WorldWideScience

Sample records for combat arms smuggling

  1. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) information about efforts to combat nuclear smuggling at U.S. borders. My statement today is based on the results of our May 16, 2002, report on this subject1 and information we obtained from the U.S...

  2. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-12-01

    The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40-50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry.

  3. The nuclear smuggling international technical working group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation; 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis; 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation; 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises; and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past five years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics of seized nuclear materials. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is uncovered, e.g. incident response, crime scene analysis, collection of evidence (both radioactive and 'traditional' forensics, transportation to a nuclear facility, subsequent laboratory analysis, and then development of the case. At the most recent meeting (ITWG-6

  4. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This 26-page report summarized previous work on nuclear forensics and gave an initial analysis on prioritizing techniques and methods for forensic analysis regarding source and route attribution. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The work of the ITWG has also been noted at subsequent summit declarations, e.g. Cologne. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation, 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis, 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation, 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises, and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past six years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is

  5. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  6. The role of customs services and World Customs Organization (WCO)'s enforcement programme to combat nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, E.

    1999-01-01

    The World Customs Organization (established as the Customs Co-operation Council in 1952) is an independent inter-governmental body with world-wide membership (150) whose enforcement mission could be summarized as 'to assist its Members in strengthening their enforcement measures through training and technical programmes designed to combat Customs offences', which also include nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling. One of the best strategies for an effective fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials is to stop their illegal movement at the national border before entering or leaving the country. From this point, Customs services are unique governmental cross-border control agencies, which are mostly located at national cross-border checking points. In addition to this local advantage, Customs expertise and authority in checking documents, goods, vehicles and passengers deserve special mentioning. It should also be noted that Customs services have great experience on how to combat and respond to transnational crime and criminals. On the other hand, in order to maximize on their experience, they should be furnished with sufficient authority for investigation, detection equipment and supported through relevant training programmes. In line with the request made by Member States, the World Customs Organization (WCO) Secretariat has recently developed an enforcement programme on combating nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling. This programme is based on awareness raising, development of training materials, designing training programmes, promoting exchange of information and improving co-operation at all levels. The WCO Database, the WCO Regional Intelligence Liaison (RILO) project and WCO bilateral and multilateral co-operative initiatives are three key tools which enable Customs administrations to develop accurate, timely and rapid exchange of information and intelligence. Within the concept of international co

  7. Enabling Rapid Integration of Combined Arms Teams into a Brigade Combat Team Organizational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Organizational socialization: The effective onboarding of new employees. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology ...Technical Report 1356 Enabling Rapid Integration of Combined Arms Teams into a Brigade Combat Team Organizational Structure...2012 - May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enabling Rapid Integration of Combined Arms Teams into a Brigade Combat Team Organizational Structure

  8. Barriers to hearing conservation programs in combat arms occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Sharon M

    2008-06-01

    The Canadian military instituted a hearing conservation program over 45 yr ago. Yet the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss is escalating. A focus group study involving four combat arms occupations was carried out to probe individuals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to hearing loss prevention to find ways to improve compliance. One group each of 4-5 Infantry Soldiers, Artillerymen, Armored Soldiers, and Combat Engineers, with the rank of Warrant Officer, Sergeant, or Master Corporal, and at least 5 yr of service participated. Discussions were led by a Moderator and recorded by an Assistant Moderator. Questions posed related to susceptibility and consequences of hearing loss, benefits and drawback of hearing protection, and preferences. Age range was 28-48 yr and length of service 10-30 yr. Individuals were exposed to noise from weapons, explosives, vehicles, and aircraft. Infantry Soldiers and Artillerymen had confirmed moderate to severe hearing loss. Armored Soldiers and Combat Engineers had not perceived a change in hearing. Main concerns of using hearing protection were interference with detection and localization of auditory warnings, and perception of orders. Devices were often incompatible with other gear and difficult to fit. Good hearing was critical to the occupations studied. Difference in hearing loss among groups was related to type and level of noise exposure. Loss of hearing and/or the use of hearing protection compromised situational awareness, exchange of information, and auditory task performance. Participants favored opportunities to try recommended devices, policies governing use, and sufficient funding to ensure protection for both regular and special forces.

  9. Suicide attempts in U.S. Army combat arms, special forces and combat medics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Mash, Holly Herberman; Fullerton, Carol S; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-05-25

    The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Risk may vary according to occupation, which significantly influences the stressors that soldiers experience. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records for all active duty Regular Army enlisted soldiers who had a medically documented suicide attempt from 2004 through 2009 (n = 9650) and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined the association of combat occupation (combat arms [CA], special forces [SF], combat medic [CM]) with suicide attempt, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. In adjusted models, the odds of attempting suicide were higher in CA (OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.2]) and CM (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.3-1.5]), but lower in SF (OR = 0.3 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5]) compared to all other occupations. CA and CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than other occupations if never deployed (ORs = 1.1-1.5) or previously deployed (ORs = 1.2-1.3), but not when currently deployed. Occupation was associated with suicide attempt in the first ten years of service, but not beyond. In the first year of service, primarily a time of training, CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than both CA (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.2-1.6]) and other occupations (OR = 1.5 [95% CI: 1.3-1.7]). Discrete-time hazard functions revealed that these occupations had distinct patterns of monthly risk during the first year of service. Military occupation can inform the understanding suicide attempt risk among soldiers.

  10. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... member of the Armed Forces in active service in a combat zone who becomes a prisoner of war or missing in... combat zone for the period for which the member is treated as a prisoner of war or as missing in action.... Example 5. Assigned to an air unit stationed in Nearby Country, B was killed in June when B's plane...

  11. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  12. Combat Arms Training and Maintenance Career Ladder (AFSC 753X0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    TTGT I I HQ USAF/ MPPT I I HQ USAFE/DPAT 3 3 HQ USAFE/TTGT 1 1 HQ USMC (CODE TPI) I NODAC I 3250 TCHTW/TTGX (LACKLAND AFB TX) 4 3 8 5 3250 TCHTW/TTS...perform functions such as inspecting, repairing, and maintaining ground weapons and controlling and operating Air Force-owned firing ranges. Major... Control System, Combat Control , Pararescue, Direct Air Support Center, and of course, Combat Arms Training and Maintenance. Recurring training is

  13. Basic Combat Unit of the Slovenian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Military History , 2007), v. 17 combined arms unit for different situations or does “one size fits all” exist? What is the relationship between...concepts exist only in theory . The Defense Strategy also talks about a comprehensive defense reform, which has yet to begin...unique society, history , geographic position and required capabilities. For that reason, professional military education is extremely important and more

  14. Principles of protection against nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S.A.; Martin, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    involves social consequences. If smugglers believe that any success in nuclear smuggling will lead to a greatly enhanced effort to combat smuggling, they may be deterred. Similarly, understanding the catastrophic results of the use of nuclear explosions may deter those with moral conscience. These types of campaigns do not only affect deterrence. One very important detection mode is through informants, either those involved in the criminal enterprise or those who incidentally learn of it. Increasing the impression among such people that nuclear smuggling is likely to lead to apprehension of those involved, and even if it were to succeed, to social catastrophe, is important. The likelihood of an informant coming forward to reveal planned or in-progress nuclear smuggling will increase. Reduction in the economic needs of potential collaborators and informants is also useful. Technology that can detect significant amounts of unshielded nuclear materials can be used to provide detection of certain modes of smuggling. Furthermore, it can be combined with other technology. For example, X-ray examination of items would easily detect some shielding materials. These technologies are best deployed after a systematic analysis of possible modes and routes of smuggling. This analysis should be based on one goal, that of increasing the overall risk of detection of nuclear smuggling. Applying detection capability to a border point does more than just detect nuclear materials. It provides a motivation for smugglers to either transport only smaller amounts of material, which means more trips and more opportunities for detection, or to use shielding, which is itself detectable by weight, size and X-ray image. It provides an impetus for smugglers to use alternate routes, which are hopefully more risky to them. Thus, the least risky smuggling routes need to be equipped with detection equipment first. The determination of the least risky routes involves a comprehensive evaluation of smugglers

  15. Smuggled or trafficked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bhabha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TNC and its two Protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling, adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.

  16. Women in Combat Arms: A Study of the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    52 Table 11. Personnel Strenght with Gender Breakout, U.S. Army 2001- 2010..............................62 Table...weapons have equalized the potential for women in combat, since wars are less likely to be fought on a hand -to- hand basis, and have made it impossible to...ARMED FORCES – Continued Table 11. Personnel Strenght with Gender Breakout, U.S. Army 2001- 2010 YEAR TOTAL

  17. [Dimensions of Empathy in Ex-Combatants of the Colombian Armed Conflict Using a Standardized Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, David A; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo; Trujillo, Natalia; Valencia, Ana María; Pareja, Ángela; Tobón, Carlos; Velilla, Lina; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2013-03-01

    Empathy is one of the main concepts of in social neurosciences. It is defined as a trait with multiple dimensions allowing individuals to place themselves in the emotional states of others. Colombia has an irregular, internal and long-lasting armed conflict which has been increasing its cruelty levels. to assess the empathy dimensions of 285 ex-combatants from the internal Colombian conflict, using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index(IRI) in Spanish. METHODOLOGY AND SUBJECTS: a sample of 285 male ex-combatants, 241 (84, 6%) males: 85,3% paramilitaries, and 14,7% guerillas. The 28 Item IRI questionnaires were administered. 3 exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were performed. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were developed using structural equation procedures. The first EFA obtained 9 factors (KMO=0,74, variance 54,7% and internal consistency (IC): 0,22 - 0,63). The second EFA produced 20 items with burdens above 0,4 and showed a 6-factor structure (KMO=0,70, variance 50,3%, IC: 0,37 - 0,63). The third EFA forced the 4 original IRI dimensions (KMO=0,74, variance 33,77, IC: 0,44 - 0,77. CFAs showed goodness of adjustment indexes adequate for the three models. The 4-factor model obtained the lowest value, while the 6-factor model obtained the highest. The 4- factor model showed the best IC. The Spanish IRI administered to ex-combatants of the Colombian conflict has possible structures of 4, 6 and 9 factors. The best adjustment was for the 6-fctor. The 4-factor model exhibited the best IC. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined Arms Warfare in the 21st Century: Maximizing the Capability of U.S. Army Future Combat System Equipped Brigade Combat Teams to Conduct Combined Arms Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, James W

    2008-01-01

    ... employment of a combination of arms, thereby benefiting from their synergistic effects. He also reviews the main historical developments in CAW from World War I to the present Iraq War, including World War II, Korea...

  19. Combined Arms Warfare in the 21st Century: Maximizing the Capability of U.S. Army Future Combat System Equipped Brigade Combat Teams to Conduct Combined Arms Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, James W

    2008-01-01

    ... to a study of combined arms operations (CAW). The author explores the nature of CAW, and through the use of synchronization theory explains how synchronization is the key process by which units are able to plan and conduct the simultaneous...

  20. U.S. Army physical demands study: Identification and validation of the physically demanding tasks of combat arms occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Marilyn A; Cohen, Bruce S; Boye, Michael W; Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Larcom, Kathleen; Hydren, Jay R; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Canino, Maria C; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2017-11-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Army began developing physical tests to predict a recruit's ability to perform the critical, physically demanding tasks (CPDTs) of combat arms jobs previously not open to women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and results of analyses of the accuracy and inclusiveness of the critical physically demanding task list. While the job analysis included seven combat arms jobs, only data from the 19D Cavalry Scout occupation are presented as the process was similar for all seven jobs. Job analysis METHODS: As the foundation, senior subject matter experts from each job reviewed materials and reached consensus on the CPDTs and performance standards for each job. The list was reviewed by Army leadership and provided to the researchers. The job analysis consisted of reviewing job and task related documents and field manuals, observing >900 soldiers performing the 32 CPDTs, conducting two focus groups for each job, and analyzing responses to widely distributed job analysis questionnaires. Of the 32 CPDTs identified for seven combat jobs, nine were relevant to 19D soldiers. Focus group discussions and job analysis questionnaire results supported the tasks and standards identified by subject matter experts while also identifying additional tasks. The tasks identified by subject matter experts were representative of the physically demanding aspects of the 19D occupation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  2. The 0302/1802/1803 MOS Merger: Infantry and Combat Arms One in the Same

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Brian R

    2008-01-01

    ...) 1802, 1802 and 0302 into a single entity. The aggregate result of this merger will provide commanders with a multi-talented ground combat officer thereby capitalizing on the Marine Corps' scarce manpower resources...

  3. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a controlled...

  4. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  5. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test for Combat Arms soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Sharp, Marilyn A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Baker, Todd A; Canino, Maria C; Zambraski, Edward J

    2017-11-01

    The United States Army sought to create a legally defensible, scientifically validated physical pre-employment screening test. The purpose of this study was to identify a single combination of predictor tests that would predict physical performance on all of the criterion measure task simulations relevant to the Combat Arms military occupational specialties. Concurrent validation. Data from 838 (608 males, 230 females) soldiers who completed both the criterion measure task simulations of a military occupational specialty and up to 14 predictor tests were used in the development of the test batteries. Stepwise regressions were used to identify test batteries that significantly predicted performance on the criterion measure task simulations of the military occupational specialties. Three test batteries were developed based on different subsets of the predictor tests: Test Battery 1 consisted of the medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump, and arm ergometer (adjusted R 2 =0.80-0.85, pTest Battery 2 consisted of the medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, and standing long jump (adjusted R 2 =0.79-0.80, pTest Battery 3 consisted of the standing long jump, 1-minute push-ups, 1-minute sit-ups, 300m sprint, and Illinois agility test (adjusted R 2 =0.55-0.71, pTest Battery 2 was selected as the Army's Occupational Physical Assessment Test. It was highly predictive of performance of the Combat Arms military occupational specialties, required no complex equipment, and covered a range of physical fitness domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  7. Chinese human smuggling in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudijn, Melvin Roan Jasper

    2006-01-01

    Kleinschalige mensensmokkelaars beheersen de gehele smokkelroute van China naar de eindbestemming, grootschalige smokkelaars beheersen paradoxaal genoeg slechts een gedeelte van het traject. Dat is een van de conclusies uit de dissertatie “Chinese Smuggling in Transit” van Melvin Soudijn. Het

  8. Impact of combat events on first responders: experiences of the armed conflict in Uruzgan, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoencamp, Rigo; Idenburg, Floris J; Vermetten, Eric; Tan, Edward; Plat, Marie-Christine; Hoencamp, Erik; Leenen, Luke P H; Hamming, Jaap F

    2015-05-01

    Care for battle casualties demands special skills from medics, nurses, and tactical commanders. To date, no inventory has been performed evaluating the first responders (medics, nurses and tactical commanders) around battle casualties. This observational cohort study was conducted amongst the first responders (n=195) who were deployed to Southern Afghanistan (2009-2010) in three Marine companies. The survey focused on four main topics: (1) participants general background, (2) exposure to combat (casualty) situations, (3) self-perceived quality of care (1 [low]-10 [high]) in the pre-hospital phase, and (4) the effects of combat stressors on professional skills and social environment using the Post Deployment Reintegration Scale (PDRS) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). 71% of the eligible Dutch tactical commanders, medics, and nurses participated in this survey. Most (14/16) medics and nurses scored their pre-deployment training as sufficient The overall self-perceived quality of care score was above average (7.8). Most (80%) of the participants were exposed to battle casualties. There were no significant differences regarding rank, gender, age and military task using the impact of event scale and PDRS, except for a worse score on the work negative, family positive and personal positive subscales (parmed forces norm score. The quality of care in the pre-hospital phase was considered adequate, symptoms of post-traumatic stress in this group was low. Active involvement of co-combatants and the social support network are essential in adaption after exposure to combat events. Further research is necessary to identity predisposing preventable high stress factors, and to compose a "waterproof" aftercare programme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some Aspects of Fight Against Smuggling: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Evtushenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of contraband, it will touch upon the historical aspect and peculiarities of this institute on railway transport. Dependence of smuggling on the level of the state economic development and ways to combat smuggling is presented. In the conclusion author concludes that: 1 There is a need to create a set of technical means to track interested parties the passage of their goods, their integrity and safety. It is perfectly possible to use the GLONAS system for monitoring; 2 It is required to create such economic conditions, in which the existence of smuggling will simply be unprofitable, in a reasonable combination with law enforcement practice will affect the level of such crimes; 3 To make changes in the Art. 180 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in terms of recognizing the size of major damage from 250 thousand rubles to ten thousand rubles; 4 To give interested persons the right of accessing the system of checking the information contained in customs declarations.

  10. “Key to the Future”: British American Tobacco and Cigarette Smuggling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455

  11. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-07-01

    Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  12. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union.This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes.Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  13. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  14. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers.

  15. 76 FR 42674 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Information Collection; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade Compliance Program; Smuggling Form AGENCY: Animal... Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support our smuggling, interdiction... (202) 690-2817 before coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the smuggling...

  16. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    smuggling networks capable of trafficking WMD- related materiel or finished weapons; the status of CBRN detection capa- bilities at land/ sea /air points of... dead , more than 800 injured) causes discussion of terrorist use of high explosives as a “WMD” incident. The FBI and FEMA create a terrorist...Counterproliferation This will bring you to the Nuclear and Counterprolif- eration page. Scroll towards the bottom and you will see Combating WMD Journal

  17. "Up yours": smuggling illicit drugs into prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues "on the inside". Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get "on the outside", this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison.

  18. Nuclear Smuggling and Threats to Lithuanian Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murauskaitė Eglė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores threats related to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and dual-use goods applicable in state level nuclear programs, actualizing the global trends for the Baltic region. The article points to Eastern Europe’s changing risk profile in this respect, as increasing penetration of Russian criminal groups inside Ukraine and the destabilized situations in neighboring countries create an environment where the risk of nuclear smuggling is on the rise. Criminal entities can be seen forming new bonds, with trafficking routes intersecting and zones of influence shifting - consequently, an unusual level of criminal involvement in nuclear smuggling is observed, alongside a geographic shift of smuggling patterns. In addition, states seeking materials and technologies for their military programs have taken a notable interest in this region as a way of circumventing international transit regulations. The article looks at the likely implications of these new nuclear smuggling trends for the security of the Baltic states. It suggests that Lithuania may soon be facing a relatively new threat, and one that it is ill-prepared to counter. The article discusses the risk factors and indicators to watch before that risk becomes reality, and offers ways for Lithuania to contribute to addressing these increasingly acute problems on a regional level.

  19. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-01-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  20. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  1. The WCO/IAEA joint training programmes for customs services on radioactive material smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, E.; Duftschmid, K.

    1998-01-01

    One of the milestones of the WCO Enforcement Programme on Combating nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling is to raise awareness among Customs services and reinforce their enforcement programmes by providing them training materials and training courses. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is recognized as a unique international organization in nuclear field to assist the WCO Secretariat by providing technical input in developing awareness/training materials and conducting training courses. In line with their policies for the effective combating of nuclear and other radioactive materials smuggling, both international organizations have agreed to co-operate by regular attendance each other's technical meetings. This approach was formalized with the signing of Memorandum of Understanding on 13 May 1997. The WCO and IAEA training strategy has been to give priority to the Eastern and Central Europe region and the first joint training course was held in Vienna for Customs Trainers on 2-6 June 1997 and the second course is scheduled for Customs and Police officers of the same region in September 1998. (author)

  2. Migrant's agency in the smuggling process : the perspectives of smuggled migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, I.; Doomernik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on migrants who have been smuggled to the Netherlands from three regions: Iraq, Horn of Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The central questions are: to what extent do smugglers give direction to migration; and how much autonomy do migrants themselves have in deciding where they

  3. Tobacco smuggling estimates based on pack examination in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette pack examination as a part of tobacco surveillance allows estimating the proportion of cigarettes brought from other countries, part of which could be smuggled. This information can be used for counterbalancing the industry's statements, which usually overestimate the level of cigarette smuggling.

  4. [Smuggling of illegal drugs by body suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje Amb; Jacobsen, Dag

    2004-07-01

    Body packers are persons who smuggle illegal drugs by swallowing condoms or plastic cylinders containing such substances. Body stuffers are drug dealers or drug abusers who swallow illegal drugs in an effort to conceal evidence during an arrest or in fear of being arrested. We report four cases and discuss management. Asymptomatic body packers may be managed conservatively with laxatives and water-soluble contrast medium. This method allows an accurate follow-up with abdominal radiography. If patients develop abdominal pain or signs and symptoms of intoxication, surgical intervention should be considered. Both types of patients should be monitored carefully.

  5. Detector Requirements to Curb Nuclear Smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S A

    2001-01-01

    The problem of stopping nuclear smuggling of terrorist nuclear devices is a complex one, owing to the variety of pathways by which such a device can be transported. To fashion new detection systems that improve the chances of detecting such a device, it is important to know the various requirements and conditions that would be imposed on them by both the types of devices that might be smuggled and by the requirement that it not overly interfere with the transportation of legitimate goods. Requirements vary greatly from low-volume border crossings to high-volume industrial container ports, and the design of systems for them is likely to be quite different. There is also a further need to detect these devices if they are brought into a country via illicit routes, i.e., those which do not pass through customs posts, but travel overland though open space or to a smaller, unguarded airport or seaport. This paper describes some generic uses of detectors, how they need to be integrated into customs or other law enforcement systems, and what the specifications for such detectors might be

  6. Turning off the tap: the real solution to cigarette smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2003-03-01

    The tobacco industry has argued that tobacco smuggling is caused by market forces, i.e., by the price differences between countries, which create an incentive to smuggle cigarettes from 'cheaper' to 'more expensive' countries, and so urged governments to solve the problem by reducing taxes to remove this differential, which will also, they say, restore revenue. Although such market forces have some effect, smuggling is in fact more prevalent in 'cheaper' countries, and reducing tax is not the solution. Where taxes have been reduced tobacco consumption has risen and revenue has fallen, with disastrous consequences for public health. The key to understanding cigarette smuggling is understanding the role of the tobacco industry. At the heart of cigarette smuggling is large scale fraud: container loads of cigarettes are exported, legally and duty unpaid, to countries where they have no market, and where they disappear into the contraband market. They are often smuggled back into the country of origin, where they are sold at a third to half price. It is therefore profitable because duty has been illegally evaded. The key to controlling cigarette smuggling is not lowering taxes, it is controlling the tobacco manufacturing industry and its exporting practices.

  7. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  8. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  9. Women in Combat Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    law and DoD policy.”11 A recent message from the Army Public Affairs Office (PAO) states, “Army policy prohibits the assignment of women Soldiers to...assignments of women soldiers. The Army’s message , “. . . the issue is resolved” is actually confusing. As female soldiers earn awards for valor in combat...percent of male graduates enter combat arms), and there is both explicit and subliminal mentorship of female cadets guiding them toward the more

  10. Human Smuggling and Violence in the East Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    purpose-The purpose of this paper is to outline a typology of violent acts used against migrants using human smugglers. This paper relates the experiences of violence, coercion, and exploitation to migrants' experiences of being smuggled across borders.

  11. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  12. Maritime security report. November 2000 [Commercial maritime drug smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Port and security programs being implemented in Colombia's port facilities, maritime jurisdictions, and the marine intermodal shipping cycle are producing successful results against commercial maritime drug smuggling. This security reports examines t...

  13. Cigarette smuggling finds a home in the west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Square, D

    1998-01-13

    Four years ago the tobacco-smuggling situation was so bad that the federal government reduced its tobacco taxes. All provinces in the East save Newfoundland followed suit by lowering provincial taxes as well. The western provinces adamantly refused to do this. Today, cartons of cigarettes that sell for $26 in Ontario cost roughly $45 west of the Ontario border. The result, says David Square, is that tobacco smuggling is now a thriving industry in western Canada.

  14. A.Q. Khan Nuclear Smuggling Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly MacCalman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdul Qadeer Khan, widely viewed as the father of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program, was arrested on January 31, 2004 for his key role in the black market sale of nuclear technology and equipment to Iran, North Korea, Libya, and possibly others. A.Q. Khan’s nuclear smuggling network prospered throughout the 1980s and 1990s and was linked to middlemen and businesses in over 20 countries. The network offered buyers a menu of both technical expertise and materials with prices ranging from millions to hundreds of millions of dollars. The Khan network was ultimately exposed largely due to years of intelligence gathering by the United States and the United Kingdom. However, very few of the network’s members have been successfully prosecuted and the demand for nuclear material by both state and non-state actors continues. The exposure of Khan’s network confirmed that a non-state actor could procure and sell a turnkey nuclear weapons program to willing buyers.

  15. Bioresorbable polyelectrolytes for smuggling drugs into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Sripriya

    2016-06-01

    There is ample evidence that biodegradable polyelectrolyte nanocapsules are multifunctional vehicles which can smuggle drugs into cells, and release them upon endogenous activation. A large number of endogenous stimuli have already been tested in vitro, and in vivo research is escalating. Thus, the interest in the design of intelligent polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) drug delivery systems is clear. The need of the hour is a systematic translation of PEM-based drug delivery systems from the lab to clinical studies. Reviews on multifarious stimuli that can trigger the release of drugs from such systems already exist. This review summarizes the available literature, with emphasis on the recent progress in PEM-based drug delivery systems that are receptive in the presence of endogenous stimuli, including enzymes, glucose, glutathione, pH, and temperature, and addresses different active and passive drug targeting strategies. Insights into the current knowledge on the diversified endogenous approaches and methodological challenges may bring inspiration to resolve issues that currently bottleneck the successful implementation of polyelectrolytes into the catalog of third-generation drug delivery systems.

  16. Prevalence of smuggled and foreign cigarette use in Tehran, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Tafti, Saeid Fallah; Telischi, Firouzeh; Joossens, Luk; Hosseini, Mostafa; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Iran is one of two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Iranian government has a local tobacco monopoly but there is high demand for international brands. Informal reports show about 20% of cigarette consumption is smuggled brands. This pack survey study is the first in Iran to gather validated information on use of smuggled cigarettes. Methods A randomized cross-sectional household survey in Tehran in 2008–2009 of 1540 smokers aged 16–90 (83% men) was performed, including interviewer checking of cigarette packs. Results In all, 20.9% of cigarettes and 6.7% of domestic branded cigarettes were smuggled. A total of 60.1% of smokers preferred foreign cigarettes. There was no significant difference between consumption of illegal cigarettes by sex. (Fisher exact test p=0.61) Use of smuggled cigarettes was higher among younger smokers (p=0.01) Conclusions Use of illegal cigarettes is high. Tobacco control laws outlawing their sale are not being enforced. PMID:20876076

  17. A Critical Insight into Europe´s Criminalisation of Human Smuggling : SIEPS Policy Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, I.C.

    Despite being framed as a recent phenomenon, human smuggling practices have existed for a long time and have historically been tied to border crossing regulations and controls. What is relatively new however is the criminalisation of human smuggling. Since the 1990s human smuggling is increasingly

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  19. “Up yours”: smuggling illicit drugs into prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues “on the inside”. Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get “on the outside”, this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison. PMID:21954402

  20. Gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-10-15

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  1. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier. (orig.)

  2. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, W N

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  3. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has taken steps to control tobacco use. Its 2004 proclamation aims to curb consumption, as do higher tax rates on cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, in spite of these measures, tobacco consumption is increasing. Enforcement of the proclamation is weak, and cheap, smuggled cigarettes and other ...

  4. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    assess the impact of taxation on tobacco consumption and use control;; determine the price elasticity of tobacco products (change in demand based on cost), particularly cigarettes;; assess trends and identify networks of smuggling and legal cross-border shopping for tobacco products, particularly between Sudan and ...

  5. Accidental Overdose Intoxication: A Hazard of Drug Smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sudhir; Tafreshi, Michael; Sobo, Steven; Krochmal, Paul; Alexander, Leslie L.

    1982-01-01

    Three patients involved in illicit drug smuggling via the swallowing of high dose, high purity drugs packed in multiple condoms are reported. Two of these patients experienced drug overdose symptoms due to leakage or rupture of the condoms in the GI tract. They were treated successfully. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:7120497

  6. Oil Smuggling As A Variable In The Greek Crisis' Equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakasis, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel smuggling is embedded into the economic fabric of Greece. A draft internal report written by the IMF officials and published in Wall Street Journal one year ago, clearly conveys that a “thicket of bureaucratic red tape and lapses in law enforcement” enables “big players to dominate the markets

  7. Roentgenographical detection of cocaine smuggling in the alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersschot, E.A.J.; Beaucourt, L.E.A.; Degryse, H.R.M.; Schepper, A.M.A.P. de; Academisch Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem

    1985-01-01

    We report five cases of cocaine smuggling, by hiding multiple drug-filled foreign bodies in the colon, either after oral ingestion or by placing them in the colon per rectum. Several smuggling methods in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their radiological findings on abdominal plain film are presented. Computed tomography (CT) is found to be a more accurate method in the detection of the drug-filled bags, because of its improved contrast resolution and the absence of projections of overlapping structures on the transversal sections. Subsequently, CT is highly recommended in cases of negative or doubtful findings on conventional abdominal radiographs. In all cases conservative management was used and the drug-filled capsules and condoms passed spontaneously. No complications, such as intestinal obstruction by the bags of cocaine or intoxication by rupture of their wall were observed. (orig.) [de

  8. The Relationship between Criminal and Terrorist Organizations and Human Smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    areas collectively and in a scholarly manner. Frequently, human smuggling organizations will attempt to bribe or corrupt border officials into turning...and there are border agents willing to accept their bribes , corruption will continue to be a serious threat to the U.S.-Mexico border...Additionally, corruption efforts by these organizations places a weak link in U.S. border security that can be exploited for nefarious purposes. Enhanced

  9. Oil Smuggling As A Variable In The Greek Crisis' Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Karakasis, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel smuggling is embedded into the economic fabric of Greece. A draft internal report written by the IMF officials and published in Wall Street Journal one year ago, clearly conveys that a “thicket of bureaucratic red tape and lapses in law enforcement” enables “big players to dominate the markets for gas, diesel and heating oil” exercising a negative influence on the real economy.

  10. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  12. COMBATING PIRACY: THE INDONESIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Kamil Ariadno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piracy at sea has been a threat to international navigation ever since the sea traverse by ships from west to east and north to south. Threat to international trade has resulted to various efforts in combating piracy regionally as well as internationally. International law has differentiated between piracy and sea-armed robbery, while the first requires regional or international cooperation due to universal jurisdiction, the second will directly fall under the jurisdiction of coastal state. Strait of Malacca has been used by international navigation and very fragile to the threat of piracy or even appropriately called as sea armed robbery since most of the time happened in the part of Indonesian territorial sea. Various efforts to combat piracy have been carried out by Indonesia including to cooperate with Malaysia and Singapore. This article discuss about piracy at sea, its legal definition and effort to combat piracy.

  13. Scrutinising the Double Disadvantage: Knowledge Production in the Messy Field of Migrant Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Human smuggling is a global phenomenon which has been difficult to research. Even though there is a large and growing literature on human smuggling, it lacks a systematic review of the major theoretical and conceptual approaches. Besides the lack of conceptual cohesion, there is fundamental lack of

  14. Scrutinising the double disadvantage: knowledge production in the messy field of migrant smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, Ted; van Liempt, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Human smuggling is a global phenomenon which has been difficult to research. Even though there is a large and growing literature on human smuggling, it lacks a systematic review of the major theoretical and conceptual approaches. Besides the lack of conceptual cohesion, there is fundamental lack of

  15. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ventrella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that smuggling of migrants is associated with human trafficking. Hence, victims of human trafficking amongst smuggled migrants should be identified by EU Member States at hotspots established by the European Commission, to overcome the migrant and refugee crisis. Identified victims should be given a visa and a programme of protection to escape their traffickers. In order to achieve these objectives, research suggests that EU law on migrant smuggling should be amended and the Temporary Protection Directive should be applied to smuggled persons when there is an indication that they may be victims of human trafficking. This approach should be adopted by the EASO in cooperation with police forces investigating smuggling and trafficking at hotspots.

  16. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  17. Blood cigarettes: cigarette smuggling and war economies in central and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeca, Kristof; Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To analyse cigarette smuggling practices in central and eastern Africa. Primary data were gathered during long-term qualitative field research in which about 400 interviews were conducted. Analysis of secondary sources included academic literature and reports from non-government organisations, multilateral organisations and the press. Our research suggests that the following factors play an important role in cigarette smuggling in eastern and central Africa: (1) government officials encounter difficulties monitoring the long and porous borders; (2) there is a general problem of corrupt government officials and particularly those who allow large-scale smugglers to operate; (3) criminal elements also play an important role in smuggling--cigarette smuggling has helped rebel groups to finance their activities, something illustrated through examples from the war economy in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our research suggests that cigarette smuggling in this region is not primarily the result of different taxation levels in neighbouring states, but rather the outcome of weak state capacity, high levels of corruption and the activities of rebel groups. Under these conditions smuggling cigarettes becomes an attractive option as taxation is so easily avoided. This explains why in the low-income countries in this study there are high levels of smuggling in spite of low cigarette prices. Comprehensive supply control and enforcement legislation, and cooperation at national, regional and global level are needed to tackle fraudulent practices facilitated by corruption at state level, and to effectively punish interaction between cigarette traders and rebel groups.

  18. Dancing on coke: smuggling cocaine dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Lambert, Willy E; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van hee, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends suggest that cocaine smugglers have become more and more inventive to avoid seizures of large amounts of cocaine transported between countries. We report a case of a mail parcel containing a dance pad which was seized at the Customs Department of Brussels Airport, Belgium. After investigation, the inside of the dance pad was found to contain a thick polymer, which tested positive for cocaine. Analysis was performed using a routine colorimetric swipe test, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The polymer was identified as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and contained 18% cocaine, corresponding to a street value of € 20,000. Laboratory experiments showed that cocaine could be easily extracted from the PVA matrix. This case report reveals a new smuggling technique for the transportation of large amounts of cocaine from one country to another. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. [Cigarette smuggling: a wide scope phenomenon only there to serve the interests of big tobacco manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Louis

    2005-01-01

    "Cigarette smuggling: a wide scope phenomenon only there to serve the interests of big tobacco manuafacturers" uses industry officials' quotes and documents to describe how tobacco manufacturers are involved in the organisation of smuggling and how manufacturers use smuggling in two ways: on one hand, to flood markets with cheap cigarettes and defeat governements' efforts to reduce tobacco consumption by adopting one of the most efficient public health measures (ie: high taxation of tobacco products) and on the other hand, by using the false threat of increased contraband to scare politicians and prevent them from adopting strong fiscal policies. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) with a protocol on smuggling and the collaboration between international agencies is a means to counter and defeat the tobacco industry attemps at sabotaging efficient public health measures.

  20. Application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for fight against terrorism and smuggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, Salvatore; Botti, Sabina; Palucci, Antonio; Puiu, Adriana; Schnürer, Frank; Schweikert, Wenka; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2014-04-01

    We report the results of Raman measurements on some common military explosives and explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, in concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint or mixed with similar harmless substances to detect illegal compounds for smuggling activities. Raman spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope and a 785-nm laser in an analysis of smuggling purposes or for counterfeiting activities.

  1. In search of a missing link: Nuclear terrorism and nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1998-01-01

    There is a common assumption that because of the development of a nuclear smuggling (NS) generated by the disintegration of the Soviet Union, nuclear terrorism (NT) becomes a clear and present danger. But the analysis of the trends in smuggling as well as the current and foreseeable strategies of terrorist organizations suggest that the two phenomena have little chance to connect. Nevertheless it is necessary to understand why there is so much concern about such a possibility. (author)

  2. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation

  3. Change in tobacco excise policy in Bulgaria: the role of tobacco industry lobbying and smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria; Silver, Karin E; Rechel, Boika P D; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    To examine how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) tried to penetrate the Bulgarian cigarette market and influence tobacco excise tax policy after the fall of communism and during Bulgaria's accession to the European Union (EU). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents supplemented by analysis of press coverage, tobacco industry journals, market reports and key informant interviews. TTCs have been involved in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria since at least 1975 and used smuggling as a market-entry strategy. National tobacco company Bulgartabac appears to have been involved in smuggling its own cigarettes from and reimporting them to Bulgaria. Since Bulgaria's accession to the EU opened the market to the TTCs, TTCs have exaggerated the scale of the illicit trade to successfully convince politicians and public health experts that tax increases lead to cigarette smuggling. Yet, sources point to TTCs' continued complicity in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria between 2000 and 2010. TTCs aimed to influence the Bulgarian tobacco excise tax regime, import duties and pricing mechanism, but appear to have been less successful than in other former communist countries in part due to the co-existence of a state-owned tobacco company. Undisclosed meetings between the tobacco industry and government ministers and officials are ongoing despite Bulgaria being a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The TTCs continued involvement in smuggling suggests that deals in 2004, 2007 and 2010 which the European Commission has reached with TTCs to address cigarette smuggling are inadequate. The TTCs' continued access to policymakers suggests that the FCTC is not being properly implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. International humanitarian law: the status of unlawful combatants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of combatancy has always been a fundamental issue under International Humanitarian Law, as it entails the right to attack the enemy and to enjoy prisoner of war status. This article discusses this concept as it relates to lawful and unlawful combatants in international armed conflicts focusing on the provisions of ...

  5. Expansión de la industria tabacalera y contrabando: retos para la salud pública en los países en desarrollo Expansion of the tobacco industry and smuggling: challenges for public health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Armendares

    2006-01-01

    addition, smuggling results in increased demand for and consumption of tobacco, which in turn benefits the tobacco companies. Moreover, there is evidence indicating that the international tobacco industry has instigated cigarette smuggling and has participated directly in these activities, while at the same time carrying out costly lobbying campaigns to pressure governments againt tax increases and to promote their own interests. Academic studies and empirical evidence show that tobacco control can be promoted through high tax rates without causing significant increases in smuggling. To achieve this tobacco smuggling must be attacked through the use of strategies including multilateral controls and actions such as those included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which establishes the basis for combating smuggling through an international, global approach. It is also necessary to increase the penalties for smuggling and to make the tobacco industry, including producers and distributors, responsible for the final destination of their exports.

  6. Complicity in contraband: British American Tobacco and cigarette smuggling in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, J; Legresley, E; MacKenzie, R; Lawrence, S; Lee, K

    2004-12-01

    To examine the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in cigarette smuggling in Asia, and to assess the centrality of illicit trade to regional corporate strategy. Analysis of previously confidential documents from BAT's Guildford depository. An iterative strategy combined searches based on geography, organisational structure, and key personnel, while corporate euphemisms for contraband were identified by triangulation. BAT documents demonstrate the strategic importance of smuggling across global, regional, national, and local levels. Particularly important in Asia, contraband enabled access to closed markets, created pressure for market opening, and was highly profitable. Documents demonstrate BAT's detailed oversight of illicit trade, seeking to reconcile the conflicting demands of control and deniability. BAT documents demonstrate that smuggling has been driven by corporate objectives, indicate national measures by which the problem can be addressed, and highlight the importance of a coordinated global response via WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  7. Decision-based model development for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear material is vulnerable to a range of theft, sabotage, smuggling and illicit use scenarios. These scenarios are dependent on the choices of individuals and organizations involved in these activities. These choices, in turn; are dependent on the perceived payoff vectors of the involved players. These payoff vectors can include monetary gain, ability to avoid detection, penalties for detection, difficulty of accomplishment, resource constraints, infrastructure support, etc. Threat scenarios can be developed from these individual choices, and the set of worst-case threat scenarios can be compiled into a threat definition. The implementation of physical protection controls is dependent on the developed threat scenarios. The analysis of the composition of the postulated threat can be based on the analysis of the postulated decisions of the individuals and organizations involved on theft, smuggling, and illicit use. This paper proposes a model to systematically analyze the significant decision points that an individual or organization addresses as result of its goals. The model's dependence on assumptions is discussed. Using these assumptions, a model is developed that assigns probabilities to a set of decisions performed by the individuals involved in theft/smuggling. The individual and organisation's decisions are based on the perceived cost/benefit of the decisions and the resource constraints. Methods for functionally obtaining decision probabilities from perceived cost/benefit are proposed. The treatment of high-consequence/low-probability events is discussed in terms of analysis of precursor events, and the use of sensitivity analysis is discussed. An example of a simplified model for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use is presented, and the results of this simplified model are evaluated. By attempting to model the potential distribution of nuclear material theft/smuggling events, this model increases the analytical tools available

  8. Conducting research among smuggled migrants in the Netherlands and Austria: methodological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bilger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research among smuggled migrants raises methodological as well as ethical questions. In this article the implications of field work among this specific group of people are thoroughly discussed. Also migrants who have been smuggled have a past, a travel experience and some have a confrontation with immigration officers which can have a concrete impact on the story provided to the researcher and as such on the data collection. Besides, once the story is told, the researcher is responsable for how best to deal with this often secret information.

  9. Forensic analysis of a smuggled HEU sample interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Hutcheon, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999, at a border crossing between Bulgaria and Romania. A search of the suspect's vehicle uncovered a lead canister hidden in the car trunk. The initial examination of the contents by Bulgarian scientists indicated that the sample was indeed HEU, and subsequently arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. This report gives a summary of the results. The HEU sample was contained in a glass ampoule that was embedded in a yellow wax, and in turn the wax filled the inside of the cylindrical lead container. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Our general experimental approach has been previously described at meetings of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), but this case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The powder is extremely fine-grained (160 nm mean) and quite uniform in size. Most grains (95%) are equidimensional, with the remainder rod-or plate-shaped. The U is 72.7% U-235 with a high U-236 abundance of 12.1%. The sample is reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial U-235. Pu is present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the Pu-239 abundance is 82% with 240/239=0.12. Three fission products were detected at low levels, giving unambiguous evidence of fuel recycling. The total impurity content is about 600 ppmw (mostly S, Cl, Fe, and Br), which we interpret as indicating a batch processing operation because the

  10. State responses and migrant experiences with human smuggling: A reality check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, I.C. van; Sersli, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Bigo’s (2002) notion of “the governmentality of unease” this article reveals a shift in popular discourse around human smuggling in Western Europe and Canada since the 1990s towards increasing criminalization. To analyze this process of criminalization we have identified three recurring

  11. Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: the sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan; Sen, Anindya; Stabile, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A central parameter for evaluating tax policies is the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. But in many countries this parameter is difficult to estimate reliably due to widespread smuggling, which significantly biases estimates using legal sales data. An excellent example is Canada, where widespread smuggling in the early 1990s, in response to large tax increases, biases upwards the response of legal cigarette sales to price. We surmount this problem through two approaches: excluding the provinces and years where smuggling was greatest; and using household level expenditure data on smoking. These two approaches yield a tightly estimated elasticity in the range of -0.45 to -0.47. We also show that the sensitivity of smoking to price is much larger among lower income Canadians. In the context of recent behavioral models of smoking, whereby higher taxes reduce unwanted smoking among price sensitive populations, this finding suggests that cigarette taxes may not be as regressive as previously suggested. Finally, we show that price increases on cigarettes do not increase, and may actually decrease, consumption of alcohol; as a result, smuggling of cigarettes may have raised consumption of alcohol as well.

  12. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  13. Combats escènics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Rouba Billowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Combats Escènics” és un treball que tracta sobre la interpretació artística de la violència d’artistes de l’espectacle per tal de divertir el públic i emetre un missatge humanista mitjançant una coreografia ritual. En aquest estudi es presenta una classificació del combat escènic des del doble vessant agonista/antagonista, es realitza un passeig històric de la representació artística del combat a través de les diferents etapes i de les diverses cultures, s’aborda la preparació escènica de l’actor i del coreògraf, i s’entreveuen les perspectives de futur d’aquesta modalitat artística. Estudi realitzat per Pawel Rouba Billewicz (Inowroclaw, Polònia, 1939 - Barcelona, 2007, director, coreògraf, actor, mestre d’armes, mestre del gest i de la pantomima i professor de l’INEF de Catalunya. Aquest article, editorialment inèdit, es publica postmortem per Apunts. Educació Física i Esports com a homenatge i reconeixement de l’autor per la seva extraordinària i polivalent aportació al camp de l’art i l’Activitat Física i l’Esport.

  14. Cohesion, the Human Element in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    review. The day on which the oath is taken is a holiday for that unit. 49 Many units distinguish their uniqueness and create unit iden- tity through a...They include highland aborigines , overseas Chinese, Chams, and Khmers who occasionally came into conflict with the dominant Vietnamese. 6 Primary...literature in the appendix. 23. For example, see Kellet, Combat Motivation. This work is based on a study of US, British, and Canadian Armed Forces. . 0 7-w

  15. The outcome of drug smuggling by 'body packers'--the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, N; Banks, F; Shrotria, S

    2002-01-01

    Body packing or internal concealment used by drug dealers to smuggle illicit substances, puts the body packer at risk of both imprisonment and death. We report our experience over a 4 year period from January 1996 to December 1999 of suspects presenting to our hospital (the largest series in Europe). A total of 572 cases were assessed radiographically and 180 were shown to be carrying foreign bodies. The commonest reasons for admission were suspected overdose or gastrointestinal obstruction. Thirty-six cases were admitted, of whom 7 required surgical intervention. No deaths occurred. Of all people detained for smuggling by internal concealment into Britain during this period, 27% were seen in our hospital. These cases may present alone or escorted by Her Majesty's Customs and Excise personnel, and one must be aware of this possibility even when situated away from a port of entry.

  16. Validation of a BOTDR-based system for the detection of smuggling tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkayam, Itai; Klar, Assaf; Linker, Raphael; Marshall, Alec M.

    2010-04-01

    Cross-border smuggling tunnels enable unmonitored movement of people, drugs and weapons and pose a very serious threat to homeland security. Recently, Klar and Linker (2009) [SPIE paper No. 731603] presented an analytical study of the feasibility of a Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) based system for the detection of small sized smuggling tunnels. The current study extends this work by validating the analytical models against real strain measurements in soil obtained from small scale experiments in a geotechnical centrifuge. The soil strains were obtained using an image analysis method that tracked the displacement of discrete patches of soil through a sequence of digital images of the soil around the tunnel during the centrifuge test. The results of the present study are in agreement with those of a previous study which was based on synthetic signals generated using empirical and analytical models from the literature.

  17. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  18. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  19. Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    hashish, and cigarettes , yet the article further argues that these boats conduct smuggling transactions that “are in breach of international sanctions...had arrived to Dubai’s free trade zone aboard the cargo vessel M/V BBC China. The containers of interest were previously loaded in Malaysia ...1929, Nader Habibi of Brandeis University uses the following International Monetary Fund statistics of the GCC nation with arguably the most

  20. Role of radiology in a national initiative to interdict drug smuggling: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algra, Paul R; Brogdon, Byron G; Marugg, Roque C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the role of radiology in a national initiative to intercept illegal narcotics concealed within the bodies of human transporters. Radiologic examination is increasingly important in identifying intracorporeal drug smuggling as improved wrapping techniques undermine the usefulness of blood and urine testing and clinical observation. Detection rates of high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity are achieved by experienced radiologists.

  1. [The scale of border trade, tax-free import and tobacco smuggling to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2004-01-08

    There are no studies of the relative significance in Norway of registered sales, tax-free import, border trade or smuggling of tobacco. The estimated registered sales of tobacco are based on data from the Norwegian customs and excise authorities. The border trade and tax-free import estimates were based on nation-wide, representative surveys of daily smokers aged 16-74 carried out by Statistics Norway for the years 1990-1993 and 1997-2001. There are no detailed data on the scale of smuggling other than confiscation statistics compiled by the customs and excise authorities. It is assumed that confiscations amount to about a tenth of the total amount smuggled into the country. The unregistered consumption of cigarettes and tobacco has been on the rise since the early 1990s; in the years 1997-2001 it accounted for about a quarter of total consumption. Broken down, the figures are as follows: 11% was purchased in Sweden, 5% in Denmark, 9% in other foreign countries; 1% was smuggled into the country. The rise in unregistered tobacco consumption is putting further pressure on the high Norwegian taxes on tobacco. But if taxes were cut, domestic demand would rise, and hence have little or even negative impact on revenue flowing to the government from the legal tobacco market and probably little impact on the levels of imported tobacco through tax-free arrangements or cross-border trade. Hence, although the price gap between Norway and neighbouring countries narrows, we must assume that the motivation to acquire tobacco will remain unaffected while Norwegians continue to travel to Sweden to stock up on inexpensive meat produce.

  2. Smuggling, non-fundamental uncertainty, and parallel market exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Clay Barnett

    2003-01-01

    We explore a model where smuggling and a parallel currency market arise, owing to government restrictions that prevent agents from legally holding foreign exchange. Despite such restrictions, agents are able to diversify their savings, holding both domestic and parallel foreign cash, basing their portfolio allocation on current and prospective parallel exchange rates. We attribute movements in parallel rates to non-fundamental uncertainty. The model generates equilibria with both positive and...

  3. State and Smuggling in Modern China: The Case of Guangzhouwan/Zhanjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pieragastini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leizhou Peninsula in western Guangdong (concurrent with the present-day municipality of Zhanjiang has at several points in history been an important site of exchange, both licit and illicit in the eyes of central authorities. The French gained control of the area from the weakened Qing government in 1898–1899 and established their “leased territory” of Guangzhouwan. Administered as part of French Indochina, Guangzhouwan became a fiefdom of smugglers, pimps, and pirates, never developing into the rival to Hong Kong that the French hoped it would become. After a brief Japanese occupation, the French returned the leased territory to the government of Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi after World War II, but their colonial presence left a legacy of trafficking, violence, and anti-imperialism that emboldened Communist guerrillas in the area. Once the Communists came into power in 1949, they subjected Zhanjiang and other liminal spaces along the Chinese coast to vigorous anti-smuggling and anti-drug campaigns. But a return to smuggling in the Reform Era (1978–present suggests that the successful repression of smuggling in the Mao era may have been a temporary exception to the historical rule in this region.

  4. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  5. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  6. Analisa Kejahatan Penyelundupan Manusia Berdasarkan Smuggling of Migrants Protocol Ditinjau dari Perspektif Perlindungan Pencari Suaka: Studi Kasus Pengungsi Rohingnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diajeng Wulan Christianti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Eksodus besar-besaran etnis muslim Rohingya keluar Myanmar kembali terjadi sebagai akibat dilakukannya pembakaran desa, eksekusi, hingga pemerkosaan oleh militer Myanmar di Rakhine. Meskipun mereka harus rela membayar mahal, cara penyelundupan manusia kerap mereka gunakan karena cara formal untuk bisa masuk ke negara lain tidak dimungkinkan. Tindakan penyelundupan manusia adalah tindak pidana dalam Smuggling Protocol di mana negara-negara yang disinggahi pengungsi Rohingya seperti Thailand, Bangladesh, bahkan Indonesia telah menjadi negara pihak. Akibatnya, Pemerintah Thailand dan Bangladesh kerap menangkap pengungsi Rohingya yang masuk ke negaranya bahkan mengusir mereka untuk kembali ke Myanmar. Padahal, sebagai pencari suaka yang terancam persekusi, etnis Rohingya dilindungi oleh hukum Hak Asasi Manusia khususnya prinsip non-refoulement. Artikel ini menganalisa dilema antara aturan Smuggling Protokol yang bertujuan mencegah dan menegakan hukum atas terjadinya kejahatan penyelundupan manusia dengan kewajiban memberikan pengaman untuk melindungi hak-hak para pengungsi yang terancam persekusi. Artikel ini berkesimpulan bahwa meskipun Smuggling Protocol mampu untuk memberikan keseimbangan antara penegakan hukum kejahatan perlindungan manusia dan perlindungan pencari suaka, akan tetapi pada akhirnya semua tergantung dari keinginan negara untuk menerapkan Smuggling Protocol tersebut melalui aturan implementasi yang jelas namun proporsional. Abstract Again, thousands of Rohingya flee Myanmar to escape persecution after they saw their homes burned down, their family executed, and also suffered rape and torture by the Myanmar’s Military. In order to flee to Thailand or Bangladesh, Rohingyas often resort to using people smugglers and have to pay large amount of money. It is the only option left for desperate Rohingyas trying to save their lives. Smuggling of Migrants is criminal act under Smuggling Protocol. Thai and Bangladesh authorities

  7. Barriers to implementing a single joint combat camouflage uniform

    OpenAIRE

    Wharton, Robin J.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to explore and understand the barriers that hinder the Department of Defense (DOD) from implementing a single joint camouflage combat uniform for the Armed Forces. Before 2002, the Armed Forces primarily relied on two camouflage uniforms: the woodland Battle Dress Uniform (BDU) and Desert Camouflage Uniform (DCU). In 2002, the Marine Corps began issuing its Marine pattern (MARPAT) camouflage uniforms in wo...

  8. Maritime security report. April 1997 [Maritime smuggling of drugs and contraband goods through Haiti adversely impacting legitimate commerce and development; Partnering : a key to growing challenges confronting maritime security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Haiti is a significant transshipment conduit for South American cocaine destined for the United States. This smuggling is facilitated by Haitis system of seaports which remain largely unmonitored. Smuggling and trafficking contraband merchandise aver...

  9. Combat desertification, arret deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Latt; Soe-Win-Hlaing

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the major progress on the actions of the Forest Department and Dry Zone Greening Department to arrest forestation and to combat desertification in the dry zone of central Myanmar

  10. Agony of the ecstasy: report of five cases of MDMA smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V H S; Dillon, E K

    2005-10-01

    The international smuggling of illicit drugs by the ingestion or rectal insertion of drug-filled packages is recognized in the trafficking of heroin and cocaine. Customs authorities, with suspicion of such activities, presented five subjects. The legally allowed radiological examination comprising one supine abdominal radiograph was performed. Radiographic findings demonstrated the presence of multiple enteric oval, capsule-shaped packages of soft tissue density. This was confirmed following supervised evacuation of bowel contents induced by the administration of laxatives. Analysis of the concealed material identified ecstasy (methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), a substance not previously reported as transported by this route.

  11. Combating Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    European Journal of Social Psychology, 35(6), 819-828. Bond, S. B., & Mosher, D. L. (1986). Guided imagery of rape: Fantasy, reality, and the...the Presidential action to improve the transition between DoD and DoVA care, and to combat homelessness and lack of healthcare for all combat veterans...article appeared in the journal Current Psychiatry Reports (Castro, et al., 2015). The review provides both a rich bibliography and options for

  12. An Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Leman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.

  13. Overcrowded motor vehicle trauma from the smuggling of illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Mary F; Judkins, Dan; Porter, John M; Latifi, Rifat; Williams, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    Overcrowded motor vehicle crashes caused by the very active criminal enterprise of smuggling illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest is a recent and under-recognized trauma etiology. A computerized database search from 1990 through 2003 of local newspaper reports of overcrowded motor vehicle crashes along the 281 miles of Arizona's border with Mexico was conducted. This area was covered by two level I trauma centers, but since July 2003 is now served only by the University Medical Center. Each of these crashes involved a single motor vehicle in poor mechanical shape packed with illegal immigrants. Speeding out of control on bad tires, high-speed rollovers result in ejection of most passengers. Since 1999, there have been 38 crashes involving 663 passengers (an average of 17 per vehicle) with an injury rate of 49 per cent and a mortality rate of 9 per cent. This relatively recent phenomenon (no reports from before 1998) of trauma resulting from human smuggling is lethal and demonstrates the smugglers' wanton disregard for human life, particularly when facing apprehension. Even a few innocent bystanders have been killed. These crashes overwhelm a region's trauma resources and must be recognized when planning the distribution of trauma resources to border states.

  14. Smuggling as the "key to a combined market": British American Tobacco in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-10-01

    To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT's market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie's legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem.

  15. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti- smuggling interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Miller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, globalisation and a growing concern over security issues, including transnational crime and terrorism, has shaped migration policies and the priorities of states. As migration rose to the top of many government agendas, a rapid tightening and regularisation of borders ensued in an attempt to keep undesirable, high-risk migrants out of potential destination countries. Concomitantly, transnational crimes, such as trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants, have been increasingly defined as border security problems. This article examines the extent to which border control is fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions, situating the debate within the wider nexus of globalisation and the securitisation of migration. Based upon their work with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC Regional Centre for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the authors take the standpoint that given it is the sovereign right of each state to control its border and regulate migration, the human rights of migrants must be considered within this realpolitik. Clearly, though, this claim is highly political and contentious. In the article, we explore some of the tensions and contradictions that have emerged in this debate, and then develop an argument to suggest that it is possible for states to combine managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights in the current context of globalisation.

  16. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  17. [Cocaine smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract--the case report with the review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Hydzik, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Body-packing is the way of psychoactive substances smuggling by swallowing of carefully prepared packages with drugs into the gastrointestinal tract or by insertion them into the vagina or the rectum, especially in order to avoid finding them by the custom service. Cocaine, as well as opiates, is the one of the most often smuggled drugs by so called body-packers. In the present study the first case of the body-packer from Malopolska region in Poland, who was observed in the Toxicology Department of the Collegium Medicum UJ, was described. The 29-year-old man swallowed 60 packages containing cocaine with a total net weight of about 500 grams. The plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple shadows of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract, but the results of blood and urine cocaine measurements were negative. During the 37-hours stay in our department the patient was monitored (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), laxatives and oral fluids were administered. All the packages were evacuated through the natural way and it was followed up by the control abdominal radiography. No symptoms of acute cocaine intoxication or any other complications were observed. According to the case there is also the thorough review of literature presented including the kinds of body-packing, the diagnostic methods used in recognizing of body-packers and the ways of their treatment taking into consideration the conservative management as well as surgical methods.

  18. "They're doing people a service"-qualitative study of smoking, smuggling, and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, S; Bancroft, A; Amos, A; Parry, O

    2001-07-28

    To examine the behaviour and attitudes related to smoking and contraband tobacco products among smokers in two socially deprived areas. Cross sectional study with qualitative semistructured interviews, augmented by smokers' day grid. Two areas of socioeconomic deprivation in Edinburgh. 50 male and 50 female smokers aged 25-40 years randomly selected from general practitioners' lists from two health centres, each located in an area of deprivation. Most smokers wanted to quit but felt unable to because of the importance of smoking in their daily routine and their addiction to nicotine. Strategies for maintaining consumption levels in the face of increasing cigarette prices and low income included purchasing contraband cigarettes and tobacco. Vendors were contacted through social networks, family, and friends as well as common knowledge of people and places, particularly pubs where contraband was available. Most users of contraband considered that smugglers were providing a valuable service. Purchasing contraband tobacco was viewed as rational in the face of material hardship. Many smokers criticised the government for its high tobacco taxation and the lack of local services to help them to stop smoking. Smokers in deprived areas perceive a lack of support to help them to stop smoking. Cigarette and tobacco smuggling is therefore viewed positively by low income smokers as a way of dealing with the increasing cost of cigarettes. Smokers in areas of deprivation may thus show little support for tackling smuggling until more action is taken to deal with the material and personal factors that make it difficult for them to quit.

  19. Colombia’s ex–combatant children and adolescents: lessons from an earlier peace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany Armas Contreras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of children and adolescents recruited into the armed conflict in Colombia are now being demobilised. Lessons from the previous peace process of 2003-08 could usefully inform today’s transitional justice process, in particular with regard to reintegrating ex-combatant minors into civilian life and avoiding their further displacement or co-option by armed groups.

  20. Sensors as confidence building measures: A demonstration using a combat simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawsky, A.S.; Spinosa, A.; Pimper, J.

    1994-06-01

    Numerous combat simulations have been developed and used to study the consequences of alternative force structures, analyze weapon performance, and train combat force commanders. These same simulations can, with minor modifications, be used to study a suite of arms control issues. To demonstrate this point, a modification of the LLNL Joint Conflict Model (JCM) was used to explain the utility of unattended ground sensors (UGS) as confidence building measures (CBMs) in the context of a regional arms control situation. It was shown that existing simulations (in particular, JCM) have the functionality necessary to easily and readily address regional arms control issues in a meaningful fashion.

  1. Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://accessmedicine. com. Accessed Jan. 16, 2016. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/arm-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050870 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  2. Broken Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common cause of a broken arm. Sports injuries. Direct blows and injuries on the field or court ... during a car accident, bike accident or other direct trauma. Child abuse. In children, a ... sports Any sport that involves physical contact or increases ...

  3. [Management of war orthopaedic injuries in recent armed conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M; Mathieu, L

    2013-01-01

    The extremities continue to be the most frequent sites of wounding during armed conflicts despite the change of combat tactics, soldier armour and battlefield medical support. Due to the advances in prehospital care and timely transport to the hospital, orthopaedic surgeons deal with severe and challenging injuries of the limbs. In contrast to civilian extremity trauma, the most combat-related injuries are open wounds that often have infection-related complications. Data from two recent large armed conflicts (Iraq, Afghanistan) show that extremity injuries are associated with a high complication rate, morbidity and healthcare utilization. A systematic approach that consists of sequential surgical care and good transport capabilities can reduce the complication rate of these injuries. New medical technologies have been implemented in the treatment strategy during the last decade. This article reviews the published scientific data and current opinions on combat-related extremity injuries. Key words: extremity, combat, trauma, medical support system.

  4. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of cross-border tobacco shopping and tobacco smuggling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, C Ben

    2008-02-01

    In France, cigarette sales have fallen sharply, especially in border areas, since the price increases of 2003 and 2004. It was proposed that these falls were not due to people quitting smoking but rather to increased cross-border sales of tobacco and/or smuggling. This paper aims to test this proposition. Three approaches have been used. First, cigarette sales data from French sources for the period 1999-2006 were collected, and a simulation of the changes seen within these sales was carried out in order to estimate what the sales situation would have looked like without the presence of foreign tobacco. Second, the statements regarding tobacco consumed reported by the French population with registered tobacco sales were compared. Finally, in order to identify the countries of origin of foreign tobacco entering France, we collected a random sample of cigarette packs from a waste collection centre. According to the first method, cross-border shopping and smuggling of tobacco accounted for 8635 tones of tobacco in 2004, 9934 in 2005, and 9930 in 2006, ie, between 14% and 17% of total sales. The second method gave larger results: the difference between registered cigarette sales and cigarettes declared as being smoked was around 12,000 to 13,000 tones in 2005, equivalent to 20% of legal sales. The collection of cigarette packs at a waste collection centre showed that foreign cigarettes accounted for 18.6% of our sample in 2005 and 15.5% in 2006. France seems mainly to be a victim of cross-border purchasing of tobacco products, with the contraband market for tobacco remaining modest. in order to avoid cross-border purchases, an increased harmonization of national policies on the taxation of tobacco products needs to be envisaged by the European Union.

  6. Abdominal X-ray signs of intra-intestinal drug smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiarowski, Sylwia; Gogbashian, Andrew; Afaq, Asim; Kantor, Robin; Win, Zarni

    2010-05-01

    "Body packers" either swallow or insert drug filled packets rectally or vaginally in order to smuggle illicit drugs. AXR is used routinely to screen suspects for the presence of intra-intestinal drug packages. AXR diagnosis can be difficult as stool or gas within the intestine may resemble ingested foreign bodies. We identify the frequency and co-existence of several signs; tic-tac sign, rosette sign, double condom sign, dense surrounding material, density and discover a new sign; parallelism, which will aid in increasing the radiological accuracy. We retrospectively reviewed 285 AXRs performed for suspicion of drug smuggling during the period of March 2006-March 2009 to identify the frequency of these signs. Of the 285 AXRs performed 59 were positive, 221 negative and five were indeterminate. The tic-tac sign was present in 93%, double condom sign in 73%, dense surrounding wrapping material in 36% and parallelism in 27%. Sixty one percentage of drug packages were iso-dense to faeces and 39% hyperdense. Twenty percentage of the positive abdominal radiographs demonstrated one of the radiographic signs, 39% demonstrated two signs, 32% demonstrated three and 7% four. The most common radiographic sign combination was the tic-tac sign with either dense surrounding material or double condom sign. The most commonly encountered radiographic sign is the tic-tac sign, followed by the double condom sign and dense surrounding material. We also discover a new sign, "parallelism" which although uncommon is highly specific. Accuracy is further increased by comparing the density of packages to faeces and looking for the co-existence of multiple signs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. lllicit Radiological and Nuclear Trafficking, Smuggling and Security Incidents in the Black Sea Region since the Fall of the Iron Curtain – an Open Source Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological smuggling and trafficking incidents, events, and threats from the wider Black Sea area, 1990 – 2011  An Open Source Compilation prepared by Alex P. Schmid & Charlotte Spencer-Smith

  8. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arm lift Overview An arm lift — also known as brachioplasty — is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the appearance of the under portion of your upper arms. During an arm lift, excess skin and fat ...

  9. The Underrepresentation of African Americans in Army Combat Arms Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Truman S. Library and Museum , 5 December 1946, accessed 19 February 2014, http://www.trumanlibrary.org/civilrights/srights1.htm, VIII. 28...Henry Barnard, Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War, in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland...identified hub in a metropolitan area, allows the cadre to apply resources to an array of schools in that market. Greater reach allows for more

  10. Close to Kill: Vestigial Technologies and Combat Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    reissued with an appendix of Axis submarine losses, 5th ed. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963). 93 Jonathan Sutherland and...Infantry Division History Council, 1951). 93 Edwin Halpain and Justin Walker, Bayonets in Basra – A Case Study on the Effects of Irregular Warfare...Publishing Company of America, Inc., 1984. Halpain, Edwin and Justin Walker. Bayonets in Basra – A Case Study on the Effects of Irregular Warfare

  11. Music and Combat Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    1   AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MUSIC AND COMBAT MOTIVATION by Sally C. Maddocks, Major, USAF Master of...Today, each soldier can carry their own preferred library of music including thousands of songs in their pocket. Are broadcasts still relevant...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government.  3   Music has the power

  12. The long postwar and the politics of penicillin: early circulation and smuggling in Spain, 1944-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I explore the early circulation of penicillin. I review the early distribution in Spain of a scarce product, reflect on the available sources about the illegal penicillin trade and discuss some cases of smuggling. I argue the early distribution of penicillin involved time and geography, a particular chronology of post Second World War geopolitics. Penicillin practices and experiences belong to this period, in a dictatorship that tolerated smuggling and illegal trade of other products, some, like penicillin, produced in neighbouring countries. As a commodity that crossed borders, penicillin, transiting between the law and hidden trade, between countries and social domains--between war fronts and from a war front to an urban site to be sold--reveals practices of the early years of prosperity in the 1950s. These transits were permanent tests of a society based on taxes and exchanges, law and bureaucracy, control, discipline and the creation of standards.

  13. “They're doing people a service”—qualitative study of smoking, smuggling, and social deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Susan; Bancroft, Angus; Amos, Amanda; Parry, Odette

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To examine the behaviour and attitudes related to smoking and contraband tobacco products among smokers in two socially deprived areas. Design Cross sectional study with qualitative semistructured interviews, augmented by smokers' day grid. Setting Two areas of socioeconomic deprivation in Edinburgh. Participants 50 male and 50 female smokers aged 25-40 years randomly selected from general practitioners' lists from two health centres, each located in an area of deprivation. Results Most smokers wanted to quit but felt unable to because of the importance of smoking in their daily routine and their addiction to nicotine. Strategies for maintaining consumption levels in the face of increasing cigarette prices and low income included purchasing contraband cigarettes and tobacco. Vendors were contacted through social networks, family, and friends as well as common knowledge of people and places, particularly pubs where contraband was available. Most users of contraband considered that smugglers were providing a valuable service. Purchasing contraband tobacco was viewed as rational in the face of material hardship. Many smokers criticised the government for its high tobacco taxation and the lack of local services to help them to stop smoking. Conclusions Smokers in deprived areas perceive a lack of support to help them to stop smoking. Cigarette and tobacco smuggling is therefore viewed positively by low income smokers as a way of dealing with the increasing cost of cigarettes. Smokers in areas of deprivation may thus show little support for tackling smuggling until more action is taken to deal with the material and personal factors that make it difficult for them to quit. What is already known on this topicAreas of deprivation have the highest rates of smoking and lowest levels of cessationAround 25-30% of cigarettes consumed in the United Kingdom are contrabandWe know little about the attitudes of smokers in these areas to smuggled cigarettes or whether and

  14. Determination of Smuggled Cigarette Characteristics in Brazil and Their Potential Risk to the Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Pinto da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the different characteristics of tobacco found in thirty brands of smuggled cigarettes in Brazil. Determination of arsenic through atomic absorption spectrometry in graphite oven was carried out and classical methodologies were employed to determine dirtiness, total ash, insoluble ash, humidity, tobacco pH and sidestream smoke pH. The methodology used to quantify arsenic presented quantification limit of 15.0 ng g-1 and detection limit of 4.0 ng g-1 in dry tobacco mass. The recovery of arsenic for the method purpose was 98.2% and relative standard deviation 6.0%. About 56% of the brands were observed to have arsenic concentrations above 20.0 ng g-1, which means nearly twice as much as the arsenic found in cigarettes sold legally in Brazil. Levels above the recommended value for humidity were found in 53% of brands. About 96% of the brands presented total ash content above that indicated by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. About 53% of the samples contained levels of insoluble ash above the limit. In 90% of the samples, the smoke was alkaline. In dirtiness tests, 81.2% of the brands presented some kind of contaminant, such as fungi, insect fragments, grass or mites. The characteristics revealed that the consumption of this kind of cigarette can increase risks to consumer health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.832 

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a fluorescence and radioisotope nuclear smuggling deterrence tag - final report (IL500E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Delmastro, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials, (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials, and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The system uses three types of materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. This report also summarizes the efforts completed in identifying hardware that will be used for the tagging system. This hardware includes the devices for applying the tagging materials, the commercially available fluorescence detection systems, and gamma ray detection systems assembled from existing, commercially available technologies

  16. The study of suspicious cases to body smuggling in Loghman Hospital 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinian Moghadam H

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available One method of drug smuggling is body packing or body stuffing, placement of narcotics (opium, heroin, hashish, … inside intestinal tract for transfer from city to city or country to country. Estimating of the methods for transferring, content of packets, packaging, cause of death and results of diagnostic and therapeutic methods can effectively decrease the number of body packer and law execution. This study is case series by randomized sampling. Several parameters such as sex, age, marital status, addiction, job, level of education, type of opioids and their weight and number of packets, result of abdominal X-ray, surgery needs, were collected from April 1999 to December 2000. Through this period of time, 32 male smuggler who had swallowed drug packets were detained. The average age was 41 years (max=62, min=20. The minimum weight of the opium carried by this smugglers was below 20 gram and maximum weight was 1000 grams (median=360 grams. The minimum number of packets were one packet and maximum number of packets were 54 (median=10 packets. In 84 percent of body smugglers the content of packets was opium, 13 percent was heroin and 3 percent was hashish. From the cases, 81 percent of smugglers were addicts themselves. Death occurred in 7 cases from which 3 were after surgery.

  17. Drug smuggling by body packing: what radiologists should know about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergan, Klaus; Kofler, Karl; Oser, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    Body packing is a distinct method for smuggling drugs. What radiologists need to know is discussed in this pictorial review. Radiologists are confronted with diagnostic imaging of body packers because of two main reasons: complications of body packing and identifying drug packets within the gastrointestinal tract. The standard examination used is plain X-ray of the abdomen in an upright and a supine position. Computed tomography is occasionally used but nevertheless described as a very accurate diagnostic tool. Ultrasound and MR imaging do not play an important role in that field. Depending on the purity of the drug, three different forms of attenuation have been described: hashish is denser than stool; cocaine appears similar to stool; and heroin has a gaseous transparence. The packets are of a round to oval form, usually of a particular uniformity and rarely confused with scybala if arranged like a pearl chain; therefore, plain X-ray is the method of choice to detect drug-filled packets within the gastrointestinal tract of body packers.

  18. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    34At the capstone event, performers will demonstrate a ve - hicle that exhibits the following behaviors: safe vehicle- following; operation with...that "toe to toe nuclear combat rent to possible invasion by hostile enabled a combatant, with relative with the Ruskies" 2 was insane , irra- forces

  19. Vaccines to combat smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Rick A; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Sanderson, Sam D

    2008-04-01

    Current US FDA-approved biological therapies for treating smoking target central nervous system processes. Although these therapies have had some success, relapse within a year is still high. Clearly additional strategies are needed to aid individuals in maintaining abstinence. We briefly discuss promising research using vaccines to combat smoking and then identify some potentially important directions for future research. Immunization with a nicotine vaccine generates drug-specific antibodies that sequester some of the nicotine in the peripheral circulation preventing it from entering the brain, thus decreasing its addictive effects. Albeit promising, much more research is necessary to identify more efficacious vaccine designs and formulations, as well as optimal immunization regimens. A further understanding of the factors contributing to the substantial individual differences in immunogenicity to these vaccines and how to best use vaccines in combination with other treatment strategies will increase the success of intervention efforts.

  20. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 03-2-504A Safety Evaluation of Small Arms and Medium Caliber Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    significant effects of even very light wind. c. If the small arms under test are designed to be used in armored combat vehicles ( ACV ), they... ACV . d. Small arms Toxic Gases tests are usually conducted as comparison-type tests in an enclosed chamber. There are no ambient temperature...Office Figure A-2. Cont’d. TOP 03-2-504A 29 May 2013 B-1 APPENDIX B. ABBREVIATIONS. ACV armored combat vehicle AEC US Army

  1. Combatting poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Economics) Combating poverty is at the frontier of analyses in South Africa today. The study to combat poverty in South Africa is six-fold. After setting the nature of the study to be pursued in Chapter 1, the dissertation analyses the theories of poverty in Chapter 2. The record of poverty in South Africa is analysed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the methods to combat poverty in South Africa. Chapter 5 is a summary of the main findings of the study. A proposed structure plan ...

  2. Challenging the conclusion that lower preinduction cognitive ability increases risk for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder in 2,375 combat-exposed, Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William W; Gottesman, Irving I

    2008-06-01

    Among U.S. Vietnam War veterans, we assessed whether preinduction cognitive abilities were associated with the risk of developing combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sample included 2,375 single-term, enlisted, male, Army, Vietnam War veterans who reported exposure to combat during the war. There were two measures of cognitive abilities obtained before military induction, the Armed Forces Qualification Test and the General Technical Examination. Associations of ability with current and lifetime diagnoses of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, combat-related PTSD were assessed. An index was used to grade the severity of combat exposure. Among low-combat exposure veterans, higher preinduction cognitive abilities decreased the risk for lifetime, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, combat-related PTSD. For veterans with higher levels of combat exposure, higher scores for preinduction cognitive abilities had no effect on reducing the risk for lifetime diagnosis of combat-related PTSD. For a current diagnosis of combat-related PTSD, approximately 20 years after the stressful life events, preinduction cognitive abilities had no effect on the rates of combat-related PTSD. We found significant interactions between preinduction cognitive abilities and severity of combat exposure for the lifetime diagnosis of combat-related PTSD among Army Vietnam War veterans. High levels of combat exposure are likely to exhaust intellectual resources available for coping with stressful life events. Lower scores for cognitive abilities are not uniformly disadvantageous, and this should be considered by military manpower policymakers.

  3. O combate ao escorpionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available O outor estuda os processos de combate aos acidentes pelas picadas dos escorpiões, visando: a Profilaxia e b Terapêutica. Refere-se à luta nos campos e nas cidades e aqui, dentro e fora dos domicílios. Assinala os diferentes métodos para o combate a êsses artrópodos peçonhentos. Fala na luta direta, indireta, na vacinação pelo anaveneno, na propaganda pela educação racional da população contra o perigo dos acidentes. Refere-se à "cata" dos escorpiões, à luta química, ao emprêgo de animais escorpiófagos, á feitura de casas e jardins anti-escorpiões. Na primeira parte do presente trabalho o autor trata da luta química pelo d. D. T. contra os tityus bahiensis e serrulatus, concluindo que êste corpo químico é um poderoso elemento de luta contra êstes escorpiões. Na segunda parte do trabalho, o autor trata da terapêutica dos acidentes. Mostra a necessidade do emprêgo convenientemente da única terapêutica racional e eficaz contra a intoxicação escorpiônica: a soroterapia específica. Assinala a necessidade da injeção de doses maciças de um sôro de alta valência, preparado em bovídeos, para evitar o mais possível o choque anafilático, no menor tempo possível após as picadas. Aconselha o empêgo de anaveneno escorpiônico, para vacinação principalmente de crianças de baixa idade, nos lugares fortemente infestados pelos escorpiões (principalmente Tityus serrulatus, maximé quando no local não houver sôro anti-escorpiônico específico, como meio preventivo contra a gravidade das intoxicações. Cita finalmente os trabalhos recentes de Grasset, Shaasfsma e Hodgson, na África do Sul, que confirmam muitas idéias do autor e mostram a unidade universal do síndromo escorpiônico descrito no Brasil.

  4. Combat and Operational Stress Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusher, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    Combat and Operational Stress (COS) includes all the physiological and emotional stresses encountered as a direct result of the dangers and mission demands of combat. Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC) in the US. Army may be defined as programs developed and actions taken by military leadership to prevent, identify, and manage adverse Combat and Operational Stress Reactions (COSR) in units. This program optimizes mission performance, conserves the fighting strength, and prevents or minimizes adverse effects of COSR on Soldiers and their physical, psychological, intellectual, and social health. Its goal is to return Soldiers to duty expeditiously. COSC activities include routine screening of individuals when recruited; continued surveillance throughout military service, especially before, during, and after deployment; and continual assessment and consultation with medical and other personnel from garrison to the battlefield.

  5. Advanced Capabilities for Combat Medics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Salinas, Jose; Holcomb, John B

    2004-01-01

    The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has the lead for directing the Research Program Area for Advanced Triage Capabilities for Combat Medics in the Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC...

  6. Polymers for Combating Biocorrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing of great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anticorrosion and antimicrobial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to prevent biocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbial corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: (i traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, (ii antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and (iii conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting antibacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization, and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  7. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  8. Physical protection as the most important part of the national system of combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is now obvious today that illicit trafficking, including its most dangerous manifestations proliferation of nuclear weapons, smuggling of nuclear materials and equipment - present a serious threat to the international community. To defeat this evil is possible only by joint efforts, by undertaken protective measures on national and international level. Joint efforts should be directed at fulfilling three main tasks as follows: safe and reliable handling of nuclear material, effective measures of its physical protection, accountancy and control in order to prevent proliferation; joint activities of intelligence customs and law-enforcement authorities directed at prevention of international trafficking and marketing of stolen goods; joint activities directed at identification and prevention of illegal supply and demand of fissionable materials counteracting thereby various criminal structures. In order to solve these problems an international regime should be established. Such regime will define a number of criteria and demands to be met by-the states to ensure effective combat illicit trafficking. The international regime should be based on national systems of combating illicit trafficking, which include measures for prevention, detection and response regarding illicit trafficking in each specific state of across its borders. When undertaking these measures one should take into account specific characteristics of the state, its unique features and its geography, political and economic situation, as well as different types of potential threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons; availability of materials subjected to illicit trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking with radioactive materials, potential consumers and suppliers, market features, possible incentives for crime etc. In the paper I would like to reflect the vital components of national systems for combating

  9. U.S. second line of defense: preventing nuclear smuggling across Russia's borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Preventing the theft of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia is one of the central security concerns facing the US today. The dissolution of the highly centralized USSR and the resulting societal crisis has endangered Russia's ability to protect its more than 200 metric tons of plutonium and 1000 tons of highly enriched uranium (roughly 8 kg Pu or 25 kg HEU is sufficient to make a bomb). Producing this fissile material is the most difficult and expensive part of nuclear weapons production and the US must make every effort to ensure that fissile material (and nuclear-related technologies) does not reach the hands of terrorist groups, rogue states or other potential proliferators. In response to this concern, the US has undertaken a number of initiatives in partnership with Russia and other FSU states to prevent the theft of fissile material. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC and A) was begun in 1993 to prevent the theft of nuclear materials from Russian civilian complexes, that is facilities not under control of the Ministry of Defense, which is largely responsible for possession and oversight of nuclear weapons. The MPC and A program is considered the first line of defense against theft of nuclear material because its goal is to prevent theft of material at production and storage facilities. This year the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new program called the Second Line of Defense (SLD), the goal of which is to assist Russia in preventing the smuggling of nuclear material and weapons at its borders, either by land, sea or air. The SLD program represents an important phase in the overall effort to ensure the security of nuclear material and weapons in Russia. However, as the US engages Russian customs officials in this important project, Americans should keep in mind that providing equipment--even indigenous equipment--is insufficient by itself; material aid must be accompanied by rigorous inspection and

  10. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence FY 2016 Data Analysis Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enders, Alexander L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harris, Tyrone C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Thomas C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patterson, Jeremy B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) has facilitated the installation of more than 3,500 radiation portal monitors (RPMs) at 606 sites in 56 countries worldwide. This collection of RPMs represents the world’s largest network of radiation detectors and provides one element in the defense-in-depth approach that supports the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture. These systems support NSDD’s mission to build partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit transport of radiological and fissile material through strategic points of entry and exit at seaports, airports, and border crossings. NSDD works collaboratively with partner countries and international organizations to optimize the operation of these RPMs. The large amount of data provided by NSDD partner countries highlights the close cooperation and partnerships NSDD has built with 56 countries around the world. Thirty-seven of these countries shared at least some RPM-related data with NSDD in fiscal year 2016. This significant level of data sharing is a key element that distinguishes the NSDD office as unique among nuclear nonproliferation programs and initiatives: NSDD can provide specific, objective, data-driven decisions and support for sustaining the radiation detection systems it helped deploy. This data analysis report summarizes and aggregates the RPM data provided to the NSDD office for analysis and review in fiscal year 2016. The data can be used to describe RPM performance and characterize the wide diversity of NSDD deployment sites. For example, NSDD deploys detector systems across sites with natural background radiation levels that can vary by a factor of approximately six from site to site. Some lanes have few occupancies, whereas others have approximately 8,000 occupancies per day and the different types of cargo that travel through a site can result in site-wide alarm rates that range from near 0% at

  11. Maritime security report : cocaine smuggling from South America to Europe and the United States increased in 2000 via commercial maritime and other modes of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    An increase in the detected and estimated transatlantic flow of cocaine smuggled from South America to the United States and Europe in 2000 has been reported by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). According to the ONDCP "Annual A...

  12. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  13. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, three of them are in your arm: the humerus, radius, and ulna. Your arms are also made up of muscles, joints, tendons, ... Injuries to any of these parts of the arm can occur during sports, a fall, or an ...

  14. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (pAI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (pAI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Battlemind Training: Transitioning Home from Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W; Milliken, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Adler, Amy B; Cox, Anthony; Bliese, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    .... Destruction, injury, and death were ever present in the combat zone. Transitioning from combat to home can be difficult, and many Soldiers encounter readjustment problems ranging from elevated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  16. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  17. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  18. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  19. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  20. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  1. Assessing Detecting and Deterring the Threat of Maritime Nuclear and Radiological Smuggling in the Western Indian Ocean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Umer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes that current maritime smuggling routes in the western Indian Ocean region are similar to those in the past and that the motivations of terrorist groups and the presence of radioactive sources in the Indian Ocean littoral and other states present a significant security threat. The majority of regional terrorist groups have a hybrid structure, piggybacking on criminal activity to fund their terror activities. Additionally, states have used maritime routes in the Indian Ocean region to transport nuclear materials and missiles. Thus, the maritime dimension of such threats remains, and may be increasing. This paper focuses on issues, motivations, pathways, and methods to detect and interdict nuclear and radiological trafficking. It analyzes the potential use of maritime technology applications for radiation detection and presents recommendations for states and multinational nonproliferation advocacy organizations to address the threat in the Indian Ocean region.

  2. Rebelle De Fatou Keita Ou le Combat Feminin Contre la Patriarchie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le combat féministe est un sujet d'actualité dans une Afrique toujours gouvernée par des systèmes phallocentriques qui emprisonnent la femme ou l'enterrent dans la misère. L'écriture, parmi d'autres moyens, est une arme par excellence utilisée dans le combat contre le système patriarcal. L'écrivaine féministe s'en sert ...

  3. Digital Head Avatars for combat helmet fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2018-01-01

    Today’s combat helmet is becoming more than only a means to protect the warriors head. It is increasingly also used as a platform for sensors and has to integrate with other protection devices. As such, the combat helmet is becoming an integrated system with higher demands on combat helmet fit and

  4. Dimensions of operational stress and forms of unacceptable risk taking with small arms and munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Uzi

    2015-01-01

    Accidents with small arms and munitions during deployment is a significant safety concern for leaders and safety specialists in combat units. Operational stress may lead to forms of unacceptable risk taking with small arms that may underlie some of these accidents. The present research studied the correlation between two dimensions of operational stress, two forms of risk taking with small arms among combat unit soldiers and possible mediators. The dimensions of operational threat, negative affect and personality profile from the EPQ-R-S were predictors; "exaggerated preparedness" and "risky games with small arms and munitions" were dependent variables; safety climate of the platoon served as a mediator variable. The participants were 461 compulsory service combat soldiers in 31 companies. This field study was conducted during period of top security alert. The results reveal that perceived threat is indeed correlated with exaggerated operational preparedness whereas general emotional state was correlated with risky games with small arms. Safety climate mediated only the correlation between general emotional state and risky games with small arms and munitions. Preparedness and risky games were predicted by the interaction of Psychoticism and the Lie Scale from the EPQ-R-S. The results may enhance the efforts in reducing risk taking and prevention of accidents with small arms and munitions during and following deployment.

  5. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull.We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20.This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  6. Better systems for combating MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabha, Ghasson

    2009-03-01

    Ghasson Shabha, Facilities Management MSc course leader at the School of Property, Construction and Planning at Birmingham City University, examines the effectiveness of current design and management intervention systems in combating MRSA and other hospital-acquired infections in British hospitals.

  7. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  8. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  9. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Does perpetrating violence damage mental health? Differences between forcibly recruited and voluntary combatants in DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Maedl, Anna; Hinkel, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    As a consequence of the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), combatants are constantly involved in various forms of violence. Findings concerning the impact of perpetrating violence on mental health are contradictory, ranging from increasing to buffering the risk for mental ill health. The present study investigated the impact of perpetrating violence on mental health. In total, 204 forcibly recruited and voluntary male combatants (mean age = 24.61 years) from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in the study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about appetitive aggression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as self-experienced violence and self-perpetrated violent offending. A multivariate analysis of variance (η(2) = .23) revealed that voluntary combatants perpetrated more violent acts (η(2) = .06) and showed higher appetitive aggression η(2) = .03). A moderated multiple regression analysis (R(2) = .20) showed that perpetrating violence was positively related to PTSD in forcibly recruited combatants, but not in voluntary combatants. Thus, perpetrating violence may not necessarily qualify as a traumatic stressor. Further studies might consider assessing the combatant's perception of committing violent acts. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. The role of Europol in the field of combating the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains a short general presentation of Europol and of its links to the various agencies dealing with combating the illicit trafficking of radioactive substances, inside and outside the European Union. The main difficulties we have to face in this mission are from various origins. The collection of intelligence, from both law-enforcement and scientific sides, seems to be the most efficient way to detect smuggling networks. The necessary co-operation between these two communities is a challenge for both parties, but its beginnings are encouraging. However, multiple constraints still remain that hamper the process. Europol commits itself to bridging the gap between police or intelligence agencies and the nuclear scientific community, and plans to increase its involvement in the near future, by organizing training sessions for law-enforcement personnel in co-operation with our partners. Europol is also busy with producing threat assessments and possible scenarios of terrorist attacks, which also show that, in a general manner, the collection of intelligence on the criminal groups or individuals, modus operandi, or smuggling routes is a much more efficient way of prevention than the on-site physical protection, even if this latter method is indispensable. But, if despite preventive actions, a terrorist attack using mass destruction weapons actually occurs, its effects would be lessened by an appropriate reaction of the concerned authorities. That is why our organization is also involved in a process of awareness of our member states, as only a few of them have set up a response capability in this domain. (author)

  12. The role of Europol in the field of combating the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains a short general presentation of Europol and of its links to the various agencies dealing with combating the illicit trafficking of radioactive substances, inside and outside the European Union. The main difficulties we have to face in this mission are from various origins. The collection of intelligence, from both law-enforcement and scientific sides, seems to be the most efficient way to detect smuggling networks. The necessary co-operation between these two communities is a challenge for both parties, but its beginnings are encouraging. However, multiple constraints still remain that hamper the process. Europol commits itself to bridging the gap between police or intelligence agencies and the nuclear scientific community, and plans to increase its involvement in the near future, by organizing training sessions for law enforcement personnel in co-operation with our partners. Europol is also busy with producing threat assessments and possible scenarios of terrorist attacks, which also show that, in a general manner, the collection of intelligence on the criminal groups or individuals, modus operandi, or smuggling routes is a much more efficient way of prevention than the on-site physical protection, even if this latter method is indispensable. But, if despite preventive actions, a terrorist attack using mass destruction weapons actually occurs, its effects would be lessened by an appropriate reaction of the concerned authorities. That is why our organization is also involved in a process of awareness of our Member States, as only a few of them have set up a response capability in this domain. (author)

  13. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  14. Winning Before the Fight: An Armed Suasion Approach to Countering Near Peer Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    and goal of military actions outside armed conflict; a pre-conflict recognition of competitors and potential adversaries; and its relationship to...freedom of action , as well as strategic, often nuclear, capabilities that create options to escalate beyond conventional combat. US joint doctrine...currently provides little guidance on how to arrange military actions short of armed conflict in order to counter near peer competition. This monograph

  15. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  16. Detecting atypical functioning of emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica V. Rodríguez-Calvache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reincorporation process of Colombian ex-combatants is hindered by their chronic exposure to violence, which affects their Emotional Processing (EP. Characterizing their EP will contribute to their reinsertion. The objective of this work is to define an EEG-based brain connectivity approach to identify differences in EP between Colombian ex-combatants and individuals who were not directly exposed to the armed conflict. The proposed approach involves defining the Regions of Interest (ROI and selecting one of five commonly used brain connectivity metrics: Correlation, Cross-Correlation, Coherence, Imaginary part of Coherency, and Phase-Lag Index. Significant differences were found in the positive valence stimuli in the Beta frequency band. These results support the previously reported trend in the literature regarding the difficulties ex-combatants have to process emotional information with positive valence.

  17. Detecting and combating malicious email

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Julie JCH

    2014-01-01

    Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...

  18. Combat Medals, Streamers, and Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the late Mr. Charles A. Ravenstein , Deputy Chief of the Research Division, for his help with unit honors; Mr. Lloyd H. Comett, Jr., former Director...Washington: Albert F. Simpson Historical Research Center and Office of Air Force History, 1978-1979. Ravenstein , Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings...Robert D. and Wilhelmine Burch. Air Operations in the Lebanon Crisis of 1958. Washington: USAF Historical Division Liaison Office, 1962. Ravenstein

  19. A Theory of Combative Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...

  20. Combating cyberspace fraud in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in Africa Marthie Grobler, Joey Jansen van Vuuren Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Defence, Peace, Safety & Security © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za Combating cyber crime in Africa is a reality • Computer crime... throughout the African community, especially not to those areas with limited connectivity © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za Primary cyberspace threats and trends: Shortage of IT education • Building on the digital divide...

  1. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    requirements and sets standards that will take time and money to meet. It is an opportunity because the DODI will fo- cus attention on CBRN... infertile by Salt. Source: Death Valley (photo courtesy of pdphoto.org). Combating WMD Journal Issue 3 56 the earliest use of weapons. Poi...considered a psychological weapon. The recipients of a barrage of Greek fire could not explain how the fire would ignite spontaneously, rise up, be

  2. Evaluating the Relationship between Distance from the Border and Amount of Income and Employment from Smuggling (Case study: Villages of Khav and Myrabad district, Marivan County)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kohnepooshi; A. A. Aanabestani

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe subject of free trade and paying attention to marketing strategies and attracting customers can be considered as one of the significant factors in economic growth and development nowadays, so that many governments consider the international trade as one of the important priorities in their macroeconomic policy agenda. Currently the definition of smuggling and trafficking is not limited solely to the entry and exit within geographic borders of a country, rath...

  3. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  4. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, E.A.; Morgan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  5. Atypical Modulations of N170 Component during Emotional Processing and Their Links to Social Behaviors in Ex-combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P. Trujillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing (EP is crucial for the elaboration and implementation of adaptive social strategies. EP is also necessary for the expression of social cognition and behavior (SCB patterns. It is well-known that war contexts induce socio-emotional atypical functioning, in particular for those who participate in combats. Thus, ex-combatants represent an ideal non-clinical population to explore EP modulation and to evaluate its relation with SCB. The aim of this study was to explore EP and its relation with SCB dimensions such as empathy, theory of mind and social skills in a sample of 50 subjects, of which 30 were ex-combatants from illegally armed groups in Colombia, and 20 controls without combat experience. We adapted an Emotional Recognition Task for faces and words and synchronized it with electroencephalographic recording. Ex-combatants presented with higher assertion skills and showed more pronounced brain responses to faces than Controls. They did not show the bias toward anger observed in control participants whereby the latter group was more likely to misclassify neutral faces as angry. However, ex-combatants showed an atypical word valence processing. That is, words with different emotions yielded no differences in N170 modulations. SCB variables were successfully predicted by neurocognitive variables. Our results suggest that in ex-combatants the links between EP and SCB functions are reorganized. This may reflect neurocognitive modulations associated to chronic exposure to war experiences.

  6. Atypical Modulations of N170 Component during Emotional Processing and Their Links to Social Behaviors in Ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Sandra P.; Valencia, Stella; Trujillo, Natalia; Ugarriza, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Mónica V.; Rendón, Jorge; Pineda, David A.; López, José D.; Ibañez, Agustín; Parra, Mario A.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is crucial for the elaboration and implementation of adaptive social strategies. EP is also necessary for the expression of social cognition and behavior (SCB) patterns. It is well-known that war contexts induce socio-emotional atypical functioning, in particular for those who participate in combats. Thus, ex-combatants represent an ideal non-clinical population to explore EP modulation and to evaluate its relation with SCB. The aim of this study was to explore EP and its relation with SCB dimensions such as empathy, theory of mind and social skills in a sample of 50 subjects, of which 30 were ex-combatants from illegally armed groups in Colombia, and 20 controls without combat experience. We adapted an Emotional Recognition Task for faces and words and synchronized it with electroencephalographic recording. Ex-combatants presented with higher assertion skills and showed more pronounced brain responses to faces than Controls. They did not show the bias toward anger observed in control participants whereby the latter group was more likely to misclassify neutral faces as angry. However, ex-combatants showed an atypical word valence processing. That is, words with different emotions yielded no differences in N170 modulations. SCB variables were successfully predicted by neurocognitive variables. Our results suggest that in ex-combatants the links between EP and SCB functions are reorganized. This may reflect neurocognitive modulations associated to chronic exposure to war experiences. PMID:28588462

  7. Preparing soldiers for the stress of combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Stephen C; Kotwal, Russ S; Forsten, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Protracted use of stressors during military training courses does not necessarily enhance a Soldier?s ability to regulate stress on the battlefield. Extensive stress during training can be a contributing factor to suboptimal neurologic and overall long-term health. Prolonged high-stress military training programs, as well as extended duration combat deployments, should be comprehensively scrutinized for opportunities to preserve health and increase combat effectiveness. Contemporary research in neuroscience and psychology can provide insight into training techniques that can be used to control stress and optimize performance in combat. Physical fitness training programs can elevate the stress threshold. Extensive situational training can also inoculate Soldiers to specific combat stressors. Training methods such as these will enable Soldiers to achieve higher levels of performance while under enemy fire and are encouraged for units deploying to combat. combat stress, military training, military deployment, physical training, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep deprivation, stress inoculation training. 2012.

  8. Dealing with the Shadows in the Field: Narratives of Smuggling in Kilis Town on the Turkish-Syrian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Hatice ŞENOĞUZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A parallel but different working of economic and political rationality than the rationality of nation-state could be clearly observed on the borders: law of illegality, unregulated trade and informal relationships. The irrational organizations and relations of the border complicate their investigation through a systematic research methodology and techniques. How then the border researcher should explore irrational, inconspicuous and even uncanny events and develop his or her tools to conceive the ‘unconceivable’? How he or she can keep to carry out the research while his or her research identity is constantly undermined? This paper discusses the field experience that I have obtained during the research on Kilis city at the Turkish-Syrian border. The discussion of the paper addresses mainly to the efforts that I have made in order to identify potential interviewees and access them. Drawing on critical anthropological studies, I will dwell upon the relationships and encounters during the fieldwork and demonstrate in which ways the narratives of smuggling have evolved both as possibility and setback to the fieldwork and shaped my research strategy

  9. Technical description of candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a nuclear smuggling deterrence tag (IL500E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials; (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials; and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The tagging system uses four types of tagging materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. Currently, 18 long-lived radioisotopes, 38 short-live radioisotopes and 10 fluorescent compounds have been selected as candidate materials for the tagging system

  10. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  11. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  12. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  13. Strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Rajesh R; Kohli, Gurdeep Singh; Katekhaye, Vijay M; Swami, Onkar C

    2014-07-01

    The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is rising and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in clinical and community setting. Spread of antibiotic resistance to different environmental niches and development of superbugs have further complicated the effective control strategies. International, national and local approaches have been advised for control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance. Rational use of antimicrobials, regulation on over-the-counter availability of antibiotics, improving hand hygiene and improving infection prevention and control are the major recommended approaches. Thorough understanding of resistance mechanism and innovation in new drugs and vaccines is the need. A multidisciplinary, collaborative, regulatory approach is demanded for combating antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Sexual services, drugs and human trafficking, smuggling – in GDP figures: Quality of life indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years different kind of antisocial and criminal activities, according to the EU regulations, are being included in GDP indicators. The activities, included in GDP indicators are as follows: those of criminal nature (drugs, arms and human trafficking, corruptive activities, etc.; illegal activities, which are not of criminal nature (businesses without licenses and special permits, poaching, etc.; legal activities, though the income from them is not taxed and not recorded (prostitution, alcohol production, etc.; illegal use of intellectual property objects (illegal use of unlicensed programmes. Estimates on the inclusion of illegal, among them criminal activities in GDP indicators are important not only to learn the actual size of GDP, but also to give a chance to the law enforcement authorities to pay attention to separate areas of unregulated economic activities. The author of the article outlines the approximate extent of illegal and informal economic activities and their share in GDP, describes the methods of determination of the economic sector, as well as analyzes some separate informal economic sectors, which should be included into GDP.

  15. Lightweight Small Arms Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spiegel, Kori; Shipley, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The Lightweight Small Arms Technologies program was established to address this critical issue. The goals of the program prioritize weight reduction over any other characteristic, while balancing the requirements of lethality, reliability, and cost...

  16. Perspectives on Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, Michael O; Smith, James M; Segell, Glen M

    2004-01-01

    ...). For the past three years INSS has organized, sponsored, and/or participated in panels addressing arms control and strategic security issues at annual meetings of the International Studies Association (ISA...

  17. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cragin, Kim; Hoffman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... to traditional definitions of a security threat. For this analysis, the term "small arms" refers to man-portable personal and military weapons, ranging from handguns to assault rifles to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs...

  18. Littoral Combat Vessels: Analysis and Comparison of Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiansen, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    .... The candidates are a Littoral Combat Ship with a surface warfare module, a National Security Cutter augmented with offensive and defensive weaponry, a "Sea Lance" inshore combat vessel, and a Combat...

  19. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William

    1994-01-01

    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  20. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  1. Epic and ARM : user's guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe give a brief introduction to Epic and to ARM (they are discussed in more detail elsewhere). We show how to use the Epic compiler and how to execute ARM code. Then we describe ARM's API (application programmer's interface) which allows ARM to be used as a plug-in library. We describe

  2. Prevention of the use of legal trafficking for nuclear material and radioactive sources smuggling. Keynote address/session 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high. b) Presently available equipment is mainly based on HPGE cooled

  3. Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Beginnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank K

    2017-06-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. The origins of TCCC were nontraditional. The TCCC program began as a Naval Special Warfare biomedical research effort launched after the realization that extremity hemorrhage, a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, was not being treated with a readily available and highly effective intervention: the tourniquet. This insight prompted a systematic reevaluation of all aspects of battlefield trauma care that was conducted from 1993 to 1996 as a joint effort by special operations medical personnel and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. The product of that 3-year research project was TCCC, the first-ever set of battlefield trauma care guidelines designed to combine good medicine with good small-unit tactics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  5. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    behaviors of Arabs . The conceptual framework and cultural analyses presented are drawn from relevant scholarly literature and personal observations...Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries William D. Wunderle Combat...Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En'yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F.; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D.; Sondheim, W.E.; Sorensen, S.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P.W.; Steffens, S.; Stein, E.M.; Stepanov, M.; Stokes, W.; Sugioka, M.; Sun, Z.; Taketani, A.; Taniguchi, E.; Tepe, J.D.; Thornton, G.W.; Tian, W.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Towell, R.S.; Tradeski, J.; Vassent, M.; Velissaris, C.; Villatte, L.; Wan, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Watkins, L.C.; Whitus, B.R.; Williams, C.; Willis, P.S.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Yang, Y.; Yoneyama, S.; Young, G.R.; Zhou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10 -3 ). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  8. Selective prevention of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder using attention bias modification training: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, I; Fruchter, E; Ginat, K; Stolin, E; Dagan, D; Bliese, P D; Quartana, P J; Sipos, M L; Pine, D S; Bar-Haim, Y

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of pre-trauma prevention for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not yet been established in a randomized controlled trial. Attention bias modification training (ABMT), a computerized intervention, is thought to mitigate stress-related symptoms by targeting disruptions in threat monitoring. We examined the efficacy of ABMT delivered before combat in mitigating risk for PTSD following combat. We conducted a double-blind, four-arm randomized controlled trial of 719 infantry soldiers to compare the efficacy of eight sessions of ABMT (n = 179), four sessions of ABMT (n = 184), four sessions of attention control training (ACT; n = 180), or no-training control (n = 176). Outcome symptoms were measured at baseline, 6-month follow-up, 10 days following combat exposure, and 4 months following combat. Primary outcome was PTSD prevalence 4 months post-combat determined in a clinical interview using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Secondary outcomes were self-reported PTSD and depression symptoms, collected at all four assessments. PTSD prevalence 4 months post-combat was 7.8% in the no-training control group, 6.7% with eight-session ABMT, 2.6% with four-session ABMT, and 5% with ACT. Four sessions of ABMT reduced risk for PTSD relative to the no-training condition (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 1.01-9.22, p < 0.05, number needed to treat = 19.2). No other between-group differences were found. The results were consistent across a variety of analytic techniques and data imputation approaches. Four sessions of ABMT, delivered prior to combat deployment, mitigated PTSD risk following combat exposure. Given its low cost and high scalability potential, and observed number needed to treat, research into larger-scale applications is warranted. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT01723215.

  9. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  11. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-04

    totally eliminate medium-range nuclear missiles in Europe, as if they want to incarcerate it forever in a medieval fortress. Third, if given a... astronomical military expenditure, which is once again being increased by 3 percent, is to be devoted to the buildup both of nuclear and conventional arms

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-23

    nunciature in Panama City, have kidnapped the Cuban ambassador twice, and now they have even assaulted and searched the residence of the Nicaraguan...orators out there who have only seen the armed forces in cinema news- reels. The issue is not one of politics but politicking. For example, we hear

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-13

    suppress it wherever the arm of the Pentagon and the CIA has reached, as in Grenada . They have elevated various "contras" and dushmans to the rank of...and others on certain U.S. population groups, primarily those on the margins of society —,drug addicts, homosexuals , the homeless..." -, Zapevalov

  14. Optimization of Combat Logistics Force Required to Support Major Combat Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Troy C

    2008-01-01

    Military requirements development involves operational commanders conducting analyses of a variety of combat scenarios to assess force structure and material requirements to meet their military objectives...

  15. Combat climat change with competetive photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeyron, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Zietek, G.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) offer a promising solution for CO2 emission reductions and climate change combat. However, before its wide spread on the market, PV needs to find new approaches to make solar cells competitive with respect to conventional electricity sources.

  16. Innovative contracting strategies for combating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The state of Maryland has made a strong commitment to combating climate change and reducing : greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigated the state of practice of innovative contracting : solutions to reduce emissions from highway constructi...

  17. Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, James R; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Burns, Christopher; Cardo, Lisa J; Curry, Kathleen; Busch, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    ...) in civilian trauma patients receiving allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We explored the incidence of TA-MC in combat casualties receiving FrWB compared with patients receiving standard stored RBC transfusions. Methods...

  18. Combating Terrorism in a Globalized World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chambers, Jay W., Jr; Morgan, Michael; Antonetti, Lou; Carson, Charles; Curry, Peter; Curtin, Leslie; Miller, Keith; Munoz-Atkinson, John; Shrank, Richard; Tapper, Mark

    2002-01-01

    ... this national security threat and develop a plausible strategy to combat it. Their time at the University had been intended to be one of study and reflection to prepare for leadership challenges ahead...

  19. Biomechanical Properties of Infantry Combat Boot Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Karen

    1997-01-01

    .... A survey addressing comfort parameters was administered to each subject. Boot impact tests revealed that all of the commercially available boots tested superior to the standard-issue jungle and leather combat boots...

  20. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  1. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  2. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  3. Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0303 TITLE: Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies PARTNERING INVESTIGATOR: Matthew Macauley, Ph.D...SUBTITLE Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael...Furthermore, two novel transgenic mouse models were generated, one expresses human CD22 on B cells and the other expresses human CD33 on mast cells

  4. Reinforcement learning applications to combat identification

    OpenAIRE

    Mooren, Emily M.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Crucial to the safe and effective operation of U.S. Navy vessels is the quick and accurate identification of aircraft in the vicinity. Modern technology and computer-aided decision-making tools provide an alternative to dated methods of combat identification. By utilizing the Soar Cognitive Architecture's reinforcement learning capabilities in conjunction with combat identification techniques, this thesis explores the potential for the...

  5. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.

  6. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  7. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  8. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides in addition to fore and back movement.

  9. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Mustafa; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  10. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  11. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  12. Improvised explosive device-related lower genitourinary trauma in current overseas combat operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, Matthew; Walter, Jack; Hudak, Steven; Soderdahl, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has had a profound effect on battlefield trauma in the 21st century. Historically, wounds to the genitourinary (GU) structures have been less common than extremity and penetrating abdominal trauma in combat operations. GU injury incidence, severity, and associated injuries secondary to the use of this weapon in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom has not been described. Data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was reviewed for combat-related GU injuries in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom from 2001 to 2011. All wounded US armed service members are included in this database. Subjects were selected by a query of current procedural terminology and DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes related to traumatic injury of the penis, scrotum, testicles, and urethra. A retrospective chart review was performed for each patient to identify the date of injury, the mechanism of injury, and the associated traumatic wounds. Subjects' follow-up records were reviewed until present time or separation from active duty. A total of 501 soldiers sustained lower GU trauma, with a total of 729 injuries. Of these casualties, 448 (89%) were wounded by IEDs. Dismounted injuries (87%) made up more of the cohort than did vehicular. Specific trauma sites include 149 (20%) penile, 260 (36%) testicular, 284 (39%) scrotal, and 36 (5%) urethral injuries. The 180 limb amputations (36%) and 86 fractures (17%) were the most encountered concomitant skeletal wounds among service members with GU injuries. This is the first review of all lower GU trauma sustained by all US armed service members in current overseas combat operations. Combat-related lower GU trauma is primarily caused by IEDs in the spectrum of complex dismounted blast injuries. The mechanism primarily results in multisystem injury, with isolated GU involvement being uncommon. Continued evaluation of long-term sequelae, including sexual, urinary, and

  13. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  14. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-30

    to provide housing for over 3,000 homeless families , the document notes. The ban on nuclear tests would end the dangerous rivalry in developing...TASS 14 Jan] 22 ’Nuclear Angle’of Soviet Union’s Breakup Considered [Ye. Shashkov; PRAVDA 21 Jan] 23 UN Experts Discuss Conventional Arms...Soviet soldiers are stationed in Poland currently, together with JPRS-TAC-91-003 30 January 1991 EAST EUROPE back-up personnel and family members this

  16. Liposuction of arm lymphoedema.

    OpenAIRE

    Brorson, Håkan

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common disease in women, and up to 38% develop lymphedema of the arm following mastectomy, standard axillary node dissection and postoperative irradiation. Limb reductions have been reported utilising various conservative therapies such as manual lymph and pressure therapy. Some patients with long-standing pronounced lymphedema do not respond to these conservative treatments because slow or absent lymph flow causes the formation of excess subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-03

    produce prosaic kneaders, electric abattoirs , and canning lines that no one was in a hurry to acquire at prices several times higher that those of the...armed struggle between two equal enemies. [Khokhlov] Fine, but what do you have to say about the environmental contamination that would result... contamination then was dozens of times less than what we had at Chernobyl and almost all of it went up into the stratosphere. I believe that our half

  18. Strategic arms limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  19. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  20. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Recommendations for strengthening the national systems and the international regime for combating of illicit trafficking. Keynote address/session 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, P.; Wredberg, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking activities involving nuclear material and equipment are acts of nuclear proliferation. The threat of illicit trafficking is an international concern and the consequences of illicit trafficking, such as war or terrorist attacks using illegally manufactured nuclear weapons, might affect any country. As long as these materials and equipment remain a potential for theft and smuggling due to insufficient security and control conditions, there is a possibility that proliferators or terrorist groups may illegally take possession of such materials and equipment for illicit purposes. A precondition for preventing illicit trafficking is the existence of effective national systems for supervision and control of nuclear material and equipment, including physical protection and export/import control, based on an accurate and complete legislation. In addition thereto, national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, through prevention and detection within a state's territory or across its borders, incorporate such components as: supervision and control of nuclear operations; organisation of operator activities through quality assurance, internal control, security culture, etc.; law enforcement functions (police, intelligence, customs, investigation, prosecution, penalties and sanctions); and procedures for co-ordination and co-operation between supervising and law enforcement authorities. According to a joint Swedish-Norwegian-Latvian study, there are imperfections in many national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, such as: Incomplete legislation on nuclear non-proliferation and safety, physical protection and export/import control; Unclear or overlapping responsibilities between national supervision and law enforcement authorities, leading to poor co-operation and co-ordination of preventing and detecting measures; Incomplete rules and regulations concerning operator functions and responsibilities, including requirements on

  2. Physical Training Strategies for Military Women's Performance Optimization in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal

  3. Social Cognitive Training Improves Emotional Processing and Reduces Aggressive Attitudes in Ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Sandra; Trujillo, Natalia; Lopez, Jose D.; Gomez, Diana; Valencia, Stella; Rendon, Jorge; Pineda, David A.; Parra, Mario A.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills. A group of 31 ex-combatants (mean age of 37.2, 29 men) from Colombian illegal armed groups were recruited into this study. Of these, 16 were invited to take part in a SCT and the other continued with the conventional reintegration intervention. Both groups underwent 12 training sessions in a period 12–14 weeks. They were assessed with a comprehensive protocol which included Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Emotion Processing instruments. The scores on these instruments prior to and after the intervention were compared within and between groups. Both groups were matched at baseline. Ex-combatants receiving the SCT experienced significant improvements in EP and a reduction in aggressive attitudes, effects not observed in those continuing the conventional reintegration intervention. This is the first study that achieves such outcomes in such a population using SCT intervention. We discuss the implications of such results toward better social reintegration strategies. PMID:28428767

  4. Social Cognitive Training Improves Emotional Processing and Reduces Aggressive Attitudes in Ex-combatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Sandra; Trujillo, Natalia; Lopez, Jose D; Gomez, Diana; Valencia, Stella; Rendon, Jorge; Pineda, David A; Parra, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills. A group of 31 ex-combatants (mean age of 37.2, 29 men) from Colombian illegal armed groups were recruited into this study. Of these, 16 were invited to take part in a SCT and the other continued with the conventional reintegration intervention. Both groups underwent 12 training sessions in a period 12-14 weeks. They were assessed with a comprehensive protocol which included Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Emotion Processing instruments. The scores on these instruments prior to and after the intervention were compared within and between groups. Both groups were matched at baseline. Ex-combatants receiving the SCT experienced significant improvements in EP and a reduction in aggressive attitudes, effects not observed in those continuing the conventional reintegration intervention. This is the first study that achieves such outcomes in such a population using SCT intervention. We discuss the implications of such results toward better social reintegration strategies.

  5. Implications of Women in the Infantry: Will This Improve Combat Efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    with women in the infantry, such as paternal instincts of men with traditional Western values, medical issues, billeting/ privacy in an expeditionary...both males and females in the CF. A female combat arms soldier confirmed that she was kept from patrols most likely because she had kids , and a...4. 8 Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 U.S. 503 (1986). 9 “SASC Testimony.VOB,” YouTube video, 16:27, General Robert H. Barrow, 27th Commandant of the

  6. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  8. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, B.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  10. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  11. Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Charles W; Castro, Carl A; Messer, Stephen C; McGurk, Dennis; Cotting, Dave I; Koffman, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    The current combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have involved US military personnel in major ground combat and hazardous security duty. Studies are needed to systematically assess the mental health of members of the armed services who have participated in these operations and to inform policy with regard to the optimal delivery of mental health care to returning veterans. We studied members of 4 US combat infantry units (3 Army units and a Marine Corps unit) using an anonymous survey that was administered to the subjects either before their deployment to Iraq (n=2530) or 3 to 4 months after their return from combat duty in Iraq or Afghanistan (n=3671). The outcomes included major depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which were evaluated on the basis of standardized, self-administered screening instruments. Exposure to combat was significantly greater among those who were deployed to Iraq than among those deployed to Afghanistan. The percentage of study subjects whose responses met the screening criteria for major depression, generalized anxiety, or PTSD was significantly higher after duty in Iraq (15.6% to 17.1%) than after duty in Afghanistan (11.2%) or before deployment to Iraq (9.3%); the largest difference was in the rate of PTSD. Of those whose responses were positive for a mental disorder, only 23% to 40% sought mental health care. Those whose responses were positive for a mental disorder were twice as likely as those whose responses were negative to report concern about possible stigmatization and other barriers to seeking mental health care. This study provides an initial look at the mental health of members of the Army and the Marine Corps who were involved in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Our findings indicate that among the study groups there was a significant risk of mental health problems and that the subjects reported important barriers to receiving mental health services, particularly the

  12. [Excise taxes on tobacco and the problem of smuggling - concerning the credibility of the tobacco industry's "Discarded-Cigarette-Packages-Study"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Effertz, T

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of tobacco products is one of the main causes of illnesses. An often neglected but highly effective instrument for fiscal and preventive purposes is higher taxes on tobacco products. The tobacco industry however claims that higher taxes have tremendous effects on smuggling activity with additional costs with regard to law enforcement. The claim appears to be substantiated by a study which collects and documents the amounts of discarded empty cigarette packs, and which is used to estimate the fraction of illegally imported cigarettes. We show that this study makes use of systematic misspecifications and impreciseness and thus seems to pursue the aim of showing an exaggerated high amount of illegally imported cigarettes. The industry's claim that two thirds of non-taxed cigarettes in Germany are imported illegally, thus lacks any sound, well-grounded empirical corroboration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [Smuggling of the cocaine in the gastrointestinal tract ended in sudden death--the first case report from the Upper Silesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Rafał; Jabłoński, Christian; Skowronek, Rafał; Korczyńska, Małgorzata; Kulikowska, Joanna; Nowicka, Joanna; Chowaniec, Czesław; Uttecht-Pudełko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-year old man was found dead in the bathroom of his apartment. Forensic autopsy was ordered to determine the cause and manner of death. Autopsy revealed the presence of 55 latex "balls" in the stomach and foregut. In the past the victim was suspected of drug's dealing and smuggling. The content of "balls" and biological material (blood, urine, bloody fluid from internal organs) were analysed with LC MS/MS in the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Toxicology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The range of cocaine' concentration in the "balls" was 91.2-96.1%, whereas concentration in blood - 107.50 microg/ml, in urine - 284.60 microg/ml and in bloody fluid - 192.30 microg/ml. The cause of death was acute cocaine intoxication.

  14. THE POSSIBLY PREVENTION AND COMBATING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela P. POPA

    2014-11-01

    - A faulty legislation that allows them to circumvent the failure to pay taxes. Measures to combat tax evasion must act in the areas of legislative, administrative and educational. The legislative drafting tax legislation seeks appropriate, clear, concise, stable and consistent. It is also necessary to eliminate or withdrawal of exemptions, reductions and deductions that give rise to multiple interpretations. In terms of administrative measures aimed at creating a comprehensive and operational information system, ensuring adequate administrative structures and instruments effectively combating tax evasion and training specialists with morality and professionalism required of shapes and sizes evasion.

  15. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  16. Revealing smuggled nuclear material covered by a legitimate radioisotope shipment using CdTe-based gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lakosi, L; Zsigrai, J; Safar, J

    2003-01-01

    Illicit trade of nuclear materials (NM) represents a serious challenge to radiation monitoring upon scenarios, when legitimate radioisotope shipments are used to obscure the weak radiation of NM. Planar and hemispherical Cd(Zn)Te detectors with a portable mini-multichannel analyzer were proven to be suitable, in measuring times of 10 min order, for revealing the presence of low-enriched or natural U-bearing reactor fuel pellets in amounts of kg order, placed beside transport containers of lead or depleted uranium, which contain high activity sup 6 sup 0 Co (10 GBq range) or sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir (TBq range) radioisotope sources. Such a hand-held or portable device may help authorities combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.

  17. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siem, Frederick M; Murray, Michael W

    1997-01-01

    .... The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multicomponent model of pilot combat performance...

  18. Building Software Tools for Combat Modeling and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuanxin, Chen

    2004-01-01

    ... (Meta-Language for Combat Simulations) and its associated parser and C++ code generator were designed to reduce the amount of time and developmental efforts needed to build sophisticated real world combat simulations. A C++...

  19. Automatic arms their history, development and use

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Melvin M

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of automatic weapons is one of the most significant developments in weapons history. While this development has been filled with disagreements, controversy, and stray hurdles, out of all of this tumult, shouting, and shooting has come the progress in firearms from the days when it was necessary to build a fire under a gun to make it go off to the “you press the button and they do the work" automatic firearms of the present day. In 1941, Melvin M. Johnson Jr. and Charles T. Haven, both well-established experts on firearms and ammunitions in their day, commemorated this development in Automatic Arms: Their History, Development and Use. The topics on which they illuminate the reader include: History and development How they work How to keep them firing How they may be employed in combat In the authors' foreword, they state, “There has been a great deal of general discussion about various automatic weapons pro and con, and naturally there have been misunderstandings and misinterpretations." They s...

  20. Navy Combatives: Adjusting Course for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    34 2. Kapap..................................................................................................34 3. Krav ...training aspects to introduce the core values that are the foundation of the Navy and Marine Corps: honor, courage, and commitment ( MA 1.16, 2010...military service members should train in combatives (Wagner and Nardia, 2010). 3. Krav Maga The original concept of Krav Maga was to absorb any

  1. Why Combatting Teachers' Stress Is Everyone's Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Teacher stressors and the effects of stressors on teachers' decisions to remain in the profession are reviewed in this article. A discussion of what teachers can do to combat their stress and perform their duties for longevity in the classroom includes practical and researched strategies. Teachers cannot be expected to resolve all the issues of…

  2. Submarine Combat Systems Engineering Project Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    to 06-06-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Submarine Combat Systems Engineering Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ...AND ALLOCATIONS ..............................................25 E. APPLYING FITTS ’ LIST...25 Figure 8 Fitts ’ List [Schmidt, 2010

  3. Africanity: A Combative Ontology | Mafeje | CODESRIA Bulletin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africanity: A Combative Ontology. Archie Mafeje. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy ...

  4. Heterotopic Ossification Following Combat-Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    recent years has been directed toward prophylaxis, not treatment. The formation of heterotopic ossification has been ob- served following total hip ...common indications for excision of combat- related heterotopic ossification in our military patients are pain that is caused by wearing a prosthesis ...transfemoral amputation with limited hip flexion due to direct impingement of severe heterotopic ossification against the anterior pelvic brim and acetabulum

  5. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  6. Injury Prevention as a Combat Multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    of diabetes increases and leads to increased demands on future health care. Recognizing the challenges a new generation of soldiers poses from a...Physical Fitness School, “ IET Standardized Physical Training Guide,” Basic Combat Training Directorate (4 January 2005): 9. 22 Joseph J. Knapik et al

  7. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  8. Impact of combat events on first responders : Experiences of the armed conflict in Uruzgan, Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoencamp, Rigo; Idenburg, Floris J.; Vermetten, Eric; Tan, Edward; Plat, Marie Christine; Hoencamp, Erik; Leenen, Luke P H; Hamming, Jaap F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Care for battle casualties demands special skills from medics, nurses, and tactical commanders. To date, no inventory has been performed evaluating the first responders (medics, nurses and tactical commanders) around battle casualties. Method This observational cohort study was

  9. Missing in Action: African American Combat Arms Officers in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    person in b al concerns of a highly efficient and enthusiastic protégé and transmit lucid messages that war is as coming from a strong...objectives and goals as being within their reach. The role model serves as a living dream . He embodies dreams that provide inspiration for his own

  10. Small Combat Arms Unit Leader Training Techniques: Rules of Play for Infantry Field Opposition Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Opposition Exercise) originally represented a translation of the EFFTRAIN TOX - Tactical Opposition (Infantry Map Game) Exercise - to a field environment...symbols and grid tick marks). lie first plots the impact location per grid coordinate or registration adjustment request. He than translates the...understanding of those risks andt a knowlodge of what has boon success- ful (or unsuccessful) In similar situations. 46 ANNEX A MINIMUM FOX

  11. Combating Terrorism, Rebel Groups, and Armed Militias in the Face of Economic Prosperity Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    have a vital link in the LAPSSET project also. Once participation is agreed to, a thorough Strength-Weakness- Opportunity-Threat ( SWOT ) analysis ...serve as lead for the SWOT analysis and receive input from the partner nations. Second, U.S. AFRICOM must continue to encourage the UN and AU to apply...and the negative economic repercussions of oil lost to the global market . 9 From 2003-2006, Shell Oil

  12. Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test (OPAT) for Combat Arms Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    initiating the task, each Soldier practiced proper lifting technique using a pair of kettlebells . Then on the platform, while wearing a fighting load...body power) Soldiers held a 24-kg kettlebell attached to a fixed resistance of 100 lb and pulled it for 20 m and/or 90 s, whichever came first. The...Columbia, SC) on the rubber flooring described in the casualty drag. Soldiers were instructed to pull on the kettlebell attached to the rope while stepping

  13. [Curse and blessing of combat ophthalmology in the 20th and 21st centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, H

    2009-08-01

    Combat injuries in the literature are dominated by reports on the rescue of life and body trauma treatment of casualties. In the 20th and 21st centuries, preservation of the eyes would be more and more an extremely important goal. In World War I and II and along with the trends in current warfare, automatic weapons and conventional munitions like shrapnel will continue to cause a significant percentage of all ocular trauma in combat. There are also laser weapons which have the potential to cause blinding eye injuries. In spite of the curse of war there are also blessings of combat ophthalmology like the invention of the intraocular lens after the Second World War, when the plexiglas of a broken cockpit canopy was found to be inert in penetrating eye injuries. A significant ly better eye protection was developed following terror attacks, such as terrorist blasts in the 21st century. Finally, every new generation of military ophthalmologists has had to learn on its own from earlier armed conflicts and some of this knowledge could be helpful for our patients in more peaceful times. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  14. Elbow Arthrodesis as a Salvage Procedure for Combat-Related Upper Extremity Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Andrew J; Tennent, David J; Hsu, Joseph R; Burns, Travis C

    2016-08-01

    Upper extremity amputation is associated with significant disability. Elbow arthrodesis (EA) is a rarely indicated salvage procedure with a narrow set of indications. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical course of those patients undergoing an EA following severe combat-related, upper extremity trauma. 5 patients treated for combat-related upper extremity injuries treated with an EA between 2003 and 2012 were identified. Demographic information, injury characteristics, and treatment course were evaluated. 5 male patients with a mean age of 23.8 years were treated with an EA in relative extension following severe upper extremity trauma. 3 patients undergoing EA had concomitant bilateral above-knee amputations and 2 patients underwent fusion of their dominant arm. Successful arthrodesis was achieved in all patients. All patients reported good pain control without evidence of deep infection, the mean time from injury to arthrodesis was 305 days, and the mean time to arthrodesis was 714 days. The mean fusion angle among these patients was 138°. EA following severe combat-related, upper extremity trauma is a viable treatment option. In the multiply injured patient, arthrodesis in a position of extension may be advantageous to accommodate transfers and mobility. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Have Third-World Arms Industries Reduced Arms Imports?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Current Research on Peace and Violence, no. 1, 1989. Refereed Journal Article In 1945 only Argentina, Brazil, India and South Africa in the Third World possessed domestic arms industries which produced weapons systems other than small arms and ammunition (SIPRI, 1987, 76).

  17. Combat Stories Map: A Historical Repository and After Action Tool for Capturing, Storing, and Analyzing Georeferenced Individual Combat Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    visibility to that level. Other basemaps used by the Combat Stories Map , such as “ Open Street Map ” and “World Imagery,” do provide details to the...organizing their combat experiences.41 The Combat Stories Map allows users to zoom in to street level to identify specific locations where their combat... Map zoom in and out at preset scales depending on what one can clearly discern at that scale. Hence, one can clearly distinguish streets at the

  18. Combat stories map: a historical repository and after action tool for capturing, storing, and analyzing georeferenced individual combat narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite the proliferation of technology and near-global Internet accessibility, a web-based program incorporating interactive maps to record personal combat experiences does not exist. The Combat Stories Map addresses this deficiency. The Combat Stories Map is a web-based Geographic Information System specifically designed to collect and store U.S. service members' georeferenced combat stories. The stories are immediately available for...

  19. Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): implications for the future of combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, Brian J; Mabry, Robert L; Seguin, Peter; Cantrell, Joyce; Tops, Terrill; Uribe, Paul; Mallett, Olga; Zubko, Tamara; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne; Rasmussen, Todd E; Butler, Frank K; Kotwal, Russ S; Kotwal, Russell S; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles; Champion, Howard; Lawnick, Mimi; Moores, Leon; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2012-12-01

    Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to develop a comprehensive perspective of battlefield death, concentrating on deaths that occurred in the pre-medical treatment facility (pre-MTF) environment. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service Mortality Surveillance Division was used to identify Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualties from October 2001 to June 2011 who died from injury in the deployed environment. The autopsy records, perimortem records, photographs on file, and Mortality Trauma Registry of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service were used to compile mechanism of injury, cause of injury, medical intervention performed, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) on all lethal injuries. All data were used by the expert panel for the conduct of the potential for injury survivability assessment of this study. For the study interval between October 2001 and June 2011, 4,596 battlefield fatalities were reviewed and analyzed. The stratification of mortality demonstrated that 87.3% of all injury mortality occurred in the pre-MTF environment. Of the pre-MTF deaths, 75.7% (n = 3,040) were classified as nonsurvivable, and 24.3% (n = 976) were deemed potentially survivable (PS). The injury/physiologic focus of PS acute mortality was largely associated with hemorrhage (90.9%). The site of lethal hemorrhage was truncal (67.3%), followed by junctional (19.2%) and peripheral-extremity (13.5%) hemorrhage. Most battlefield casualties died of their injuries before ever reaching a surgeon. As most pre-MTF deaths are nonsurvivable, mitigation strategies to impact outcomes in this population need to be directed

  20. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  1. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.

  2. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  3. Teaching about the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1983-01-01

    Focusing on long-term arms-race education, discusses what physicists can do to help provide students and the public with technical information needed to understand issues involved in the nuclear cold war. Suggestions provided focus on public programs, media, publications, education of physicists, arms-race courses, "enrichment in physics courses,"…

  4. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  5. New approaches to combat Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented. In addition, oral infectious diseases in which P. gingivalis plays a key role are described, and an overview of conventional and new therapies for combating P. gingivalis biofilms is given. More insight into this intriguing pathogen might direct the development of better strategies to combat oral infections. PMID:28473880

  6. Cell Therapy Strategies to Combat Immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Elizabeth C; Brown, Bryan N

    2015-01-01

    Declining function of the immune system, termed "immunosenescence," leads to a higher incidence of infection, cancer, and autoimmune disease related mortalities in the elderly population. (1) Increasing interest in the field of immunosenescence is well-timed, as 20% of the United States population is expected to surpass the age of 65 by the year 2030. (2) Our current understanding of immunosenescence involves a shift in function of both adaptive and innate immune cells, leading to a reduced capacity to recognize new antigens and widespread chronic inflammation. The present review focuses on changes that occur in haematopoietic stem cells, macrophages, and T-cells using knowledge gained from both rodent and human studies. The review will discuss emerging strategies to combat immunosenescence, focusing on cellular and genetic therapies, including bone marrow transplantation and genetic reprogramming. A better understanding of the mechanisms and implications of immunosenescence will be necessary to combat age-related mortalities in the future.

  7. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  8. Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat Specific PTSD Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    the early stages of the wars suggest that 10-18% of combat troops experience deployment-related psychological health problems, such as posttraumatic...also includes gestalt -therapy techniques designed to target loss and moral injury. In our open pilot trial, we demonstrated treatment acceptability...to determine whether AD is as least as effective as CPT, cognitive only version (CPT-C), in terms of its impact on deployment-related psychological

  9. Lessons Worth Remembering: Combat In Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    training, Combat Training Centers, Centers of Excellence, and how it is equipping its soldiers. Sustaining the Army’s ability to operate and thrive...in the urban environment must elevate in importance for Army leaders moving forward. All other environmental training must become second tier...end of the day, all three companies advanced less than one block.119 On the third day of the battle, February 2, Hotel Company, 2nd Battalion, 5th

  10. Violation of human rights to combat terrorism.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.B. No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures to combat terrorism. There are 12 International Conventions related to terrorism and an explicit definition is still missing. Many states have tried to define terrorism and none of these definitions has been implemented, either by the United Nations or these states. There are many International Convent...

  11. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Combat stress, substance abuse , alcohol , brief intervention, military personnel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...ORGANIZATION: Research Triangle Institute Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 – 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND

  12. Combating Terrorism: A Socio-Economic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    depress- ing growth. The travel, tourism , accom- Major Miemie Winn Byrd, USA, is the Deputy Economic Advisor, U.S. Pacific Command, and has...For instance, Lloyd’s of London Combating Terrorism A Socio-Economic Strategy Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Busan , South Korea A P... well . In today’s increasingly competitive business environment, these corporations must continuously maintain their competitive advantage. Therefore

  13. Crowd Behavior Algorithm Development for COMBAT XXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    forth between these two models in real time . This proof-of-concept is a demonstration of a crowd model that can communicate with a combat simulation...human cognitive agents form to the various ‘ social identities’ to which they are exposed. An interesting treatment of crowds in the context of networks ...the degree to which different ethinicities within the crowd influence each individual in terms of interpersonal disances and amount of desire to follow

  14. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  15. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  16. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  17. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  18. Education for Reintegration of Ex-combatants into Civilian Life in Colombia: An analysis of Adult Education Programmes in Medellín and Piedecuesta

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Silva, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the provision of adult education for ex-combatants from illegal armed groups in Colombia as a governmental strategy to reduce their vulnerability and enhance their reintegration into civilian life. It does so through a comparative analysis of two local institutions, one providing non-formal adult education in the city of Medellín and the other formal adult education in the municipality of Piedecuesta. Guided by qualitative research design and methods and a human rights ap...

  19. Changing patterns of arms transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.

    1998-01-01

    Three factors in the international system have been of importance for the trade of arms: the role of the main actors on the supply side and since 1970 on the demand side, the permanently increasing importance of economics, and the balance trade, industrial capacity and jobs in supplier countries and purchasing power of potential importers. Two political events in 1991 had lasting effect on the development of the trade in arms: the dissolution of Soviet Union and the Gulf War

  20. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  1. Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Principle of Unnecessary Suffering : The Use of Nuclear Weapons in an Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Krasny, Jaroslav; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research is concerned with the use of nuclear weapons against combatants in an armed conflict and whether such a use violates or would violate the principle of unnecessary suffering as codified in St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and the Hague Conventions. In order to analyze what constitutes unnecessary suffering the method chosen for this research is comparison of the effects of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons on the human body. The reason for choosing this method is the abh...

  2. Estimating production cost while linking combat systems and ship design

    OpenAIRE

    Lineberry, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In a Naval International Cooperative Opportunities in Science & Technology Program (NICOP) initiative, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is investigating whether an emphasis on the utilization of computer simulation and combat modeling will achieve a warship design that effectively links the combat system and the ship design. A success in this effort will result in an enhancement to the ships combat mission effectiveness while provid...

  3. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30?years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health servi...

  4. NAACP Policy Recommendations for Economic Growth and Combating Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisis, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reacts to the Reagan Administration's economic plans. Presents NAACP policy positions on combating inflation, tax relief, unemployment, and stimulating growth in inner cities to offset urban blight. (MK)

  5. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea.

  6. A Combat Mission Team Performance Model: Development and initial Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silverman, Denise

    1997-01-01

    ... realistic combat scenarios. We present a conceptual model of team performance measurement in which aircrew coordination, team performance, mission performance and their interrelationships are operationally defined...

  7. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF ROBOTS IN ARMED CONFLICTS IN THE XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS PÉREZ GIL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the new weapon systems that can transform the notion itself of “armed conflict” in the classic sense of the term. The author deeply analyzes the differences between concepts such as robot, droid, android, UAS and UCAS, the new military hardware, and how will be the combat aircrafts of the future with systems of artificial intelligence, the field robotics, as well as the interaction between men and machines in the future combat and, finally, the revolution that the employment of this type of weapons cause in the traditional concepts of Humanitarian Law and self-defense right. The author concludes with a few reflections on the role that the newest technologies have to play necessarily in the conventional and unconventional warfare and the influence that its use will produce when these weapons will be considered “normal” in the whole world system.

  8. Combatting Commercial Terrorists: The PKK Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    describes it in accordance with its own goals and political concerns. The cliché of one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter mindset causes...47 76 Justine A. Rosenthal, “For-Profit Terrorism: The Rise of Armed Entrepreneurs ,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 6 (06/13; 2015/07...the left of Makarenko’s continuum. She sees these kinds of hybrids as “armed entrepreneurs ” and names their activity as “for- profit-terrorism

  9. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less than...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification. An arm sling is a device intended for medical purposes to immobilize the arm, by means of a fabric band...

  11. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  12. Epidemiology of dermatophytosis in junior combat and non-combat sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döğen, Aylin; Gümral, Ramazan; Oksüz, Zehra; Kaplan, Engin; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Ilkit, Macit

    2013-03-01

    Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged worldwide. Herein, we investigated 252 male and 67 female sports players, aged 16.4 ± 1.3 years, active in 15 different types of combat (n = 143) and non-combat (n = 176) sports. Of the 319 participants in this study, 11 (3.5%) players, including six wrestlers, four football players and one handball player, all of whom were men, harboured dermatophytic fungi. Briefly, Trichophyton tonsurans was present in three athletes, who were scalp carriers of the fungus. Furthermore, T. rubrum (4), T. interdigitale (3) and Arthroderma simii (1) were recovered from eight participants with tinea inguinalis (4), tinea pedis (2) or both (1). One patient was a trunk carrier of concomitant tinea pedis. All dermatophytic fungi were identified using both direction sequence of the rDNA regions spanning the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8 rRNA gene. Although sports-active individuals are active and sweat more, we observed a low prevalence of dermatophytosis, both in combat (5.2%) and non-combat sports participants (3.4%) (P > 0.05). However, dermatophyte infections require more attention and appropriate management to eradicate the infection and to prevent possible outbreaks. This study also documents the first case of zoophilic A. simii in Turkey. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Combat Readiness for the Modern Military Surgeon: Data from a Decade of Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of cases on US service members, allied nation ser- vice members, civilian contractors, enemy combatants, and local nationals. Numerous medical and...Illinois, in September 2011. Address for reprints: Joshua A. Tyler, MD, Department of General Surgery, San Antonio Military Medical Center, MCHE- SDG , 3851

  14. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  15. Complex Analysis of Combat in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2014 © Sa Majesté la Reine , représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 The...données relatives aux combats ( de l’OTAN) en Afghanistan de 2002 à 2009. Dans tous les cas, nous avons observé que les fonctions de fluctuations...seen most strongly for Att and d events, and only weakly for is and id events. Résumé L’analyse des fluctuations redressées (detrended

  16. Combat Vehicle Cooling/Heating Design Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Unit Mounting 2-14 2-2 M-60 Environmental Control Unit Mounting 2-16 2-3 HCPE System 2-18 2-4 Baseline Filter Blower Pack 2-19 3-1 Air Cycle System...Downstream HCPE Interface 4-8 4-2 Air Cycle Upstream HCPE Interface 4-9 5-1 Equivalent Evaporator Schematic 5-4 5-2 Air Cycle System Schematic 5-7 5-3...part of the combat vehicle equipment. As the hybrid collective protection equipment ( HCPE ) affects the air refrigerant make-up rates and crew

  17. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  18. The Combat-System/Ship-System Interface,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Identify by block nubee ) This report describes some of the work being done by the Combat Systems Department of the Naval Surface Weapons Center in the...CL 0 nu L Ut-1 I I l l ~ l I I I LA I u ~ l I I I I I- I n I I I I I I < I I I riI I I 1 1. I a Z I u 0 1 1> 1 W C I C I Il ~ I I <. < z L < m zCL.zW

  19. Close Air Support versus Close Combat Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    consequence when discussing the two different processes of close air support and close combat attack. This section focuses on service culture. Understanding...According to a RAND study written by Carl Builder, the Air Force “could be said to worship at the altar of technology.”67 These are not what Hofstede...characteristics that are highly prized in a culture and thus serve as models for behavior,” people like Billy Mitchell, Hap Arnold, Tooey Spaatz to name a

  20. Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    substance use and antisocial behavior [8,47]. We found that veterans who reported at least one symptom of mild TBI were at increased risk for psychiatric...specifically for this study. The items were adapted from other organizational commitment scales [30,39]. The items were: “I feel emotionally attached to the...screened for deployment-related traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Stress 2010, 23(1):17–24. 4. Castro CA, McGurk D: The intensity of combat and behavioral

  1. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  3. Physical protection as the most important part of the national system of combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Kokhan, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is obvious today that illicit trafficking, including its most dangerous manifestations proliferation of nuclear weapons, smuggling of nuclear materials and equipment, presents a serious threat to the international community. To defeat this evil is possible only by joint efforts, by undertaken protective measures on national and international levels. Joint efforts should be directed at fulfilling three main tasks as follows: 1. Safe and reliable handling of nuclear material, effective measures of its physical protection, accountancy and control in order to prevent proliferation; 2. Joint activities of intelligence customs and law-enforcement authorities directed at prevention of international trafficking and marketing of stolen goods; 3. Joint activities directed at identification and prevention of illegal supply and demand of fissionable materials counteracting thereby various criminal structures. We believe that in order to solve these problems an international regime should be established. Such an international regime will make the states implement the existing international agreements that will strengthen their postings regarding non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, ensure combating of illicit trafficking as well as facilitating cooperation between national and international databases on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, bilateral agreements between state authorities and international organizations regarding joint investigation procedures of the cases involving illicit trafficking. We believe that these goals of an international regime against illicit trafficking can be achieved by only one organization - the IAEA, an authority respected by the international community and presently responsible for nuclear safeguards. Recommendations and guidelines on physical protection, including the Convection on Physical Protection, have been developed under its auspices. The IAEA enjoys great respect and has extensive contacts including those with Interpol; it

  4. From Shell Shock to Combat Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binneveld, Hans

    1997-01-01

    War confronts a soldier with extreme situations. Armed conflicts produce not only deaths and injuries but mental breakdowns as well. The field of military psychiatry was founded at the beginning of this century. This book presents a history of this field. The first part provides a historical survey

  5. A Comprehensive Approach to Combating Illicit Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    years of experience in clinical wards of different hospitals in Switzerland, in internal med- icine, emergency medicine, surgery , intensive care unit...Democratic Control of Armed Forces, the Renaissance Foundation, Kyodo News (UN office), and B:22 t h e I n s t I t u t e f o r f o r e I g n P o

  6. Combat Injury Coding: A Review and Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    to place tourniquet or compress Amputation or crush left hip ; not able to place tourniquet or compress LOC, loss of consciousness. J Trauma Acute...region and type of tissue, when combinedwithDigits 1, 2, and 3 2, Moderate 2, Torso 2, Skin 3, Serious 3, Arms 3, Muscles, tendons, ligaments , and

  7. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  8. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses the role of taxation in the constitution of authority in the conflict-ridden eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where a multitude of authorities alternately compete and collude over the right to extract resources. Taxation ranges from simple plunder, to protection...... rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...

  9. Promotion of good governance and combating corruption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melvin Mbao and G.G Komboni criticise the legal regime and institutional arrangements designed to promote good government and to combat corruption and maladministration in Botswana, a country widely acclaimed as Africa's success story. Using internationally accepted benchmarks on good governance and combating ...

  10. From Ex-Combatants to Citizens: Connecting Everyday Citizenship and Social Reintegration in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maivel Rodríguez López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Citizenship can be understood as a form of civic participation and a means of developing social relations with members of the broader community and, therefore, can act as an important means to help reintegrate ex-combatants back into mainstream society. This paper discusses an exploratory research project conducted with a sample of 23 Colombian ex-combatants from non-state armed groups who are current participants of the national programme of reintegration in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. By collecting their views and opinions about what it is like to become reintegrated, we explored the range of social factors that facilitate as well as obstruct practices of citizenship in everyday life and, subsequently, the ways in which this affects their overall experience of reintegration into Colombian society. Drawing on social psychological literature on citizenship and on the theory of social representations, we explored how citizenship is understood and enacted by this group as part of their reintegration process. A thematic analysis of three focus groups highlights an enabling as well as a limiting social context that affects former combatants’ ability to participate as citizens. This paper also contributes to the social psychology of citizenship by studying the experience of reintegration in conflict-affected societies.

  11. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNTER, KEITH O.; HART, WILLIAM E.; FORSYTHE, JAMES C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project

  12. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chun Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  13. The Dual Model Of The Development Of German Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Timofeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage Germany seeks to increase its influence at the international arena and plays active role in the solution of the problems in the sphere of inter-national security. In this regard Germany uses a wide range of foreign policy tools, some of them are military. The Bundeswehr becomes the armed forces which are intended for the usage at the global level and for the solution a large range of tasks, including ones which are atypical for the period of the «cold war». The reform of the Bundeswehr led to its real division of German armed forces into two components. The first of them were the forces which were intend-ed for the usage outside NATO zone of responsibility, and the second component were troops which should complete the tasks of the ensuring the territorial de-fense of Germany and its Alliance`s partners if necessary. In the 1990s – 2000s years the undisputed priority was the development of forces, used outside the Euro-Atlantic society. At the same time the combat capa-bilities of another component were gradually declining in the situation of com-mon reducing the personnel and armaments of the Bundeswehr. At the present stage the Western countries came to a period of profound deterioration of rela-tions with Russia and faced with the increasing manifestations of the non-traditional security threats caused by instability in the Middle East and North Af-rica. It puts Germany in front of necessity of simultaneous development of both parts of the armed forces. In this regard in the conclusion there is an attempt to characterize the modern and perspective image of the Bundeswehr and to outline possible ways of overcoming the existing difficulties of its development.

  14. THE DUAL MODEL OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF GERMAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Timofeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage Germany seeks to increase its influence at the international arena and plays active role in the solution of the problems in the sphere of inter-national security. In this regard Germany uses a wide range of foreign policy tools, some of them are military. The Bundeswehr becomes the armed forces which are intended for the usage at the global level and for the solution a large range of tasks, including ones which are atypical for the period of the «cold war». The reform of the Bundeswehr led to its real division of German armed forces into two components. The first of them were the forces which were intend-ed for the usage outside NATO zone of responsibility, and the second component were troops which should complete the tasks of the ensuring the territorial de-fense of Germany and its Alliance`s partners if necessary. In the 1990s – 2000s years the undisputed priority was the development of forces, used outside the Euro-Atlantic society. At the same time the combat capa-bilities of another component were gradually declining in the situation of com-mon reducing the personnel and armaments of the Bundeswehr. At the present stage the Western countries came to a period of profound deterioration of rela-tions with Russia and faced with the increasing manifestations of the non-traditional security threats caused by instability in the Middle East and North Af-rica. It puts Germany in front of necessity of simultaneous development of both parts of the armed forces. In this regard in the conclusion there is an attempt to characterize the modern and perspective image of the Bundeswehr and to outline possible ways of overcoming the existing difficulties of its development. 

  15. The new Middle East security threat the case of Yemen and the GCC

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hajjri, Ibrahim Abdulwahab

    2007-01-01

    Since Yemen has a history of border disputes with Saudi Arabia, this addresses the question of Yemen's role in the security of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen suffers from a weak economy and a number of security issues of its own. Through the borders shared with its GCC neighbors, Yemen has become plagued by a nexus of terrorism, arms smuggling, and drug trafficking. Yet Yemen is unable to effectively combat these threats because of weak border control and poor cooperation with its regional ...

  16. Security Sector Reform’s Utility in Conflict Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    dealt with long nights of reading, typing, and editing instead of planning for our upcoming wedding . v TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS...weapons.50 The Tuareg-Arab rebellion finally ended in 1996 with the Flame of Peace Ceremony in Timbuktu. About 2,400 ex-combatants joined the Malian...Flames of Peace Ceremony . Not all weapons and ammunition were destroyed in the ceremony and arms smuggling across the Sahel continued as a source of

  17. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue ap...

  18. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  19. How Computers are Arming biology!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. In-vitro to In-silico - How Computers are Arming biology! Geetha Sugumaran Sushila Rajagopal. Face to Face Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 83-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Implementing and preserving the advances in combat casualty care from Iraq and Afghanistan throughout the US Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank K; Smith, David J; Carmona, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    Thirteen years of continuous combat operations have enabled the US Military and its coalition partners to make a number of major advances in casualty care. The coalition nations have developed a superb combat trauma system and achieved unprecedented casualty survival rates. There remains, however, a need to accelerate the translation of new battlefield trauma care information, training, and equipment to units and individuals deploying in support of combat operations. In addition, the US Military needs to ensure that these advances are sustained during peace intervals and that we continue to build upon our successes as we prepare for future conflicts. This article contains recommendations designed to accomplish those goals. For the proposed actions to benefit all branches of our armed services, the direction will need to come from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in partnership with the Joint Staff. Effective translation of military advances in prehospital trauma care may also increase survival for law enforcement officers wounded in the line of duty and for civilian victims of Active Shooter or terrorist-related mass-casualty incidents.

  1. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress-A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders-namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression-are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace.

  2. Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (Technologie avancee d’entrainement au combat urbain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    unconventional forces” and that “… soldiers are often described as ill-prepared (in equipment, doctrine, training and psychology ) for the type of fighting...representation (e.g. coloured smoke); and • Data communication, etc. A key area that will need more investigation in future urban military training is C4I...Feedback), we must have common rules for safety, colour codes and practices on how you conduct combat operation. The Military Sub-Group also has

  3. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  4. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  5. Islamic Jihad: Sectarian Factors in Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. Biography Lieutenant Colonel Michael Moyles is...ourselves rather than to them.13 The Council on Foreign Relations agrees, saying “The West’s increasing intellectual distance from most thing...Shining Path in Peru , the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Irish Republican Army, and the Tamil Liberation Tigers in Sri Lanka. 23 The

  6. Combating Biological Terrorism from Imported Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (formerly GSPC) 38. Real IRA (RIRA) 39. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) 40. Revolutionary Organization 17...44. United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) 45. Harakat-ul Jihad Islami (HUJI) 46. Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) 47. Jundallah 94...coffee, tea, mate and spices 277.20 pharmaceutical products 238.40 meat and edible meat offal 134.80 animal or vegetable fats and oils and their

  7. SPECIFICS OF MOTIVATION IN COMBAT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation can be defined as conscious or unconscious experience that serves as a factor that determines a person's behavior or her social action in a given situation. So far, various studies had identified over 100 different factors that explain why people engage in sports. However, the reasons for sports participation may differ depending on gender and sports' discipline. Therefore, in this paper were examinated whether there is a difference in the motives for sports participation among athletes engaged in different types of combat sports, and whether there is a difference in the motivation of male and female. The sample comprised 265 athletes (173 male and 92 female who practiced karate, kick boxing, fencing, taekwondo, jiu jitsu, savate and kyokushin kaikan. Athletes were offered 10 reasons for sports participation that were to be ranked according to importance. The results showed that the love and health of the most important reasons for sports' participation and that is the least important reason was the wish of parents and good look. Also, it appears that health as a reason for playing sports was important to practice karate, savate, kick boxing, and success was the most important reason to deal with fencing. The desire of parents as the reason was the least important in kyokushin kaikan. The only statistically significant difference in gender appeared in ranking of money. Money was far less significant reason for the females. One can therefore conclude that there are certain peculiarities in motivation for sport among athletes of different combat sports and that kind of sport, more than gender differences contribute to these differencies.

  8. Combating (Child Human Trafficking: Building Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Winterdyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation/paper focuses on the challenges and necessity of building capacity at local, national, and international levels with a focus of how to more effectively combat trafficking in human beings (THB. Insight from several of initiatives are shared with the aim of illustrating how to capitalize on the vast number of opportunities that already exist at these levels and how they might be coordinated to enable collaborative work in an informed and dynamic manner to combat human trafficking. Information from several recent research projects that focus on some of these same issues is also incorporated into this paper. El artículo se centra en los desafíos de la lucha contra el tráfico de personas y en la necesidad de aumentar la capacidad para ser más eficaces en ese sentido, local, nacional e internacionalmente. Nos hacemos eco de la visión de varias iniciativas, con el fin de ilustrar cómo capitalizar el gran número de oportunidades que ya existen en los ámbitos citados, y la forma en que se podrían coordinar para posibilitar la colaboración de una manera informada y dinámica para combatir la trata de personas. También se incluye en el artículo información emanada de diversos proyectos recientes de investigación sobre el tema que nos ocupa. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3086067

  9. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  10. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurselis, S.; Stadalnikas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper gives a general overview of the progress which has been made in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. Lithuania, similar to many countries, did not avoid a new type of a crime - smuggling of nuclear materials - which was observed in the 1990's. The most serious case in Lithuania happened in 1993 when fresh fuel assembly was stolen from Ignalina NPP. This assembly contains approximately 124 kg of UO 2 (enrichment 2%). 100 kg of the pellets from this assembly was found later in several pieces at different places. This case served as a strong stimulus to strengthen prevention measures of Illicit trafficking. The legal basis was created and governmental institutions were obliged with special duties related with nuclear material. The laws and regulations set the order for the shipment and handling of nuclear material. The penalties for violation of these laws and regulations specified in Penal Code and Administrative Code were made stricter. The State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) is a very important element in prevention of the illicit trafficking. The Regulations of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material at Nuclear Facilities and LOFs was issued by the State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) on 10 December 1997 following the provisions of the Law on Nuclear Energy. Lithuania extended its international obligations by ratifying the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (entered into force on 5 July 2000). The fully computerized nuclear material accountancy system was created at Ignalina NPP. The system gives the possibility to find the

  11. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  12. [Gastrointestinal diseases and abdominal pain in combat veterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'tsev, A I; Torgashov, M N; Popova, O S

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the role of consequences of combat stress in the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases. One hundred and sixty-one combat veterans aged 24 to 69 years were examined. All underwent a clinical and neurological examination using the McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ), Beck depression inventory, Kotenev trauma stress questionnaire, and visual analogue scale to determine pain intensity. Anxiety, impairments in memory and sleep, and depression were identified. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to estimate quality of life in the patients. Gastric secretory function was investigated; esophagogastroduodenoscopy, X-ray and ultrasound studies, clinical and biochemical blood tests, coprological examinations, fecal tests for dysbiosis, if indicated, occult blood were made. Combat stress and its consequences as posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GIT diseases and in the development of chronic abdominal pain. GIT diseases in combat veterans are in larger measure a sequel of impaired processes of adjustment to combat stress. Chronic abdominal pains were heterogeneous. On the one hand, chronic GIT disease serves as a source of pain syndrome; on the other hand, the central nervous system is of importance in the development of chronic abdominal pain. In addition to therapy for GIT and hepatobiliary diseases, the treatment of GIT diseases in this category of patients involves psychotherapy and neuroprotection, aimed at reducing the consequences of combat stress in combat veterans.

  13. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  14. Low-cost robotic arm control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  15. Combat wounds in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2005 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Philip J; McCriskin, Brendan J; Sieg, Ryan N; Burks, Robert; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    There have been no large cohort studies examining the wounding patterns and injury mechanisms in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2005 to 2009. This investigation sought to characterize the incidence and epidemiology of combat-related injuries for this period. Using the Joint Theater Trauma Registry, a detailed description of the combat casualty care statistics, distribution of wounds, and injury mechanisms sustained by all US service members for wounds (DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes 800-960) during the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars from 2005 to 2009 was performed. Among the 1,992,232 military service members who were deployed, there were 29,624 distinct combat wounds in 7,877 combat casualties. The mean age of the combat casualty cohort was 26.0 years old. The combat casualties were predominantly male (98·8%), Army (77·5%), and junior enlisted (59·0%). The distribution of combat wounds was as follows: head/neck, 28·1%; thorax, 9·9%; abdomen, 10·1%; and extremities, 51·9%. Explosive injury mechanisms accounted for 74·4% of all combat casualties, which was significantly higher than those caused by gunshot wounds (19·9%) (p wounding patterns observed in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2005 to 2009 differ from previous conflicts. Explosive mechanisms accounted for 74·4% of combat casualties, which is a higher percentage than in previous US conflicts. A progressive increase in the use of explosive mechanisms in Afghanistan, eventually equaling that in Iraq, was observed during the study period.

  16. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8823 of May 18, 2012 Armed Forces Day, 2012 By the President of the United... circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to the unparalleled service of our Armed Forces and recall... the greatest force for freedom and security the world has ever known. From their earliest training to...

  17. Balancing Loads Among Robotic-Manipulator Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Lokshin, Anatole

    1990-01-01

    Paper presents rigorous mathematical approach to control of multiple robot arms simultaneously grasping one object. Mathematical development focuses on relationship between ability to control degrees of freedom of configuration and ability to control forces within grasped object and robot arms. Understanding of relationship leads to practical control schemes distributing load more equitably among all arms while grasping object with proper nondamaging forces.

  18. Armed Conflict, Gender, and Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinić, Mayra; Das Gupta, Monica; Shemyakina, Olga N.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of armed conflict on gender differentials in schooling appears to be highly context-specific, as the review of the literature and the findings from the three studies in this symposium reveal. In some settings boys' schooling is more negatively affected than that of girls. In others, the reverse is the case. Effects are largely shaped by events surrounding a conflict, pre-war gender differences in educational attainments, and education and labor market opportunities in the absence o...

  19. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  20. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  1. Hand-arm vibration syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), an important and common occupational disease in Canada. Sources of information A MEDLINE search was conducted for research and review articles on HAVS. A Google search was conducted to obtain gray literature relevant to the Canadian context. Additional references were obtained from the articles identified. Main message Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a prevalent occupational disease affecting workers in multiple industries in which vibrating tools are used. However, it is underdiagnosed in Canada. It has 3 components—vascular, in the form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon; sensorineural; and musculoskeletal. Hand-arm vibration syndrome in its more advanced stages contributes to substantial disability and poor quality of life. Its diagnosis requires careful history taking, in particular occupational history, physical examination, laboratory tests to rule out alternative diagnoses, and referral to an occupational medicine specialist for additional investigations. Management involves reduction of vibration exposure, avoidance of cold conditions, smoking cessation, and medication. Conclusion To ensure timely diagnosis of HAVS and improve prognosis and quality of life, family physicians should be aware of this common occupational disease and be able to elicit the relevant occupational history, refer patients to occupational medicine clinics, and appropriately initiate compensation claims. PMID:28292796

  2. The phenomenology and etiology of criminal acts involving immigrant smuggling in Kosovo/La fenomenología y etiología criminal en los actos que impliquen inmigrantes de contrabando en Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azem Hajdari (Kosovo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La situación globalizada de la migración afecta a muchos países pobres, la República de Kosovo no ha escapado a esta realidad. Otra tendencia general por la cual atraviesan los migrantes es el tráfico de personas, condición de la cual también han sufrido, y es un hecho que aunado a las diversas circunstancias de crisis políticas y de guerra, implica un gran reto el castigo o la prevención a este delito. Este es el objetivo del presente artículo, hacer una presentación y un análisis de diferentes elementos relacionando etiológica y fenomenológicamente el tratado de los crímenes involucrando el tráfico de migrantes. The globalized situation of the immigration affects a lot of poor countries; the Republic of Kosovo has not escape to this reality. Another general trend throughout immigration is the smuggling, condition they have also been suffering, fact that due to diverse circumstances such as political crisis and wars make a great challenge to punish or prevent this crime. This is the aim of this article, to make a presentation and an analysis of several elements relating to the phenomenological and etiological treatment of crimes involving smuggling of immigrants.

  3. Impact of Cumulative Combat Stress on Learning in an Academic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kevin Peter; Fishback, Sarah Jane

    2012-01-01

    The stress of multiple combat tours has created a combat-tested but combat-weary Army. While most soldiers have coped successfully with combat stress, many return home with problems that include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, insomnia, and reduced memory and concentration skills. Education is…

  4. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be established

  5. PTSD in the combat veteran: using Roy's Adaptation Model to examine the combat veteran as a human adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayback, Ann Marie

    2009-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent mental disorder arising from combat and is poised to be a considerable health risk for our military veterans. To date, there is a paucity of nursing research that examines PTSD in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how Roy's Adaptation Model can be an effective framework for nurses to understand the phenomenon of posttraumatic stress disorder in the combat veteran population. Current research conducted on PTSD across other disciplines is highlighted within the context of Roy's model to elucidate the idea of the combat veteran as a human adaptive system and to identify gaps for future nursing research.

  6. Future Capabilities and Roles of Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Scott

    2004-01-01

    ... (UCAV) a credible combat force in the near future. Unfortunately, the futuristic air surrounding these accomplishments has led to inaccurate analysis methods for future employment, resulting in outlandish claims or limited expectations...

  7. Review of ONR's Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the National Research Council established a committee, under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board, to review ONR's uninhabited combat air vehicles (UCAVs) program...

  8. Rapid Prototyping-Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV)/Sensorcraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyler, Charles; Schwartz, Richard J; Fleming, Gary; Fonov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    .... The Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/RB) initiated a joint computational/experimental ground testing program to investigate and analyze the flow field of the unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV...

  9. Urban Combat Service Support Operations: The Shoulders of Atlas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glenn, Russell

    2003-01-01

    ... U.S. Army combat service support (CSS) community can prepare itself to meet them. The authors conclude that CSS operations, like other ground force undertakings, need not undergo fundamental changes simply because the environment is urban...

  10. Littoral Combat Vessels: Analysis and Comparison of Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiansen, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies force navies to adapt and the introduction of surface-to-surface anti-ship cruise missiles from a large number of small coastal combatants created vulnerability...

  11. The Warfighting Capacity of Air Combat Command's Numbered Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanser, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    ...) of the Air Combat Command (ACC), General Richard E. Hawley, the ACC Commander, asked if RAND could offer an analysis of the number of NAFs that were needed by ACC to meet warfighting requirements...

  12. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Kenneth J

    2007-01-01

    ... operations in 21st-century irregular environments. The author argues that Infantry Brigade Combat Teams would be better optimized for the challenges of irregular warfare through structural changes that decentralize resources...

  13. Future Combat Systems (FCS) Creates Cannon and Mortar Synergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Kirby; James, Jeff; Tolbert, Vincent J

    2008-01-01

    .... The NLOS-C is one of the eight MGVs. Program Manager FCS (Brigade Combat Team (PM FCS(BCT)) is leveraging previous and current research and development efforts to create synergy between cannons and mortars, without duplication of effort...

  14. Is Democratization a Sound Strategy for Combating Fundamentalist Islam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper examines the premise that "universal human rights", as the basis for democracy, is compatible with Islamic culture and is therefore a sound strategy for combating the spread of "Islamic...

  15. Contributions of Women to U.S. Combat Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnes, Thresa

    2008-01-01

    .... combat operations from the Revolutionary War to present-day conflicts. The U.S. military continues to fight a transnational, dispersed enemy that employs irregular tactics and asymmetric warfare...

  16. Surface Combatant Planning Since the End of the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillen, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... This reduction was part of the U.S. military transformation in the post-Cold War period. This thesis examined the major factors that influenced the change in surface combatant planning since 1990, i.e...

  17. Uninhibited Combat Air Vehicles and Commercial Satellites: 'The Missing Link'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Mark

    1998-01-01

    In the not too far distant future, a new Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV), a cousin of the UAVs flying over Bosnia today, is destined to fly the most sensitive and dangerous missions the USAF is expected to accomplish...

  18. Value of Embedded Training - Future Combat Systems Example

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilgrim, Kevin H

    2008-01-01

    .... It has been included as a required capability in the Future Combat Systems. Purpose- To develop an analytic approach to determine the value of embedded training as it is introduced in the FCS System of Systems (SoS...

  19. Bi-Layer Wound Dressing System for Combat Casualty Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martineau, Lucie; Shek, Pang N

    2004-01-01

    .... Considering that commercially available dressings are not designed to meet the challenges of treating combat burn wounds, DRDC-Toronto has designed a novel, absorbent and medicated bi-layer wound...

  20. Bi-Layer Wound Dressing System for Combat Casualty Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martineau, Lucie; Shek, Pang N

    2004-01-01

    .... Considering that commercially available dressings are not designed to meet the challenges of treating combat burn wounds, DRDC Toronto has designed a novel, absorbent and medicated bi-layer wound...

  1. Logistics Operations in Combat Operations Against an Insurgent Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatcher, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... The road networks are generally not secure and put soldiers at risk. How do we distribute supplies and reduce the risk or avoid the enemy's threat to our combat logistics patrols in an insurgent environment...

  2. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Social Anxiety in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Mitchell, John T.; Kimbrel, Azure D.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. Method Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. Results As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. In contrast, BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety only. An analysis of the BAS subscales revealed that the Reward Responsiveness subscale was the only BAS subscale associated with social interaction anxiety. BAS-Reward Responsiveness was also associated with social observation anxiety. Conclusion The findings from the present research provide further evidence that low BAS sensitivity may be associated with social anxiety over and above the effects of BIS and FFFS sensitivity. PMID:28966424

  3. Project Guardian: Optimizing Electronic Warfare Systems for Ground Combat Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parks, Jack G; Jackson, William; Revello, James; Soltesz, James

    1995-01-01

    .... The study, Project Guardian, represents a new process for determining the optimum set of sensors and countermeasures for a specific vehicle class under the constraints of threat projection, combat...

  4. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  5. Kinematics of an infinitely flexible robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, P. J.; Rice, J. A.; Cesarone, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    An effort is made to define a command-and-control algorithm for a flexible robot arm design which maximizes flexibility through its large number of degrees-of-freedom, in the manner of a 'tentacle'. Algorithms including both forward and inverse kinematics are developed for commanding smooth arm motions in the presence of obstacles, on the basis of Catmull-Rom splines and local radius-of-curvature commands to discrete actuators along the length of the arm. Sample trajectories are examined, and a spline-curve algorithm is successfully applied for this arm configuration; the accuracy and collision-avoidance of the arm are verified by means of a simulation.

  6. To Arm or Not to Arm: The Case Against Arming Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    India and the United States. While militarily weaker than China , Vietnam has asserted its claims most forcefully, and has a lengthy history of... China Sea is Unprecedented,” Business Insider India , http://www.businessinsider .in/ Chinas -Escalation-In-The-South- China -Sea-Is-Unprecedented...and separatist elements, other South China Sea rivals that are arming, and an India that increasingly appears to lean toward the United States. As

  7. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  8. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  9. Technical-tactical and physiological demands of wrestling combats

    OpenAIRE

    Bianka Miarka

    2016-01-01

    Technical-tactical and physiological demand analyses of wrestling combats are important because they reveal essential information for the development of contextual training and specific physical preparation of wrestlers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of wrestling combats in freestyle, female and Greco-roman styles. The time-motion analysis presented in this article is the main component to carry out inferences on intensity and effort: pause ratio of comb...

  10. Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    08-2-0066 TITLE: Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stephen Cozza...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-2-0066 Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured Dr. Stephen Cozza The Henry M...children under 18 years old and within 2 years of hospitalization or return from deployment), a training manual “Addressing the Needs of Children and

  11. Is Persuasive Advertising Always Combative in a Distribution Channel?

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Cheng Wu; Ying-Ju Chen; Chih-Jen Wang

    2009-01-01

    The existing marketing literature suggests that persuasive advertising elicits counteractions from competing manufacturers and consequently leads to wasteful cancellation of the advertising effects. Thus, persuasive advertising is widely perceived to be combative in nature. A series of previously published papers demonstrates that appropriate targeting may partially mitigate the combative nature of persuasive advertising in that either the rival manufacturer or the retailer may benefit. In th...

  12. The using of combat sports in physical education at high school

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Title: The using of combat sports in physical education at high school Goals: To find out the high school pupils' relation to physical education, their relation to combat sports and their relation to class of combat sports Methods: This is a quantitative research, in which will be used method of questioning by questionnaire. Results: Results indicate what the relations of high school pupils to physical education, to combat sports and to the class of combat sports. We found out, that the relat...

  13. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  14. How Atrocity Becomes Law: The Neoliberalisation of Security Governance and the Customary Laws of Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Dowdeswell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of neoliberal ideologies of security governance on the customary laws of armed conflict, and describes how neoliberal practices of privatisation, outsourcing, and risk management within the security sector have facilitated the legalisation of atrocities. Neoliberal mentalities of governance have significantly impacted military administration in combat operations by decentralising control, by promoting discretion and freedom of action down the chain-of-command, and by institutionalising intent-based orders and standing Rules of Engagement. In so doing, the military has shifted the criteria for attack from one based upon an individual's status as a combatant to one of defining and containing risky populations. Whether used to justify counter- insurgent strikes in Iraq or Afghanistan, military intervention in Libya, or protest policing of the Arab Spring, neoliberalised security governance is designed to be waged not against States and regular combatants, but against 'failed States' and 'non-State actors' participating in activities, often political, that authorities perceive as threatening. This article provides a theoretical and historical discussion of what is at stake in such a logic, and illustrates its operation through reference to the intentional killing of civilians in Iraq depicted in the 12 July 2007 video made public by WikiLeaks. It argues that the ideologies and practices of neoliberalism in the security sector are not only facilitating such killings, but are in fact facilitating their justification as lawful, thereby normalising civilian atrocities within the laws of armed conflict in ways that can be described as distinctly imperial.

  15. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    . By means of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be

  16. Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (Technologie Avancee d’Entrainement au Combat Urbain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    la satisfaction de son objectif. De plus des documents ont été donnés au SISO et à l’ITEC. Le...souhaitables. Si vous souhaitez recevoir une notification électronique de la disponibilité des rapports de la RTO au fur et à mesure de leur publication...INTRODUCTION Le groupe de travail (TG) sur la Technologie avancée d’entraînement au combat urbain (UCATT) a été constitué au sein du groupe de

  17. Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Rosa; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2017-08-01

    The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.

  18. Technical-tactical and physiological demands of wrestling combats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Miarka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical-tactical and physiological demand analyses of wrestling combats are important because they reveal essential information for the development of contextual training and specific physical preparation of wrestlers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of wrestling combats in freestyle, female and Greco-roman styles. The time-motion analysis presented in this article is the main component to carry out inferences on intensity and effort: pause ratio of combat actions. After rules modification in 2013, wrestling combats showed quicker and more diversified actions, especially in the lighter categories. For Greco-roman wrestling, most studies showed takedowns as the most effective techniques in World competitions for the period 2009-2011. For the same period, foot/leg techniques were the most effective in female and freestyle wrestling, followed by takedown attacks. Recent analyses, developed after 2013 rules modification, showed that the decisive offensive actions were applied on foot and in par terre situations – especially gutwrenches techniques and derivatives of suplex movements. The knowledge on the determinant and predominant actions of wrestling combats can be applied in future research, as well as can be used practically for training, physical preparation and assessments of similar combat actions. It also allows interventions to prevent injuries resulting from technical and tactical wrestling actions.

  19. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  20. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  1. Combating Ageism: How Successful Is Successful Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2016-12-01

    To explore the extent to which the successful aging discourse has accomplished Rowe and Kahn's (1998) goal of combating ageism by (a) eradicating the narrative of decline and burden, and highlighting the positive aspects of aging; and (b) emphasizing individuals' ability to age successfully. To investigate this, I first situate ageism in a framework of age relations. Using a qualitative approach, I analyze data generated from semistructured, in-depth interviews conducted among a diverse sample of 19 middle-aged men and women. Respondents were asked about what successful aging means to them, as well as their perceptions of their own aging, and old age. Respondents are familiar with the notion of successful aging, and they believe that they can and should achieve this. However, rather than easing ageism, they experience the mandate to age successfully as a source of tension as they simultaneously realize that it is outside their control. They express continued fears of aging; and they implicitly blame themselves or others who fail to age successfully. Their comments suggest that, rather than supplanting the discourse of decline, the successful aging narrative coexists with it. By not challenging the age relations that denigrate differences, the successful aging framework does not eliminate ageism and might even increase it. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.

  2. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  3. Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizza, J.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

  4. Phytochemicals from plants to combat cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, H R; ShriShriMal, N; Das, D K

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, the use of synthetic chemicals as drugs has been effective in the treatment of most diseases. Moreover, from ancient to modern history, many traditional plant based medicines are playing an important role in health care. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, aromatic plants, leaves, flowers and roots which act as a defense system to combat against diseases. The phytochemicals from natural products cover a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organosulphur compounds and vitamins. A number of bioactive compounds generally obtained from terrestrial plants such as isoflavones, diosgenin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, sulforaphane, tocotrienols and carotenoids are proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and aid in cardioprotection which is the leading cause of death globally. The cardioprotective effects of the various phytochemicals are perhaps due to their antioxidative, antihypercholesteroemic, antiangiogenic, anti-ischemic, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti inflammatory activities that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The multi-faceted role of the phytochemicals is mediated by its structure-function relationship and can be considered as leads for cardiovascular drug design in future. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on selected phytochemicals as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in cardioprotection.

  5. Combating the counterfeits with web portal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. L.; Ip, W. H.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the globalisation of counterfeiting activities, the penetration of fake products in open market is growing. So far, the technologies to combat counterfeiting are mostly applied to high-value products (e.g. premium wine and branded handbags); however, in the medium- and low-value products' perspective, there is no secure way for consumers to identify whether the purchased items are genuine or not. To address the counterfeiting problems effectively, a platform for identifying authenticated products and promoting anti-counterfeit activities is very important. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an anti-counterfeit platform which includes two functions: providing customers a secure network to ascertain the genuineness of their purchased product and increasing public awareness of the current counterfeit problems and updated anti-counterfeit solutions. By combining these two functions, it enables public to fight against fake and beware of counterfeit. Results of adopting portal technology in anti-counterfeiting show high accuracy in product checking and improved creditability. This reveals that the applicability and advantage of the proposed methodology are satisfactory.

  6. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja D. Gupta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25–50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived. Crude extracts of medicinal plants could serve as an alternate source of resistance modifying agents owing to the wide variety of secondary metabolites. These metabolites (alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols etc. could act as potentials for antimicrobials and resistance modifiers. Plant extracts have the ability to bind to protein domains leading to modification or inhibition protein–protein interactions. This enables the herbals to also present themselves as effective modulators of host related cellular processes viz immune response, mitosis, apoptosis and signal transduction. Thus they may exert their activity not only by killing the microorganism but by affecting key events in the pathogenic process, thereby, the bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to develop resistance to botanicals. The article is meant to stimulate research wherein the cidal activity of the extract is not the only parameter considered but other mechanism of action by which plants can combat drug resistant microbes are investigated. The present article emphasizes on mechanisms involved in countering multi drug resistance.

  7. FATF in Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Slavikovna Melkumyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the FATF specific approach to the problem of terrorism financing. The FATF essence, content of the activity and influence levers are also analyzed within the article. It is shown that the FATF has reviewed the problem of terrorism financing in the broadest perspective, having engaged simultaneously and consistently mechanisms for combating money laundering and terrorism financing. The Task Force has greatly contributed to building of the world counter-terrorism financing system through forming the legal and institutional basis as well as through interaction with all the possible participants and actors of world politics in this area. Moreover, the FATF has succeeded in geographical expansion of the FATF influence from the original 16 to187 jurisdictions by promotion of FATF-style regional bodies establishment. Particular attention is drawn to the unique features of the FATF Recommendations in comparison with the earlier issued sources of international law, which define the international counter-terrorism financing regime. The author believes that one of the advantages of the FATF as an institute within the counter-terrorism financing system among others is the informal status of the FATF, which provides its flexibility and high ability to respond quickly and in a timely manner to evolving nature of money laundering and terrorism financing as well as emerging threats.

  8. Impact of Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan on Family Functioning: Findings from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Land Combat Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huge, Charles W; Castro, Carl A; Eaton, Karen M

    2006-01-01

    .... However, most studies of the impact of combat on military families have not been conducted proximal to the time of deployments, and there are many research gaps in understanding the full impact of combat deployment...

  9. Trained and Ready Combat Forces: The Role of Training Devices in Sustaining Combat Force Proficiency During Deployments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, James

    1997-01-01

    ... (MOOTW). The Army's ground combat forces, even while engaged in MOOTW activities, must maintain proficiency to wage war in the event that peacetime engagement, deterrence and conflict prevention fail...

  10. Cultural and Religious Awareness: The Key to Analyzing and Combating the Relative Combat Power for Islamic-Based Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Muhammad M

    2005-01-01

    ... terrorists. Second, the United States must conduct cultural awareness/cultural intelligence training for all military personnel who are deploying to combat the GWOT, and for all staff in the regional standing...

  11. Pelvic, spinal and extremity wounds among combat-specific personnel serving in Iraq and Afghanistan (2003-2011): A new paradigm in military musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies regarding musculoskeletal injuries sustained during war have been limited by a lack of specificity regarding wounds incurred by combat-specific personnel. This investigation endeavoured to develop a comprehensive catalogue of the extent of musculoskeletal trauma, as well as the frequency of distinct injuries, among soldiers possessing a single combat-specific specialty. The Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System (AFMES) were queried for all individuals with the combat-specific designation of cavalry scout who sustained injuries during deployment between the years 2003 and 2011. This data was refined to include only those soldiers found to have injuries involving the spine, pelvis, or extremities. Soldier age, rank, injury location (Afghanistan or Iraq), injury scenario (combat vs. non-combat) and mechanism of wounding were recorded, as were injury-specific data. Statistical comparisons for categorical variables were made using the chi-square statistic. Sixty-seven percent (n=472) of 701 cavalry scouts injured during deployment sustained one or more injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Mean age for the group was 25.9 (range 18-54) years and 3.3 musculoskeletal injuries were incurred on average per casualty. The majority of casualties occurred during combat and in the Iraq theatre. Sixty-nine percent (n=328) of musculoskeletal casualties were incurred following explosion, and 20% (n=94) occurred due to gunshot. No significant difference (p>0.05) was encountered for the risk of musculoskeletal injury by wound mechanism. Forty-six percent of all injuries involved the lower extremities, while 32% occurred in the upper extremities. Tibial fractures were the most common injury encountered (8%), while amputations comprised 11% of all wounds. Spinal cord injury occurred in 12% of all casualties and represented 4% of all musculoskeletal wounds. This effort is among the first to combine complimentary data

  12. Aggression inoculates against PTSD symptom severity—insights from armed groups in the eastern DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, combatants are exposed to massive forms of violence and other traumatic stressors. Nevertheless, many combatants do not suffer from trauma-related disorders, although they have experienced numerous traumatizing events. Perceiving aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing might be a defense against trauma-related disorders in the violent environment of war and conflict. Objective: Thus, in this study we investigated the relationship between the exposure to traumatic stressors, appetitive aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptom severity. We hypothesized that cumulative traumatic experiences correlated positively and appetitive aggression negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Method: In total, 105 voluntary male combatants from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in this study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about their exposure to traumatic stressors, the extent of appetitive aggression (Appetitive Aggression Scale and their PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview. Results: A multiple sequential regression analysis showed that traumatic events were positively related to PTSD symptom severity. For participants with low to medium PTSD symptom severity, appetitive aggression correlated negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions: The results of this study provide further support for earlier findings that repeated exposure to traumatic stressors cumulatively heightens the risk of PTSD and revealed that appetitive aggression buffers the risk of developing PTSD symptoms under certain circumstances. Thus, the perception of aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing seem to help combatants to adapt to violent environments but may also be one reason for recurrent failure of reintegration programs for excombatants.

  13. Aggression inoculates against PTSD symptom severity-insights from armed groups in the eastern DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), combatants are exposed to massive forms of violence and other traumatic stressors. Nevertheless, many combatants do not suffer from trauma-related disorders, although they have experienced numerous traumatizing events. Perceiving aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing might be a defense against trauma-related disorders in the violent environment of war and conflict. Thus, in this study we investigated the relationship between the exposure to traumatic stressors, appetitive aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. We hypothesized that cumulative traumatic experiences correlated positively and appetitive aggression negatively with PTSD symptom severity. In total, 105 voluntary male combatants from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in this study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about their exposure to traumatic stressors, the extent of appetitive aggression (Appetitive Aggression Scale) and their PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview). A multiple sequential regression analysis showed that traumatic events were positively related to PTSD symptom severity. For participants with low to medium PTSD symptom severity, appetitive aggression correlated negatively with PTSD symptom severity. The results of this study provide further support for earlier findings that repeated exposure to traumatic stressors cumulatively heightens the risk of PTSD and revealed that appetitive aggression buffers the risk of developing PTSD symptoms under certain circumstances. Thus, the perception of aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing seem to help combatants to adapt to violent environments but may also be one reason for recurrent failure of reintegration programs for excombatants.

  14. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    not have a new ground combat vehicle under development and “at current funding levels, the Bradley and Abrams will remain in the inventory for 50...time since World War I, that the Army does not have a new ground combat vehicle under development and “at current funding levels, the Bradley and...Jane’s Land Warfare Platforms Armoured Fighting Vehicles, 2016-2017; IHS Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012; and unclassified information provided to

  15. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Human Behavior and Performance as Essential Ingredients in Realistic Modeling of Combat - MORIMOC II. Proceedings of the Military Operations Research Society Mini-Symposium Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 22-24 February 1989. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    as it appears in the official Soviet Military Encyclopedia : An indicator of the fighting power of opposing sides, showing the degree of superiority of...Chapter 5. 14. Extract from V.I. Belyakov, Soviet Military Encyclopedia , Moscow, 1979. 581 ASSESSMENT OF COMBAT PERFORMANCE WITH SMALL ARMS DAVID...Polya Scheme", G.E.Bates, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 26, pp705-720, 1955 (aq) " Cricket Scores and Some Skew Distributions (an Arithmetical Study

  17. Assured communications and combat resiliency: the relationship between effective national communications and combat efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James; Saffold, Jay

    2009-05-01

    Combat resiliency is the ability of a commander to prosecute, control, and consolidate his/her's sphere of influence in adverse and changing conditions. To support this, an infrastructure must exist that allows the commander to view the world in varying degrees of granularity with sufficient levels of detail to permit confidence estimates to be levied against decisions and course of actions. An infrastructure such as this will include the ability to effectively communicate context and relevance within and across the battle space. To achieve this will require careful thought, planning, and understanding of a network and its capacity limitations in post-event command and control. Relevance and impact on any existing infrastructure must be fully understood prior to deployment to exploit the system's full capacity and capabilities. In this view, the combat communication network is considered an integral part of or National communication network and infrastructure. This paper will describe an analytical tool set developed at ORNL and RNI incorporating complexity theory, advanced communications modeling, simulation, and visualization technologies that could be used as a pre-planning tool or post event reasoning application to support response and containment.

  18. Understanding and combating resistance to online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo, John

    2016-12-01

    Resistance to change is an easy thing for human beings to understand. It is at the heart of our desire to find comfort with the familiar such as family, friends and our homes. We create homes that are designed a certain way and usually are slow to change. We make friends for years and keep those memories etched in stone, even though time and age create a romanticised version of the past. Change scares us so much that we reflect on our past, the old days, with such reverence that we paint over the ugly parts. However, we still talk about how change is good. Consider our institutionalised method of learning that has existed for centuries and involved people sitting learning from another person in a physical space. Then, suddenly in the last 20 years, there is a complete change and almost every major institution in the United States and many around the world decided to offer a new method of learning. Enter online learning. It becomes a sudden disruption to a traditional system. It is not surprising that there has been resistance from faculty, students and administrators. Even in the face of evidence that online learning works as effectively as traditional onsite learning, still people resist. Oddly enough, the resistance can come from those who base their careers on facts and research, but continue to ignore the evidence. Even performance results get ignored. While this article will address the source of resistance to online learning, it will focus primarily on how to combat this resistance within an organisation or institution.

  19. Neural control of rhythmic arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M.

    1998-10-01

    In this paper we present an approach to robot arm control based on exploiting the dynamical properties of a simple neural network oscillator circuit coupled to the joints of an arm. The entrainment and input/output properties of the oscillators are used to perform a variety of tasks with the same architecture, without any modeling of the arm or its environment. The approach is implemented on two real robot arms, and has been used to tune into the resonant frequency of pendulums, perform multi-joint coordinated motion by turning cranks, and exploit the dynamics of a 'Slinky' toy to coordinate the motion of two arms. By exploiting the coupling between the physical arm and the neural oscillator, a range of complex behaviors can be achieved with a very simple system.

  20. Application of networked unattended ground sensors in urban combat and stability operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Albert A.; Yerace, Gary A.

    2005-05-01

    Increasingly, the U.S. is being drawn into non-traditional military operations in complex terrain, including villages and cities occupied by a combination of non-combatants and hostile forces. This trend will continue, as the world's urban population continues its significant growth. Of all the missions faced by U.S. military forces, combat and peacekeeping operations in urban terrain present the greatest challenges. In response, commanders will need to employ network-/execution-centric combined arms forces and Joint capabilities at the lowest tactical echelons and with minimal staffs. To do so, commanders will need information, especially from networked unattended ground sensors (UGS), to rapidly and effectively plan and rehearse urban operations, synchronize ground and air forces, command and control mixed assets, coordinate effects (from weapons and actions), and determine logistics support. Today, urban terrain operations" tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) are transforming from painstaking ground assaults with large numbers of forces and excessively destructive remote strikes, to more efficient Joint operations which identify, isolate, and assault nodes with precision weapons and smaller forces. Successful employment of such TTPs will support future command and control (C2) concepts; reduce force requirements, civilian casualties and collateral damage; and shorten mission times. These TTPs, future C2 concepts, and the complex urban environment will drive the networked UGS requirements for future operations. This paper will first address these emerging TTPs, future C2 concepts, and the complex urban environment; and identify associated networked UGS challenges. Next, the paper will discuss the recent uses of networked UGS in experiments and demonstrations. Finally, the paper will discuss the innovative employment of networked UGS in these experiments and demonstrations by Warfighters (e.g., for developing situational understanding, mission planning

  1. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  2. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  3. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  4. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    ...). Specifically, the writer argues that the intelligent use and support of armed UAVs can replace selected missions currently being conducted in Operations Northern Watch and Southern Watch, reducing...

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  6. Registry of emergency airways arriving at combat hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bruce D; Cuniowski, Peter A; Muck, Andrew; De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Prehospital Emergency Medical Services have demonstrated variable success with regards to prehospital airway management in U.S. civilian settings. We attempted to identify the incidence of successful prehospital endotracheal intubations in the modern combat environment. This was a prospective, observational study. Data collection occurred at Combat Support Hospitals (CSH) within Operation Iraqi Freedom locations between January 2005 and March 2007. Military trauma physicians systematically examined casualties presenting to the CSH that received advanced prehospital airway management. Correct endotracheal tube (ETT) positioning was verified using an explicit combination of clinical findings and colorimetric end-tidal carbon dioxide detection. The primary outcome was correct placement of the ETTs by combat prehospital providers. A total of 6,875 combat casualties presented to participating CSHs during the study period, of which there were 293 (4.2%) advanced prehospital airways, of which 282 (97.3%) were trauma patients. Prehospital airway management included: 253 endotracheal intubations (86.6%); 23 supraglottic airways (7.5%), and 17 cricothyrotomies (5.8%). Of the ETTs, upon arrival to the CSH, 242 (95.7%) were determined to be correctly placed. There were 11 incorrectly placed ETTs: 10 were in the right mainstem bronchus, and 1 was found to be dislodged in the hypopharynx. There were no unrecognized battlefield esophageal intubations. Under combat conditions, the overall rate of correctly placed ETTs performed by military prehospital providers was comparable with that of published U.S. civilian paramedic data.

  7. Connection of boxers’ combat styles with psycho-physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By dominating physical characteristics boxers’ combat styles are divided into “strongmen”, “paced in hold” and “players”. However, connection of combat style with psycho-physiological characteristics of elite boxers has been remained not determined. Material: in the research 28 elite sportsmen (master of sports and international masters of sports participated. Psycho-physiological characteristics were studied with the help of hardware and software psycho-diagnostic complex “Multi-psycho-meter 05”. Results: it was found that attacking combat style is accompanied by presence of high workability, reduced tiredness and anxiety, presence of psychological comfort. It was also found that defensive combat style is characterized by better quickness and processing of information. It happens at the account of worsening of qualitative characteristics: efficiency and effectiveness. We also detected presence of more rigid organization of psycho-physiological status of boxers, having attacking combat style (strongmen in comparison with boxers of defensive style (players and paced in hold.

  8. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  9. Mountain Warfare and Other Lofty Problems: Foreign Perspectives on High-Altitude Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    hunted the Sendero Luminoso guerrillas in the Andes Mountains throughout the 1980s. India and Pakistan have continually battled for possession of the...smuggling routes. This has been the pattern for a number of high-altitude disputes such as the Mau Mau uprising, Soviet- Afghan war, Sendero Luminoso in...Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush mountains from 1979 to 1989, the Peruvian government’s clashes with Sendero Luminoso guerrillas in the Andes throughout the 1980s

  10. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  11. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  12. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  13. Tracking illicit small arms trafficking: implementation of Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) to small arms and light weapons imports and exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-09-01

    The illicit trafficking in small arms is an international problem with grave consequences to those who live in less developed nations. To stop any form of trafficking it is important to ensure the ability to track weapons to their sources, there must be a common international system for the marking and tracing of weapons. Under current international law, states may adopt various different weapons marking systems, complicating the identification of the country-of-origin of a weapon [1]. However, these marking technologies are only good for those firearms that are recovered or captured. By instituting Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) a technology that provides a link to a serial or production build number, by embossing the IFM code on to the cartridge that is fired and ejected at the scene. IFM will provide critical forensic intelligence in regions of conflict by helping to identify patterns, trafficking routes and ultimately shut down illicit arms sources and markets that fuel the violence associated with regional genocide, terrorism and/or insurgency groups within warzones. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) technology will provide a rapid and accurate cartridge-to-firearm identification process, enabling law enforcement both national and international to quickly pursue international arms dealers and other illicit firearm markets. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The IFM tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the intentional firearm microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need

  14. Stakeholder Analysis of Integrating Women Into Ground Combat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the Jewish concept of motherhood and the status of women in the home (Culler, 2000). As the brief discussion above illustrates, throughout much of...7‐Mar‐13 Seven  Myths   about “Women in  Combat” LtGen (Ret) G.S.  New Bold Michael Yon  Online  Magazine Con “It’s about  women in  Combat,” “It’s...just fair” Debunks “7  myths ” around topic of  women in combat.  23‐Jan‐13 Pentagon  Removes Ban on  Women in  Combat Ernesto  Londoño The

  15. FELIN: tailored optronics and systems solutions for dismounted combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcent, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics. The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation. Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests.

  16. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  17. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  18. Defining the minimum anatomical coverage required to protect the axilla and arm against penetrating ballistic projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Johno; Fryer, R; Lewis, E A; Clasper, J

    2016-08-01

    Defining the minimum anatomical structural coverage required to protect from ballistic threats is necessary to enable objective comparisons between body armour designs. Current protection for the axilla and arm is in the form of brassards, but no evidence exists to justify the coverage that should be provided by them. A systematic review was undertaken to ascertain which anatomical components within the arm or axilla would be highly likely to lead to either death within 60 min or would cause significant long-term morbidity. Haemorrhage from vascular damage to the axillary or brachial vessels was demonstrated to be the principal cause of mortality from arm trauma on combat operations. Peripheral nerve injuries are the primary cause of long-term morbidity and functional disability following upper extremity arterial trauma. Haemorrhage is managed through direct pressure and the application of a tourniquet. It is therefore recommended that the minimum coverage should be the most proximal extent to which a tourniquet can be applied. Superimposition of OSPREY brassards over these identified anatomical structures demonstrates that current coverage provided by the brassards could potentially be reduced. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Sexual violence in armed conflict: the least condemned of war crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.

  20. Combinational pivotal decomposition method for assessing truss system combat survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsing-Juin

    1992-06-01

    The system combat survivability is an essential issue in the design analysis phase for military aircraft and other war machines. After endurance of a session of gunfire bombardment, two dimensional, multiple-story and statically indeterminate truss structures may have millions of possible damage modes. The identification and pass/fail judgment of this gigantic number of modes present an insurmountable analysis workload. In order to solve this dilemma, an ingenious combinational pivotal decomposition method is developed to establish a systematic and efficient way for evaluating the system combat survivability of these types of structures. Several examples are utilized to illustrate the failure criteria, combinational pivotal concepts, damage modes, and analysis procedure.

  1. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  2. Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat-Specific PTSD Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0810 TITLE: “Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat-Specific PTSD Treatment ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brett Litz, Ph.D...Disclosure: A Combat-Specific PTSD Treatment ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0810 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...South Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02130 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army

  3. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives and Records Management (ARM) literature surrounding Information Protection (IP) has been developed in relative isolation from the IP field. As a result, it has been unclear until now whether and to what extent ARM literature and practice is consistent with or divergent from IP literature and practice. This paper ...

  4. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as

  6. Teaching Undergraduates about Nuclear Arms and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear arms education is being addressed in many academic disciplines and can be approached from many viewpoints. Rationale, ethical issues, instructional strategies, European views, and course materials are considered. A syllabus and references are also included for a course titled "Physics of Nuclear Arms and Nuclear War." (DH)

  7. 78 FR 30731 - Armed Forces Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8984 of May 17, 2013 Armed Forces Day, 2013 By the President of the United..., liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And on Armed Forces Day, we honor those who serve bravely and... Forces. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, and Commander in...

  8. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M; Mazzolai, B; Dario, P; Mattoli, V

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  9. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  10. Laboratory Performance of the Single-Sided E-A-R (registered trademark) Combat Arms Hearing Protective Earplug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    celui de bouchons passifs avec attenuation dependante du mveau acoustique sur 1 audition et l’identiflcation de sources sonores dans le plan horionta1...or by using personal hearing the same amount regardless of their level. High frequencies 11-Vol. 38 No.2(2010) Canadian Acoustics / Acoustique ...learning effects for sound source identification are less than 5% (Abel et al., 2009). Canadian Acoustics / Acoustique canadienne Vol.38No.2(2010)-12 The

  11. Performance Assessment of the 3M Combat Arms Generation 4.0 Tactical Military Shooter’s Ear Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Hilary L. Gallagher Battlespace Acoustics Branch Wright-Patterson AFB, OH Nourhan K. Abouzahra Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Oak... Education 711 Human Performance Wing Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Airman Systems Directorate **Ball Aerospace Technologies...exposed to a variety of impulsive and continuous noise like gunfire, explosions, vehicles, and machinery. Preservation of ambient listening capabilities

  12. Combating nuclear terrorism in India: preventive nuclear forensic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, N.K.; Lad, J.S.; Deshmukh, A.V.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is constant threat to India by many terrorist organization and neighboring country. These organizations are directly or indirectly aided with nuclear material by terrorism supporting country. Such organization has a significant potential source for acquiring nuclear and other radioactive material. Possibility of leakage is widely feared because of the deteriorating law and order condition, great spur of nuclear proliferation after the cold war and disintegration of USSR. Terrorist could gain access to Nuclear and radioactive material and smuggle to India through porous borders. Preventive forensic approach in screening and searching nuclear and radioactive material will play cardinal role to prevent nuclear disaster happening in India. Future plans could be extracted from terrorists through their narco-tests, brain fingerprinting and a data base on this could be prepared, which could later be used to help prevent any attacks. In present paper authors strongly recommend setting up Preventive Forensic Units in India so that any internal or external nuclear attack could be aborted. (author)

  13. Picking Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The picking robot arm is scheduled to complete picking tasks in the working space, to overcome the shaking vibration to improve the picking stability, its movement should follow specific consistence trajectory points. Usually we should give definite multiple feature picking points, map their inverse kinematics to the joint space, establish motion equation for the corresponding point in the joint space, then follow these equations motion for the interpolation on the joint so that we can meet the movement requirements. Trajectory planning is decisive significance for accuracy and stability of controlling robot arm. The key issue that picking arm complete picking task will be come true by trajectory planning, namely, robot arm track the desired trajectory. which based on kinematics and statics picking analysis in a joint space according to the requirements of picking tasks, and obtain the position and orientation for picking robot arm, study and calculate the theory of trajectory parameters timely.

  14. Initiation to combat sports: explanation of the structure of the ludic combative phenomenon, by Bruno Avelar & Abel Figueiredo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Avelar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay, with theoretic nature, assumes as an object of study the exhibition of the fundamental guidelines, on a didactic model, of the initiation to combat sports. For that, the contributions of several different authors were analyzed, who, from different points of view, consider that the initiation to combat sports does not imply a specific knowledge on any of the subjects that compose them, but their integrated and cross-curricular treatment. These alternative conceptions decreases the importance of the specific technical models, through the strengthening of the common elements of the combat sports, highlighting what is usually called “fighting knowledge”; that is, the capacity that allows the fighter to find solutions for the different situations that take place during a fight.

  15. An Exploratory Analysis on the Effects of Human Factors on Combat Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ching, Wan

    2002-01-01

    .... Modern combat systems are increasingly more effective yet more complex to operate. Nonetheless, their complexities cannot be compared to human behaviors which remain the most important factor in combat...

  16. Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles: Airpower by the People, For the People, But Not With the People

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Richard

    2000-01-01

    .... Clark's Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles: Airpower by the People, For the People, But Not With the People, draws on that long history to gauge what the future may hold for uninhabited combat aerial vehicles (UCAV). The United States (US...

  17. Defense Acquisitions: 2009 Review of Future Combat System Is Critical to Program's Direction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Paul L

    2008-01-01

    The Future Combat System (FCS) program which comprises 14 integrated weapon systems and an advanced information network is the centerpiece of the Army's effort to transition to a lighter, more agile, and more capable combat force...

  18. CONCEPTUALISATION ONTOLOGIQUE DE LA REPRÉSENTATION DU COMBAT CONCEPTUALISATION ONTOLOGIQUE DE LA REPRÉSENTATION DU COMBAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rheault

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.

  19. Mechanistic Pathways of Mindfulness Meditation in Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Goodrich, Elena; Goy, Elizabeth; Oken, Barry S

    2016-04-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of two common components of meditation (mindfulness and slow breathing) on potential mechanistic pathways. A total of 102 combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomized to (a) the body scan mindfulness meditation (MM), (b) slow breathing (SB) with a biofeedback device, (c) mindful awareness of the breath with an intention to slow the breath (MM+SB), or (d) sitting quietly (SQ). Participants had 6 weekly one-on-one sessions with 20 minutes of daily home practice. The mechanistic pathways and measures were as follows: (a) autonomic nervous system (hyperarousal symptoms, heart rate [HR], and heart rate variability [HRV]); (b) frontal cortex activity (attentional network task [ANT] conflict effect and event-related negativity and intrusive thoughts); and (c) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (awakening cortisol). PTSD measures were also evaluated. Meditation participants had significant but modest within-group improvement in PTSD and related symptoms, although there were no effects between groups. Perceived impression of PTSD symptom improvement was greater in the meditation arms compared with controls. Resting respiration decreased in the meditation arms compared with SQ. For the mechanistic pathways, (a) subjective hyperarousal symptoms improved within-group (but not between groups) for MM, MM+SB, and SQ, while HR and HRV did not; (b) intrusive thoughts decreased in MM compared with MM+SB and SB, while the ANT measures did not change; and (c) MM had lower awakening cortisol within-group (but not between groups). Treatment effects were mostly specific to self-report rather than physiological measures. Continued research is needed to further evaluate mindfulness meditation's mechanism in people with PTSD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  1. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  2. Holographic gunsights for small arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Anthony M.; Sieczka, Eric J.; Radler, Richard; Upatnieks, Juris

    1996-05-01

    Holographic gunsights were first demonstrated in the mid 1970s by researchers at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under contracts with the Air Force and the Army. The sights utilized He-Ne gas lasers and were designed for use with large weapons systems. With the advent of low cost visible laser diode, ERIM formed a new company, EOTech, to develop, manufacture and market a holographic gun sight for small arms. A hologram is used to reconstruct the image of a reticle pattern that appears at the target plane. Unlike red-dot sights, virtually any reticle pattern, 2D or 3D, can be formed. The design challenges include an opto-mechanical package that is compact, light weight and low cost which can withstand recoils up to 4,000 Gs and provide fine elevation/windage pointing adjustments, and optics that are aberration-free and stable over a wide temperature range. Manufacturing challenges include the mass production of high quality holographic optics at low cost and the precision alignment of the very low f/number optics.

  3. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  4. The Importance of Submarine Tenders to a Modern Naval War: Naval Combat Logistics and Seabasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    COMBAT LOGISTICS AND SEABASING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TENDER, SEABASING, SUBMARINE MAINTENANCE, NAVAL COMBAT LOGISTICS ...COMBAT LOGISTICS AND SEABASING by PATRICK THEODORE RAWLINSON LIEUTENANT, UNITED STATES NAVY A paper submitted to the Faculty of the

  5. Transitioning from Combat to College: The Impact of Risk and Resilience Factors on Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of combat veterans have transitioned to college since the passing of the Post-9/11 GI Bill in 2008. The transition from combat to college is a challenge for veterans, as the demands and structure of college differ so greatly from military life. Additionally, exposure to combat often has long lasting psychological repercussions on…

  6. Adolescent Children of Vietnam Combat Veteran Fathers: A Population at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby, Virginia S.; Marinelli, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of adolescent children of Vietnam combat veterans with non-combat veterans found the majority of outcomes were not significantly different. However, children of combat veterans showed poorer attitudes towards school; more negative attitudes towards their father; experienced more depression, tension, apprehension, and anxiety; and…

  7. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during official competition than training sessions. Session-RPE was affected by participants' competitive level, the intensity of session (high vs. low), the training modalities (tactical-technical vs. technical-development vs. simulated

  8. Prescription drug monitoring programs: Combating prescription drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudoski, Anthony J

    2015-11-15

    To help combat prescription drug misuse, most states have implemented Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs)-electronic databases that collect and track prescription data and flag suspected diversion activities. Equipped with expanding prescriptive authority, NPs are now poised to become vital change agents in expanding the potential effectiveness of PDMPs.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Combat Attitudes of Air Force Administrative Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    societies, mass armies which no longer fouqht in the trenches, and the beginning of guerrilla warfare. Finally. the emergin- theories and concepts of...The changing world of the American military (pp. 15-35). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Jacobowitz, D. W. (1977). Alienation, anomie , and combat

  10. How to combat infectious diseases: The role of Science Academies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How to combat infectious diseases: The role of Science Academies · Academy Public Lecture and INSA–Leopoldina Lecture by Prof. Jörg Hacker, President, German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. 4 December, 2017, 4 PM Faculty Hall, Indian Institute ...

  11. Battalion Command in Combat. Forward Edge of Combat Power: A Leadership Analysis of Selected Battalion Commanders in Combat in World War II, Korea and Vietnam with Implications for Future Combat Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Gerard Devlin’s Paratrooper is a mammoth single volume account of every air assault operation fought in Europe or the 19 Pacific in World War II...that Moore’s NCOs were also required to "adopt a lieutenant" and train the neophyte junior leaders. For a combat team to develop and then function under

  12. Automated control system for unmanned combat air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekova, Valentina

    2009-10-01

    A type of automated control system (ACS) for unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) is suggested. ACS framework is synthesized out of its block diagram. The diagram and the equations enclosed to them could be used for basic calculations and researches of ACS for unmanned air vehicle.

  13. Systems medicine and integrated care to combat chronic noncommunicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Chung, Kian Fan; Roca, Josep; Agusti, Alvar; Brightling, Chris; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Cesario, Alfredo; Abdelhak, Sonia; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Avignon, Antoine; Ballabio, Andrea; Baraldi, Eugenio; Baranov, Alexander; Bieber, Thomas; Bockaert, Joël; Brahmachari, Samir; Brambilla, Christian; Bringer, Jacques; Dauzat, Michel; Ernberg, Ingemar; Fabbri, Leonardo; Froguel, Philippe; Galas, David; Gojobori, Takashi; Hunter, Peter; Jorgensen, Christian; Kauffmann, Francine; Kourilsky, Philippe; Kowalski, Marek L.; Lancet, Doron; Pen, Claude Le; Mallet, Jacques; Mayosi, Bongani; Mercier, Jacques; Metspalu, Andres; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Ninot, Grégory; Noble, Denis; Oztürk, Mehmet; Palkonen, Susanna; Préfaut, Christian; Rabe, Klaus; Renard, Eric; Roberts, Richard G.; Samolinski, Boleslav; Schünemann, Holger J.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Soares, Marcelo Bento; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Tegner, Jesper; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Wellstead, Peter; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Wouters, Emiel; Balling, Rudi; Brookes, Anthony J.; Charron, Dominique; Pison, Christophe; Chen, Zhu; Hood, Leroy; Auffray, Charles

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We propose an innovative, integrated, cost-effective health system to combat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular, chronic respiratory, metabolic, rheumatologic and neurologic disorders and cancers, which together are the predominant health problem of the 21st

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Combating Trafficking in Persons (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Coercion means— (1.... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or...

  15. Analysis of the Strategy to Combat Maritime Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Combat Maritime Piracy Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Phillip G. Pattee , M.M.A.S. , Member Michael Mihalka, Ph.D...Center/OCA 825 John J. Kingman Rd., Suite 944 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 Phillip G. Pattee DJMO USACGSC 100 Stimson Avenue Fort Leavenworth, KS

  16. Inter-Agency Cooperation in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... phenomenon through the analysis of its various definitions, its nature and consequences. Based on the analysis, the paper proffers a ten-point policy recommendation for enhancing the existing instruments and frameworks in the security services that would foster interagency cooperation in combating terrorism in Nigeria.

  17. Role of information dissemination in combating corruption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore has attempted to X-ray the role of information in combating corruption in Nigeria. The paper looked at the concept and history of corruption in Nigeria, the nature and characteristics of corruption, causes of corruption, the effects of corruption, challenges as well as the efforts of various governments in ...

  18. Community based intervention as a strategy to combat pipeline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community based intervention as a strategy to combat pipeline vandalization in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. A Rim-Rukeh, GO Ikhifa, IO Imide, D Uduh. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp. 23-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjes.v7i1.2507 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. E-Cheating: Combating a 21st Century Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic cheating in higher education made possible by new technologies. Highlights include statistics on plagiarism; using Web search engines and paper mills; and ways to combat cheating, including academic honesty policies, designing writing assignments with specific goals and instructions, being aware of what is available on the…

  20. LOS tercios en España: el combate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine WHITE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante el siglo ??? hubo un importante incremento de la actividad militar en la Península Ibérica. Las tropas hubieron de luchar en su propio territorio y contra otros subditos del rey de España. Este artículo se centra en el combate de los ejércitos españoles en la Península. Examina el componente humano de estas fuerzas, los motivos para servir o para desertar, el conflicto de lealtades, los riesgos y las realidades del combate, así como la asistencia médica y espiritual que recibían.ABSTRACT: There was a significant rise in military activity in the Iberian Peninsula during the seventeenth century. Troops fought on 'home' territory and against fellow subjects of the Spanish king. This article looks at combat in Spain's home-based armies. It explores the human component of these forces, the motives and disincentives for serving, the conflict of loyalties, the risks and realities of combat, and medical and spiritual care.

  1. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid...

  2. Flexible and Reusable Tactical Behaviour Models for Combat Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Eigeman, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) currently has the need to replace its fleet of F-16 combat aircraft due to aging. As a result of the introduction of a new aircraft, with advanced stealth capabilities, new weapons and sensors, and extensive network enabled capabilities the existing

  3. Addressing the Needs of Children of Combat Injured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W811XWH-08-2-0066 TITLE: “Addressing the Needs of Children of...COVERED 31 Mar 2009 to 30 Mar 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER “Addressing the Needs of Children and Families of Combat Injured” 5b

  4. An Evaluation of a Combat Conditioning Trial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-20

    functional fitness concept include:  Fitness follows combat function.  Physical training must develop power, strength , flexibility, speed...for these activities must be learned and practiced to perform these activities efficiently. Traditional training methods, such as weightlifting , are...conditioning approach consists of seven general types of activity: core-specific strength training , body weight exercises, buddy exercises, movement

  5. Role of infection control in combating antibiotic resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance cultures for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. (CRE) have been advocated in a number of reports and recommendations as part of an overall strategy to combat this specific MDRO.[26,27] Screening has been a part of successful CRE control measures described in a variety of settings.[28,29] However ...

  6. School Administrators Strategies for Combating Corruption in Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine corruption in universities with the aim of finding out the types/forms, causes, effects and measures for combating the menace. Four research questions guided the investigation. The study is a survey research, ex-post facto in nature. A sample of 780 comprising of students, academic staff and administrative…

  7. Role of infection control in combating antibiotic resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ] that impacts on human health and may potentially have a major effect on the global economy.[2] The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified four core actions to combat this challenge, i.e. surveillance, ...

  8. Strategies for Combating Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explains the global economic crisis and discussed some factors responsible for it. The work concentrated fully on seeking the perception science teachers on the suggested strategies for combating global economic crisis in the country through functional science and technology education in colleges of education.

  9. Collective stories and well-being: using a dialogical narrative approach to understand peer relationships among combat veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Phoenix, Cassandra; Smith, Brett

    2015-03-01

    Using a dialogical narrative approach, this original research explored how combat veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder made sense of peer relationships with other veterans and what effects these relationships had on their well-being. Interviews and participant observations were conducted with 15 male combat veterans (aged 27-60 years) and one member of the civilian emergency services, the majority of whom were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic exposure in a range of armed conflicts. All participants were part of a surfing charity for veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder. Data were rigorously analysed using a dialogical narrative analysis (DNA). Findings revealed the collective story that veterans used to make sense of peer relationships within the group. This collective story worked for the veterans to shape their experiences of well-being by fostering camaraderie, stimulating deeper connections and countering the negative effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. Potential therapeutic effects of the collective story were also identified. This article extends previous knowledge on combat veterans and social relationships and advances the field of narrative health psychology through the empirical application of a sophisticated dialogical narrative approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Pilot study of Internet-based early intervention for combat-related mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Gollan, Jackie; Fogel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This article evaluates an Internet-based early intervention combining online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with electronic peer-to-peer support intended to promote mental health and well-being among combat veterans. We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial of 50 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans using a pre and post single-arm design. We evaluated feasibility and changes in mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), functional status, and attitudes toward treatment seeking at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12. A diverse group of veterans was enrolled (26% ethnic minority, 90% male, 66% with income <$30,000/year, 88% with no prior treatment for depression). Participants completed a mean of 4 of 6 lessons (standard deviation = 2.54). From baseline to week 12, there were significant declines in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale score (effect size [ES] = 0.41) and PTSD Checklist-Military version score (ES = 0.53). There were significant improvements in willingness to accept diagnosis (ES = 1.08) and perceived social norms and stigma regarding friends (ES = 1.51). Although lack of a control group is a limitation, the Internet-based program combining CBT-based coping skills training and peer-to-peer support demonstrated potential feasibility and evidenced benefit in symptom remediation for depression and PTSD.

  11. Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control; MILSATs, ASATs, and national security; ASAT capabilities and countermeasures; ASAT arms control: history; ASAT arms control: options; and a comparative evaluation of ASAT policy options are discussed.

  12. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...

  13. Arms control, nonproliferation, and US national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The continuation of the arms race and the failure of arms control and disarmament negotiations lend support to the belief that US and Soviet power, prestige, and security depend upon nuclear weapons. Therefore, the argument goes, the non-nuclear-weapon states (particularly those that are not allied with nuclear-weapon states and do not share their nuclear shield) may conclude that they would be well served by possession of these weapons. In this sense, the failure of nuclear arms reductions could create incentives for further proliferation

  14. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  15. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volken Marquita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

  16. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  17. Combating cancer one step at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N Sugitha Nadarajah

    2016-10-01

    widespread consequences, not only in a medical sense but also socially and economically,” says Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “We need to put in every effort to combat this fatal disease,” he adds.Tackling the spread of cancer and the increase in the number of cases reported every year is not without its challenges, he asserts. “I see the key challenges as the unequal availability of cancer treatments worldwide, the increasing cost of cancer treatment, and the increased median age of the population in many parts of the world, which carries with it a consequent increase in the risk of certain cancers,” he says. “We need to reassess the current pace and orientation of cancer research because, with time, cancer research is becoming industry-oriented rather than academia-oriented — which, in my view, could be very dangerous to the future of cancer research,” adds Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “Governments need to provide more research funding to improve the outcome of cancer patients,” he explains.His efforts and hard work have led to him receiving a number of distinguished awards, namely the UICC International Cancer Technology Transfer (ICRETT fellowship in 2014 at the Investigational New Drugs Unit in the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; EACR travel fellowship in 2015 at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; and also several travel grants to Ireland, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, and many other countries where he attended medical conferences. Dr. Abdel-Rahman is currently engaged in a project to establish a clinical/translational cancer research center at his institute, which seeks to incorporate various cancer-related disciplines in order to produce a real bench-to-bedside practice, hoping that it would “change research that may help shape the future of cancer therapy”.Dr. Abdel-Rahman is also an active founding member of the clinical research unit at his institute and is a representative to the prestigious European Organization for Research and

  18. Sperm competition and the evolution of precopulatory weapons: Increasing male density promotes sperm competition and reduces selection on arm strength in a chorusing frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-10-01

    Sperm competition theory assumes a trade-off between precopulatory traits that increase mating success and postcopulatory traits that increase fertilization success. Predictions for how sperm competition might affect male expenditure on these traits depend on the number of competing males, the advantage gained from expenditure on weapons, and the level of sperm competition. However, empirical tests of sperm competition theory rarely examine precopulatory male expenditure. We investigated how variation in male density affects precopulatory sexual selection on male weaponry and the level of sperm competition in the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana, where males use their arms as weapons in male-male combat. We measured body size and arm girth of 439 males, and recorded their mating success in the field. We found density-dependent selection acting on arm girth. Arm girth was positively associated with mating success, but only at low population densities. Increased male density was associated with higher risk and intensity of sperm competition arising from multimale amplexus, and a reversal in the direction of selection on arm girth. Opposing patterns of pre- and postcopulatory selection may account for the negative covariation between arm girth and testes across populations of this species. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  20. The epidemiology of lethal violence in Darfur: using micro-data to explore complex patterns of ongoing armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Alex; Hazlett, Chad; Davenport, Christian; Kennedy, Joshua

    2014-11-01

    This article describes and analyzes patterns of lethal violence in Darfur, Sudan, during 2008-09, drawing upon a uniquely detailed dataset generated by the United Nations-African Union hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID), combined with data generated through aggregation of reports from open-source venues. These data enable detailed analysis of patterns of perpetrator/victim and belligerent groups over time, and show how violence changed over the four years following the height of armed conflict in 2003-05. During the reference period, violent incidents were sporadic and diverse and included: battles between the major combatants; battles among subgroups of combatant coalitions that were ostensibly allied; inter-tribal conflict; incidents of one-sided violence against civilians by different parties; and incidents of banditry. The conflict as a whole defies easy categorization. The exercise illustrates the limits of existing frameworks for categorizing armed violence and underlines the importance of rigorous microlevel data collection and improved models for understanding the dynamics of collective violence. By analogy with the use of the epidemiological data for infectious diseases to help design emergency health interventions, we argue for improved use of data on lethal violence in the design and implementation of peacekeeping, humanitarian and conflict resolution interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.