribution Scoring (FCS) methods, both had advantages and disadvantages. The 'peer-blind' self and peer assessment method would cause high discrepancy between self and team ratings. But the 'face-to-face' method on the other hand did not have the discrepancy issue and had actually proved to be a more accurate and effective, indicating team cohesiveness and good cooperative learning.

  16. Implementation of Internal Control Systems to Combat Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism – An Applied Exploratory Study to the Angolan Financial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pinho


    Full Text Available The Angolan financial system is observing several regulatory changes that are being adopted by local banks at a considerable speed in the last years. Considering the pressured context in which such changes are being internalized, this study is intended to ascertain the level of implementation and the way that control systems are being adopted by the Angolan financial institutions, in order to prevent and combat money laundering and financing of terrorism. A survey was submitted to the banking institutions that operate in the Angolan financial sector with the purpose of understanding to what extent prevention controls and mechanisms for money laundering and financing of terrorism have been implemented, and identify the main difficulties that banking institutions are facing on the adoption of such controls and mechanisms. Using a descriptive analysis, the results show that the banking institutions consider to have implemented control systems that are capable of mitigating the risk of money laundering and financing of terrorism. The results also show that, although there are formal and concrete policies in place, the Angolan banking institutions possess deficient control tools in terms of information systems and data management and lack adequate staff training which potentially threatens the effectiveness of the controls that have been implemented.

  17. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation. (United States)


    ... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat... Joint Operation Planning and Execution System, that in turn, requests support from HQ AMC. HQ USAF can... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation...

  18. Combat Identification Decision Making: Effect of a Secondary Task (United States)


    Combat Identification Decision Making: Effect of a Secondary Task David J. Bryant Defence...R&D Canada Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2010-159 October 2010 Combat Identification Decision Making: Effect of a...Head, Human Systems Integration Section Approved for release by Original signed by Dr. Stergios Stergiopoulos Dr. Stergios Stergiopoulos Acting

  19. Convergence of lateral dynamic measurements in the plasma membrane of live cells from single particle tracking and STED-FCS (United States)

    Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Andrade, Débora M.; Clausen, Mathias P.; Eggeling, Christian


    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in combination with the super-resolution imaging method STED (STED-FCS), and single-particle tracking (SPT) are able to directly probe the lateral dynamics of lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells at spatial scales much below the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy. However, a major disparity in interpretation of data from SPT and STED-FCS remains, namely the proposed existence of a very fast (unhindered) lateral diffusion coefficient, ⩾5 µm2 s-1, in the plasma membrane of live cells at very short length scales, ≈⩽ 100 nm, and time scales, ≈1-10 ms. This fast diffusion coefficient has been advocated in several high-speed SPT studies, for lipids and membrane proteins alike, but the equivalent has not been detected in STED-FCS measurements. Resolving this ambiguity is important because the assessment of membrane dynamics currently relies heavily on SPT for the determination of heterogeneous diffusion. A possible systematic error in this approach would thus have vast implications in this field. To address this, we have re-visited the analysis procedure for SPT data with an emphasis on the measurement errors and the effect that these errors have on the measurement outputs. We subsequently demonstrate that STED-FCS and SPT data, following careful consideration of the experimental errors of the SPT data, converge to a common interpretation which for the case of a diffusing phospholipid analogue in the plasma membrane of live mouse embryo fibroblasts results in an unhindered, intra-compartment, diffusion coefficient of  ≈0.7-1.0 µm2 s-1, and a compartment size of about 100-150 nm.

  20. Mathematics in Combat (United States)

    The purpose of this book is to familiarize the reader with how mathematics can solve important problems in modern military affairs. The authors...discuss and explain, without resorting to complex mathematical calculations, the essence of the basic methods which modern mathematics makes available to military problems, design and combat deployment of modern weapons.

  1. Combat damage control surgery. (United States)

    Blackbourne, Lorne H


    Although the use of damage control surgery for blunt and penetrating injury has been widely reported and defined, the use of damage control surgery on the battlefield (combat damage control surgery) has not been well detailed. Damage control surgery is now well established as the standard of care for severely injured civilian patients requiring emergent laparotomy in the United States. The civilian damage control paradigm is based on a "damage control trilogy." This trilogy comprises an abbreviated operation, intensive care unit resuscitation, and a return to the operating room for the definitive operation. The goal of damage control surgery and the triology is avoidance of irreversible physiological insult termed the lethal triad. The lethal triad comprises the vicious cycle of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. Although the damage control model involves the damage control trilogy, abbreviated operation, intensive care unit resuscitation, and definitive operation, all in the same surgical facility, the combat damage control paradigm must incorporate global evacuation through several military surgical facilities and involves up to ten stages to allow for battlefield evacuation, surgical operations, multiple resuscitations, and transcontinental transport. Combat damage control surgery represents many unique challenges for those who care for the severely injured patients in a combat zone.

  2. Anterior Segment Imaging in Combat Ocular Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise S. Ryan


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the use of ocular imaging to enhance management and diagnosis of war-related anterior segment ocular injuries. Methods. This study was a prospective observational case series from an ongoing IRB-approved combat ocular trauma tracking study. Subjects with anterior segment ocular injury were imaged, when possible, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, confocal microscopy (CM, and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results. Images captured from participants with combat ocular trauma on different systems provided comprehensive and alternate views of anterior segment injury to investigators. Conclusion. In combat-related trauma of the anterior segment, adjunct image acquisition enhances slit lamp examination and enables real time In vivo observation of the cornea facilitating injury characterization, progression, and management.

  3. Regulation of psychic functions in combat sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko A.I.


    Full Text Available The problems of adjusting of psychical functions are considered in sport. The methods of self-regulation are rotined in sport. The groups of emotional reactions of combat sportsmen are certain. It is set that sporting psychologists and trainers are mainly addressed to training of psychical functions. Also - the system of psychical self-regulation must be complex. It contains affecting physiological reactions and on psychical processes. Five groups of emotional reactions of combat sportsmen are marked. They are directed on development of ability without superfluous emotions to overcome extreme situations in the process of competition activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela P. POPA


    - A faulty legislation that allows them to circumvent the failure to pay taxes. Measures to combat tax evasion must act in the areas of legislative, administrative and educational. The legislative drafting tax legislation seeks appropriate, clear, concise, stable and consistent. It is also necessary to eliminate or withdrawal of exemptions, reductions and deductions that give rise to multiple interpretations. In terms of administrative measures aimed at creating a comprehensive and operational information system, ensuring adequate administrative structures and instruments effectively combating tax evasion and training specialists with morality and professionalism required of shapes and sizes evasion.

  5. A neuro-fuzzy warning system for combating cybersickness in the elderly caused by the virtual environment on a TFT-LCD. (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Li


    Only a few studies in the literature have focused on the effects of age on virtual environment (VE) sickness susceptibility and even less research was carried out focusing on the elderly. In general, the elderly usually browse VEs on a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) at home or somewhere, not a head-mounted display (HMD). While the TFT-LCD is used to present VEs, this set-up does not physically enclose the user. Therefore, this study investigated the factors that contribute to cybersickness among the elderly when immersed into a VE on TFT-LCD, including exposure durations, navigation rotating speeds and angle of inclination. Participants were elderly, with an average age of 69.5 years. The results of the first experiment showed that the rate of simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ) scores increases significantly with navigational rotating speed and duration of exposure. However, the experimental data also showed that the rate of SSQ scores does not increase with the increase in angle of inclination. In applying these findings, the neuro-fuzzy technology was used to develop a neuro-fuzzy cybersickness-warning system integrating fuzzy logic reasoning and neural network learning. The contributing factors were navigational rotating speed and duration of exposure. The results of the second experiment showed that the proposed system can efficiently determine the level of cybersickness based on the associated subjective sickness estimates and combat cybersickness due to long exposure to a VE.

  6. An Acquisition of Fuzzy Rules for Mobile Robot Using Fuzzy Classifier Systems


    INOUE, Hiroyuki; Kamei, Katsuari


    We had presented an automatic generationmethod of fuzzy rules using hyper-cone membershipfunctions by fuzzy classifier system (FCS),and applied to the inverted pendulum control. However,it is considered that the FCS can be applied toon-line learning of autonomous robots, etc.. In thispaper, we tried that the presented FCS was appliedto simulation of a mobile robot. Also, two methodswhich genetic operations were improved were used inorder to aim at the application to the real machine.

  7. Combating freshwater scarcity


    Maheshwari, Ramesh


    Pushpangadan et al.1 have 'offered the idea of discovering and exploiting waterfixing/harvesting/synthesizing organisms from desert organisms or thermophilic bacteria' for combating freshwater scarcity in plants. Their idea is based on the false notion that 'certain living organisms (both flora and fauna) grow and thrive well in sand dunes of deserts like Sahara, but certain thermophilic bacteria and some higher forms of life have also been located in the sand dunes'. Further, they write,'Pla...

  8. History of Combat Pay (United States)


    A. Horowitz, Task Leader Log: H 11-001277 Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited. The Institute for Defense Analyses is a non-profit...this directive, the number of HFP recipients quintupled. Although the purpose of HFP remained “recognition” in spirit, the substance of combat pay...hardships of frontline service, including exposure to the elements; deprivation from sleep, warmth , and leisure; and the omnipresent threat of enemy

  9. Music and Combat Motivation (United States)


    1   AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MUSIC AND COMBAT MOTIVATION by Sally C. Maddocks, Major, USAF Master of...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government.  3   Music has the power...are many historical examples from which to draw evidence of the impact of music on fielded forces. One must study not only the historical events, but

  10. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  11. Combat Wound Initiative program. (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M


    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  12. The combat soldier. (United States)

    Artiss, Kenneth L


    The Gulf War illness (GWI) problem is seen as a postwar syndrome related to veteran discontent rather than as a new phenomenon. It is here proposed that application of social psychiatric thinking and workers' compensation experience can help in understanding the problem. Social psychiatry has been neglected in the training of so many psychiatrists that many of them fail to understand the Army as a community and to recognize that a community's parts may develop symptom neuroses. Most psychiatrists, however, do know that a symptom neurosis will not disappear until it no longer serves its purposes. The young soldier may know that he is being trained for combat duty but manages to distance himself from the terrible realities of military combat by creating a psychic reality that protects him. Social psychiatric emphasis is used to describe his response when brought face to face with himself as a combatant with overwhelming responsibilities and genuine lethal danger. The brilliance and relevance of social thinking is demonstrated by examples from the works of Gustave LeBon and Georg Simmel so that its application to present--and future--military problems may be brought into focus.

  13. Filmless radiology: The design, integration, implementation, and evaluation of a digital-imaging network. The applicability of digital imaging to the US Army combat medical care system. Annual report, 1 March 1986-28 February 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlin, B.D.; Cerva, J.R.; Glenn, M.E.


    To date, most of the U.S. Army's medical imaging requirements for combat care have been satisfied by conventional x-ray techniques. While effective, units employing such techniques require extensive logistics support and provide somewhat limited capabilities in the combat zone. Digital technology may offer an opportunity to improve capabilities while reducing the logistical support for field radiology. This paper provides a top-down perspective of the Army's medical digital imaging needs with an eye towards promoting further discussions on the role, operations, and evaluation of a Digital Imaging Network System (DINS). A DINS is an automated and integrated information management system for processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying radiological images and related clinical information. This report was first published in November 1987 and has been revised to reflect the sponsor's subsequent review.

  14. Stable and optimal fuzzy control of a laboratory Antilock Braking System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precup, Radu-Emil; Spataru, Sergiu; Petriu, Emil M.


    of the rules using the domains of the input variables, and doing the local linearization of the plant model. The original T-S FCs are designed by parallel distributed compensation to obtain the state feedback gain matrices in the consequents of the rules. Two T-S FCs are tuned by imposing relaxed stability...... conditions to the fuzzy control systems (FCSs) and the other two T-S FCs are tuned by the linear-quadratic regulator approach applied to each rule. Linear matrix inequalities are solved to guarantee the global stability of the FCSs. Real-time experimental results validate the original T-S FCs and design...

  15. Occupational Health Screenings of the Virtual Warrior: Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence Operators Compared with Non-Combatant Support Personnel (United States)


    you have on each occasion (1 drink = 12 ounces of beer , or 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of liquor)? Response options were N/A (do not drink...and nervous system; cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts; injuries from motor vehicle accidents; and other associated conditions [23

  16. Combat Synchronization Analysis (United States)



  17. Blended Training for Combat Medics (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd


    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  18. Systemically administered AAV9-sTRAIL combats invasive glioblastoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft model. (United States)

    Crommentuijn, Matheus Hw; Kantar, Rami; Noske, David P; Vandertop, W Peter; Badr, Christian E; Würdinger, Thomas; Maguire, Casey A; Tannous, Bakhos A


    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing tumoricidal genes injected directly into brain tumors have shown some promise, however, invasive tumor cells are relatively unaffected. Systemic injection of AAV9 vectors provides widespread delivery to the brain and potentially the tumor/microenvironment. Here we assessed AAV9 for potential glioblastoma therapy using two different promoters driving the expression of the secreted anti-cancer agent sTRAIL as a transgene model; the ubiquitously active chicken β-actin (CBA) promoter and the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter to restrict expression in brain. Intravenous injection of AAV9 vectors encoding a bioluminescent reporter showed similar distribution patterns, although the NSE promoter yielded 100-fold lower expression in the abdomen (liver), with the brain-to-liver expression ratio remaining the same. The main cell types targeted by the CBA promoter were astrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells, while expression by NSE promoter mostly occurred in neurons. Intravenous administration of either AAV9-CBA-sTRAIL or AAV9-NSE-sTRAIL vectors to mice bearing intracranial patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts led to a slower tumor growth and significantly increased survival, with the CBA promoter having higher efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the potential of systemic injection of AAV9 vector encoding a therapeutic gene for the treatment of brain tumors.

  19. Systemically administered AAV9-sTRAIL combats invasive glioblastoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus HW Crommentuijn


    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors expressing tumoricidal genes injected directly into brain tumors have shown some promise, however, invasive tumor cells are relatively unaffected. Systemic injection of AAV9 vectors provides widespread delivery to the brain and potentially the tumor/microenvironment. Here we assessed AAV9 for potential glioblastoma therapy using two different promoters driving the expression of the secreted anti-cancer agent sTRAIL as a transgene model; the ubiquitously active chicken β-actin (CBA promoter and the neuron-specific enolase (NSE promoter to restrict expression in brain. Intravenous injection of AAV9 vectors encoding a bioluminescent reporter showed similar distribution patterns, although the NSE promoter yielded 100-fold lower expression in the abdomen (liver, with the brain-to-liver expression ratio remaining the same. The main cell types targeted by the CBA promoter were astrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells, while expression by NSE promoter mostly occurred in neurons. Intravenous administration of either AAV9-CBA-sTRAIL or AAV9-NSE-sTRAIL vectors to mice bearing intracranial patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts led to a slower tumor growth and significantly increased survival, with the CBA promoter having higher efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the potential of systemic injection of AAV9 vector encoding a therapeutic gene for the treatment of brain tumors.

  20. Blast and ballistic trajectories in combat casualties: a preliminary analysis using a cartesian positioning system with MDCT. (United States)

    Folio, Les R; Fischer, Tatjana; Shogan, Paul; Frew, Michael; Dwyer, Andrew; Provenzale, James M


    The purpose of this study is to determine the agreement with which radiologists identify wound paths in vivo on MDCT and calculate missile trajectories on the basis of Cartesian coordinates using a Cartesian positioning system (CPS). Three radiologists retrospectively identified 25 trajectories on MDCT in 19 casualties who sustained penetrating trauma in Iraq. Trajectories were described qualitatively in terms of directional path descriptors and quantitatively as trajectory vectors. Directional descriptors, trajectory angles, and angles between trajectories were calculated based on Cartesian coordinates of entrance and terminus or exit recorded in x, y image and table space (z) using a Trajectory Calculator created using spreadsheet software. The consistency of qualitative descriptor determinations was assessed in terms of frequency of observer agreement and multirater kappa statistics. Consistency of trajectory vectors was evaluated in terms of distribution of magnitude of the angles between vectors and the differences between their paraaxial and parasagittal angles. In 68% of trajectories, the observers' visual assessment of qualitative descriptors was congruent. Calculated descriptors agreed across observers in 60% of the trajectories. Estimated kappa also showed good agreement (0.65-0.79, p trajectory vectors were within 20° across observers. Results show agreement of visually assessed and calculated qualitative descriptors and trajectory angles among observers. The Trajectory Calculator describes trajectories qualitatively similar to radiologists' visual assessment, showing the potential feasibility of automated trajectory analysis.

  1. Borassus flabellifer L. Brown Crystal Sugar Processing (The Study of Sap pH and Fine Crystal Sucrose (FCS Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Alvian Gabriel


    Full Text Available Nira as one of the Borassus flabellirer L. products has a similar characteristics with other agricultural commodities that are easily damaged. This research aims to know the influence of nira’s pH and concentration addition of FCS against characteristics of the brown crystal sugar. Research compiled by using Randomized Block Design (RBD which comprises two factors consisting of 3 levels with 3 times replication. The first factor is pH or degree of nira acidity which consists of 3 level (6.50 (± 0.10; 7.00 (± 0.10; 7.50 (± 0.10 and the second factor is addition of FCS concentration consisting of 3 level (5%; 10%; 15% (b/v. The analyzes used include analysis of organoleptic (color, aroma, taste as well as physical and chemical analyzes (sucrose content, moisture content, ash content, reducing sugar content, insoluble solid content. The analysis results of raw material showed that the pH of palm sap affect the amount of total sugar because the fermentation process. The addition of 10% FCS provides organoleptic results with the best reception at the brown crystal sugar. Physical and chemical test results of products with the best treatment showed that the levels of sucrose in brown crystal sugar was 81.483% in accordance with the minimum requirements specified Indonesian Industrial Standard (IIS, water content of 6.32% dry basis , ash content of 1.78%, reducing sugar amounted to 5.18%, and insoluble solid content of 0.089%.

  2. Crowd Behavior Algorithm Development for COMBAT XXI (United States)


    interest, such as museums . The literature addresses many aspects of crowd dynamics. For instance, Berk (1974) illustrates a crowd that forms in protest of...uses underlying driving parameters from the OCEAN personality model, 5 which is general made up of five factors defined as openness to develop a better collateral damage estimator model within the Air Force agent-based systems effectiveness analysis simulation, SEAS, combat model

  3. Close Air Support versus Close Combat Attack (United States)


    with parallel Air Force and Army structures and incorporating tactical air control parties ( TACP ) down to the battalion level. This system greatly...Operations Center (ASOC) and the Tactical Air Control Party ( TACP ). Each of these agencies works in concert to facilitate close air support platforms...needed to maintain combat readiness.93 At the corps level and below is a Tactical Air Control Party ( TACP ) organized under the Army Fires Cell (FC

  4. U.S. Air Force Combat Psychiatry. (United States)


    relationship between the "fear of flying" syndrome , which may occur in peace as well as in wartime, and the signs and symptoms usually associated with combat...recognition of the underlying anxiety. Headaches, vasovagal syncope, obscure visual problems, gastrointestinal upsets, and many other systemic... syndrome " in soldiers, a mixture of mild anxiety and phobic symptoms near the end of a fixed one-year tour. Some commanders kept men off tough patrols and

  5. Combatting poverty in South Africa



    M.Com. (Economics) Combating poverty is at the frontier of analyses in South Africa today. The study to combat poverty in South Africa is six-fold. After setting the nature of the study to be pursued in Chapter 1, the dissertation analyses the theories of poverty in Chapter 2. The record of poverty in South Africa is analysed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the methods to combat poverty in South Africa. Chapter 5 is a summary of the main findings of the study. A proposed structure plan ...

  6. Advanced Capabilities for Combat Medics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Salinas, Jose; Holcomb, John B


    The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has the lead for directing the Research Program Area for Advanced Triage Capabilities for Combat Medics in the Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC...

  7. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops


    Farke, Andrew A.; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H


    BACKGROUND: The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat...

  8. FLIM and FCS detection in laser-scanning microscopes: increased efficiency by GaAsP hybrid detectors. (United States)

    Becker, W; Su, B; Holub, O; Weisshart, K


    Photon counting detectors currently used in fluorescence lifetime microscopy have a number of deficiencies that result in less-than-ideal signal-to-noise ratio of the lifetimes obtained: either the quantum efficiency is unsatisfactory or the active area is too small, and afterpulsing or tails in the temporal response contribute to overall timing inaccuracy. We have therefore developed a new FLIM detector based on a GaAsP hybrid photomultiplier. Compared with conventional PMTs and SPADs, GaAsP hybrid detectors have a number of advantages: The detection quantum efficiency reaches or surpasses the efficiency of fast SPADs, and the active area is on the order of 5 mm², compared with 2.5 10⁻³ mm² for a SPAD. The TCSPC response is clean, without the bumps and the diffusion tails typical for PMTs and SPADs. Most important, the hybrid detector is intrinsically free of afterpulsing. FLIM results are therefore free of signal-dependent background, and FCS curves are free of the known afterpulsing peak. We demonstrate the performance of the new detector for multiphoton NDD FLIM and for FCS. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Criteria for Combat Readiness of Combat Pilots (United States)


    pilot, 0 or training manager, would consider and thus translated into objective measurement. For example, measurement requirements were noted for each...ccmmunica- tion analysis. (7) If HAF has tc make a choice between video/photo and digital recording aproaches to measurement system design, then the video

  10. Administrator and Faculty Perceptions of Institutional Support for Online Education in Florida's College System (United States)

    Thompson, Gerene M.


    Approximately 30% of Florida's college system (FCS) students are enrolled in distance learning courses (FLDOE, 2015). As FCS institutions continue to grow their online programs to meet demand, a lack of support from, and consensus among administrator and faculty stakeholders could undermine institutional efforts to sustain growth and quality…

  11. Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action. (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Rosa; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier


    The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p sounds no response, mobile phone correct, mobile phone no response, odours correct. The correlation analysis showed positive correlations: LF post/body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.

  12. Emergency Department Patients Support the Use of Combat Medics in Their Clinical Care (United States)


    intra- muscular /nasal/ oral medications, drainage of abscesses, suturing wounds, splinting broken bones, placement of urinary catheters, measuring...74 ABSTRACT Background: As US military combat operations draw down in Afghanistan, the military health system will shift focus to garrison- the Joint Theater over the past decade. The large number of combat injuries has placed an emphasis on the importance of the Combat medic (68W) and

  13. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.


    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  14. Design and implementation of materials management system for hospital warehouse of combat readiness based on RFID%基于RFID的医院战备库物资管理系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宏涛; 向卓


    目的:开发一种基于射频识别(RFID)技术部队医院战备库物资管理信息系统,用于提高部队医疗队战备物资的管理水平.方法:在战备物资上粘贴相应信息的RFID标签,通过阅读器读取物资信息.采用SQL Server2005作为后台数据库,将VC#结合RFID技术进行软件系统开发.结果:开发出基于RFID部队医院战备库物资管理信息系统,实现了物资的信息管理、出入库管理、预案管理以及预警管理的信息化.经过演练,医疗队物资平均出库时间比之前节省了12 min.结论:医院战备库物资信息管理系统的研发,对研究RFID技术在战备库物资管理中的应用具有一定参考价值.%Objective:To develop a materials management information system for military hospital warehouse of combat readiness based on RFID so as to enhance the management of military medical corps for materials of war preparation.Methods:RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) tags were attached on war materials and the information could been read by bar-code reader. SQL Server 2005 was used as the backend database, and VC# was combined with RFID to develop the software system.Results: This research has developed a materials management information system for military hospital warehouse of combat readiness based on RFID and this system could achieve informatization for information management, management of out and in warehouse, emergency plans management and forewarning management. Through manoeuvre, the average time of war materiel out warehouse has saved 12min.Conclusion: The research and development of information management system for materiel information of hospital warehouse for combat readiness has reference value for the application of researching RBID technique in material management.

  15. Diffusion of lipids and GPI-anchored proteins in actin-free plasma membrane vesicles measured by STED-FCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Falk; Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P


    Diffusion and interaction dynamics of molecules at the plasma membrane play an important role in cellular signalling, and they are suggested to be strongly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we utilise super-resolution STED microscopy combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...... (STED-FCS) to access and compare the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent lipid analogues and GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in the live cell plasma membrane and in actin cytoskeleton-free cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Hindered diffusion of phospholipids and sphingolipids...... forming immobile clusters, both of which disappear in GPMVs. Our data underline the crucial role of the actin cortex in maintaining hindered diffusion modes of many but not all of the membrane molecules, and highlight a powerful experimental approach to decipher specific influences on molecular plasma...

  16. The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence in the Polish Social Safeguard System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tabernacka


    Full Text Available The ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence in Poland was preceded by a heated debate. From the very beginning it was be object of political battles between the conservative and liberal circles. Culturally and socially conditioned position of women has influenced its operation and the scope of its implementation. The Convention is a universally binding tool which guarantees the protection of human rights in events of violence against the woman and children. The case of this Convention in Poland proofs the existence of a universal European understanding of human rights protection standards. The Convention thus has a protective function not only for individuals but also, in a broader context, for the common European cultural identity.

  17. Integrated physical training in combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Hernández García


    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to define the concepts of embedded training (EI and integrated fitness (PFI and the importance of these concepts have in training in combat sports. And define a set of guidelines and examples of PFI in the combat sport of judo.Key words: integrated training, integrated physical training, combat sports, judo

  18. Integrated physical training in combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Hernández García


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to define the concepts of embedded training (EI and integrated fitness (PFI and the importance of these concepts have in training in combat sports. And define a set of guidelines and examples of PFI in the combat sport of judo. Key words: integrated training, integrated physical training, combat sports, judo

  19. Networked sensors for the combat forces (United States)

    Klager, Gene


    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  20. Evidence of combat in triceratops. (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Wolff, Ewan D S; Tanke, Darren H


    The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn) and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns), for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002), but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20). This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  1. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A.; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.


    Background The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn) and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns), for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002), but not in other cranial bones (P>0.20). Conclusions/Significance This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head. PMID:19172995

  2. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  3. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  4. Combating corruption in global health. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn


    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants" (United States)

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan


    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…

  6. [Hand injuries from combat sports]. (United States)

    Hanna, W A; Laier, P


    Each year 3.1% of German adults suffer from accidents related to sports and 75% of the injured athletes are male between 20 and 29 years old. The upper limbs are affected in more than 20% of cases and one third of these injuries involve the hands and fingers. More than half a million athletes are organized in combat sport associations in Germany with an increasing trend. Combat sports are commonly said to have a high risk of injuries to the hand. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis as well as to describe typical hand injuries associated with combat sports. A systematic review of literature (up to January 2015) in PubMed/Medline and The Cochrane Library as well as a secondary search in the reference lists were carried out. Conclusive comparative studies on the incidence and severity of hand injuries directly related to combat sports action could not be found in the currently available literature. The overall risk of suffering from a sports injury seems to be relatively low in combat sports compared to other sports. Boxing, however, seems to be the most dangerous sport for injuries to the upper extremities and especially the hand. The injury pattern after punching (emergency patients and professional boxers) shows that more than half of these fractures affect the 5th metacarpal and 25% of these are the classical boxer's fracture. This differs significantly from the fracture distribution generally associated with sports, where fractures of the phalanges are the most common. Two rare conditions that may occur as a result of repeated punching are referred to as carpal bossing and boxer's knuckle and excellent results are described for both injury forms after surgical therapy.

  7. Detecting and combating malicious email

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Julie JCH


    Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...

  8. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 2 (United States)


    smuggling networks capable of trafficking WMD- related materiel or finished weapons; the status of CBRN detection capa- bilities at land/ sea /air points of... dead , more than 800 injured) causes discussion of terrorist use of high explosives as a “WMD” incident. The FBI and FEMA create a terrorist...Counterproliferation This will bring you to the Nuclear and Counterprolif- eration page. Scroll towards the bottom and you will see Combating WMD Journal

  9. Combat Wound Initiative Program (United States)


    presence of local or systemic infection, nutritional status, and nonspecific serum markers of inflammation such as white blood cell count (WBC), erythro...6. Wang CJ, Huang HY, Pai CH: Shock wave-enhanced neovascularization at the tendon -bone junction: an experiment in dogs. J Foot Ankle Surg 2002

  10. Combats escènics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Rouba Billowicz


    Full Text Available “Combats Escènics” és un treball que tracta sobre la interpretació artística de la violència d’artistes de l’espectacle per tal de divertir el públic i emetre un missatge humanista mitjançant una coreografia ritual. En aquest estudi es presenta una classificació del combat escènic des del doble vessant agonista/antagonista, es realitza un passeig històric de la representació artística del combat a través de les diferents etapes i de les diverses cultures, s’aborda la preparació escènica de l’actor i del coreògraf, i s’entreveuen les perspectives de futur d’aquesta modalitat artística. Estudi realitzat per Pawel Rouba Billewicz (Inowroclaw, Polònia, 1939 - Barcelona, 2007, director, coreògraf, actor, mestre d’armes, mestre del gest i de la pantomima i professor de l’INEF de Catalunya. Aquest article, editorialment inèdit, es publica postmortem per Apunts. Educació Física i Esports com a homenatge i reconeixement de l’autor per la seva extraordinària i polivalent aportació al camp de l’art i l’Activitat Física i l’Esport.

  11. Neuropsychiatric characteristics of antiterrorist operation combatants in the Donbass (Ukraine). (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Natalia A; Gresko, Marina V; Marazziti, Donatella; Loganovskaja, Tatiana K


    The present paper aimed to explore the neuropsychiatric characteristics of the antiterrorism (ATO) combatants in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and to propose therapeutic strategies for managing their mental healthcare. A total of 54 ATO combatants were included in our study and compared with four groups of subjects exposed to other emergencies, including the Chernobyl disaster and the war in Afghanistan. The neuropsychiatric features were assessed through psychopathological assessments, neurological examinations, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). The ATO combatants were characterized by low health self-estimation, somatic concerns, a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, insomnia, depression, social dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and neurological soft signs, similar to individuals involved in the Chernobyl disaster and veterans of the Afghan War. Quantitative EEG showed abnormalities suggestive of irritation of the corticolimbic system and diencephalic structures. Some post-conflict personality changes in ATO combatants were recorded. The treatment of ATO combatants included a comprehensive strategy: from psychotropic drugs to different psychotherapies. On the basis of 30 years of experience in the management of the consequences of Chernobyl disaster and the available studies on war veterans, the authors proposed a method for assessment and an approach to providing mental healthcare for ATO combatants, refugees, and migrants from the Donbass, which perhaps can be used as guidelines for other conflicts. Taken together, the findings of the study suggest that voluntary participation in war may decrease but does not eliminate the risk of developing the neuropsychiatric consequences caused by such conflicts. A comprehensive strategy-one that would encompass psychopharmacological, psychological, and rehabilitation techniques-seems to be the most successful approach to managing the main symptoms and disorders involved.

  12. Meta-path based heterogeneous combat network link prediction (United States)

    Li, Jichao; Ge, Bingfeng; Yang, Kewei; Chen, Yingwu; Tan, Yuejin


    The combat system-of-systems in high-tech informative warfare, composed of many interconnected combat systems of different types, can be regarded as a type of complex heterogeneous network. Link prediction for heterogeneous combat networks (HCNs) is of significant military value, as it facilitates reconfiguring combat networks to represent the complex real-world network topology as appropriate with observed information. This paper proposes a novel integrated methodology framework called HCNMP (HCN link prediction based on meta-path) to predict multiple types of links simultaneously for an HCN. More specifically, the concept of HCN meta-paths is introduced, through which the HCNMP can accumulate information by extracting different features of HCN links for all the six defined types. Next, an HCN link prediction model, based on meta-path features, is built to predict all types of links of the HCN simultaneously. Then, the solution algorithm for the HCN link prediction model is proposed, in which the prediction results are obtained by iteratively updating with the newly predicted results until the results in the HCN converge or reach a certain maximum iteration number. Finally, numerical experiments on the dataset of a real HCN are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HCNMP, in comparison with 30 baseline methods. The results show that the performance of the HCNMP is superior to those of the baseline methods.

  13. To report the obtained results in the simulation with the FCS-11 and Presto codes of the two first operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor; Reportar los resultados obtenidos en la simulacion con los codigos FCS-11 y PRESTO de los dos primeros ciclos de operacion del reactor Laguna Verde Unidad 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J.L.; Moran L, J.M.; Cortes C, C.C


    The objective of this work is to establish a preliminary methodology to carry out analysis of recharges for the reactor of the Laguna Verde U-1, by means of the evaluation of the state of the reactor core in its first two operation cycles using the FCS2 and Presto-B codes. (Author)

  14. Immunotherapeutic strategies to combat staphylococcal infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohlsen, Knut; Lorenz, Udo


    .... Although a few novel antibiotics have been recently introduced into clinical practice, the search for alternative strategies to efficiently combat staphylococcal infections is urgently demanded...

  15. Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor...

  16. Establishment of a knee-joint coordinate system from helical axes analysis--a kinematic approach without anatomical referencing. (United States)

    Mannel, Henrich; Marin, Frederic; Claes, Lutz; Dürselen, Lutz


    This study establishes a functional knee-joint coordinate system (FCS) derived from active motion. The scale invariant properties of helical axes were used in order to avoid inter-observer errors associated with the traditional anatomical referencing techniques. The algorithm was tested with six cadaveric specimens in a knee-joint motion and loading apparatus. To determine the FCS sensitivity to variable loading, rotational moments were applied to the tibia while extending and flexing the knee. Each derived FCS was compared with the clinically derived anatomical coordinate system (ACS). The FCS was reproducible when the loading condition was the same. Changing the rotational moments from internal to external affected the orientations and the positions of the FCS. The largest displacement of 20.8 mm in average occurred in the medio/lateral direction. The FCS corresponded with the ACS for all specimens and loading conditions. The origin was always located within the femur along the transepicondylar line. The orientations differed less than 16.6 degrees in average, thus allowing the use of clinical terminology. These findings suggest that the FCS might improve the ability to clinically assess kinematic alterations provided that the reference motion is reproducible.

  17. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 1 (United States)


    Combating WMD tasks DOD to: nically oriented. Training, policy stud - rameters; development of neutron ies, and a familiarization with WMD transport... wear a Pu-238 3 x 10. 8 x 1012 20 full faced respirator, if one is avail- Pu-239 3 x 10-’ 7 x 1012 20 able. Making the conservative as- sumption This decision will be based on expo- (e.g. soil, asphalt , etc), particle size, sure times and the work being per- If the possibility of Pu

  18. Task Organizing for Urban Combat (United States)


    states that "I • ...- • •v•Z’- quad, must fight in a large city, it should be renfo ..rz i - Engineer Cqrr’-’ct Operatlons, FM 5-100, states that, " MOBA ...reliably task organize his unit for combat. 90 The nn’ibsrs ~ sa pr r3to Sbi dev&Loped in thAZ atudy should be tested in MOBA scenrocsqti AtnSzvohr P~ ames...Heidelberg, Chief of Historical Section, Us AKýrm bap, 17 July 1952. Ketron, Inc. GaMing Models for Military Operations in Bailt-Up Areas- MOBA .. October

  19. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Management of Combat Wounds: A Critical Review (United States)

    Maurya, Sanjay; Bhandari, Prem Singh


    Significance: Wounds sustained in a combat trauma often result in a composite tissue loss. Combat injuries, due to high energy transfer to tissues, lead to trauma at multiple anatomical sites. An early wound cover is associated with lower rate of infections and a faster wound healing. The concept of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of combat-related wounds has evolved from the civilian trauma and the wounds from nontraumatic etiologies. Recent Advances: Encouraged by the results of NPWT in noncombat-related wounds, the military surgeons during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom used this novel method in a large percentage of combat wounds, with gratifying results. The mechanism of NPWT in wound healing is multifactorial and often complex reconstructive procedure can be avoided in a combat trauma setting. Critical Issues: Wounds sustained in military trauma are heavily contaminated with dirt, patient clothing, and frequently associated with extensive soft tissue loss and osseous destruction. Delay in evacuation during an ongoing conflict carries the risk of systemic infection. Early debridement is indicated followed by delayed closure of wounds. NPWT helps to provide temporary wound cover during the interim period of debridement and wound closure. Future Directions: Future area of research in combat wounds is related to abdominal trauma with loss of abdominal wall. The concept of negative pressure incisional management system in patients with a high risk of wound breakdown following surgery is under review, and may be of relevance in combat wounds. PMID:27679749

  20. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces]. (United States)

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A


    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation.

  1. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    . By means of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be

  2. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review. (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim


    competition), and the training volume in combat sports athletes. Rating of perceived exertion is a valid tool for quantifying internal training and combat loads during short- and long-term training and simulated and official competitions in novice and elite combat sport athletes. Furthermore, both RPE methods may be a more reliable measure of intensity or effort when both anaerobic and aerobic systems are appreciably activated. Coaches, sports scientists, and athletes can use session-RPE method to quantify short-term training and combat loads in adult athletes during precompetitive period much more than long-term training and in young athletes during the competitive period. They can also use RPE to monitor combat and short- and long-term training loads to better plan and assist training programs and competitions.

  3. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)


    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  4. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy (United States)


    Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  5. Ensuring U.S. Air Force Operations During Cyber Attacks Against Combat Support Systems: Guidance for Where to Focus Mitigation Efforts (United States)


    Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network OODA observe, orient, decide, and act PAF Project AIR FORCE PKI public key infrastructure SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems to govern critical utilities such as water, electrical power, and fuel...system in this report to refer to anything that might be attacked through cyberspace, including IT systems and SCADA systems. The definition conforms

  6. The Future of the Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment (United States)


    operating environments differ and how do the new challenges affect the current TAGS and AAGS systems? New technologies and capabilities create new...THE FUTURE OF THE BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM: AIR-GROUND INTEGRATION AND THE OPERATING ENVIRONMENT A thesis presented to the...Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. Automated Battle Planning for Combat Models with Maneuver and Fire Support (United States)


    similar to that of COMBATXXI, a production analytical combat simulation system. We construct a prototype ABPS in accordance with the aforementioned...that apply throughout the document. All quoted text in this section is meant to be definitional. 1. Combat Modeling and Simulation M&S is “the...generating capability of commanders and planning staffs, written in mathematical exposition , software engineering diagrams (such as UML), and pseudocode

  8. Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Beginnings. (United States)

    Butler, Frank K


    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. The origins of TCCC were nontraditional. The TCCC program began as a Naval Special Warfare biomedical research effort launched after the realization that extremity hemorrhage, a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, was not being treated with a readily available and highly effective intervention: the tourniquet. This insight prompted a systematic reevaluation of all aspects of battlefield trauma care that was conducted from 1993 to 1996 as a joint effort by special operations medical personnel and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. The product of that 3-year research project was TCCC, the first-ever set of battlefield trauma care guidelines designed to combine good medicine with good small-unit tactics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions? (United States)

    Smith, James L; Liu, Yanhong; Paoli, George C


    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms that enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments, such as that of acidic foods and the gastrointestinal tract. One mechanism employed by L. monocytogenes for survival at low pH is the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) in which a short adaptive period at a nonlethal pH induces metabolic changes that allow the organism to survive a lethal pH. Overcoming acid conditions by L. monocytogenes involves a variety of regulatory responses, including the LisRK 2-component regulatory system, the SOS response, components of the σ(B) regulon, changes in membrane fluidity, the F0F1-ATPase proton pump, and at least 2 enzymatic systems that regulate internal hydrogen ion concentration (glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase). It is not clear if these mechanisms exert their protective effects separately or in concert, but it is probable that these mechanisms overlap. Studies using mutants indicate that the glutamate decarboxylase system can protect L. monocytogenes when the organism is present in acidic juices, yogurt, salad dressing, mayonnaise, and modified CO2 atmospheres. The glutamate decarboxylase system also has a role in protecting L. monocytogenes against the acidic environment of the stomach. There is a need to study other acid resistance mechanisms of L. monocytogenes to determine their effectiveness in protecting the organism in acidic foods or during transit through the acid stomach.

  10. Flow confirmation study for central venous port in oncologic outpatient undergoing chemotherapy: Evaluation of suspected system-related mechanical complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: [Divisions of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Yoshito [Divisions of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)


    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of a flow confirmation study (FCS) in oncologic outpatients undergoing chemotherapy suspected of a central venous port (CVP) system-related mechanical complication. Materials and methods: A total of 66 patients (27 men, 39 women; mean age, 60 years) received FCS for the following reasons: prolonged infusion time during chemotherapy (n = 32), inability to inject saline fluid (n = 15), lateral neck and/or back pain (n = 6), subcutaneous extravasation of anticancer drug (n = 5), arm swelling (n = 4), and inability to puncture the port (n = 4). FCS consisted of examining the position of CVP, potential secondary shifts or fractures, and integrity of the system using contrast material through the port. Results: Of the 66 patients, 43 had an abnormal finding uncovered by FCS. The most frequent abnormal findings was catheter kinking (n = 22). Explantation and reimplantation of the CVP system was required in 21 of the 66 patients. Remaining 45 patients were able continue using the CVP system after the FCS without any system malfunction. Conclusion: FCS was effective for evaluating CVP system-related mechanical complications and was useful for deciding whether CVP system explantation and reimplantation was required.

  11. Combat Stories Map: A Historical Repository and After Action Tool for Capturing, Storing, and Analyzing Georeferenced Individual Combat Narratives (United States)


    JLLP Joint Lessons Learned Program MGRS Military Grid Reference System NPS Naval Postgraduate School SEAL Sea , Air, and Land SOF Special Operations...surrounded the contractors, set fire to their vehicles, dragged the dead bodies from the burning vehicles, beat them, then hanged two of the corpses...of their combat experience on the map view, they zoom into specific locations with the scroll wheel on the mouse or by using the + / - symbol located

  12. Rewarding Air Combat Behavior in Training Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toubman, Armon; Roessingh, Jan Joris; Spronck, Pieter; Plaat, Aske; van den Herik, H.J.


    Computer generated forces (CGFs) inhabiting air combat training simulations must show realistic and adaptive behavior to effectively perform their roles as allies and adversaries. In earlier work, behavior for these CGFs was successfully generated using reinforcement learning. However, due to

  13. Innovative contracting strategies for combating climate change. (United States)


    The state of Maryland has made a strong commitment to combating climate change and reducing : greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigated the state of practice of innovative contracting : solutions to reduce emissions from highway constructi...

  14. Combat Neurosis in the Battered Teacher. (United States)

    Science News, 1978


    Investigates the effect of school violence on classroom teachers. The study of 253 Los Angeles inner city classroom teachers reveals that many of them have developed conditions similar to the combat neurosis found in soldiers at war. (HM)

  15. Combat climat change with competetive photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeyron, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Zietek, G.


    Photovoltaics (PV) offer a promising solution for CO2 emission reductions and climate change combat. However, before its wide spread on the market, PV needs to find new approaches to make solar cells competitive with respect to conventional electricity sources.

  16. Designing a Public Web-Based Information System to Illustrate and Disseminate the Development and Results of the DESIRE Project to Combat Desertification (United States)

    Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna


    Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land—a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online `Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS.

  17. Designing a public web-based information system to illustrate and disseminate the development and results of the DESIRE Project to combat desertification. (United States)

    Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna


    Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land-a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online 'Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS.

  18. Status and tendencies in combating computer crime at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana


    Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved

  19. Lessons Worth Remembering: Combat In Urban Areas (United States)


    Lessons Worth Remembering: Combat in Urban Areas A Monograph by MAJ Ron Hernandez...Monograph June 20 15 - .tv1ay 20 16 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Lessons Worth Remembering: Combat in Urban Areas Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc...alarming rate. In 1950, twenty-nine percent of the world’s population lived in urban areas. Today, this statistic stands at fifty-four percent. By 2030

  20. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan


    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  1. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini


    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.

  2. Combate sistemático de formigas-cortadeiras com iscas granuladas, em eucaliptais com cultivo mínimo Systematic control of leaf-cutting ants in areas with eucalyptus stands under minimum cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência do combate sistemático de formigas-cortadeiras em áreas de reforma de eucalipto com cultivo mínimo, na Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A., em Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais, de setembro a dezembro de 1996. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de uma isca granulada com sulfluramida (0,3% de forma sistemática, a granel ou com microporta-iscas, na dosagem de 5 g a cada 6 m² e 10 g a cada 12 m², respectivamente. A mortalidade das colônias de formigas-cortadeiras foi avaliada 30 dias após a aplicação da isca. Foram encontradas até 396,3, 285,2, 59,3, 55,6, 29,6 e 14,8 colônias de Mycocepurus goeldii, Sericomyrmex sp., Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans, Atta spp., Acromyrmex balzani e Acromyrmex niger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae por hectare, respectivamente. A eficiência da isca granulada no combate sistemático variou com o método empregado e com a espécie de formiga-cortadeira. A maior eficiência foi obtida para A. subterraneus molestans, com 69,2% de suas colônias mortas com a isca aplicada a granel e 62,5% com microporta-iscas, o que indica que a distribuição entre dois pontos com isca nos plantios de eucalipto foi maior que a área de forrageamento das formigas-cortadeiras encontradas e, ou, que a dosagem aplicada por ponto foi insuficiente.The efficiency of a systematic application of baits against leaf-cutting ants was evaluated in a eucalypus plantation under a minimum cultivation system, in areas owned by Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A. (CENIBRA, in Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from September to December 1996. Treatments consisted of applying a granulated bait with sulfluramide (0.3% in a systematic manner in bulk and plastic bags at a dose of five grams every 6 m² (T1 and 10 grams at each 12 m² (T2. Mortality of colonies of leaf-cutting ants was evaluated 30 days after bait application. A. maximum of 396.3; 285.2; 59.3; 55.6; 29.6 and 14.8 colonies of Mycocepurus goeldii, Sericomyrmex sp

  3. Dermatologists combat leprosy in Yemen. (United States)

    al-Qubati, Y; al-Kubati, A S


    Leprosy has been prevalent in Yemen for many years. The ostracization and stigmatization of leprosy patients are well documented in the yemeni literature. No control activities were carried out until 1980. To document the development of leprosy control activities in the Republic of Yemen during the period from 1982 to 1996. The dermatologists in Yemen used various methods, including the media, to fight the stigma of leprosy and thus to mobilize the community for the reintegration of leprosy patients. They sought support from international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to start mobile teams all over the country. The support of the German Leprosy Relief Association (GLRA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) enabled the National Leprosy Control Program (NLCP) to reach people in remote areas. The prevalence of leprosy has declined from 1.9 per 10,000 population in 1989 to 0.5 per 10,000 population in 1996. The stigma associated with leprosy also extends to other skin diseases. To combat this stigma, various methods, such as health education, training of medical personnel, and mass treatment for skin diseases, have been used.

  4. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering


    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  5. Strategies for combating dental anxiety. (United States)

    Bare, Lyndsay C; Dundes, Lauren


    Dental anxiety and subsequent avoidance of dental care and deterioration of oral health pose a significant problem for the dental profession. In an attempt to elucidate preferences of anxious dental patients, we gathered survey data from 121 persons at a small, private liberal arts college in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Half of the respondents experienced dental anxiety, and most of these (66 percent) attributed anxiety to fear of anticipated pain. The majority of anxious patients preferred a dentist to be friendly (93 percent), talkative (82 percent), and to have an office with adorned walls (89 percent) and a slightly cool temperature (63 percent). Patients who identified themselves as anxious also indicated that music in the background (89 percent) and magazines and books in the dental office (75 percent) were helpful. Anxious patients were more likely than non-anxious patients to prefer a male dentist (77 percent versus 52 percent). This finding was especially marked among anxious male respondents, 93 percent of whom preferred a male dentist compared to 73 percent of anxious female respondents. These survey data may assist dental professionals in understanding and combating patients' dental anxiety, in order to increase the frequency of dental visits and to prompt a corresponding restoration or maintenance of oral health.

  6. A family study of PTSD : occurrence and correlates of internalizing disorders in children of OIF/OEF soldiers with combat posttraumatic stress disorder


    Letamendi, Andrea M.


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among U.S. combatants who are deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom conflicts (OIF/OEF). Combat PTSD has been shown to be associated with impaired social, occupational, and physical functioning. An understudied area of research is how PTSD from combat affects interpersonal functioning at the family level. Of particular vulnerability to disruption in relational systems is the paren...

  7. Combating gender based violence in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Gahongayire


    Full Text Available Gender Based Violence (GBV exists in Rwanda as in many other African societies. Efforts are being made by Governments and NGOs to curb the menace and help its victims. This study examines these efforts with particular reference to the city of Kigali in Rwanda. The study reveals the prevalence and various strategies used by government and other organisations in combating the practice of GBV. According to the study effective response to the plight of GBV victims depends on the competence and expertise of various individuals and organisations involved in giving assistance to victims. The establishment of a one-stop assistance centre for GBV services in Kigali has successfully given much needed aid to victims. The study recommends that in order to eradicate GBV all the stakeholders should utilize available resources. Logistical, economic and socio-cultural constraints should be dealt with accordingly. Above all, the judiciary has a crucial role to play. An effective judicial system is needed to curb the practice.

  8. Phytochemicals from plants to combat cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Vasanthi, H R; ShriShriMal, N; Das, D K


    For many decades, the use of synthetic chemicals as drugs has been effective in the treatment of most diseases. Moreover, from ancient to modern history, many traditional plant based medicines are playing an important role in health care. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, aromatic plants, leaves, flowers and roots which act as a defense system to combat against diseases. The phytochemicals from natural products cover a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organosulphur compounds and vitamins. A number of bioactive compounds generally obtained from terrestrial plants such as isoflavones, diosgenin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, sulforaphane, tocotrienols and carotenoids are proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and aid in cardioprotection which is the leading cause of death globally. The cardioprotective effects of the various phytochemicals are perhaps due to their antioxidative, antihypercholesteroemic, antiangiogenic, anti-ischemic, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti inflammatory activities that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The multi-faceted role of the phytochemicals is mediated by its structure-function relationship and can be considered as leads for cardiovascular drug design in future. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on selected phytochemicals as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in cardioprotection.

  9. Mental and Physical Health Conditions in US Combat Veterans: Results From the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa M; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Tsai, Jack; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H


    To identify sociodemographic and military characteristics of combat-exposed and non-combat-exposed veterans in the United States and to compare rates of mental and physical health conditions in these populations. Data were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a contemporary, nationally representative survey of 1,480 US veterans conducted September-October 2013. Poststratification weights were applied to analyses to permit generalizability of results to the US veteran population. Outcomes measured included lifetime and current psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions. A total 38% of US veterans reported being exposed to combat. Compared to noncombat veterans, combat veterans were younger, had greater household income, and served a greater number of years in the military; were more likely to be male, to have served in the Marine Corps, and to use the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System as their main source of health care; and reported a greater number of lifetime potentially traumatic events. After adjustment for these sociodemographic and military differences, combat veterans were more than 3 times as likely as noncombat veterans to screen positive for lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and more than twice as likely for current PTSD and had 82% greater odds of screening positive for current generalized anxiety disorder. After additionally controlling for lifetime diagnoses of PTSD and depression, alcohol or drug use disorder, and nicotine dependence, combat veterans had 68% greater odds of having attempted suicide and 85% and 38% greater odds of being diagnosed with a stroke and chronic pain, respectively. Younger combat veterans were more likely than older combat veterans to screen positive for lifetime (30.6% vs 10.1%) and current PTSD (19.2% vs 4.9%) and suicidal ideation (18.6% vs 6.9%) and to have been diagnosed with migraine headaches (12.8% vs 2.1%), while older combat veterans were more likely than

  10. Monitoring the diffusion behavior of Na,K-ATPase by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) upon fluorescence labelling with eGFP or Dreiklang (United States)

    Junghans, Cornelia; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Vukojević, Vladana; Friedrich, Thomas


    Measurement of lateral mobility of membraneembedded proteins in living cells with high spatial and temporal precision is a challenging task of optofluidics. Biological membranes are complex structures, whose physico-chemical properties depend on the local lipid composition, cholesterol content and the presence of integral or peripheral membrane proteins, which may be involved in supramolecular complexes or are linked to cellular matrix proteins or the cytoskeleton. The high proteinto- lipid ratios in biomembranes indicate that membrane proteins are particularly subject to molecular crowding, making it difficult to follow the track of individual molecules carrying a fluorescence label. Novel switchable fluorescence proteins such as Dreiklang [1], are, in principle, promising tools to study the diffusion behavior of individual molecules in situations of molecular crowding due to excellent spectral control of the ON- and OFF-switching process. In this work, we expressed an integral membrane transport protein, the Na,K-ATPase comprising the human α2-subunit carrying an N-terminal eGFP or Dreiklang tag and human β1-subunit, in HEK293T cells and measured autocorrelation curves by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Furthermore,we measured diffusion times and diffusion constants of eGFP and Dreiklang by FCS, first, in aqueous solution after purification of the proteins upon expression in E. coli, and, second, upon expression as soluble proteins in the cytoplasm of HEK293T cells. Our data show that the diffusion behavior of the purified eGFP and Dreiklang in solution as well as the properties of the proteins expressed in the cytoplasm are very similar. However, the autocorrelation curves of eGFP- and Dreiklanglabeled Na,K-ATPase measured in the plasma membrane exhibit marked differences, with the Dreiklang-labeled construct showing shorter diffusion times. This may be related to an additional, as yet unrecognized quenching process that occurs on the same time

  11. Army Transformation and the Future Combat System (United States)


    with teams of anthropologists, propagandists and civil-affairs officers armed with democracy-in-a-box kits and volleyball nets.”315 He argued that the...the defeat of the Macedonian phalanx by the “ agile ” Roman Legions in 200 B.C.331 He argues that Roman Legions with 5,000 troops defeated the larger

  12. Prehospital Cricothyrotomy Kits Used in Combat. (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Cunningham, Cord W; Long, Adrianna N; Carter, Robert


    Surgical cricothyrotomy remains the only definitive airway management modality for the tactical setting recommended by Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines. Some units have fielded commercial cricothyrotomy kits to assist Combat Medics with surgical cricothyrotomy. To our knowledge, no previous publications report data on the use of these kits in combat settings. This series reports the the use of two kits in four patients in the prehospital combat setting. Using the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and the Prehospital Trauma Registry, we identified four cases of patients who underwent prehospital cricothyrotomy with the use of commercial kits. In the first two cases, a Medic successfully used a North American Rescue CricKit (NARCK) to obtain a surgical airway in a Servicemember with multiple amputations from an improvised explosive device explosion. In case 3, the Medic unsuccessfully used an H&H Medical kit to attempt placement of a surgical airway in a Servicemember shot in the head by small arms fire. A second attempt to place a surgical airway using a NARCK was successful. In case 4, a Soldier sustained a gunshot wound to the chest. A Medic described fluid in the airway precluding bag-valve-mask ventilation; the Medic attempted to place a surgical airway with the H&H kit without success. Four cases of prehospital surgical airway cannulation on the battlefield demonstrated three successful uses of prehospital cricothyrotomy kits. Further research should focus on determining which kits may be most useful in the combat setting. 2017.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti


    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  14. Building Software Tools for Combat Modeling and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuanxin, Chen


    ... (Meta-Language for Combat Simulations) and its associated parser and C++ code generator were designed to reduce the amount of time and developmental efforts needed to build sophisticated real world combat simulations. A C++...

  15. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siem, Frederick M; Murray, Michael W


    .... The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multicomponent model of pilot combat performance...

  16. Battlefield Stress: Pre-Conditioning Soldiers for Combat (United States)


    CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if neceasary and identify by block number) FIELD GROU SUB-ROUPBattlefield Stress , Sti-asso Battle Fatigue ...war neurosis, psychoneurosis, combat fatigue , combat exhaustion, combat reactioiw, stress reaction, battle stress reaction, and battle fatigue.t2-14...8217ue. Battle fatigue is defined as "...negative combat stress reactions with uncoafortable ftelings And performance degradation. The term itself does

  17. Combat Stress and Its Impacts for Fighter Squadron Commanders. (United States)


    combat stress . The modern battlefield, its array of lethal threats, and the likely fast-paced tempo with its fatiguing effects will challenge the...Over the years the names have included "war neurosis," "combat fatigue ," "combat reaction," "battle stress reaction," "combat exhaustion," "transient... fatigue and stress that are likely to occur in continuous (24 hoiir) operations. Other related publications include Field Circular 22-102, Soldier Team

  18. Switzerland and efforts to combat the financing of terrorism


    de Watteville, Jacques


    Combating international terrorism has long been one of Switzerland's main concerns. Furthermore Switzerland has worked closely with other nations in combating terrorism and will continue to do so in future, both in the context of international treaties and on the basis of the law on mutual assistance in criminal matters. International co-operation to combat the financing of terrorism is taking place at several levels. The instruments for combating money laundering are also important for comba...

  19. Similarities/Differences in Combat/Peacetime Leadership (United States)


    similarities and differences in the way a leader must lead. This paper is a study of peacetime and combat leadership in today’s Army using Operations Desert...and safety; family support; and transition from peace to combat. The author concludes that leadership in peacetime and combat is very similar in 20... SIMILARITIES /DIFFERENCES IN COMBAT/PEACETIME LEADERSHIP AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth R. Knight, FA Accesion For NTIS CR&I J TiC TAB

  20. Understanding and combating resistance to online learning. (United States)

    Vivolo, John


    Resistance to change is an easy thing for human beings to understand. It is at the heart of our desire to find comfort with the familiar such as family, friends and our homes. We create homes that are designed a certain way and usually are slow to change. We make friends for years and keep those memories etched in stone, even though time and age create a romanticised version of the past. Change scares us so much that we reflect on our past, the old days, with such reverence that we paint over the ugly parts. However, we still talk about how change is good. Consider our institutionalised method of learning that has existed for centuries and involved people sitting learning from another person in a physical space. Then, suddenly in the last 20 years, there is a complete change and almost every major institution in the United States and many around the world decided to offer a new method of learning. Enter online learning. It becomes a sudden disruption to a traditional system. It is not surprising that there has been resistance from faculty, students and administrators. Even in the face of evidence that online learning works as effectively as traditional onsite learning, still people resist. Oddly enough, the resistance can come from those who base their careers on facts and research, but continue to ignore the evidence. Even performance results get ignored. While this article will address the source of resistance to online learning, it will focus primarily on how to combat this resistance within an organisation or institution.

  1. Ground Combat Study: Summary of Analysis (United States)


    between complex adaptive and conven- tional combat models, M. K. Lauren, New Zeland Army Defence Operational Technology Support Establishment Report 169...Nov 99 [7] Exploring the Recce-counter Recce Scenario with ISAAC, M. K. Lauren and D. L. Baigent, New Zeland Army Defence Opera- tional Technology...22 Stochastic models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A new approach


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A LEGAL APPROACH TO COMBATING TERRORISM: MODERN DIMENSION*. Abstract. Terrorism is a behavioural flu plaguing the entire world at an alarming rate. Legal prescriptions based on legal prognosis have been in the form of application of sanctions directed against terrorists. Additionally, a hostile attitude to ...

  3. In Mortal Combat: Korea, 1950-1953

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elegant, Robert


    ... has provided it. In Mortal Combat is a triumphant vindication of the often derided technique of recreating history by the paper-and-ink equivalent of brief film clips with voice-overs by hundreds of participants in a great event. The hypothetical average reader should emerge from its more than six hundred pages with a graphic view of the w...

  4. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.


    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  5. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work? (United States)

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred


    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  6. Combat Search and Rescue in Desert Storm (United States)


    patches were removed. We wear our dog tags. Personal weapons are carried.”24 One day prior to combat, the Saratoga received a shipment of the new...from parallel track to twenty, second trail, and since Jane’s All The World’s Fireworks Displays was now in the twelve o’clock, it became apparent

  7. Africanity: A Combative Ontology | Mafeje | CODESRIA Bulletin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africanity: A Combative Ontology. Archie Mafeje. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy ...

  8. Why Combatting Teachers' Stress Is Everyone's Job (United States)

    Clement, Mary


    Teacher stressors and the effects of stressors on teachers' decisions to remain in the profession are reviewed in this article. A discussion of what teachers can do to combat their stress and perform their duties for longevity in the classroom includes practical and researched strategies. Teachers cannot be expected to resolve all the issues of…

  9. Aviators, Air Combat, and Combat Stress: An Air Force Commander’s Primer (United States)


    responses to the problems of combat fatigue or psychological collapse during the history of air war. While stress and battle shock casualties are...and organizational responses to the problems of combat fatigue or psychological collapse during the history of air war. While stress and battle shock...their self- respect, and their instinct for self-preservation. 3 5 19 THE MANIFESTATIONS OF STRESS Stress , primarily in the form of fatigue and fear

  10. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Goran


    Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.

  11. Electronic Combat Integrated Test Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... and evaluating weapons systems hardware and software in a controlled ground test environment. These facilities consist of anechoic chambers connected to various simulation and instrumentation laboratories...

  12. Examining the role of combat loss among Vietnam War Veterans. (United States)

    Currier, Joseph M; Holland, Jason M


    Military combat often presents service members with a dual burden of coping with traumas of various types while also grappling with the deaths of close personal friends. At present, much less is known about the effects of bereavement in the context of war compared to other combat-related stressors. Studying a sample of combat veterans from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS), we examined the contribution of combat loss in psychological functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When controlling for gender, age, ethnicity, educational background, exposure to nonbereavement combat stressors, and recent bereavement experiences, combat loss was uniquely associated with past and current functional impairments among the veterans, βs = .07 and .06, respectively, but was not related to the severity of PTSD. These findings highlight that combat loss might act as a uniquely challenging stressor among many service members and more empirical research is needed on this topic. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Future Directions In Close Combat (United States)

    Fowler, Bruce W.


    The most important process in the development of weapons technology is the formulation of weapon systems concepts that satisfy the requirements and needs of the user and thus elicit his active support. The process of concept formulation is sketched.

  14. Offshore Wind Farms and HVDC Grids Modeling as a Feedback Control System for Stability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit

    control schemes and may lead the entire system to instability. Assessing the stability and adopting complex coordinated control schemes in an HVDC grid and wind farm turbines are challenging and require a precise model of the HVDC grid, wind farm, and the controllers. In this paper, a linear multivariable...... feedback control system (FCS) model is proposed to represent the dynamic characteristics of HVDC grids and their controllers. The FCS model can be used for different dynamic analyses in time and frequency domains. Moreover, using the FCS model the system stability is analyzed in both open- and closed......-loop forms. The standard eigenanalysis identifies the modes of only the closed-loop system and detects the pertaining state variables. The open-loop model, in the frequency domain, is a complementary tool that helps to have more intuitive insight into the system stability. A four terminal HVDC grid with two...

  15. New approaches to combat Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms (United States)

    Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan


    ABSTRACT In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented. In addition, oral infectious diseases in which P. gingivalis plays a key role are described, and an overview of conventional and new therapies for combating P. gingivalis biofilms is given. More insight into this intriguing pathogen might direct the development of better strategies to combat oral infections. PMID:28473880

  16. Using agility to combat cyber attacks. (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry


    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  17. Combat Stress and Substance Use Intervention (United States)


    behavioral reactions. • Estimated 20% to 30% of US military personnel returning from combat operations report significant psychological symptoms...capability and readiness. Studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of brief interventions (BIs) in civilian settings with regard to many behaviors ...and the consequences of behavior and have found BIs to be cost-effective. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two Web

  18. Building Partner Capacity Through Combat Training Centers (United States)


    collective training events at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center (JMRC) maneuver combat training center in Hohenfels , Germany, which is part of... Hohenfels , Germany. Additionally, the U.S. Army established the Battle Command Training Program at Fort Leavenworth to improve 17 proficiency of division...facilities in Grafenweohr and Hohenfels , Germany and by providing training to other locations in Europe. More importantly, 7A JMTC capabilities

  19. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention (United States)


    personnel about the use of substances as a poor coping mechanism for combat and operational stress reactions (COSRs) and (2) boost resilience to COSRs...private and convenient approach and should facilitate access to care by reducing the stigma and common barriers associated with seeking treatment. 15...including COSRs).  Studies with soldiers have found that symptoms increase 3 to 6 months after returning home.  Perceived stigma often keeps

  20. Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat Specific PTSD Treatment (United States)


    cognitive - behavioral therapy strategies packaged and sequenced to target the three high base-rate combat and operational traumas, namely, determine whether AD is as least as effective as CPT, cognitive only version (CPT-C), in terms of its impact on deployment-related psychological ...Bryant, R. A. (2009). Early cognitive - behavioral interventions for adults. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, M. J. Friedman, J. A. Cohen, E. B. Foa, T. M

  1. Reintegration of Former Combatants in Sri Lanka (United States)


    successful was the Sri Lankan process in reintegrating ex-combatants to the society. It became evident that only a holistic comparison between various... reintegration processes would assist in understanding the success - failure of the Sri Lankan process. Therefore, the researcher selected three...developed by International Labor Organization and cross -case synthesis technique to assess success or failure. According to the analysis the Sri Lankan

  2. Integration of information operations in combat


    Quick, Christopher R.


    The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the U.S. military is fully integrating information operations in combat operations. Using the organizational theories of Henry Mintzberg and the work of Richard Daft as one frame of reference, and the information theories of Claude Shannon, John Diebold, and Martin Libicki as the second frame of reference, this thesis produced testable propositions to determine which theory had a greater ability to explain the degree of integration as seen ...

  3. Combat-Related Pelvis Fractures in Nonsurvivors (United States)


    injuries seen in civilian trauma.1–3 Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) remain the most common mechanism of injury followed by falls, motorcycle collisions ...455. 11. Stein D, O’Connor J, Kufera J, et al. Risk factors associated with pelvic fractures sustained in motor vehicle collisions involving newer...military combat mortalities.21 All demographic factors in the study were summarized using percentages. A 2 test was used to compare frequencies of

  4. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks (United States)

    Cox, Anne J.


    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  5. Complex Analysis of Combat in Afghanistan (United States)


    la nature des combats en Afghanistan, telle qu’elle a été observée par les forces de l’OTAN, présente un caractère statistiquement fractal. Dans tous...des affrontements quotidiens suit une nette tendance à la hausse. Les données témoignent d’une intermittence, d’une dépendance statistique à long

  6. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress (United States)


    attention to recruiting women.13 Second, the movement for equal rights for women led to demands for equal opportunity in all occupational fields...being the only woman in a unit.”164 In past gender integration efforts, the services have sought to assign senior female officers and...arms unit or those women laterally transferring into a combat arms unit.169 Selective Service Many of those who emphasize equal rights say it is more

  7. Management of combat-related facial injuries. (United States)

    Mardassi, Ali; Turki, Senda; Mbarek, Hajer; Hachicha, Amani; Chebbi, Ghassen; Benzarti, Sonia; Abouda, Maher


    Combat-related facial injuries involve various lesions of the mouth, the eye sockets and the facial bones. The goal of this study is to precise the particularities of these affections and their therapeutic management. A retrospective study was performed about 56 cases of combat-related facial injuries over a period of 5 years (2010 - 2014). Our study included 56 male patients with an average age of 29 years (20-37). The trauma occurred during a real security intervention in all the cases. It was isolated in 18 cases and associated to other lesions in 38 cases. Clinical examination revealed facial edema (57%), facial cuts and lacerations (74%), broken teeth (14%), nasal deformation (26%), skin defect (16%) and periorbital ecchymosis (32%). The diagnosis retained after clinical examination and imaging exams were:  fractures of the mandible (34 cases), of the eye sockets (18 cases), of the nasal bones (15 cases), parotid gland injury (5 cases) and facial arterial injuries in (24 cases). The treatment was surgical in all the cases: stabilization of fractured segments (43 cases), suture of facial and vascular lacerations (51 cases), reduction of nasal fractures (15 cases), and reposition of teeth dislocations (35 cases). The evolution was good in 34 cases. The functional sequelae noted were ophthalmic (7 cases), dental abnormal occlusions (11 cases), residual trismus (4 cases) and facial palsy in 2 cases. Combat related facial injuries must be diagnosed and treated early to prevent the functional and, sometimes, life-threatening damages dues to those lesions.

  8. Airway Management in Severe Combat Maxillofacial Trauma. (United States)

    Keller, Matthew W; Han, Peggy P; Galarneau, Michael R; Brigger, Matthew T


    Airway stabilization is critical in combat maxillofacial injury as normal anatomical landmarks can be obscured. The study objective was to characterize the epidemiology of airway management in maxillofacial trauma. Retrospective database analysis. Military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and stateside tertiary care centers. In total, 1345 military personnel with combat-related maxillofacial injuries sustained March 2004 to August 2010 were identified from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Descriptive statistics, including basic demographics, injury severity, associated injuries, and airway interventions, were collected. A logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with the need for tracheostomy. A total of 239 severe maxillofacial injuries were identified. The most common mechanism of injury was improvised explosive devices (66%), followed by gunshot wounds (8%), mortars (5%), and landmines (4%). Of the subjects, 51.4% required intubation on their initial presentation. Of tracheostomies, 30.4% were performed on initial presentation. Of those who underwent bronchoscopy, 65.2% had airway inhalation injury. There was a significant relationship between the presence of head and neck burn and association with airway inhalation injury (P maxillofacial fracture and the need for tracheostomy (P = .0001). There is a high incidence of airway injury in combat maxillofacial trauma, which may be underestimated. Airway management in this population requires a high degree of suspicion and low threshold for airway stabilization. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. Remote operation of the Black Knight unmanned ground combat vehicle (United States)

    Valois, Jean-Sebastien; Herman, Herman; Bares, John; Rice, David P.


    The Black Knight is a 12-ton, C-130 deployable Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle (UGCV). It was developed to demonstrate how unmanned vehicles can be integrated into a mechanized military force to increase combat capability while protecting Soldiers in a full spectrum of battlefield scenarios. The Black Knight is used in military operational tests that allow Soldiers to develop the necessary techniques, tactics, and procedures to operate a large unmanned vehicle within a mechanized military force. It can be safely controlled by Soldiers from inside a manned fighting vehicle, such as the Bradley Fighting Vehicle. Black Knight control modes include path tracking, guarded teleoperation, and fully autonomous movement. Its state-of-the-art Autonomous Navigation Module (ANM) includes terrain-mapping sensors for route planning, terrain classification, and obstacle avoidance. In guarded teleoperation mode, the ANM data, together with automotive dials and gages, are used to generate video overlays that assist the operator for both day and night driving performance. Remote operation of various sensors also allows Soldiers to perform effective target location and tracking. This document covers Black Knight's system architecture and includes implementation overviews of the various operation modes. We conclude with lessons learned and development goals for the Black Knight UGCV.

  10. Long-term disabilities associated with combat casualties: measuring disability and reintegration in combat veterans. (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Reiber, Gayle


    Many physical and mental health problems associated with combat casualties affect the reintegration of service members into home and community life. Quantifying and measuring reintegration is important to answer questions about clinical, research, economic, and policy issues that directly affect combat veterans. Although the construct of participation presented in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a theoretical framework with which to understand and measure community reintegration in general, a measure was needed that specifically addressed the reintegration of combat veterans. To address this need, the Community Reintegration for Service Members global outcomes measure was developed. It consists of three scales, which measure extent of participation, perceived limitations, and satisfaction. The measure was validated in a general sample of veterans and in a sample of severely wounded service members. The computer-adapted test version shows good precision, reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity.

  11. Bifunctional capsular dosage form: novel fanicular cylindrical gastroretentive system of clarithromycin and immediate release granules of ranitidine HCl for simultaneous delivery. (United States)

    Rajput, Pallavi; Singh, Deshvir; Pathak, Kamla


    The study was aimed to develop a bifunctional single unit capsular system containing gastroretentive funicular cylindrical system (FCS) for controlled local delivery of clarithromycin and immediate release of ranitidine HCl. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to prepare gastroretentive FCS of clarithromycin using polyacrylamide (PAM), HPMC E15LV and Carbopol 934 P. The FCSs were evaluated for % cumulative drug release, floating time and in vitro detachment stress. Among the eight formulations, FCS5 (containing PAM and Carbopol 934 P at high and HPMC E15LV at low levels) showed % cumulative drug release of 97.09±1.14% in 8 h, floating time of 3 h and detachment stress of 8303.64±0.34 dynes/cm(2). Evaluation of optimized FCS by novel dynamic in vitro test proved superior bioadhesivity than cylindrical system under aggressive simulated peristaltic activity. Magnetic resonance imaging elucidated zero order release via constant swelling and erosion of FCS5. In vitro permeability across gastric mucin ensured its potential for effective eradication of deep seated Helicobactor pylori in gastric linings. The optimized FCS was combined with immediate release granules of rantidine HCl to get a bifunctional capsular dosage form. In vitro simultaneous drug release of clarithromycin and rantidine estimated by Vierordt's method exhibited a controlled drug release of 97.72±0.4% in 8 h for clarithromycin through FCS5 and 98.8±1.2% in 60 min from IR granules of ranitidine HCl. The novel system thus established its capability of simultaneous variable delivery of acid suppression agent and macrolide antibiotic that can be advantageous in clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Network Centric Operations (NCO) Case Study: Stryker Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    General (Retired) E.K. Stryker Brigade Combat Team Project Management Office . <, Page A01 Stryker Brigade Combat Team Project Management Office . (2005). IAV Family of Vehicles. From <>, accessed 5 April 2005. Stryker Brigade Combat Team Project Management Office . (2005). Welcome to the SBCT

  13. Current and Recent Advanced Strategies for Combating Biofilms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadekuzzaman, M; Yang, S; Mizan, M.F.R; Ha, S.D


    .... There are several conventional approaches to combating biofilms, physical and/or mechanical removal, chemical removal, and the use of antimicrobials, sanitizers, or disinfectants to kill biofilm organisms...

  14. Joint Doctrine for Airspace Control in the Combat Zone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Airspace control as described in this publication includes the varied airspace of the combat zone foreign continent, high seas, amphibious objective area, littoral, or the North American Continent...

  15. DKIST facility management system integration (United States)

    White, Charles R.; Phelps, LeEllen


    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Observatory is under construction at Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i. When complete, the DKIST will be the largest solar telescope in the world. The Facility Management System (FMS) is a subsystem of the high-level Facility Control System (FCS) and directly controls the Facility Thermal System (FTS). The FMS receives operational mode information from the FCS while making process data available to the FCS and includes hardware and software to integrate and control all aspects of the FTS including the Carousel Cooling System, the Telescope Chamber Environmental Control Systems, and the Temperature Monitoring System. In addition it will integrate the Power Energy Management System and several service systems such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), the Domestic Water Distribution System, and the Vacuum System. All of these subsystems must operate in coordination to provide the best possible observing conditions and overall building management. Further, the FMS must actively react to varying weather conditions and observational requirements. The physical impact of the facility must not interfere with neighboring installations while operating in a very environmentally and culturally sensitive area. The FMS system will be comprised of five Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs). We present a pre-build overview of the functional plan to integrate all of the FMS subsystems.

  16. Aggregation behavior of amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers studied by FCS and EPR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Kurzbach, Dennis; Koynov, Kaloian; Hinderberger, Dariush; Zentel, Rudolf


    A combined study of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy gave a unique picture of p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers in aqueous solutions, ranging from the size of micelles and aggregates to the composition of the interior of these self-assembled systems. P(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers have shown high potential as brain drug delivery systems, and a detailed study of their physicochemical properties can help to elucidate their mechanism of action. Applying two complementary techniques, we found that the self-assembly behavior as well as the strength of hydrophobic attraction of the amphiphilic copolymers can be tuned by the hydrophobic LMA content or the presence of hydrophobic molecules or domains. Studies on the dependence of the hydrophobic lauryl side chain content on the aggregation behavior revealed that above 5 mol % laury side-chain copolymers self-assemble into intrachain micelles and larger aggregates. Above this critical alkyl chain content, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers can solubilize the model drug domperidone and exhibit the tendency to interact with model cell membranes.

  17. Combat Readiness for the Modern Military Surgeon: Data from a Decade of Combat Operations (United States)


    of cases on US service members, allied nation ser- vice members, civilian contractors, enemy combatants, and local nationals. Numerous medical and...Illinois, in September 2011. Address for reprints: Joshua A. Tyler, MD, Department of General Surgery, San Antonio Military Medical Center, MCHE- SDG , 3851

  18. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history. (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L


    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla


    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  20. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation (United States)

    Hawley, L. R.


    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  1. Phage display creates innovative applications to combat hepatitis B virus (United States)

    Tan, Wen Siang; Ho, Kok Lian


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has killed countless lives in human history. The invention of HBV vaccines in the 20th century has reduced significantly the rate of the viral infection. However, currently there is no effective treatment for chronic HBV carriers. Newly emerging vaccine escape mutants and drug resistant strains have complicated the viral eradication program. The entire world is now facing a new threat of HBV and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Could phage display provide solutions to these life-threatening problems? This article reviews critically and comprehensively the innovative and potential applications of phage display in the development of vaccines, therapeutic agents, diagnostic reagents, as well as gene and drug delivery systems to combat HBV. The application of phage display in epitope mapping of HBV antigens is also discussed in detail. Although this review mainly focuses on HBV, the innovative applications of phage display could also be extended to other infectious diseases. PMID:25206271

  2. Incidence and morbidity of concomitant spine fractures in combat-related amputees. (United States)

    Bevevino, Adam J; Lehman, Ronald A; Tintle, Scott M; Kang, Daniel G; Dworak, Theodora C; Potter, Benjamin K


    High-energy blasts are the most frequent cause of combat-related amputations in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). The nondiscriminating effects of this mechanism often result in both appendicular and axial skeletal injuries. Despite this recognized coincident injury pattern, the incidence and consequence of spine fractures in trauma-related combat amputees are unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence and morbidity of the associated spine fractures on patients with traumatic lower extremity amputation sustained during OIF/OEF. Retrospective case control. Two hundred twenty-six combat-related lower extremity amputees presenting to a single institution and injured between 2003 and 2008 were included for analysis. Physiologic and functional outcome measures were used to determine the influence of spine fractures on combat amputees. Physiologic measures included intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates, injury severity score (ISS), rate of narcotic/neuropathic pain use, and heterotopic ossification (HO) rates. Functional outcome measures included return-to-duty rates and ambulatory status at final follow-up. Data from 300 consecutive combat-related lower extremity amputations were retrospectively reviewed and grouped. Group 1 consisted of amputees with associated spine fractures, and Group 2 consisted of amputees without spine fractures. The results of the two groups were compared with regard to initial presentation and final functional outcomes. A total of 226 patients sustained 300 lower extremity amputations secondary to combat-related injuries, the most common mechanism being an improvised explosive device. Twenty-nine of these patients had a spine fracture (13%). Group 1 had a higher ISS than Group 2 (30 vs. 19, pamputees is 13%. The results suggest that combat-related amputees with spine fractures are more likely to sustain severe injuries to other body systems, as indicated by the significantly higher ISS and rates of ICU admission

  3. Littoral Combat Ship: Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in LCS and Frigate Acquisition Strategies (United States)


    receipt of new industry proposals, the Navy proposed changing its acquisition strategy back to awarding new construction contracts to both industry teams...currently available combat system elements. These elements included areas such as sensors (e.g., radars and sonars), command and control systems...improving defensive alert capabilities. Improved air-search radar Reduces susceptibility, could increase lethality by giving ship better capability to

  4. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry


    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  5. Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections. (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J


    Combat-related invasive fungal (mold) wound infections (IFIs) have emerged as an important and morbid complication following explosive blast injuries among military personnel. Similar to trauma-associated IFI cases among civilian populations, as in agricultural accidents and natural disasters, these infections occur in the setting of penetrating wounds contaminated by environmental debris. Specific risk factors for combat-related IFI include dismounted (patrolling on foot) blast injuries occurring mostly in southern Afghanistan, resulting in above knee amputations requiring resuscitation with large-volume blood transfusions. Diagnosis of IFI is based upon early identification of a recurrently necrotic wound following serial debridement and tissue-based histopathology examination with special stains to detect invasive disease. Fungal culture of affected tissue also provides supportive information. Aggressive surgical debridement of affected tissue is the primary therapy. Empiric antifungal therapy should be considered when there is a strong suspicion for IFI. Both liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole should be considered initially for treatment since many of the cases involve not only Mucorales species but also Aspergillus or Fusarium spp., with narrowing of regimen based upon clinical mycology findings.

  6. Promotion of good governance and combating corruption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melvin Mbao and G.G Komboni criticise the legal regime and institutional arrangements designed to promote good government and to combat corruption and maladministration in Botswana, a country widely acclaimed as Africa's success story. Using internationally accepted benchmarks on good governance and combating ...

  7. Prevention of Infections Associated with Combat-Related Extremity Injuries (United States)


    Murray CK, Griffith ME, Mende K, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staph - ylococcus aureus in wound cultures recovered from a combat support hospital in Iraq...deployed to Iraq. Mil Med. 2009; 174:408–411. 154. Huang XZ, Cash DM, Chahine MA, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staph - ylococcus aureus infection in combat

  8. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air...

  9. LOS tercios en España: el combate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorraine WHITE


    ... artículo se centra en el combate de los ejércitos españoles en la Península. Examina el componente humano de estas fuerzas, los motivos para servir o para desertar, el conflicto de lealtades, los riesgos y las realidades del combate, así...

  10. Are there atheists in foxholes? Combat intensity and religious behavior. (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S


    After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes.

  11. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project.

  12. Posttraumatic growth among combat veterans: A proposed developmental pathway. (United States)

    Marotta-Walters, Sylvia; Choi, Jaehwa; Shaine, Megan Doughty


    With the large number of combat veterans returning from war, there is an ever-increasing need to understand ways to help soldiers and veterans successfully navigate their return to life after combat. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) offers strong protective elements following combat, including reduction in suicidal ideation (Bush et al., 2011). The purpose of this study was to explore a proposed psychosocial developmental pathway between posttraumatic stress symptoms and PTG among combat veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. The indirect pathway from posttraumatic symptoms to PTG through negative psychosocial development was found to be significant and positive. It appears that psychosocial development may indeed mediate the process by which combat veterans can make meaning from their experiences, improving overall well-being. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis


    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  14. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme


    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  15. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.


    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  16. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.


    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  17. Analiza uticaja snabdevenosti rezervnim delovima na ispravnost borbenih vozila u borbenim dejstvima / Analysis of spare parts supplies influence on combat vehicle readiness in combat operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Đukić


    Full Text Available Snabdevenost rezervnim delovima znatno utiče na ispravnost borbenih vozila u borbenim dejstvima. Oblik i kvantifikaciju promené gotovosti borbenih vozila, u zavisnosti od verovatnoće popunjenosti rezervnim delovima, moguće je sagledati primenom metode modelovanja i simulacije. Osnovni faktori, koji utiču na gotovost borbenih vozila su: struktura sistema snabdevanja, nivo snabdevanja posmatrane strukture i verovatnoća popunjenosti rezervnim delovima svakog nivoa. Najvažniji rezultati sprovedenog istraživanja su: sagledavanje uticaja osnovnih faktora, prvenstveno snabdevenosti rezervnim delovima na ispravnost borbenih vozila, u borbenim dejstvima. / Spare parts supplies stocks have a significant influence on proper functioning of combat vehicles in military operations. The form and quantifying of change of military vehicle readiness dependence on spare parts supplies will be recognized by applying the method of modelling and simulation. The basic factors influencing the readiness of combat vehicles are as follows: supply system structure, supply level for a given structure and probability of being supplied by spare parts at all supply levels. The most important result of the research is the knowledge of the basic factors influence, particularly the spare parts supplies influence on the combat vehicle readiness in military operations.

  18. Post-combat invincibility: violent combat experiences are associated with increased risk-taking propensity following deployment. (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Cotting, Dave I; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; McGurk, Dennis; Vo, Alexander H; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W


    Combat exposure is associated with increased rates of mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety when Soldiers return home. Another important health consequence of combat exposure involves the potential for increased risk-taking propensity and unsafe behavior among returning service members. Survey responses regarding 37 different combat experiences were collected from 1252 US Army Soldiers immediately upon return home from combat deployment during Operation Iraqi Freedom. A second survey that included the Evaluation of Risks Scale (EVAR) and questions about recent risky behavior was administered to these same Soldiers 3 months after the initial post-deployment survey. Combat experiences were reduced to seven factors using principal components analysis and used to predict post-deployment risk-propensity scores. Although effect sizes were small, specific combat experiences, including greater exposure to violent combat, killing another person, and contact with high levels of human trauma, were predictive of greater risk-taking propensity after homecoming. Greater exposure to these combat experiences was also predictive of actual risk-related behaviors in the preceding month, including more frequent and greater quantities of alcohol use and increased verbal and physical aggression toward others. Exposure to violent combat, human trauma, and having direct responsibility for taking the life of another person may alter an individual's perceived threshold of invincibility and slightly increase the propensity to engage in risky behavior upon returning home after wartime deployment. Findings highlight the importance of education and counseling for returning service members to mitigate the public health consequences of elevated risk-propensity associated with combat exposure.

  19. A new virtual instrument for estimating punch velocity in combat sports. (United States)

    Urbinati, K S; Scheeren, E; Nohama, P


    For improving the performance in combat sport, especially percussion, it is necessary achieving high velocity in punches and kicks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of 3D accelerometry in a Virtual Instrumentation System (VIS) designed for estimating punch velocity in combat sports. It was conducted in two phases: (1) integration of the 3D accelerometer with the communication interface and software for processing and visualization, and (2) applicability of the system. Fifteen karate athletes performed five gyaku zuki type punches (with reverse leg) using the accelerometer on the 3rd metacarpal on the back of the hand. It was performed nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences in the mean linear velocity among three punches performed sequentially (p sport.

  20. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever. (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan


    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  1. The proving grounds: combat nursing in Vietnam. (United States)

    Levasseur, Jeanne J


    The profession of nursing has been greatly influenced by war, and the heroic nature of the work of nursing is often emphasized during war. The purpose of this research was to examine the stories of nurses' experiences during combat in Vietnam and identify themes that would corroborate, refute, or expand prior historical research. A content analysis to determine recurrent themes was performed on 18 oral histories of military nurses who served in Vietnam that were previously collected and published. Analysis of these collections of oral histories was conducted, and thick quotes contextualize and substantiate the thematic claims. This research confirms the analysis of prior historical research on nursing in Vietnam by finding similar experiences recorded in oral histories and further claims that an authentic professional identity is often forged during the hardships and heroic opportunities of war.

  2. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  3. Feedback Systems for the Marine Corps Combat Readiness Evaluation System. (United States)


    2, Winter 1979, pp. 50-59. 45. Festinger , Leon and Katz, Danie, Research Methods in Behavioral Sciences, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1966. 46...and provides a comparison. a. Measurement Definition Evaluation is identical to measurement. It builds on attempts to measure psychological attributes...obtain evidence to rally opposition to a program, . 6. to contribute to the understanding of basic psychologi - cal, social, and other programs. [Ref

  4. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj


    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić


    Full Text Available Motivation can be defined as conscious or unconscious experience that serves as a factor that determines a person's behavior or her social action in a given situation. So far, various studies had identified over 100 different factors that explain why people engage in sports. However, the reasons for sports participation may differ depending on gender and sports' discipline. Therefore, in this paper were examinated whether there is a difference in the motives for sports participation among athletes engaged in different types of combat sports, and whether there is a difference in the motivation of male and female. The sample comprised 265 athletes (173 male and 92 female who practiced karate, kick boxing, fencing, taekwondo, jiu jitsu, savate and kyokushin kaikan. Athletes were offered 10 reasons for sports participation that were to be ranked according to importance. The results showed that the love and health of the most important reasons for sports' participation and that is the least important reason was the wish of parents and good look. Also, it appears that health as a reason for playing sports was important to practice karate, savate, kick boxing, and success was the most important reason to deal with fencing. The desire of parents as the reason was the least important in kyokushin kaikan. The only statistically significant difference in gender appeared in ranking of money. Money was far less significant reason for the females. One can therefore conclude that there are certain peculiarities in motivation for sport among athletes of different combat sports and that kind of sport, more than gender differences contribute to these differencies.

  6. Organizational Structure for a Mobile ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) Combat Unit\\ (United States)


    organizational structure that will create the optimal combat effectiveness for the system. This study reviews the present and past mobile systems and their organizational structures. This includes systems deployed by both the U.S. Army and Air Force. A proposed structure based on the analysis of those systems is presented for consideration. The deployment of rail garrison (RG) intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) systems within the Continental United States by the Strategic Air Command (SAC) has created a need for a review of current missile organizational structures

  7. A survey on the measure of combat readiness (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai


    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  8. The Application of Work Domain Analysis to Defining Australia’s Air Combat Capability (United States)


    Capability. References Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air power... interacts with. Humanity The ability of the Air Combat system to preserve the civilian population and its infrastructure. Resource efficiency The ability...UNCLASSIFIED 20 Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air power doctrine and

  9. "Sea Swat": A Littoral Combat Ship for Sea Base Defense (United States)


    such as aerostats and robotic airships Combat Suite Capable of conducting EA, EP, ES SLQ-32 Suite Command and control architecture must support...DEFINITION This study defines unconventional vessels as innocent craft such as, sailboats , junks, dhows, small merchants, large merchants, container ships...act as tripwire and early warning of threats. • Deployment of systems such as aerostats and robotic airships to extend the horizon and provide a

  10. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    underlying business case. Elements of the LCS business case, including its cost, the time needed to develop and field the system, and its Comunications Seen Deficient, GAO Says,” Bloomberg News, November 19, 2013. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues...subcontracting reports on eSRS as one method of monitoring small business participation. As of December 2012, eSRS indicated that two of the associated

  11. Adaptive sliding mode control of interleaved parallel boost converter for fuel cell energy generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.


    This paper deals with the problem of controlling energy generation systems including fuel cells (FCs) and interleaved boost power converters. The proposed nonlinear adaptive controller is designed using sliding mode control (SMC) technique based on the system nonlinear model. The latter accounts...

  12. Combat Resource Management (11bm) Applied Research Project (ARP) (United States)


    des opérateurs dans la conduite des tâches reliées au C2 tactique, en particulier la gestion des ressources de combat. Le projet a...liées au C2 tactique, et plus particulièrement la gestion des ressources de combat. Plus spécifiquement, ce projet a abordé les problèmes...11bm, sur la gestion des ressources de combat dans le cadre de la guerre navale aérienne et de

  13. International cooperation and non-profit organizations: re-reading the institutional role in combating neglected diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the juridical role of patent rights and the importance of international cooperation concerning the health system, especially those held between the countries of the South, as well as not-for-profit organizations for the prevention and combating neglected diseases. From the theoretical perspective of law as identity, and the methodological approach of qualitative content analysis, some cases of cooperation between states and public and private institutions were collected and analyzed in order to develop new drugs to combat neglected diseases and ensure equity of access to these drugs.

  14. Impact of Cumulative Combat Stress on Learning in an Academic Environment (United States)

    Shea, Kevin Peter; Fishback, Sarah Jane


    The stress of multiple combat tours has created a combat-tested but combat-weary Army. While most soldiers have coped successfully with combat stress, many return home with problems that include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, insomnia, and reduced memory and concentration skills. Education is…

  15. Combating cancer one step at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N Sugitha Nadarajah


    widespread consequences, not only in a medical sense but also socially and economically,” says Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “We need to put in every effort to combat this fatal disease,” he adds.Tackling the spread of cancer and the increase in the number of cases reported every year is not without its challenges, he asserts. “I see the key challenges as the unequal availability of cancer treatments worldwide, the increasing cost of cancer treatment, and the increased median age of the population in many parts of the world, which carries with it a consequent increase in the risk of certain cancers,” he says. “We need to reassess the current pace and orientation of cancer research because, with time, cancer research is becoming industry-oriented rather than academia-oriented — which, in my view, could be very dangerous to the future of cancer research,” adds Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “Governments need to provide more research funding to improve the outcome of cancer patients,” he explains.His efforts and hard work have led to him receiving a number of distinguished awards, namely the UICC International Cancer Technology Transfer (ICRETT fellowship in 2014 at the Investigational New Drugs Unit in the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; EACR travel fellowship in 2015 at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; and also several travel grants to Ireland, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, and many other countries where he attended medical conferences. Dr. Abdel-Rahman is currently engaged in a project to establish a clinical/translational cancer research center at his institute, which seeks to incorporate various cancer-related disciplines in order to produce a real bench-to-bedside practice, hoping that it would “change research that may help shape the future of cancer therapy”.Dr. Abdel-Rahman is also an active founding member of the clinical research unit at his institute and is a representative to the prestigious European Organization for Research and

  16. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.


    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  17. COMBAT: Desenvolvimento de um Sistema de Reconstrução de Trajetórias

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089333; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi

    In High Energy Physics (HEP), telescopes are systems built for the test of devices under development in a test-beam environment, where well controlled sources of high momentum particles can be used in conditions similar to those observed in actual experiments. They are usually composed of several planes of detectors providing 2-dimensional position, from which 3- dimensional trajectories can be reconstructed. The COMBAT (Compact Brazilian Telescope) was projected as a lightweight, low-material telescope, composed of 8 pixel silicon planes rea- dout with the Timepix chip. The results presented in this document describe the comissioning and data aquisition of COMBAT with measurements of atmospheric muons and a 180 GeV/c beam of protons and pions in the SPS/CERN testbeam area.

  18. Night Air Combat. A United States Military-Technical Revolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Merrick


    ... our apparent advantage over potential adversaries. Understanding how the United States reached the critical jump in military effectiveness through the application of night air combat technologies is critical to project future military revolutions...

  19. Is Democratization a Sound Strategy for Combating Fundamentalist Islam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Anthony J


    .... This paper examines the premise that "universal human rights", as the basis for democracy, is compatible with Islamic culture and is therefore a sound strategy for combating the spread of "Islamic...

  20. Contributions of Women to U.S. Combat Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnes, Thresa


    .... combat operations from the Revolutionary War to present-day conflicts. The U.S. military continues to fight a transnational, dispersed enemy that employs irregular tactics and asymmetric warfare...

  1. Technology to combat poaching: from the lab to the park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramadeen, P


    Full Text Available South Africa is home to an estimated 80% of the world's rhino population. This presentation discusses technologies to combat poaching, from laboratories to safeguard experimentation that can be taken to South African National Parks....

  2. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) information about efforts to combat nuclear smuggling at U.S. borders. My statement today is based on the results of our May 16, 2002, report on this subject1 and information we obtained from the U.S...

  3. WHY THEY FIGHT: Combat Motivation in the Iraq War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leonard


    .... Recent studies, however, have questioned the effects of cohesion on unit performance. This monograph reviews the combat motivation literature and then analyzes findings from interviews conducted during the recent Iraq War...

  4. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying. (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt


    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference. Volume 3. Thursday, Videos (United States)


    Untitled Document 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference.html[8/26/2016 2:28:28 PM] 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference Shepherdsville , KY 20-22...Golf Course, Ft. Knox 5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m. Welcome Reception and Registration / Security Check-in Country Inn & Suites, Shepherdsville Wednesday...Country Inn & Suites by Carlson - Shepherdsville 400 Paroquet Springs Drive Shepherdsville , KY 40165 Telephone: (502_ 543-8400 FAX: (502) 543-8469 Hampton

  6. 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference Volume 5 Thursday videos (United States)


    Untitled Document 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference.html[8/26/2016 2:28:28 PM] 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference Shepherdsville , KY 20-22...Golf Course, Ft. Knox 5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m. Welcome Reception and Registration / Security Check-in Country Inn & Suites, Shepherdsville Wednesday...Country Inn & Suites by Carlson - Shepherdsville 400 Paroquet Springs Drive Shepherdsville , KY 40165 Telephone: (502_ 543-8400 FAX: (502) 543-8469 Hampton

  7. 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference. Volume 4. Thursday, Videos (United States)


    Untitled Document 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference.html[8/26/2016 2:28:28 PM] 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference Shepherdsville , KY 20-22...Golf Course, Ft. Knox 5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m. Welcome Reception and Registration / Security Check-in Country Inn & Suites, Shepherdsville Wednesday...Country Inn & Suites by Carlson - Shepherdsville 400 Paroquet Springs Drive Shepherdsville , KY 40165 Telephone: (502_ 543-8400 FAX: (502) 543-8469 Hampton

  8. 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference. Volume 1. Wednesday (United States)


    Untitled Document 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference.html[8/26/2016 2:28:28 PM] 2005 NDIA Combat Vehicles Conference Shepherdsville , KY 20-22...Golf Course, Ft. Knox 5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m. Welcome Reception and Registration / Security Check-in Country Inn & Suites, Shepherdsville Wednesday...Country Inn & Suites by Carlson - Shepherdsville 400 Paroquet Springs Drive Shepherdsville , KY 40165 Telephone: (502_ 543-8400 FAX: (502) 543-8469 Hampton

  9. Combating adolescent obesity: an integrated physiological and psychological perspective


    ten Hoor, Gill A.; Plasqui, Guy; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.; Kok, Gerjo


    Purpose of review Optimizing the approach to combat childhood obesity, we emphasize the importance of combining both biological and psychological knowledge. In such an approach, strength exercises might be an important aspect in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates plausible effects of the role of resistance exercise in combating the negative health effects of childhood obesity. When looking at body composition, overweight youngsters do ...

  10. Developing Resilience Through the Modern Army Combatives Program (United States)


    black belt.70 Testing includes vocabulary , general information and history, and technical 64United States Army Combatives School, Intermediate Rules Test...Realism is the, “realistic mastery of the possible, having realistic outcome expectations, self-esteem and self-worth, confidence, self-efficacy...sustainment training.142 The Modern Army Combatives Program requires sustainment training that helps develop mastery . The final difference is a

  11. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada


    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  12. Cultural and Religious Awareness: The Key to Analyzing and Combating the Relative Combat Power for Islamic-Based Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Muhammad M


    ... terrorists. Second, the United States must conduct cultural awareness/cultural intelligence training for all military personnel who are deploying to combat the GWOT, and for all staff in the regional standing...

  13. Integrated physical training in combat sports PREPARACIÓN FÍSICA INTEGRADA EN DEPORTES DE COMBATE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gema Torres Luque; Raquel Hernández García


    ...: integrated training, integrated physical training, combat sports, judo Resumen El presente trabajo pretende definir los conceptos de entrenamiento integrado (EI) y preparación física integrada (PFI), así...

  14. Musculoskeletal injuries sustained in modern army combatives. (United States)

    Possley, Daniel R; Johnson, Anthony E


    Participation in martial arts has grown over the past 15 years with an estimated 8 million participants. In 2004, the Chief of Staff of the Army directed that all Initial Military Training soldiers receive Modern Army Combatives (MAC) training. The mechanical differences between the various martial arts styles incorporated into mixed martial arts/MAC pose challenges to the medical professional. We report the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries by Level 1 and 2 trained active duty soldiers participating in MAC over a 3-year period. From June 1, 2005 to January 1, 2009, the Orthopaedic Surgery service treated and tracked all injuries in MAC. Data was analyzed using the Chi(2) method of analysis. (p injuries reported inability to perform their military occupation specialty duties. The knee was most frequently injured followed by shoulder. Surgical intervention was warranted 24% of the time. Participants in MAC reported injuries severe enough to impact occupational duties at 15.5%. Surgical intervention was warranted only 24% of the time. The knee and shoulder are the most frequently injured body parts. Labral repair was the most frequent surgical procedure.

  15. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja D. Gupta


    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25–50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived. Crude extracts of medicinal plants could serve as an alternate source of resistance modifying agents owing to the wide variety of secondary metabolites. These metabolites (alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols etc. could act as potentials for antimicrobials and resistance modifiers. Plant extracts have the ability to bind to protein domains leading to modification or inhibition protein–protein interactions. This enables the herbals to also present themselves as effective modulators of host related cellular processes viz immune response, mitosis, apoptosis and signal transduction. Thus they may exert their activity not only by killing the microorganism but by affecting key events in the pathogenic process, thereby, the bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to develop resistance to botanicals. The article is meant to stimulate research wherein the cidal activity of the extract is not the only parameter considered but other mechanism of action by which plants can combat drug resistant microbes are investigated. The present article emphasizes on mechanisms involved in countering multi drug resistance.

  16. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)


    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  17. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection. (United States)

    Auvil, James R


    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear.

  18. Combating the counterfeits with web portal technology (United States)

    Ting, S. L.; Ip, W. H.


    Due to the globalisation of counterfeiting activities, the penetration of fake products in open market is growing. So far, the technologies to combat counterfeiting are mostly applied to high-value products (e.g. premium wine and branded handbags); however, in the medium- and low-value products' perspective, there is no secure way for consumers to identify whether the purchased items are genuine or not. To address the counterfeiting problems effectively, a platform for identifying authenticated products and promoting anti-counterfeit activities is very important. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an anti-counterfeit platform which includes two functions: providing customers a secure network to ascertain the genuineness of their purchased product and increasing public awareness of the current counterfeit problems and updated anti-counterfeit solutions. By combining these two functions, it enables public to fight against fake and beware of counterfeit. Results of adopting portal technology in anti-counterfeiting show high accuracy in product checking and improved creditability. This reveals that the applicability and advantage of the proposed methodology are satisfactory.

  19. Combating Ageism: How Successful Is Successful Aging? (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni


    To explore the extent to which the successful aging discourse has accomplished Rowe and Kahn's (1998) goal of combating ageism by (a) eradicating the narrative of decline and burden, and highlighting the positive aspects of aging; and (b) emphasizing individuals' ability to age successfully. To investigate this, I first situate ageism in a framework of age relations. Using a qualitative approach, I analyze data generated from semistructured, in-depth interviews conducted among a diverse sample of 19 middle-aged men and women. Respondents were asked about what successful aging means to them, as well as their perceptions of their own aging, and old age. Respondents are familiar with the notion of successful aging, and they believe that they can and should achieve this. However, rather than easing ageism, they experience the mandate to age successfully as a source of tension as they simultaneously realize that it is outside their control. They express continued fears of aging; and they implicitly blame themselves or others who fail to age successfully. Their comments suggest that, rather than supplanting the discourse of decline, the successful aging narrative coexists with it. By not challenging the age relations that denigrate differences, the successful aging framework does not eliminate ageism and might even increase it. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.

  20. The effects of elevated hearing thresholds on performance in a paintball simulation of individual dismounted combat. (United States)

    Sheffield, Benjamin; Brungart, Douglas; Tufts, Jennifer; Ness, James


    To examine the relationship between hearing acuity and operational performance in simulated dismounted combat. Individuals wearing hearing loss simulation systems competed in a paintball-based exercise where the objective was to be the last player remaining. Four hearing loss profiles were tested in each round (no hearing loss, mild, moderate and severe) and four rounds were played to make up a match. This allowed counterbalancing of simulated hearing loss across participants. Forty-three participants across two data collection sites (Fort Detrick, Maryland and the United States Military Academy, New York). All participants self-reported normal hearing except for two who reported mild hearing loss. Impaired hearing had a greater impact on the offensive capabilities of participants than it did on their "survival", likely due to the tendency for individuals with simulated impairment to adopt a more conservative behavioural strategy than those with normal hearing. These preliminary results provide valuable insights into the impact of impaired hearing on combat effectiveness, with implications for the development of improved auditory fitness-for-duty standards, the establishment of performance requirements for hearing protection technologies, and the refinement of strategies to train military personnel on how to use hearing protection in combat environments.

  1. Electromagnetic investigation at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.D.; Benson, M.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Glennon, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others


    Electromagnetic surveys were conducted at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany to detect zones where solution cavities develop within lowland areas of the karst valley systems. Geologic models indicate that solution activity occurs at the loess-bedrock interface, and is concentrated along loess-filled fracture trends within the underlying carbonate bedrock. Soil arches that develop along these fracture trends have the potential to fail catastrophically, posing a considerable degree of danger to current training activities. Rapid, continuously recording electromagnetic instruments provide an economical solution for locating zones of high conductivity associated with loess-filled fractures. The electromagnetic surveys delineated high-conductivity trends interpreted to be fracture-controlled. In many instances dolines were observed either along or immediately adjacent to these conductivity lineaments. Analysis of anomaly maps indicate that high-conductivity lineaments are aligned subparallel to fracture and joint orientations measured in nearby outcrops. These associations are the basis for predicting locations where solution cavity collapse and doline development will occur in the future. Information derived from the EM data can be extended directly to hydrologic modeling and to safety programs for military training at the CMTC.

  2. Prevalence Estimates of Combat-Related PTSD: A Critical Review (United States)

    Richardson, Lisa K.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Acierno, Ronald


    Objective To provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. Method We examined MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. Results The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranges from about 2 – 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4 – 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3 – 6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. Conclusions The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. However, further carefully conceptualized research is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs. PMID:20073563

  3. Controlled-release nanoencapsulating microcapsules to combat inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek JS


    Full Text Available Jong-Suep Baek,1 Eng Wan Yeo,1 Yin Hao Lee,2 Nguan Soon Tan,2 Say Chye Joachim Loo1,3 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 3Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO has reported that globally 235 million people suffer from chronic and other inflammatory diseases. The short half-lives of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and their notoriety in causing gastrointestinal discomforts, warrants these drugs to be released in a controlled and sustained manner. Although polymeric particles have been widely used for drug delivery, there are few reports that showcase their ability in encapsulating and sustaining the release of NSAIDs. In this paper, polymeric nanoencapsulating microcapsules loaded with NSAIDs were fabricated using solid/water/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Two NSAIDs, ibuprofen and naproxen, were first pre-loaded into nanoparticles and then encapsulated into a larger hollow microcapsule that contained the third NSAID, celecoxib. A high encapsulation efficiency (% of these NSAIDs was achieved and a sustained release (up to 30 days of these drugs in phosphate-buffered saline was observed. Then, a gastrointestinal drug – cimetidine (CIM – was co-loaded with the NSAIDs. This floating delivery system exhibited excellent buoyancy (~88% up to 24 h in simulated gastric fluid. It also allowed a sequential release of the drugs, whereby an immediate release of CIM followed by NSAIDs was observed. Drug release of the NSAIDs observed Fickian diffusion mechanism, whereas CIM observed non-Fickian diffusion. Therefore, this delivery system is a promising platform to control the delivery of NSAIDs to combat inflammatory diseases, thereby protecting against possible gastrointestinal

  4. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience. (United States)

    Enstrom, James E


    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience."

  5. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Lin


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS and the Flight Control System (FCS. The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A* algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM.

  6. Head positioning and neck muscle activation during air combat. (United States)

    Green, Nicholas D C; Brown, Lex


    Specific mechanisms leading to acute neck injury in flight as a result of +Gz exposure remain unclear. In this study, head positions adopted by aircrew in air combat have been quantified, and the associated levels of cervical muscle activation have been determined. Six fast jet aircrew subjects were instrumented with surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and activation potentials from neck erector spinae (ES) and sternocleidomastoid (SC) muscles were logged on a data recorder. EMG signal was normalized to preflight maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). All subjects flew a one-on-one air combat sortie in a Hawk T1 aircraft comprising at least four air combat engagements. In-cockpit video and +Gz acceleration were recorded. Time-synchronized analysis of video, EMG, and acceleration were conducted for head position and normalized muscle activation (%MVC). During air combat, the head was away from neutral for 68% of the time, predominantly in extension, or rotation plus extension. During neck extension under G, 40-80% MVC occurred in the ES: this was reduced by half when the canopy was used as a support. Similar activation occurred in the SC in neck extension plus rotation. The ES was activated at over 40% MVC for 25% of the engagement duration. Postsortie, 35% reduction in neck muscle strength occurred. Extreme neck extension +/- rotation is very common in air combat and is associated with high levels of muscle activation and fatigue. This information can be used to help devise targeted neck conditioning and positioning strategies in order to reduce injury risk.

  7. Connection of boxers’ combat styles with psycho-physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: By dominating physical characteristics boxers’ combat styles are divided into “strongmen”, “paced in hold” and “players”. However, connection of combat style with psycho-physiological characteristics of elite boxers has been remained not determined. Material: in the research 28 elite sportsmen (master of sports and international masters of sports participated. Psycho-physiological characteristics were studied with the help of hardware and software psycho-diagnostic complex “Multi-psycho-meter 05”. Results: it was found that attacking combat style is accompanied by presence of high workability, reduced tiredness and anxiety, presence of psychological comfort. It was also found that defensive combat style is characterized by better quickness and processing of information. It happens at the account of worsening of qualitative characteristics: efficiency and effectiveness. We also detected presence of more rigid organization of psycho-physiological status of boxers, having attacking combat style (strongmen in comparison with boxers of defensive style (players and paced in hold.

  8. Assessment of key plasma metabolites in combat casualties. (United States)

    Lusczek, Elizabeth R; Muratore, Sydne L; Dubick, Michael A; Beilman, Greg J


    Previous studies have indicated that hemorrhagic shock and injury cause significant early changes in metabolism. Recently, global changes in metabolism have been described using metabolomics in animal models and civilian trauma. We evaluated metabolic changes associated with combat injury to identify early biomarkers and aid in triage. Plasma obtained at emergency department presentation and intervals thereafter from patients injured during combat operations in Iraq (n = 78) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 40). Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), water-soluble metabolites were detected and quantified. Resulting metabolic profiles were analyzed with partial least squares discriminant analysis, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), and cluster analyses to identify features of combat injury and mortality. Significant alterations to metabolism resulted from traumatic injury. Metabolic profiles of injured patients differed from those of healthy controls, driven by increased 5-aminolevulinate and hypoxanthine that persisted through 24 hours. Among combat-injured patients, increased succinate and malonate best discriminated between those who survived from those who did not. Higher levels of succinate and hypoxanthine were associated with increased injury severity. ROC analysis showed that these metabolites had equivalent or superior performance to lactate in distinguishing the presence of trauma, injury severity, and mortality. Combat injury is associated with several changes at the metabolic level compared with healthy individuals. Novel potential biomarkers of mortality (succinate, malonate), injury severity (succinate, hypoxanthine), and the presence of trauma (hypoxanthine, 5-aminolevulinate) perform as well as or better than the common clinical standard, lactate. Prognostic study, level III.

  9. Mobile close combat tactical trainer location and routing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, P.; Scott, M.


    In the short term future, the Army will purchase 21 Mobile Close Combat Tactical Trainers (MCCTTs) for the Reserve Component. The Army plans to buy 11 Armor and 10 Infantry versions of these trainers. The trainers are high fidelity simulators that teach tactical operations at the company and platoon level. The simulators are mounted on 3 tractor-trailers and are capable of traveling to the cities, towns and villages (known as home stations) where the Reserve Component platoons reside. The TRADOC System Manager - Combined Arms Tactical Trainer requested that TRAC-WSMR conduct a stationing analysis to determine where these devices should be located. We have created location and routing models for both Armor and Infantry MCCTTs. We developed a p-median model to determine the locations that minimize the distance between the MCCTTs and a number of home stations. Once we know where to locate the MCCTTs, we developed transportation, set covering and traveling salesperson models to decide the routing strategy that minimizes the distance the MCCTTs must travel, thereby prolonging their life. Our models insure that all platoons receive a minimum of three MCCTT training sessions per year and that the units do not have to travel more than 60 miles away from their home. If the Army uses the same routing strategy for the MCCTTs as they have done for a predecessor system, then our efforts have estimated annual savings of 700, 000 or 10 Million over the system life. Finally, given the current training requirement, our work demonstrates that the Army`s procurement strategy needs to be adjusted; we show that the Army needs to buy fewer Infantry MCCTTs than planned; we show that if the excess is converted to Armor MCCTTs, then a less expensive overall solution can be computed.

  10. Intensity dependence of auditory P2 in monozygotic twins discordant for Vietnam combat: Associations with posttraumatic stress disorder (United States)

    Metzger, Linda J.; Pitman, Roger K.; Miller, Gregory A.; Paige, Stephen R.; Orr, Scott P.


    Two studies have reported decreased intensity dependence of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) in male combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a response pattern presumed to reflect central nervous system-induced protective inhibition and heightened central serotonergic activity. We used an identical twin, case-control design to investigate whether intensity dependence abnormalities reflect pretrauma vulnerability or are an acquired consequence of PTSD. ERPs were measured in male Vietnam combat veterans and their noncombat-exposed monozygotic twin brothers during a four-tone, stimulus-intensity modulation procedure. Contrary to previous findings in male veterans, the PTSD group had significantly steeper P2 amplitude intensity slopes, similar to those reported for female veterans and abused children with PTSD. Additionally, increased P2 amplitude intensity slope was associated with increased PTSD symptom severity, particularly the severity of reexperiencing symptoms. A mixed-model, random-effects analysis that included the combat-unexposed twins revealed a significant diagnosis by combat exposure interaction. Inspection of group means suggests that the observed increased P2 intensity dependence is a consequence of PTSD. Our findings further suggest that low serotonergic tone may emerge as one potential consequence of this disorder. PMID:18629752

  11. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio


    Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...

  12. Development and Application of a Fuzzy Control System for a Lead-Acid Battery Bank Connected to a DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez


    Full Text Available This study presents the development and application of a fuzzy control system (FCS for the control of the charge and discharge process for a bank of batteries connected to a DC microgrid (DC-MG. The DC-MG runs on a maximum power of 1 kW with a 190 V DC bus using two photovoltaic systems of 0.6 kW each, a 1 kW bidirectional DC-AC converter to interconnect the DC-MG with the grid, a bank of 115 Ah to 120 V lead-acid batteries, and a general management system used to define the operating status of the FCS. This FCS uses a multiplexed fuzzy controller, normalizing the controller’s inputs and outputs in each operating status. The design of the fuzzy controller is based on a Mamdani inference system with AND-type fuzzy rules. The input and output variables have two trapezoidal membership functions and three triangular membership functions. LabVIEW and the NI myRIO-1900 embedded design device were used to implement the FCS. Results show the stability of the DC bus of the microgrid when the bank of batteries is in the charging and discharging process, with the bus stabilized in a range of 190 V ± 5%, thus demonstrating short response times to perturbations considering the microgrid’s response dynamics.

  13. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects (United States)


    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  14. Advertisement and combat calls of the glass frog Centrolene lynchi (Anura: Centrolenidae, with notes on combat and reproductive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dautel


    Full Text Available We describe the advertisement and combat calls, combat behavior, and reproductive behavior of the glass frog Centrolene lynchi, an endemic species of the cloud forests of Ecuador. The typical advertisement call consists of a tonal note and 1–3 peaked notes, each with 1–3 pulses. Variations on this advertisement call include the addition of a short note before the tonal note, as well as the absence of the tonal note. These modifications may be similar to thedescribed call modifications of other anurans in response to the presence of conspecific females and males, potential predators and/or changes in the sound environment. Additionally, we describe the combat call emitted during previously undescribed venter-toventercombat between males. The discovery of this combat behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that venter-to-venter combat behavior is a shared derived trait of the subfamily Centroleninae. Finally, we describe male reproductive habits and development of the species, including egg attendance by males and implied male parental care.

  15. FORCEnet Engagement Packs: Operationalizing FORCEnet to Deliver Tomorrow’s Naval Network-Centric Combat Reach Capabilities ... Today (United States)


    combat reach while efficiently managing his/her resources. As an analogy, consider the human body and its immune system that uses antigens to...of the PF decomposition process and the recomposition of “packs” necessary to support the Strike and TAMD MCPs. • Generated system inter...GEMINII supported SSG XXII’s first order assessment of the PF decomposition process and the recomposition of “packs” based on the five CRCs. As was

  16. New Approaches to Drug Discovery for Combating MRSA. (United States)

    Tomoda, Hiroshi


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococuss aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen that has developed resistance to many antibiotics. New anti-infective drugs to prevent and treat MRSA infection are required. Four assay systems were conducted to screen microbial cultures for new anti-infective compounds active against MRSA. Nosokomycins, new members of the phosphoglycolipid family, were discovered from a culture of Streptomyces cyslabdanicus K04-0144 in an MRSA-silkworm infection assay. The target molecule of nosokomycins was suggested to be the transglycosylase of penicillin binding protein (PBP) involved in MRSA peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Spirohexaline, with a hexacycline structure, was isolated from a fungal culture of Penicillium brasilianum FKI-3368 in an enzyme assay of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP) synthase, which is needed for the synthesis and transport of GlcNAc-MurNAc-pentapeptides from the cytoplasmic membrane site to the external membrane site for peptidoglycan synthesis. Spirohexaline inhibited MRSA growth by the blockade of UPP synthase activity. Cyslabdan, with a cysteine-carrying labdan skeleton, was also discovered from the nosokomycin-producing actinomycete as a potentiator of imipenem activity against MRSA. The molecular target of cyslabdan was identified as FemA, which is involved in the synthesis of a pentaglycine interpeptide bridge in MRSA peptidoglycan. Citridone A with a unique 6-6/5/5-ring system containing a rare phenyl-R-furopyridone skeleton, originally isolated as a potentiator of antifungal miconazole activity, was found to inhibit MRSA yellow pigment production. These new microbial products will serve as lead compounds for developing new anti-infective drugs for combating MRSA.

  17. Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence (United States)


    1776) theory of compensating differences, and Rosen (1986) devised what has become the standard neoclassical economic theory relating wages to the...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4774 October 2011 Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence Curtis J. Simon...OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  18. Representing a Combat ID Analysis Tool within an Agent Based Constructive Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, D.; Mistry, B.; Spaans, M.; Vincent, A.; Hossain, A.


    Motivation - This paper describes an approach for the development of a model which represents complex human factors relationships relating to Combat Identification (Combat ID). Research approach - The human factors relationships were incorporated within an experimental Agent Based Model (ABM), using

  19. Arctic Health Research Center report no. 101: Combating mosquitoes in arctic Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers combating mosquitoes in Arctic Alaska. The physiology and biology of mosquitoes is discussed, followed by techniques to combated mosquitoes.

  20. Weight loss in grappling combat sports: review and applied recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lancha Junior


    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rheault


    Full Text Available En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.

  2. No evidence of the effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse: a systematic review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Rashidian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. METHODS: The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for 'prevention' and 'detection' of fraud, and 'response' to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975-2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. FINDINGS: The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. DISCUSSION: Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care.

  3. No evidence of the effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse: a systematic review of literature. (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; Joudaki, Hossein; Vian, Taryn


    Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for 'prevention' and 'detection' of fraud, and 'response' to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975-2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan) were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care.

  4. Feasibility of using Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations


    Ng, Fuquan


    This thesis addresses the feasibility of using Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) in conducting Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations and analyzes the suite of LCS mission packages in conducting HA/DR operations through a Systems Engineering study. The current preference for HA/DR operations is on using big decks, e.g., Amphibious Ship and Aircraft Carriers to maximize the lift capability of supplies, such as medical supplies, food, and water. The trade-off of using big decks i...

  5. Dust Plume Modeling at Fort Bliss: Move-Out Operations, Combat Training and Wind Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry


    The potential for air-quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating in the training ranges and on the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical activities, including move outs and combat training, occurring on the installation were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing specific modeling scenarios are summarized, and results from the simulations are presented.

  6. Transitioning from Combat to College: The Impact of Risk and Resilience Factors on Student Veterans (United States)

    Young, Sharon L.


    Thousands of combat veterans have transitioned to college since the passing of the Post-9/11 GI Bill in 2008. The transition from combat to college is a challenge for veterans, as the demands and structure of college differ so greatly from military life. Additionally, exposure to combat often has long lasting psychological repercussions on…

  7. Objective Versus Subjective Measurement of Stress and Social Support: Combat-Related Reactions. (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; And Others


    Studied combat intensity, social support, and related stress reactions among soldiers who fought in the 1982 Israeli-Lebanon War, comparing those who experienced combat stress reaction (N=382) and those who did not (N=344). Subjective indicators were found to be stronger predictors than were objective indicators. Combat stress reaction was clearly…

  8. Validation of the Impact of Event Scale for Psychological Sequelae of Combat. (United States)

    Schwarzwald, Joseph; And Others


    Attempted to validate the Impact of Event Scale (IES) with a large sample of males who had been exposed to combat trauma. The IES was shown to be sensitive to differences between and within the three subject groups (combat stress reaction group, combat control group, noncombat control group). Four basic patterns of intrusion and avoidance were…

  9. Adjustment Differences among Male Substance Abusers Varying in Degree of Combat Experience in Vietnam. (United States)

    Penk, W.E.; And Others


    Combat and noncombat veterans seeking treatment for substance abuse were compared on demographic, family, and military variables; ratings on Figley's postmilitary problems list; traditional measures of personality (MMPI); childhood and present Family Environment scales. In combat-noncombat comparisons, combat veterans rated significantly more…

  10. Steeling the Mind. Combat Stress Reactions and Their Implications for Urban Warfare (United States)


    7 1 5.2. Description of Various Sublabels for Battle Fatigue .............. 73 xi Summary The stress of...the battle- fatigued individual. Treatment by mental health assets first in- volves a screening to rule out the existence of medical and psychiatric...common psychiatric response to combat is the combat stress reaction (CSR) or battle fatigue . Also known as neuropsy- chiatric casualty, combat

  11. Posttraumatic Stress in U.S. Marines: The Role of Unit Cohesion and Combat Exposure (United States)

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Johnston, Scott L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Ecklund, Christofer J.


    Combat exposure is a consistent predictor of posttraumatic stress (PTS). Understanding factors that might buffer the effects of combat exposure is crucial for helping service members weather the stress of war. In a study of U.S. Marines returning from Iraq, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that unit cohesion and combat exposure…

  12. Le combat avec l'ange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lalive d’Épinay


    Full Text Available L'auteur « revisite » le parcours qui l'a conduit à réaliser dans les années 1960 une des premières études du mouvement évangélique pentecôtiste en Amérique latine. Il rappelle d'abord les termes par lesquels il avait prétendu cadrer sa relation avec son objet de recherche, pour décrire ensuite l'étrange dialectique sujet/objet qui s'était développée au fur et à mesure de son immersion dans une double altérité, l'Amérique latine et le mouvement charismatique. Pendant ce voyage au long cours, l'« objet » avait pris vie ; il était devenu un sujet qui imposait au chercheur qui s'était cru « sujet » des interrogations nouvelles en même temps qu'une mise en question de ses certitudes du départ.The combat with the angel. Concerning a study on the Pentecostal movement in ChileThe author retraces the path that led him in the 1960s to carry out one of the first studies on the Pentecostal evangelical movement in Latin America. After recalling the terms on which he sought to situate his relationship with the research topic, he goes on to describe the strange subject/object dialectic that developed as he gradually became more and more immersed in a dual otherness, Latin America and the charismatic movement. During this lengthy voyage, the “object” of his research took on a life of its own, mutating into a subject that confronted the researcher (who had assumed that he was the “subject” with new questions and a need to reconsider his initial certitudes.La pelea con el ángel. Acerca de un estudio del movimiento pentecostal en ChileEl autor “revisita” el camino que lo había llevado a desarrollar uno de los primeros estudios sobre el movimiento evangélico pentecostal en América latina en los años’60. Recuerda primero los términos con los que había pretendido encuadrar la relación con su objeto de investigación, para describir luego el extraño vínculo sujeto/objeto que se había ido generando mientras

  13. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs): Training Systems Acquisition (United States)


    MRAP mishaps were rollovers. Nearly 75% of the rollovers occurred outside urban areas—typically when driving on soft road shoulders, riverbanks, and...driving on wet and muddy roadways, off road, on soft road shoulders, near riverbanks, and on bridge crossings. (Knowledge procedure – task steps...Systems: FCS and Beyond." North Atlantic Treaty Organization Workshop on Human Dimensions in Embedded Virtual Simulation (NATO HRM -169). Orlando, FL

  14. Analysis of Error Propagation Within Hierarchical Air Combat Models (United States)


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ANALYSIS OF ERROR ...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF ERROR PROPAGATION WITHIN HIERARCHICAL AIR COMBAT MODELS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...variance analysis , sampling methods, metamodeling, error propagation, Lanchester equations, agent- based simulation, design of experiments

  15. Combating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country: A Conceptualisation and Implementation of Carbon Tax in Zimbabwe. ... measurements of emission, nor a clear emission-reduction strategy. These shortcomings were essentially a consequence of a combination of technical, financial and human constraints.

  16. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft (United States)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz


    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  17. Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured (United States)


    subsequent treatments. His death was not related to participation in the current study. Participant death , specifically the combat-injured service member...connected her with bereavement services. One participant (service member receiving treatment at WRNMMC) voluntarily withdrew from the study at

  18. International humanitarian law: the status of unlawful combatants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses this concept as it relates to lawful and unlawful combatants in international armed conflicts focusing on the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1949 (The Third Geneva Convention) and the provisions of the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions (API) in determining what constitutes ...

  19. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. (United States)

    Jenkins, Bonnie


    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  20. Strategies for Combating Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work concentrated fully on seeking the perception science teachers on the suggested strategies for combating global economic crisis in the country through functional science and technology education in colleges of education. The design for the work was a descriptive survey and three research questions guided it.

  1. the army of alexander the great and combat stress syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diers per 1000, and in Vietnam PTSD was identified in 10-12 per 1000. (although the observation of patients over a longer period revealed a much higher prevalence — at least 20%). In the Angolan border war, the long-term incidence was 26% (Louw 1989). 1.2 Clinical picture. Combat stress has a very varied symptom ...

  2. Strategies for Combating Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady


    Oct 27, 2012 ... science teachers on the suggested strategies for combating global economic crisis in the country through ... mismanagement on foreign goods; debt from international donor agency; rural-urban drift and growing ... nation; massive retrenchment of workers and increase in crime rates. (Ihrahum & Mandara ...

  3. Flexible and Reusable Tactical Behaviour Models for Combat Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Eigeman, P.M.


    The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) currently has the need to replace its fleet of F-16 combat aircraft due to aging. As a result of the introduction of a new aircraft, with advanced stealth capabilities, new weapons and sensors, and extensive network enabled capabilities the existing

  4. E-Cheating: Combating a 21st Century Challenge. (United States)

    McMurtry, Kim


    Discusses electronic cheating in higher education made possible by new technologies. Highlights include statistics on plagiarism; using Web search engines and paper mills; and ways to combat cheating, including academic honesty policies, designing writing assignments with specific goals and instructions, being aware of what is available on the…

  5. School Administrators Strategies for Combating Corruption in Universities in Nigeria (United States)

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma


    The purpose of this study was to examine corruption in universities with the aim of finding out the types/forms, causes, effects and measures for combating the menace. Four research questions guided the investigation. The study is a survey research, ex-post facto in nature. A sample of 780 comprising of students, academic staff and administrative…

  6. On Some Markovian Salvo Combat Models (United States)


    35 xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AGV Autonomous Ground...Washburn, 2004). 3. Insurgents and IEDs Unmanned systems like Autonomous Ground Vehicle ( AGV ) has been developed by friendly forces (Defense Update...2006). These systems patrol the area of operation autonomously to gather the intelligence. Guardium AGV shown in Figure 3 is one of the systems

  7. Noncombat-related injuries or illnesses incurred by military working dogs in a combat zone. (United States)

    Takara, Matt S; Harrell, Karyn


    To determine the most common types of noncombat-related injuries or illnesses in military working dogs in a combat zone. Retrospective descriptive study. 1,350 patient encounters with military working dogs evaluated for noncombat-related reasons. Data regarding noncombat-related veterinary visits were collected on a weekly basis from 13 forward operating bases throughout Iraq from January 2009 through August 2010. Reporting facility location, patient identification, reason for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment were recorded, and descriptive data were summarized. The most common noncombat-related disease processes or injuries identified were related to the dermatologic system (ie, primary [inflammatory] dermatologic disease; 338/1,350 [25.0%]), soft tissue trauma (284 [21.0%]), alimentary system (231 [17.1%]), or musculoskeletal system (193 [14.3%]). Veterinary Corps officers need to be proficient not only in the management of combat-related injuries but also in the treatment of routine illnesses and injuries. Knowledge of noncombat-related diseases and injuries commonly incurred by military working dogs can be used for targeted training for individuals responsible for medical care of these animals as well as for equipment selection and protocol development.

  8. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.


    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  9. Combat Vehicle Cooling/Heating Design Investigation. (United States)


    Robert E., and Gaudio, Ralph, Jr.; "Application of the Ranque - Hilsch Vortex Tube to Aircrew Cooling Problems" Report AMRL-TR-67-124; Wright-Patterson... Tube 3-7 3.6 Expendable Heat Sink 3-9 3.7 Absorption Cooling 3-10 3.8 Evaporative Cooling 3-11 3.9 Summary 3-12 4.0 COMPARATIVE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 4...3-6 3-5 Vortex Tube System Schematic 3-8 3-6 Expendable Heat Sink System Schematic 3-9 3-7 Absorption Cooling System Schematic 3-10 4-1 Air Cycle

  10. [Contribution of the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 to the history of combat casualty care and delivery of care to the injured soldiers]. (United States)

    Beliakin, S A; Dolgikh, R N; Fokin, Iu N


    The article is dedicated to the 45-year history of combat casualty care in the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3. In the echelon system of medical care the Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 ranks the echelon (level) N 3. Specialists of the hospital, along with a medical and preventive activity, practice methodological, educational and innovative activity, participate in different scientific forums. Temporary duty assignment to the combat, human-made disaster and natural disaster areas is a real functional test. 64 physicians have an extreme situation experience. The Vishnevsky Central Military Clinical Hospital N 3 is a clinical base of department of surgery, advanced physician training department, combat casualty care department of the Institute for advanced physician training of Mandryka scientific and educational clinical center. For the purpose of reducing the terms and improving the quality of medical care it was suggested to make the integration connections with leading hospitals of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.

  11. RIPPLE: Scalable Medical Telemetry System for Supporting Combat Rescue (United States)


    utilizing 802.15.4 [1] radios and IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) was chosen. Table 1 summarizes the requirements...standard that provides an IPv6 adaptation layer for low power communication devices, particularly IEEE 802.15.4 devices. The result of employing this...Std 802.15.4-2006 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003) , 2006. [2] G. Montenegro, N. Kushalnagar, J. Hui and D. Culler, "Transmission of IPv6

  12. Land Combat Systems Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009 (United States)


    International GDELS Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug - Vienna, Austria MAN Österreich - Vienna, Austria MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG- Munich, Germany Renk ...their own welders. Both US firms (e.g. BAE, Textron) and European firms (e.g. Renk , KMW) have their own training programs. Most (commercial) LCS...consider opportunities for a commercial partnership between Allison and Renk for the development and production of military-unique transmissions

  13. Bi-Layer Wound Dressing System for Combat Casualty Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martineau, Lucie; Shek, Pang N


    .... Biopsies taken from full-thickness, pig wounds infected with Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. epidermidis showed a 2- to 5-log reduction in the bacterial load of antiseptic-treated wounds compared to those of control wounds...

  14. Using Student Response Systems ("Clickers") to Combat Conformity and Shyness (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Oldham, Terrah; Bennett, Dan


    This study addressed how trait levels of classroom shyness can influence conformity when students answer opinion questions in different ways. "We recruited 128 introductory psychology students to indicate their opinion on 50 controversial questions by raising their hand or anonymously pressing a button on a keypad ("clicker")". Compared to…

  15. A Psychodynamic Systems Perspective on Command Relationship during Combat Operations (United States)


    and Group Psychology and Wilfred Bion Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. The objective of this paragraph is to introduce the reader to tangible...not related. 52 Questionnaire from Leader 4, Copenhagen 2016, paragraph 12. 53 Jørgensen...54 Questionnaire from Leader 3, Copenhagen 2016, paragraph 8. 55 Commanders gathering, is a meeting

  16. Vehicle Armor Structure and Testing for Future Combat System (United States)


    epared by: tive Materia hnological U st Ten Mile ield, MI 480 ne 3, 2013 abil Grace . Kowalkow lic release; d RE AND T M V-09-C-L5...sion specim bs using the s. The spinn d was spo the process rocedure f me materia ure using B ens, center Bridgeport ing center w oled using that...perfor e were requi aterial 1-F gauge confi specimen a r in-plane te 49 ure Results nd Other N at were ma ch that each licable for f 08, Materia med as

  17. Agroforestry Potential for Combating Forest and Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing deforestation and environmental degradation in parts of Southeastern Nigeria have shifted attention to agricultural production systems that are environmentally sustainable, socially acceptable and economically appropriate. Agroforestry is one major sustainable farming system that has been the centre of theoretical ...

  18. Combat Support and the Operational Commander (United States)


    Furthermore, the views expressed in the document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Systems and Logistics...the enemy, weather, insects , whatever. If that is the correct definition, I agree strongly. - Not relative to weapons systems. - Transportation...34 ,. , ,. ,- - - • .. , ... --. . . . . .. . . . . ITI Fluidity, threat, peril, and adrenalin demand judgment calls continually. Can’t be


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane


    Full Text Available Combat Sports Special Issue Editorial INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE ON COMBAT SPORT The World heavyweight professional boxing championship is arguable the biggest prize in sport. Why is this the case? It is not just the glamour that is appealing, but also the intriguing appeal of two combatants in a fixed environment. All combat sports share this similarity and in doing so, combat sports become appealing for spectators to watch, provide competitors with their ultimate challenge, and provide sport scientists and medics with a rich environment to apply their work. The role of research and theory driven interventions is key to the credibility of sport science and sports medicine. An intervention and/or treatment must be based on sound reason and the effects should be considered beforehand, both positive and negative. Equally, the nature of combat sport, where the aim is to strike, throw, or grapple with an opponent which can lead to injury, invariably raises questions on whether it is morally acceptable for these activities to be called a sport. Therefore, thorough investigation of the nature of medical issues is needed. The case for banning boxing in inextricably linked to the notion that the aim of the sport is to cause harm to the opponent; if harm was minimized and injury became less of an injury, the case for banning boxing would be weak. Quite clearly there are a plethora of arguments that point to a need for theory driven research in combat sport, and plugging this gap in the literature is an aim of this special issue of the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Possibly the most convincing argument for me to get involved in driving this issue stems from experiences in applied work with professional boxers (Hall and Lane, 2001; Lane and Hall, 2003, amateur boxers (Lane, 2002, kickboxers (Lane, et al., 1999 and tae-kwon-do athletes (Chapman et al., 1997 in which a raft of situations and issues were presented that required answers based

  20. Combating the 'Culture of Can't'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frederick Hess; Whitney Downs


      Don McAdams, founder of the Center for Reform of School Systems, says that philanthropy typically involves modest dollars but can have an outsized influence because of its agility and public impact...

  1. Combating Terrorism Technology Support Office 2006 Review (United States)


    on improving the kenneling environment, reducing stress, and other methods of promoting canine health. Requests for this manual from Federal, State...Engineering, Inc., Billerica Artisent, Inc., Boston Aspen Systems, Inc., Marlborough BBN Technologies, Cambridge Boston Dynamics, Cambridge Charles

  2. Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system. (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Øzdas, Øzen Banu; Farstad, Wenche; Tverdal, Aage; Olsaker, Ingrid


    In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.

  3. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Garg


    Full Text Available Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls′ and women′s emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls′ knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women′s life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them.

  4. Innovations for combating dentin hypersensitivity: current state of the art. (United States)

    Li, Yiming


    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common dental complaint, and in severe cases it can impair eating, drinking, and even speaking, thus interfering with the normal daily life of an individual. Throughout years of research, there has been significant advancement in understanding dentin hypersensitivity, and various treatment regimens have been developed for combating the problem. The continued efforts have recently resulted in a novel technology that uses 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for treating dentin hypersensitivity. Formulations of oral care products using this technology--including toothpaste and prophylactic pastes--have demonstrated not only their effectiveness but also their ability to provide instant relief. This paper provides an overview of the etiology of dentin hypersensitivity, the discovery and development of measures for combating the problem, and the available data on the clinical efficacy of products based on 8% arginine and calcium carbonate.

  5. Towards a theory of ex-combatant reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Torjesen


    Full Text Available This paper encourages the development of a theoretical framework for the study of the reintegration of ex-combatants after war. It takes the first steps towards this by proposing a new definition of reintegration, where the processes ex-combatants experience, rather than the programmatic support offered by international and national agencies, take centre stage. The article links the study of reintegration to two broader disciplines; political economy and sociology, and in particular to the two disciplines’ account of power and group belonging. It argues that a political economy approach is particularly useful for making sense of the context in which reintegration processes unfold. The article also suggests some relevant research questions and highlights methodological concerns related to research on reintegration.

  6. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking. (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  8. The Land Combat Model (DYNCOM). Volume 2 (United States)


    of Industrial and Systems Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210 iwiii’iiitewii’’ mMMittMWWiW ipjW»"»’!"’!lW»WBPiWpiw...Industrial and Systems Engineering Tht^ Ohio Stfltfl nnivnr.^itv, Cnlnmhns Ohin A’A?A(\\ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT...elements, however, can have ""■"■.’"■’’mag:?!" —,5m"MMi mwmuimmrm***-’ W*^IW^iP«P«PP^WWW^W^« mm -w- n^ wmw ^mwrnw two types of events occurring

  9. AFRICOM: Combatant Command for the 21st Century (United States)


    killed than combatants. By the year 2000, internal conflict and repression had generated 14.5 million asylum seekers worldwide and near y 25...the elderly is that their children will care for them as they grow older . Yet HIV/AIDS is devastating middle- aged caregivers resulting in a dual...infection rates approach 40% of the adult population.14 When viewed in this light it is easy to see the devastating impact of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Sahara

  10. Outcomes of Internal Fixation in a Combat Environment (United States)


    type A, 19 AO type B, and 8 AO type C fractures . There were two comminuted patella fractures and one gunshot wound to the spine resulting in paraplegia...wires ( patella fractures ). Two patients with plate/screw constructs and both patients with wire constructs developed osteomyelitis. Based on to describe the outcomes of fractures that were internally fixed in the combat environment. The records of patients who had internal fixation

  11. Combat Search and Rescue: Restoring Promise to a Sacred Assurance (United States)


    Sandys” somewhere in Southeast Asia. Source: Photo courtesy of the National Museum of the Air Force. 4 If the construct of the combat SARTF...time this window is kept open , the less chance of additional shoot downs. Furthermore, greater rescue helicopter speed gives the air component...Cambodia in the late 1960s. Source: Photo courtesy of the National Museum of the Air Force. Arming Air Force helicopters for greater survivability

  12. Trust and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (United States)


    World War II was substantially less then Turner, Lovell adopted many of Turner’s views on Japanese-Americans.79 Turner and Lovell were not a certain level of interpretation for application. Although World War II leadership doctrine does not reflect all of the lessons learned in the...Combat Team was a segregated organization comprised of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii and internment camps across the mid-west during World War II

  13. Experiments in Error Propagation within Hierarchal Combat Models (United States)


    Bayesian Information Criterion CNO Chief of Naval Operations DOE Design of Experiments DOD Department of Defense MANA Map Aware Non-uniform Automata ...ground up” approach. First, it develops a mission-level model for one on one submarine combat in Map Aware Non-uniform Automata (MANA) simulation, an... Automata (MANA), an agent based simulation that can model the different postures of submarines. It feeds the results from MANA into stochastic

  14. The Black Community Perspective: Recruiting Blacks into Combat Arms (United States)


    of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD...equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion , or national origin.”21 This...mentor Black subordinates, which is itself a model that perpetuates of racism . Human Resources Command (HRC) should assign both White and Black combat

  15. Women Combatants in World War I: A Russian Case Study (United States)


    however, Maria Bochkareva, held the distinction of serving, with the government’s approval, as a female in a combat unit. After the abdication of the Tsar in...and power plays from various political factions.50 On 13 March 1917, the Tsar abdicated both his throne and the Romanov Dynasty came to an end.51...mother to send a telegram to the Tsar asking permission to enlist. To everyone’s surprise, according to her memoirs, the Tsar approved her request

  16. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    maintain stealth and its defense in order to properly conduct an attack on a surface vessel (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014, 102). This statement...its target, the surface combatants can counter by increasing their speed (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014). While the maximum speed of the current...typically account for, which is ~28 percent ( Edwards 2010). Figure 17 represents the cost estimating process and methodology used for this analysis

  17. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 4, Fall/Winter 2009 (United States)


    example of this doctrinal dyslexia than how combat- ing WMD is portrayed in the Universal Joint Task List. Consistently over the past seven years...address conventional war- fare concepts, rather than as a dis- tinct, parallel capability area. This is not necessarily a bad thing; in fact , the...overwhelming, yet fascinating. I agree that the crossover or "nexus" of CBRN and radicalism is in fact a daunting task to imagine, prepare for, and

  18. Integrating Agile Combat Support within Title 10 Wargames (United States)


    127 INTEGRATING AGILE COMBAT SUPPORT WITHIN TITLE 10 WARGAMES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate...of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Operations Research Daniel A. Krievs, BS Captain, USAF MARCH 2015 DISTRIBUTION...progressed, the warfare has changed from tribal to medieval to trench to guerilla and now to modern warfare. As these types of warfare have evolved, the

  19. I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports


    Montse C Ruiz


    This report presents a summary of the I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports held in Madrid, May 27, 2017. The symposium, organized by the Faculty of Sport Sciences-INEF of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, aimed to bring science closer to practice. A panel of highly successful athletes involved in karate, fencing, and taekwondo shared their experiences. The speakers presented crucial topics for an optimal preparation and high level performance such as strength training, sport ...

  20. Combat-Related Facial Burns: Analysis of Strategic Pitfalls (United States)


    and a lack of available high-quality color -matched donor skin. These gaps all highlight the need for novel anti-inflammatory and skin 77% of all combat- related burn admissions.4,5 Devastating facial burns can have considerable cosmetic and psychological implications and can...delayed grafting on a granulation tissue bed, a combination sure to yield disappointing functional and cosmetic results and requiring multiple other

  1. Related Fact Checks: a tool for combating fake news


    Guha, Sreya


    The emergence of "Fake News" and misinformation via online news and social media has spurred an interest in computational tools to combat this phenomenon. In this paper we present a new "Related Fact Checks" service, which can help a reader critically evaluate an article and make a judgment on its veracity by bringing up fact checks that are relevant to the article. We describe the core technical problems that need to be solved in building a "Related Fact Checks" service, and present results ...

  2. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian. (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel


    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  3. Innovations in the En Route Care of Combat Casualties (United States)


    femoral neck fracture . The patient was admitted to the emergency department in a coagulopathic state. In the emergency department, the patient received...n 78) were combat trauma patients; lower extremity trauma, to include amputations, fractures , vascular injuries, and soft tissue injuries, was...Lehman, & Hsu, 2012). A unique challenge in ERC is the need to safely trans- port patients with suspected unstable thoracolumbar spinal fractures

  4. Women Warriors: Why the Robotics Revolution Changes the Combat Equation (United States)


    cover deep- rooted resistance to women in the military generally. Supporters note that women have fought in combat historically (e.g., the Soviet...upwards of one million Vietnamese women who fought the French in the early 20th Century and later the Americans in the Vietnam Conflict. David E. Jones...90 | FEATURES PRISM 6, no. 1 AUTHOR DARPA’s Warrior Web project. Technological advancements could fundamentally alter the equation of women in

  5. Boko Haram: Developing New Strategies to Combat Terrorism in Nigeria (United States)


    organization with international reach but a domestic jihadist group out to discredit, disgrace and embarrass the Nigerian government, security...the Government strategy’s objective is “to exploit advancement in technology to combat terrorism and heinous crimes .”46 The Government strategy also... crime by two different security agencies in mid-2012 is illustrative of this general rivalry and lack of cooperation.76 Government ministries

  6. Exercise Design for the Joint Force 2020 Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    that should be considered for this addition include cultivation with olive, citrus , and pear trees, eucalyptus and fruit trees (including the Date...Our national economic health has elevated in prominence to the forefront of our national security interests. The global debt crisis increasingly... benefitting effects.‖59 Recent combat experience clearly indicates that well-led and highly trained conventional forces can be decisively defeated in

  7. The Integration of Women into Combat Arms Units (United States)


    society constantly examines what it considers to be fair and just, adjusting laws and policies along the way. An issue that has received a and psychological barriers.”56 In Israel women are allowed to serve in combat arms units on a voluntary basis. “Despite the policy...CONCLUSION America is the land of opportunity, where people emigrate to make their dreams come true, and where all people are created equal

  8. MH-60S Fleet Combat Support Helicopter (MH-60S) (United States)


    Aircraft Corporation was awarded July 6, 2012. These two contracts will complete the MH-60S production buys which conclude in FY 2015. MH-60S...UNCLASSIFIED 10 VMAX (KIAS) *Armed Helo FMC Rate (%) 60 60 56 60 60 *Armed Helo MC Rate (%) 75 75 69 74 74 *HC Interoperability (%) 100 N/A N/A N...Countermeasures Ao - Operational Availability CSAR - Combat Search and Rescue CV - Carrier deg - Degree F - Fahrenheit FMC - Fully Mission Capable G

  9. The Littoral Combat Ship: How We Got Here, and Why (United States)


    assuming the surface warfare community opens its mind to the full range of potential roles for smaller combatants, provides a practical basis for...made it an affordable swarm killer , submarine hunter, and mine warfare ship, and only then tout its “other inherent and support capabilities...campaign. However, with the deemphasis on serial change-outs during campaigns in favor of a globally distributed mix of deployed seaframes and mission

  10. Judicial Activity Concerning Enemy Combatant Detainees: Major Court Rulings (United States)


    discussed in greater detail in other CRS products, including CRS Report RL33180, Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Jennifer K. Elsea and Michael John Garcia; CRS Report RL34536, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus , by Michael John...of their detention in habeas corpus proceedings. However, many other issues remain the subject of ongoing litigation, including the full scope of the

  11. Combating stress and burnout in surgical practice: a review. (United States)

    Balch, Charles M; Shanafelt, Tait


    quality of care they provide (both in the delivery of care and in the emotional support of patients and their families). There is no single formula for achieving a satisfying career in surgery. All surgeons deal with stressful times in their personal and professional life and must cultivate habits of personal renewal, emotional self-awareness, connection with colleagues, adequate support systems, and the ability to find meaning in work to combat these challenges. As surgeons, we also need to set an example of good health to our patients and future generations of surgeons. To provide the best care for our patients, we need to be alert, interested in our work, and ready to provide for our patient's needs. Maintaining these values and healthy habits is the work of a lifetime.

  12. Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Combat Veterans (United States)


    emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am Psychol 2001, 56(3):218–226. 33. Lyubormirsky S, King L, Diener E: The...Gorham ED : Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System. Mil Med 2005, 170(2):172–175. 41. Goodman GP, DeZee KJ, Burks R, Waterman BR, Belmont

  13. New European approach to combat VAT fraud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, M.; Hel - van Dijk, van der E.C.J.M. (Lisette)


    The Member States of the European Union (EU) are missing billions of Euros each year as a result of cross-border VAT fraud. After its introduction, the current VAT system appeared to contain flaws and proved to be vulnerable to fraud. Tackling VAT fraud since then has become serious business within

  14. Psychiatric nursing liaison in a combat zone: an autoethnography. (United States)

    Whybrow, D


    Military mental health nurses are tasked with providing psychiatric liaison to British forces deployed to combat zones. This forms part of a wider effort to maintain the combat effectiveness of the fighting force. During a recent deployment, I maintained a reflexive journal of my experience of liaising with the British Chain of Command. I then used line by line coding via the NVIVO 9 software package to formulate the core themes that became a framework for this autoethnography. My personality and social anxieties shaped how I performed the psychiatric liaison role. I was able to develop a template for liaison that accounted for both 'me' and my need to feel authentic or credible as a nurse, yet still enabled me to communicate effectively with the Chain of Command. One template for psychiatric nursing liaison with British combat forces is to focus upon key stakeholders within the Chain of Command, specifically, the Officer Commanding, the Sergeant Major, the Trauma Risk Management co-ordinator (usually the Sergeant Major) and the embedded medical asset. Further research is needed to establish how other nurses approach psychiatric nursing liaison. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Executive Functioning of Combat Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. (United States)

    Gaines, Katy D; Soper, Henry V; Berenji, Gholam R


    This study investigates neuropsychological deficits in recently deployed veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Veterans discharged from 2007 to 2012 were recruited from Veterans Affairs clinics. Independent groups of participants with mTBI (n = 57) and those without TBI (n = 57) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Combat Exposure Scale, Word Memory Test, and the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview. Neuropsychological instruments included the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Letter and Category Fluency, Trail-Making Test-Parts A and B, Christiansen H-abbreviated, Soper Neuropsychology Screen, Wechsler Memory Scale subtests Logical Memory I and II, and the Street Completion Test. The mTBI group performed significantly worse on all of the executive and nonexecutive measurements with the exception of Category Fluency, after controlling for age, depression effort, and combat exposure. Depression and combat exposure were greater for the mTBI group. The mTBI group scored poorer on effort, but only the Multiple Choice subtest was significant. The mTBI group had good awareness of their deficits.

  16. Combat veterans and the death penalty: a forensic neuropsychiatric perspective. (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S; Arciniegas, David B


    With our nation's present conflicts, a new generation of veterans are returning home, many of whom have substantial psychopathology and are encountering significant barriers in accessing care. Headlines from around the nation reflect that some of these wounded warriors go on to commit offenses that are potentially punishable by death. Existing circumstances speak to the urgency with which the subject of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or both facing capital crimes ought to be addressed. This publicity has led to a recent call for a legislatively or judicially enacted, narrow, categorical exclusion for combat veterans who were affected by either PTSD or TBI at the time of their capital offenses. In the present article, we illustrate the reality that combat veterans who commit capital offenses may face execution, summarize legal arguments offered in favor of a categorical exclusion, and provide a neuropsychiatric perspective on PTSD, TBI, and aggression, to help inform further dialogue on this weighty subject.

  17. Women in Combat: Summary of Findings and a Way Ahead. (United States)

    Tepe, Victoria; Yarnell, Angela; Nindl, Bradley C; Van Arsdale, Stephanie; Deuster, Patricia A


    The Women in Combat Symposium was held at the Defense Health Headquarters April 29 to May 1, 2014, cohosted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs and the Consortium for Health and Military Performance. The conference was a call to renew and extend research investment and policy commitment to recognize operational scenarios, requirements, health priorities, and combat-related injury exposures uniquely relevant to the performance and well-being of female Service members. Symposium participants worked in groups to identify knowledge and capability gaps critical to the successful integration, health, and performance of female Service members in combat roles and to develop recommendations for researchers and policy makers to address gaps in three specific areas of concern: Leadership and Peer Behavior, Operational Performance, and Health and Well-Being. Consensus findings are summarized as 20 research gaps and accompanying recommendations. Each represents an opportunity to advance health and performance outcomes and to leverage female Service members' strengths and capacities to the general benefit of all Service members and their families. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Effects of pepper grenade explosions on non-combatant bystanders. (United States)

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Shah, Tajamul H; Bagdadi, Farhana; Khan, Umar Hafiz


    Pepper gas is used for riot control in many parts of the world. Yet, its effects on bystanders are largely unreported. We fielded a questionnaire-based survey of 500 bystanders exposed to gas when police used pepper grenades against belligerent 'stone-pelters' in the northern Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. Of 294 non-combatants who consented to participate in our survey, 97 per cent developed cough and irritation of the throat within few seconds of breathing the pungent smelling gas. They reported respiratory problems, dermatologic symptoms, sleep disturbances, and mood changes with varying frequency. Sixteen reported exacerbations of underlying respiratory disorders, with one temporally related to death. Symptoms led 51 to get medical attention. Nearly all respondents reported that symptoms recurred on re-exposure. We conclude that use of pepper grenades can cause serious acute symptoms in non-combatants accidentally exposed. We recommend alternate methods of riot control - water cannons, baton charges, tasers, plastic or rubber bullets, and so on - that have no collateral side effects on non-combatants be considered for routine use.

  19. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell


    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems. PMID:26569296

  20. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition. (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell


    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  1. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Migliozzi


    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  2. Hormonal, Physiological, and Physical Performance During Simulated Kickboxing Combat: Differences Between Winners and Losers. (United States)

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Davis, Philip; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine


    The aim of the current study was to investigate the hormonal, physiological, and physical responses of simulated kickboxing competition and evaluate if there was a difference between winners and losers. Twenty athletes of regional and national level participated in the study (mean ± SD age 21.3 ± 2.7 y, height 170.0 ± 5.0 cm). Hormone (cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as upper-body Wingate test and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, were measured before and after combats. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout rounds 1, 2, and 3 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken after each round. All combats were recorded and analyzed to determine the length of different activity phases (high-intensity, low-intensity, and referee pause) and the frequency of techniques. Hormones, glucose, [La], HR, and RPE increased (all P performance, body mass (all P .05). However, winners executed more jab cross, total punches, roundhouse kicks, total kicks, and total attacking techniques (all P sport that induces changes in the stress-related hormones soliciting the anaerobic lactic system. Training should be oriented to enhance kickboxers' anaerobic lactic fitness and their ability to strike at a sufficient rate. Further investigation is needed to identify possible differences in tactical and mental abilities that offer some insight into what makes winners winners.

  3. Balancing Act: Synergy of Combat Airpower Functions (United States)


    North Koreans, “American airpower helped carry MacArthur to the Yalu,”9 but was ineffective once Chinese forces became involved and their centers of...subject to reason alone.”10 In forming this, Clausewitz ties these metaphysical terms to aspects in the physical world to which we can relate. with the Chinese , in creating a system of defensive aviation to protect from Japanese aerial attack, helped thwart the Japanese empire’s plans

  4. Combating Terrorism Technology Support Office 2007 Review (United States)


    effect of this exposure on the physiological function of the human body, and none of the available data address the risk of cognitive impairment as a...indefi nitely in Bahrain. The extreme water and air temperatures in the area required an in-water climate-controlled enclosure to keep the dolphins ...performance of the dolphins . This effort will enable the operation of the Marine Mammal Mine Counter-Mine systems at full effectiveness for the

  5. Small Combatants for the Homeland Defense Mission (United States)


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle USV Unmanned Surface Vehicle UUV Unmanned Underwater Vehicle VDS Variable Depth Sonar VLS Vertical Launch System...aviation module, and the mission management center.163 The ASW escort MM will consist of a variable depth sonar (VDS), a multi-function towed array...surface search radar, and three Elta EL/M-2221 SM STGR fire control radars.227 For subsurface search, the Eilat corvettes are equipped with a EDO

  6. Lightweight Combat Vehicle S and T Campaign (United States)


    structures and multi-functionality armor systems/solutions; eliminate corrosion , which in turn, reduces maintenance cost and time; increase payloads... CRA ) are leading the development of new insights and understanding of Mg behavior. If it proves possible to develop Mg alloys of high enough strength...formation of intermetallics at the interface, and galvanic corrosion between Al MMC and steel parts.  This manufacturing advancement would enable lighter

  7. An Eye Oximeter for Combat Casualty Care (United States)


    concentration is only -3.9 g/dl for an oxygen range of 15.6 % to 95.9 %. Once again the curves are symmetric and the effect of varied oxigenation has a...shown a correlation between retinal perfusion and brain blood flow.13 Because of the preservation of blood How to the central circulation dur- ing...saturation difference, car- diac output, systemic vascular resistance, and brain blood flow remains to be tested. - CONCLUSION vVc have demonstrated

  8. A Comprehensive Approach to Combating Illicit Trafficking (United States)


    in that country’s heavy-water reactor program. Heavy-water reactors have served as a key source of plutonium in the nuclear bomb efforts of India...concerning explosives • Creating a European Bomb Data System • Establishing a European Explosive Ordnance Disposal Network (EOD Network) • Considering...Disarmament Policy Federal Department of Defense, Protection of the Population, and Sports, Bern , Switzerland Mr. Norberto Birchler Director

  9. Combating Biological Terrorism from Imported Food (United States)


    watermelons, and papayas at temperatures as low as 10°C (Golden, et al., 1993; Escartin, et al., 1989). E. coli. E. coli has been shown to be able detected. The detection system must be rapid and sensitive enough to identify small clusters of illnesses. WHO recommends that> . ---. “Listeriosis, Cluster – USA (Virginia).” 22 July 2004. Retrieved 27 December

  10. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  11. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries. (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr


    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  12. An agenda to combat substance abuse. (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A


    Despite their huge health toll, substance abuse disorders remain underappreciated and underfunded. Reasons include stigma, tolerance of personal choices, acceptance of youthful experimentation, pessimism about treatment efficacy, fragmented and weak leadership, powerful tobacco and alcohol industries, underinvestment in research, and difficult patients. Positive signs include declining prevalence rates, successful counter-marketing campaigns, changing public attitudes, new scientific discoveries that could yield new treatments, and effective new organizations. Further progress will require better treatment, more research, better education of health professionals, more nongovernmental support, and stronger leadership. Policy changes regarding each of the three substance groups are indicated, as are reforms in the criminal justice and educational systems.

  13. Traversing a wormhole to combat Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Caldwell, Guy A; Caldwell, Kim A


    Human movement disorders represent a significant and unresolved societal burden. Among these, the most prevalent is Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder afflicting millions worldwide. Despite major advances, stemming primarily from human genetics, there remains a significant gap in our understanding of what factors underlie disease susceptibility, onset, and progression. Innovative strategies to discern specific intracellular targets for subsequent drug development are needed to more rapidly translate basic findings to the clinic. Here we briefly review the recent contributions of research using the nematode roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system for identifying and characterizing gene products associated with PD. As a microscopic but multicellular and genetically tractable animal with a well-defined nervous system and an experimentally tenable lifespan, C. elegans affords significant advantages to researchers attempting to determine causative and therapeutic factors that influence neuronal dysfunction and age-associated neurodegeneration. The rapidity with which traditional genetic, large-scale genomic, and pharmacological screening can be applied to C. elegans epitomizes the utility of this animal for disease research. Moreover, with mature bioinformatic and functional genomic data readily available, the nematode is well positioned to play an increasingly important role in PD-associated discoveries.

  14. Combat veterans, mental health issues, and the death penalty: addressing the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Giardino, Anthony E


    More than 1.5 million Americans have participated in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past seven years. Some of these veterans have subsequently committed capital crimes and found themselves in our nation's criminal justice system. This Essay argues that combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury at the time of their offenses should not be subject to the death penalty.Offering mitigating evidence regarding military training, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury presents one means that combat veterans may use to argue for their lives during the sentencing phase of their trials. Alternatively, Atkins v. Virginia and Roper v. Simmons offer a framework for establishing a legislatively or judicially created categorical exclusion for these offenders, exempting them from the death penalty as a matter of law. By understanding how combat service and service-related injuries affect the personal culpability of these offenders, the legal system can avoid the consequences of sentencing to death America's mentally wounded warriors, ensuring that only the worst offenders are subject to the ultimate punishment.

  15. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for 12B Combat Engineers (United States)


    27 (Expanding Positions for the Assignment of Enlisted Female Combat Engineer Soldiers) ................................................... 92 B...Soldiers were of the 36th Engineer Brigade. All male Soldiers held the 66 128 Combat Engineer MOS, while the female Soldiers were recruited from any MOS...FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF ENLISTED FEMALE COMBAT ENGINEER SOLDIERS) SECRETARY OF THE ARMY WASHINGTON MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION 1 6 JUN 2015

  16. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Management of Combat Wounds: A Critical Review


    Maurya, Sanjay; Bhandari, Prem Singh


    Significance: Wounds sustained in a combat trauma often result in a composite tissue loss. Combat injuries, due to high energy transfer to tissues, lead to trauma at multiple anatomical sites. An early wound cover is associated with lower rate of infections and a faster wound healing. The concept of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of combat-related wounds has evolved from the civilian trauma and the wounds from nontraumatic etiologies.

  17. Methodical peculiarities of technique-tactic sportsmanship of combat sportsman with the help of technical means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boychenko N.V.


    Full Text Available The article deals with methodical peculiarities of technique-tactic skill of combat sportsmen with the help of technical means. Here is determined the general methodical peculiarities and recommendations on application of the technical means during training educational lessons. Practical recommendations on application traditional the combat sportsmen equipment is chosen. Here is determined the general methodical peculiarities of serial and combinations technique of combat sportsman with the help of traditional equipment.

  18. Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Dynamics ’ Amphibious Combat Vehicle Protest,” Defense News, March 15, 2016, and Lee Hudson, “Following GAO Bid Protest, ACV 1.1 is Delayed but Will...Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress Andrew Feickert...Specialist in Military Ground Forces March 8, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42723 Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV

  19. Financial Analysis of Outsourcing the Helicopter Combat Support Mission Aboard Military Sealift Command Ships. (United States)


    Simons, Milagros M., "Analysis of HC Requirements for the Combat Logistic Force," Center for Naval Analyses, December, 1995. 16. Captain Richard...John D.; Simons, Milagros M., "Analysis of HC Requirements for the Combat Logistic Force," Center for Naval Analyses, December, 1995. 18. Suess...Gregory N.; Keenan, John D.; Simons, Milagros M., "Analysis of HC Requirements for the Combat Logistic Force," Center for Naval Analyses, December

  20. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat


    Jingang Han; Jean-Frederic Charpentier; Tianhao Tang


    International audience; All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs) as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power sys...

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure and nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, and major depression in male twins (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Xian, Hong; Lyons, Michael J.; Goldberg, Jack; Eisen, Seth A.; True, William; Tsuang, Ming; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Koenen, Karestan C.


    Combat exposure is associated with increased risk of psychiatric and substance use disorders in veterans. However, it is not known whether combat exposure independently increases risk for these disorders or whether this association is accounted for by genetic vulnerability common to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper tests competing explanations for the association of combat exposure and PTSD with nicotine dependence (ND), alcohol dependence (AD), and major depression (MD). Data was obtained from 6,099 members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, a national registry of male-male twin pairs who served in the military during the Vietnam Era. Twin models were fit to estimate the genetic and environmental variance common and specific to DSM-III-R lifetime diagnoses of PTSD, combat trauma, and three comorbid conditions: ND and AD and MD. Variance specific to ND, AD and MD was due to genetic factors (48%, 36% and 12%, respectively), and unique environmental factors (36%, 42% and 58%, respectively). After accounting for variance common to PTSD, no residual genetic and environmental variance overlapped between combat and ND, combat and AD, and combat and MD. Combat exposure is not independently associated with lifetime MD, AD, and MD. The association of combat exposure with these three disorders is due to genetic and unique environmental contributions in common with PTSD. These findings suggest comorbid PTSD may represent a genetically mediated vulnerability to psychopathology following trauma. PMID:18396190

  2. Combating substance misuse: competences and preparation of special education department students. (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman


    This study examines Jordanian special education department students' competences and preparation relating to combating substance misuse (SM). Thematic analysis was performed on data from interviews with 150 students. Some participants denied the possibility of addiction among students with disabilities, and presented negative attitudes toward their role in combating SM. In general, the participants displayed low levels of professionalism relating to combating SM, and the results revealed that they felt that their preparation programme had been inadequate and they desired more courses that related to combating SM. These results suggest that Jordanian Universities should emphasise the role of teachers in a preventive approach to SM.

  3. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services. (United States)

    Garner, H R


    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers; however, there is at least 1 fee-based service (CrossRef) and 1 free service (, which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors, and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services (United States)

    Garner, H.R.


    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service ( which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hehamahua


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to obtain a comprehensive understanding of what, why, and how, the programs and performances which ideally need to be directed by integrity and professionalism are actually handled by the human resource management in the Corruption Eradication Commission (CEC. The qualitative approach to conduct the case study collected the data through a participant observation procedure, and triangulated with interviews with key informants, document analysis, and recordings. The study found that (1 the planning of the human resource, including the recruitment and selection process, has been conducted to follow the highest standards applied in state institutions and government agencies in Indonesia; (2 CEC is conducting education, training, and development programs of its human resource to improve organizational performance; (3 CEC is the first state institution or government agency to use performance as the parameter for reward and punishment; (4 CEC is the first state institution and government agency to use a merit system in determining the salary; (5 the values of integrity and professionalism constitute are the basic priciples to guide the corporate culture of the auditors of CEC. The findings indicate the need to improve the recruitment and selection process, to establish the standards of performance, evaluationj and career management in all the units, and to continue the Coaching, mentoring, and Counceling (CMC program to maintain integrity and professionalism of the whole body of the human resource of the CEC.

  6. Aptamers: cutting edge technology to combat HIV/AIDS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khati, M


    Full Text Available .g. Heart diseases (21%YLLs) Injuries (16% YLLs) Bradshaw et al. 2003. Initial Burden of disease estimates for South Africa. SAMJ. 76(9): 682- 8 Page 3 © CSIR 2006 Common Denominator in the African burden of disease... to Combat HIV/AIDS Makobetsa Khati (MScMed, DIC, DPhil, MPH) 27th September 2006 Page 2 © CSIR 2006 South African Burden of Diseases HIV/AIDS (38% YLLs) Diseases of poverty, e.g. TB (25%YLLs) Chronic diseases, e...

  7. [Successful measures to combat Clostridium difficile at Herlev Hospital]. (United States)

    Jarløv, Jens Otto; Arpi, Magnus


    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of health-care associated diarrhoea. We describe the supplementary measures taken at Herlev Hospital to combat a concerning rise in number of cases. The measures taken involve implementation of antibiotic stewardship; meetings every two weeks between the cleaning department, head nurses, infection control nurse and a clinical microbiologist with plans for near future actions; prompt isolation of patients with diarrhoea; rapid, PCR-based diagnostics; room disinfection. Comparing 2011 with 2012 shows a total decline of 32.9%.

  8. Can an intercultural education model combat discrimination and xenophobia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisès Esteban Guitart


    Full Text Available In this article we present a qualitative study conducted with six indigenous and six mestizos from Intercultural University of Chiapas. The aim of the study is to exemplify the mutual perception between different ethno-linguistic groups, as well as the possible change occurred after the admission to the University. That is, opinions about the other group after and before entering the University. We conclude that a higher education intercultural model can promote mutual understanding and relationship between indigenous and mestizos and thus combat prejudices and stereotypes.     

  9. I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse C. Ruiz


    Full Text Available This report presents a summary of the I Symposium of Elite Performance in Combat Sports held in Madrid, May 27, 2017. The symposium, organized by the Faculty of Sport Sciences-INEF of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, aimed to bring science closer to practice. A panel of highly successful athletes involved in karate, fencing, and taekwondo shared their experiences. The speakers presented crucial topics for an optimal preparation and high level performance such as strength training, sport psychology, brain maturation, sports nutrition, competition planning, sport injuries, and perceptual-decision making training.

  10. Impact of emerging technologies on future combat aircraft agility (United States)

    Nguyen, Luat T.; Gilert, William P.


    The foreseeable character of future within-visual-range air combat entails a degree of agility which calls for the integration of high-alpha aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, intimate pilot/vehicle interfaces, and advanced weapons/avionics suites, in prospective configurations. The primary technology-development programs currently contributing to these goals are presently discussed; they encompass the F-15 Short Takeoff and Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator Program, the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program, the High Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, and the X-29 Technology Demonstrator Program.

  11. Good to Go!: Marines, Combat and the Culture of Silence (United States)


    of in order to appear strong. From her vantage point, Dr. Watson notes that this perceived “ stigma [to not show weakness] is a very strong barrier to...combat.” 26 A warrior’s early childhood can often predict his or her capacity either for resiliency or for susceptibility to PTSD when encountering a...attachments to adults.”28 Can a warrior’s early childhood really make a difference in his ability to cope with battlefield trauma? Jon Allen argues that

  12. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance. (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A


    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  13. Combating micronutrient deficiency disorders amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil


    Full Text Available Micronutrients (MN are the nutrients that are needed by the body in small quantities which play leading roles in the production of enzymes, hormones and other substances that help to regulate growth activity, development and functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Children, adolescent boys & girls and expectant mothers form a vulnerable group in developing countries where economic stress and food security are issues of concern. MNs deficiencies, which have been considered as major risk factors in child survival are the leading cause of mental retardation, preventable blindness, morbidity, birth defects, morbidity and mortality. Micronutrient malnutrition has many adverse effects on human health, not all of which are clinically evident. Even moderate levels of deficiency (which can be detected by biochemical or clinical measurements can have serious detrimental effects on human function. Thus, in addition to the obvious and direct health effects, the existence of MN deficiency has profound implications for economic development and productivity, particularly in terms of the potentially huge public health costs and the loss of human capital formation.According to WHO mortality data, around 0.8 million deaths (1.5% of the total can be attributed to iron deficiency each year, and a similar number to vitamin A deficiency. In terms of the loss of healthy life, expressed in  disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, iron-deficiency anaemia results in  25 million DALYs lost (or 2.4% of the global total, vitamin A deficiency  in 18 million DALYs lost (or 1.8% of the global total and iodine deficiency  in 2.5 million DALYs lost (or 0.2% of the global total [1].A child belonging to low socio-economic families residing in poor environmental and sanitation settings consume low quantity of foods which deficient not only in 2-3 MNs Deficiencies but also in macronutrients. These children also suffer from recurrent episodes of morbidities which

  14. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A


    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department.

  15. Skin Conductance Reactivity to Standardized Virtual Reality Combat Scenes in Veterans with PTSD. (United States)

    van 't Wout, Mascha; Spofford, Christopher M; Unger, William S; Sevin, Elizabeth B; Shea, M Tracie


    Interest in virtual reality (VR) as a clinical tool to augment posttraumatic stress (PTSD) treatment has grown substantially in recent years due to advances in VR technology. Moreover, its potential assisted use in the PTSD diagnostic process has been recognized. In this study we examined physiological responding, skin conductance, to a standardized presentation of non-personalized combat-related VR events (e.g. encountering enemy fire; explosions) as compared to non-combat classroom VR events in 19 Veterans with and 24 Veterans without combat-related PTSD who had been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Veterans watched a total of 12 VR scenarios-six combat-related and six non-combat-related-with each scenario gradually increasing in emotional intensity by adding more VR events in addition to repeating prior VR events. Results show that Veterans with PTSD displayed larger skin conductance reactivity across VR combat events, but not for non-combat VR events, as compared to combat Veterans without PTSD. Nevertheless, Veterans with and without PTSD showed a similar reduction of emotional arousal to repeated presentation of the same VR combat events. Within the PTSD sample, the elevated level of VR combat-related arousal correlated marginally with severity of hyperarousal symptoms. This study confirms that the use of a non-personalized and standardized VR presentation successfully distinguishes Veterans with PTSD from those without on a measure of psychophysiological arousal to combat-related VR stimuli. The assessment of physiological reactivity during the repeated presentation of standardized, trauma-related VR events highlights its use for PTSD assessment as well as treatment.

  16. Intracellular interferons in fish: a unique means to combat viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xian Chang

    Full Text Available We demonstrate for the first time in vertebrates, that alternative splicing of interferon (IFN genes can lead to a functional intracellular IFN (iIFN. Fish IFN genes possess introns and in rainbow trout three alternatively spliced transcripts of the IFN1 gene exist. Two of the encoded IFNs are predicted to lack a signal peptide. When overexpressed these iIFNs induce antiviral responses. Variants of the two IFNR receptor chains (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 lacking a signal peptide are also present in trout. Transfection of HEK 293T cells with the iIFN and iIFNR molecules results in STAT phosphorylation and induction of antiviral genes. These results show that fish possess a functioning iIFN system that may act as a novel defence to combat viral infection.

  17. Managed access technology to combat contraband cell phones in prison: Findings from a process evaluation. (United States)

    Grommon, Eric


    Cell phones in correctional facilities have emerged as one of the most pervasive forms of modern contraband. This issue has been identified as a top priority for many correctional administrators in the United States. Managed access, a technology that utilizes cellular signals to capture transmissions from contraband phones, has received notable attention as a promising tool to combat this problem. However, this technology has received little evaluative attention. The present study offers a foundational process evaluation and draws upon output measures and stakeholder interviews to identify salient operational challenges and subsequent lessons learned about implementing and maintaining a managed access system. Findings suggest that while managed access captures large volumes of contraband cellular transmissions, the technology requires significant implementation planning, personnel support, and complex partnerships with commercial cellular carriers. Lessons learned provide guidance for practitioners to navigate these challenges and for scholars to improve future evaluations of managed access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.


    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  19. Optimized scalable stack of fluorescent solar concentrator systems with bifacial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Díez, Ana Luisa, E-mail: [Fundación ITMA, Parque Empresarial Principado de Asturias, C/Calafates, Parcela L-3.4, 33417 Avilés (Spain); Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Gutmann, Johannes; Posdziech, Janina; Rist, Tim; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Plaza, David Gómez [Fundación ITMA, Parque Empresarial Principado de Asturias, C/Calafates, Parcela L-3.4, 33417 Avilés (Spain)


    In this paper, we present a concentrator system based on a stack of fluorescent concentrators (FCs) and a bifacial solar cell. Coupling bifacial solar cells to a stack of FCs increases the performance of the system and preserves its efficiency when scaled. We used an approach to optimize a fluorescent solar concentrator system design based on a stack of multiple fluorescent concentrators (FC). Seven individual fluorescent collectors (20 mm×20 mm×2 mm) were realized by in-situ polymerization and optically characterized in regard to their ability to guide light to the edges. Then, an optimization procedure based on the experimental data of the individual FCs was carried out to determine the stack configuration that maximizes the total number of photons leaving edges. Finally, two fluorescent concentrator systems were realized by attaching bifacial silicon solar cells to the optimized FC stacks: a conventional system, where FC were attached to one side of the solar cell as a reference, and the proposed bifacial configuration. It was found that for the same overall FC area, the bifacial configuration increases the short-circuit current by a factor of 2.2, which is also in agreement with theoretical considerations.

  20. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lopes-Silva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation.Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1 or placebo (cellulose one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery, in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER, ATP-PCr (WPCR, and glycolytic (W[La-] systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1 taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s, 2 taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ, or by 3 analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30.Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04. However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48 or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58. Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62, HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12, oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61 and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72 during the combat simulation were unaffected. Furthermore

  1. Integrated vector management: a critical strategy for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan. (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Govere, John M; Macdonald, Michael B; Lako, Richard L; Haque, Ubydul; Baba, Samson P; Mnzava, Abraham


    Integrated vector management (IVM) based vector control is encouraged by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, operational experience with the IVM strategy has mostly come from countries with relatively well-established health systems and with malaria control focused programmes. Little is known about deployment of IVM for combating multiple vector-borne diseases in post-emergency settings, where delivery structures are less developed or absent. This manuscript reports on the feasibility of operational IVM for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan. A methodical review of published and unpublished documents on vector-borne diseases for South Sudan was conducted via systematic literature search of online electronic databases, Google Scholar, PubMed and WHO, using a combination of search terms. Additional, non-peer reviewed literature was examined for information related to the subject. South Sudan is among the heartlands of vector-borne diseases in the world, characterized by enormous infrastructure, human and financial resource constraints and a weak health system against an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The presence of a multiplicity of vector-borne diseases in this post-conflict situation presents a unique opportunity to explore the potential of a rational IVM strategy for multiple disease control and optimize limited resource utilization, while maximizing the benefits and providing a model for countries in a similar situation. The potential of integrating vector-borne disease control is enormous in South Sudan. However, strengthened coordination, intersectoral collaboration and institutional and technical capacity for entomological monitoring and evaluation, including enforcement of appropriate legislation are crucial.

  2. A simple fuzzy control design for powertrain systems with three inertias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Emil Precup


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple fuzzy control design for powertrain systems with three inertias. Considering four operating modes of the clutch, the piecewise affine state-space models offers an accurate characterization of the powertrain systems as controlled processes. A class of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy controllers (T-S FCs is offered with this regard. The inputs of the T-S FCs are the two variables that define the four operating regimes and they also define a partition of the fifth order state-space model, the control error and the increment of control error. The control error and the increment of control error are usually involved in structures of Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno PI-fuzzy controllers. The control error is defined considering the wheel speed as the controlled output. Neglecting the affine terms in the piecewise affine state-space models of the process, the frequency domain design is applied to the process models in terms of neglecting the affine terms to obtain four continuous-time PI controllers. The continuous-time PI controllers are next discretized and included in the six rule consequents of T-S FCs. This modal equivalence principle-based design approach offers T-S FCs that exhibit the bumpless interpolation between separately designed linear PI controllers for each operating mode of the clutch. Digital simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the fuzzy control system and to compare it with the linear PI-based control system that are successfully used as wheel speed control systems.

  3. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  4. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  5. The Impact of Infidelity on Combat-Exposed Service Members. (United States)

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Smith, Brian N; Taft, Casey T; Vogt, Dawne


    This study examined relationships between combat-exposed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans' experiences related to infidelity during deployment (i.e., indicating that a partner was unfaithful or reporting concern about potential infidelity) and postdeployment mental health, as well as the role of subsequent stress exposure and social support in these associations. The sample consisted of 571 individuals (338 men). There were 128 participants (22.2%) who indicated that their partners were unfaithful during their most recent deployment. Of the remaining 443 participants, 168 (37.8%) indicated that they were concerned that their partners might have been unfaithful. Individuals who indicated that their partners were unfaithful exhibited higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptomatology (β = .08; f(2) = .18) and depression symptom severity (β = .09; f(2) = .14), compared to individuals who did not indicate that their partners were unfaithful. For both men and women, reported infidelity was associated with mental health indirectly via postdeployment life stressors, whereas infidelity concerns were indirectly associated with mental health via postdeployment life stressors for men only. Findings suggested that infidelity can have a significant impact on combat-exposed veterans' mental health and highlight the need for additional research on this understudied topic within the military population. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Skin lesions in Lorestan province chemically wounded combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghaye Jebraili


    Findings: All of the studied cases with mean age of 39.26 years old had skin manifestations among which the most common symptoms were itching , burning ,dry skin , scaling. From view point of lesions, the most common signs were erythema (81% , excoriation (87.9% and pruritic papules (49.5%. Final diagnosis in 78% of the patients was chronic dermatitis and in 7.7% of them was seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 8.8% both chronic and seborrhoeic dermatitis were observed .During exposure to chemical gases only 37.9% of these combatants had used special masks and 40% had properly worn special clothes to protect themselves which covered their body completely , but rest of them had either used protection instruments improperly or had not used them at all. Most of the lesions were in trunk , lower extremities , abdomen , head and neck .78% of the cases had multiple lesions Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study all of the chemical wounded combatants of Lorestan province suffer from different degrees of skin lesions , although more than half of them were not aware of kind and nature of the chemical gases , but it is suggested to do further studies on long-term effects of these chemical gases.

  7. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Wells


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69 with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77, as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73 and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54. These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.

  8. Are IVC filters required in combat support hospitals? (United States)

    Parent, P; Trottier, V J F; Bennett, D R; Charlebois, P B; Schieff, T D


    Haemorrhagic shock from traumatic injuries is now often treated using a damage control resuscitation strategy that transfuses packed red blood cells, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio, early use of activated recombinant factor VII and transfusion of fresh whole blood. These therapies are aimed at promoting thrombosis in injured vessels. Such patients are at high risk for thrombotic complications and thromboprophylaxis is necessary, but frequently impossible to use in the early phase of care. We describe the case of an Afghan civilian worker who suffered a vertical shear pelvic fracture with massive bleeding in a pedestrian/truck collision that was treated with a damage control resuscitation strategy, and who later suffered a severe pulmonary embolus. The potential use of a temporary inferior vena cava [IVC] filters is discussed. Care providers and policy makers must recognize that the increased use of prothrombotic strategies of resuscitation will likely increase the incidence of thrombotic complications in the high risk population of severely injured patients in combat support hospitals. Monitoring the incidence of these complications and development of strategies for prevention and treatment are required to avoid undermining the positive outcomes of damage control resuscitation. These strategies could include supplying combat support hospitals with the equipment and training necessary for placement of temporary IVC filters under fluoroscopic guidance.

  9. Extremity War Injuries VIII: sequelae of combat injuries. (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Ficke, James R


    The 2013 Extremity War Injury symposium focused on the sequelae of combat-related injuries, including posttraumatic osteoarthritis, amputations, and infections. Much remains to be learned about posttraumatic arthritis, and there are few circumstances in which a definitive arthroplasty should be performed in an acutely injured and open joint. Although the last decade has seen tremendous advances in the treatment of combat upper extremity injuries, many questions remain unanswered, and continued research focusing on improving reconstruction of large segmental defects remains critical. Discussion of infection centered on the need for novel methods to reduce the bacterial load following the initial débridement procedures. Novel methods of delivering antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory medications directly to the wound were discussed as well as the need for near real-time assessment of bacterial and fungal burden and further means of prevention and treatment of biofilm formation and the importance of animal models to test therapies discussed. Moderators and lecturers of focus groups noted the continuing need for improved prehospital care in the management of junctional injuries, identified optimal strategies for both surgical repair and/or reconstruction of the ligaments in multiligamentous injuries, and noted the need to mitigate bone mineral density loss following amputation and/or limb salvage as well as the necessity of developing better methods of anticipating and managing heterotopic ossification.

  10. Disciplinamento social e combate à vadiagem no antigo regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon


    Full Text Available O combate à vadiagem assume, emdiferentes épocas, distintas feições. Inspirandoseno início da Idade Moderna fortemente namoral religiosa, centrava-se então no combateao jogo, à bebida e ao livre deslocamento damão-de-obra, vistos como fontes de pecadose “desordens”. No final da Idade Moderna, aspreocupações de cunho econômico tornaramsecentrais, impulsionando uma mudança dasformas de controle social. O Liberalismo viriaa demandar, por sua vez, a busca de uma novajustificação para o combate à “vadiagem” e paraa manutenção do aparato estatal de controle. The control of vagrancy takesdifferent faces throughout different ages.The police legislation in the beginning ofthe early modern times, inspired by religiousmorality, focused on the restraint of gambling,drunkenness and migration of workers, whichwere regarded as sources of sins and socialdisturbances. The age of Reform Absolutismchanged these forms of social restraint whenthe economical factor assumed a centralrole. Under liberalism, a new vindicationwas needed for the maintenance of vagrancycontrol apparatus.

  11. The mental health of UK ex-servicemen with a combat-related or a non-combat-related visual impairment: does the cause of visual impairment matter? (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Gill, Pashyca C; Fear, Nicola T


    Since the start of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, the numbers of young service personnel who have sustained a combat-related visual impairment have increased. This cross-sectional study examined the mental well-being of ex-servicemen (aged 22-55 years) with a visual impairment and determined if the mental health of those with a combat-related visual impairment differed from those whose visual impairment is not combat-related. Male ex-service personnel with a visual impairment completed a telephone interview assessing the presence of depressive symptomatology, probable anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and alcohol misuse. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 77 participants were included in the study, reflecting a response rate of 76.2%. Of those with complete data (n=74), 20 ex-servicemen had a combat-related visual impairment. Among ex-service personnel with a combat-related visual impairment, 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) screened positive for a probable depression, 25.0% (95% CI 6.0 to 44.0) for probable anxiety and 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable depression and probable PTSD differed among those with a non-combat-related visual impairment, namely 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) and 16.7% (95% CI 6.8 to 26.7), respectively. Probable anxiety was 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) among non-combat-related visually impaired ex-service personnel. 45.0% (95% CI 23.2 to 66.8) of combat-related visually impaired personnel reported hazardous drinking, compared with 20.4% (95% CI 9.7 to 31.2) of those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Mental health problems were prevalent among visually impaired younger ex-servicemen. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems among ex-servicemen with a combat-related visual impairment compared with those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  12. Aging Aircraft Fleets: Structural and Other Subsystem Aspects (le Vieillissement des flottes d’avions militaires : aspects structures et autres sous-systemes) (United States)


    more accurate loads databases in terms of - advances in “Carefree Handling”- Flight Control Systems (FCS) - aircraft mass distributions predictions...aging aircraft structures. An advanced system known as COMSCAN, developed by Phillips, allows to form images of underlying structure and requires access...detect damage in aircraft structures. Some of the techniques being- shearography , DIAS system and thermography. Shearography - This is a field inspection

  13. Constant Challenges and Evolution of US Military Transfusion Medicine and Blood Operations in Combat (United States)


    descriptive overview of blood product usage and transfusion medi- cine adaptations that have been employed by the US military to support combat...S, Butler FK. Causes of death in U.S. Special Opera- tions Forces in the global war on terrorism : 2001-2004. Ann Surg 2007;245:986-91. 12. Demetriades

  14. Modern Tactics in the Moral Domain: Smart Weapons and the Production of the Combat Stress Reaction (United States)


    Kubie , Karl A. Menninger, John Romano, and John C. Whitehorn, "Combat Exhaustion," The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v. 104 (July-Dec, 1946), pp...Bartemeier, Leo H., Kubie , Lawrence, Menninger, Karl A.,Romano, John, & Whitehorn, John C., "Combat Exhaustion." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v

  15. 'Fight or Flight' Response Greater in Combat Vets with PTSD: Study (United States)

    ... or Flight' Response Greater in Combat Vets With PTSD: Study This heightened stress could increase their risk ... May 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a stepped-up "fight or flight" ...

  16. Does Combat Exposure Make You a More Violent or Criminal Person? Evidence from the Vietnam Draft (United States)

    Rohlfs, Chris


    This study exploits the differential effects of the Vietnam War across birth cohorts to measure the effects of combat exposure on later violence and crime. Combat exposure and violent acts are measured using self-reports from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. I find large positive effects on violence for blacks, suggestive evidence…

  17. The Combat Exposure Scale: A Systematic Assessment of Trauma in the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Lund, Mary; And Others


    Describes the development of the Combat Exposure Scale, which assessed the combat experiences of 43 help-seeking Vietnam veterans. Scale scores related significantly to current diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and symptom intensity. The Guttman scaling technique resulted in an ordering of events that provided clinically relevant…

  18. Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update (United States)


    ME, Mende K, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staph - ylococcus aureus in wound cultures recovered from a combat support hospital in Iraq. J Trauma...Med. 2009; 174:408-411. 184. Huang XZ. Cash DM, Chahine MA, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staph - ylococcus aureus infection in combat support hospitals

  19. Strategic Misstep: ’Immortal’ Robotic Warfare, Inviting Combat to Suburban America (United States)


    locations of those combatants.59 Predator “ Porn ” – Immoral, or Just “Freaking Cool” Air Force RPA combatant operators and those around them will likely...accessed February 4, 2010). Predator “feeds” have been renamed in military circles to Predator “ porn ”. For reference see Mockenhaupt, “We’ve Seen the

  20. Strategies for Preparing United States Combat Organizations for the Inevitability of Casualties (United States)


    operational stressors are prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures, sleep deprivation , boredom, reduced quality of life, prolonged separation from family...Program and CSF program in great detail. However, Love did draw some interesting correlations between combat sports athletes who compete in close...Pinnacle Performance, uses Emotion Awareness and Regulation Training to prepare athletes for close quarters combat. This training is designed to