Sample records for columnar thermal barrier

  1. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo


    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  2. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo


    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  3. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin


    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  4. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Quasi-Columnar YSZ Coatings Deposited by PS-PVD (United States)

    Yang, Jiasheng; Zhao, Huayu; Zhong, Xinghua; Shao, Fang; Liu, Chenguang; Zhuang, Yin; Ni, Jinxing; Tao, Shunyan


    Columnar-structured thermal barrier coatings, owing to their high strain tolerance, are expected for their potential possibilities to substantially extend turbine lives and improve engine efficiencies. In this paper, plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process was used to deposit yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with quasi-columnar structures. Thermal cyclic tests on burner rigs and thermal shock tests by heating and water-quenching method were involved to evaluate the thermal cycling and thermal shock behaviors of such kind of structured thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Evolution of the microstructures, phase composition, residual stresses and failure behaviors of quasi-columnar YSZ coatings before and after the thermal tests was investigated. The quasi-columnar coating obtained had an average life of around 623 cycles when the spallation area reached about 10% of the total coating surface during burner rig tests with the coating surface temperature of 1250 °C. Failure of the coating is mainly due to the break and pull-out of center columnar segments.

  5. Solidification thermal parameters affecting the columnar-to-equiaxed transition


    Siqueira, CA; Cheung, N; Garcia, A


    Experiments were conducted to analyze the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) during the upward unsteady-state directional solidification of Al-Cu and Sn-Pb alloys, under different conditions of superheat and heat-transfer efficiencies at the metal/mold interface. A combined theoretical and experimental approach is developed to quantitatively determine the solidification thermal parameters: transient heat-transfer coefficients, tip growth rates, thermal gradients, and cooling rates. The obs...

  6. Thermal barriers for compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J.; Lustbader, Jason A.


    An aspect of the present disclosure is a thermal barrier that includes a core layer having a first surface, a second surface, and a first edge, and a first outer layer that includes a third surface and a second edge, where the third surface substantially contacts the first surface, the core layer is configured to minimize conductive heat transfer through the barrier, and the first outer layer is configured to maximize reflection of light away from the barrier.

  7. Columnar and Upper Level CO2 Concentration as Retrieved from IMG/ADEOS Thermal Infrared Data (United States)

    Imasu, R.; Ota, Y.


    Two types of retrieval method have been applied to retrieving CO2 columnar and upper level concentrations from the thermal infrared radiation spectra observed by a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) sensor, Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse gases (IMG), aboard the ADvanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). In the first method, temperature profiles were assumed to be those from the re-analysis data of ECMWF, ERA 40, and CO2 concentration at 600hPa were retrieved with a minimum variance method from the spectrum data at 15 micron absorption band. On the other hand, the principle of the second method used for estimating columnar CO2 concentration was similar to that of the occultation method considering the ground surface as a strong radiation source. The spectral biases that were attributable to temperature and water vapor retrieval errors were reduced through a baseline correction procedure. For this analysis, spectrum data measured at a weak absorption band, a laser band, of CO2 located around 940 cm-1 were used. Although most of Jacobian components of this week absorption band have peaks in the troposphere, the contribution from the Non-LTE effects was briefly estimated. The retrieved results showed concentration contrast between the northern and the southern hemisphere and seasonal change of this feature for the data of 1997. These results were mostly consistent with ground based CO2 data of CMDL/NOA, but systematic biases of concentration existed in both types of retrieved results.

  8. Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit; Kumara, Chamara; Nylén, Per


    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the topcoat-bondcoat interface where high stresses are generated due to thermal cycling. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the topcoat-bondcoat interface could be beneficial to enhance thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs. In this work, a bilayer coating system consisting of first a dense layer near the topcoat-bondcoat interface followed by a porous columnar layer was fabricated by SPS using Yttria-stabilised zirconia suspension. The objective of this work was to investigate if the bilayer topcoat architecture could enhance the thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs through experiments and to understand the effect of the column gaps/vertical cracks and the dense layer on the generated stresses in the TBC during thermal cyclic loading through finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the bilayer TBC had significantly higher lifetime than the single-layer TBC. The modeling results show that the dense layer and vertical cracks are beneficial as they reduce the thermally induced stresses which thus increase the lifetime.

  9. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)


    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  10. Pratt & Whitney thermal barrier coatings

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    Bornstein, N. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Marcin, J. [Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co., East Hartford, CT (United States)


    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficient, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems. The operating profiles of these industrial gas turbines are long, less cyclic with fewer transients-compared with those for aircraft gas turbine engines. Therefore, creep rather than thermal fatigue, becomes primary life-limiting for hot section components. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the program. TBCs allow surface temperatures to increase without compromising the structural properties of the alloy. TBCs typically consist of a ceramic insulating layer, deposited onto the substrate with an intervening metallic layer, which imparts oxidation protection to the substrate and provides a surface to which the ceramic layer can adhere.

  11. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

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    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  12. Development of YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhou


    Full Text Available The axial injection of the suspension in the atmospheric plasma spraying process (here called axial suspension plasma spraying is an attractive and advanced thermal spraying technology especially for the deposition of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs. It enables the growth of columnar-like structures and, hence, combines advantages of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD technology with the considerably cheaper atmospheric plasma spraying (APS. In the first part of this study, the effects of spraying conditions on the microstructure of yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ top coats and the deposition efficiency were investigated. YSZ coatings deposited on as-sprayed bond coats with 5 wt % solid content suspension appeared to have nicely-developed columnar structures. Based on the preliminary results, the nicely developed columnar coatings with variations of the stand-off distances and yttria content were subjected to thermal cycling tests in a gas burner rig. In these tests, all columnar structured TBCs showed relatively short lifetimes compared with porous APS coatings. Indentation measurements for Young’s modulus and fracture toughness on the columns of the SPS coatings indicated a correlation between mechanical properties and lifetime for the SPS samples. A simplified model is presented which correlates mechanical properties and lifetime of SPS coatings.

  13. Influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties of the columnar mesophase exhibited by homomeric dipeptides (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Srividhya; Shankar Rao, D. S.; Prabhu, Rashmi; Yelamaggad, C. V.; Krishna Prasad, S.


    We present the first investigation of the influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties in a biologically important homomeric dipeptide that exhibits a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal mesophase. The peptide employed has two chiral centres, and thus the two possible enantiopures are the (R,R) and (S,S) forms having opposite chirality. The measurements reported the span of the binary phase space between these two enantiopures. Any point in the binary diagram is identified by the enantiomeric excess Xee (the excess content of the R,R enantiopure over its S,S counterpart). We observe that the magnitude of Xee plays a pivotal role in governing the properties as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electric polarization (Ps), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, and the isotropic-columnar transition temperature. For example, XRD shows that while other features pointing to a hexagonal columnar phase remain the same, additional short-range ordering, indicating correlated discs within the column, is present for the enantiopures (Xee = ±1) but not for the racemate (Xee = 0). Similarly, an electric-field driven switching whose profile suggests the phase structure to be antiferroelectric is seen over the entire binary space, but the magnitude is dependent on Xee; interestingly the polarization direction is axial, i.e., along the column axis. DRS studies display two dielectric modes over a limited temperature range and one mode (mode 2) connected with the antiferroelectric nature of the columnar structure covering the entire mesophase. The relaxation frequency and the thermal behaviour of mode 2 are strongly influenced by Xee. The most attractive effect of chirality is its influence on the polar order, a measure of which is the magnitude of the axial polarization. This result can be taken to be a direct evidence of the manifestation of molecular recognition and the delicate interplay between chiral perturbations and the magnitude of the

  14. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)


    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  15. Thermal barrier coating system having improved adhesion (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J. S. (Inventor)


    The adherence between a ceramic thermal barrier coating and a metal bond coating is improved by ion sputtering a ceramic film on the bond cost. A ceramic thermal barrier coating is then plasma-sprayed onto this primer film. This improves the integrity and strength of the interface between the plasma-sprayed ceramic layer and metallic bond coat which insures stronger adherence between the metal and the ceramic.

  16. Reusable Thermal Barrier for Insulation Gaps (United States)

    Saladee, C. E.


    Filler composed of resilient, heat-resistant materials. Thermal barrier nestles snugly in gap between two tiles with minimal protrusion beyond faces of surrounding tiles. When removed from gap, barrier springs back to nearly original shape. Developed for filling spaces between tiles on Space Shuttle, also used in furnaces and kilns.

  17. Lifetime Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, T.S.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied in gas turbines to enhance their thermal efficiency by isolating the metallic components from the aggressive hot gas. TBC lifetime is limited by damage processes originating at internal interfaces, which may ultimately lead to delamination and spallation.

  18. The Effect of Core Configuration on Thermal Barrier Thermal Performance (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert H.; Druesedow, Anne S.


    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize heat transfer through interfaces and gaps and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components. The core insulation has a significant impact on both the thermal and mechanical properties of compliant thermal barriers. Proper selection of an appropriate core configuration to mitigate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer through the thermal barrier is challenging. Additionally, optimization of the thermal barrier for thermal performance may have counteracting effects on mechanical performance. Experimental evaluations have been conducted to better understand the effect of insulation density on permeability and leakage performance, which can significantly impact the resistance to convective heat transfer. The effect of core density on mechanical performance was also previously investigated and will be reviewed. Simple thermal models were also developed to determine the impact of various core parameters on downstream temperatures. An extended understanding of these factors can improve the ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  19. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  20. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier (United States)

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.


    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  1. Delamination-Indicating Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    The risk of premature failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), typically composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), compromises the reliability of TBCs used to provide thermal protection for turbine engine components. Unfortunately, TBC delamination proceeds well beneath the TBC surface and cannot be monitored by visible inspection. Nondestructive diagnostic tools that could reliably probe the subsurface damage state of TBCs would alleviate the risk of TBC premature failure by indicating when the TBC needs to be replaced before the level of TBC damage threatens engine performance or safety. To meet this need, a new coating design for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that are self-indicating for delamination has been successfully implemented by incorporating a europium-doped luminescent sublayer at the base of a TBC composed of YSZ. The luminescent sublayer has the same YSZ composition as the rest of the TBC except for the addition of low-level europium doping and therefore does not alter TBC performance.

  2. Photoresponsive nanoscale columnar transistors. (United States)

    Guo, Xuefeng; Xiao, Shengxiong; Myers, Matthew; Miao, Qian; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin


    This study reports a general methodology for making stable high-performance photosensitive field effect transistors (FET) from self-assembled columns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as point contacts. In particular, the molecules used in this work are liquid crystalline materials of tetra(dodecyloxy)hexabenzocoronenes (HBCs) that are able to self-organize into columnar nanostructures with a diameter similar to that of SWNTs and then form nanoscale columnar transistors. To rule out potential artifacts, 2 different structural approaches were used to construct devices. One approach is to coat thin films of HBCs onto the devices with the SWNT-metal junctions protected by hydrogensilsesquioxane resin (HSQ), and the other is to place a droplet of HBC exactly on the nanogaps of SWNT electrodes. Both types of devices showed typical FET behaviors, indicating that SWNT-molecule-SWNT nanojunctions are responsible for the electrical characteristics of the devices. After thermally annealing the devices, HBC molecules assembled into columnar structures and formed more efficacious transistors with increased current modulation and higher gate efficiency. More interestingly, when the devices were exposed to visible light, photocurrents with an on/off ratio of >3 orders of magnitude were observed. This study demonstrates that stimuli-responsive nanoscale transistors have the potential applications in ultrasensitive devices for environmental sensing and solar energy harvesting.

  3. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings with MCrAlY Bond Coat Irradiated by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam. (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Lv, Peng; Guan, Qingfeng; Xu, Xiaojing; Lu, Jinzhong; Wang, Zhiping; Han, Zhiyong


    Microstructural modifications of a thermally sprayed MCrAlY bond coat subjected to high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) and their relationships with thermal cycling behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were investigated. Microstructural observations revealed that the rough surface of air plasma spraying (APS) samples was significantly remelted and replaced by many interconnected bulged nodules after HCPEB irradiation. Meanwhile, the parallel columnar grains with growth direction perpendicular to the coating surface were observed inside these bulged nodules. Substantial Y-rich Al2O3 bubbles and varieties of nanocrystallines were distributed evenly on the top of the modified layer. A physical model was proposed to describe the evaporation-condensation mechanism taking place at the irradiated surface for generating such surface morphologies. The results of thermal cycling test showed that HCPEB-TBCs presented higher thermal cycling resistance, the spalling area of which after 200 cycles accounted for only 1% of its total area, while it was about 34% for APS-TBCs. The resulting failure mode, i.e., in particular, a mixed delamination crack path, was shown and discussed. The irradiated effects including compact remelted surface, abundant nanoparticles, refined columnar grains, Y-rich alumina bubbles, and deformation structures contributed to the formation of a stable, continuous, slow-growing, and uniform thermally grown oxide with strong adherent ability. It appeared to be responsible for releasing stress and changing the cracking paths, and ultimately greatly improving the thermal cycling behavior of HCPEB-TBCs.

  4. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack

  5. Combination Thermal Barrier And Wear Coatings For Engines (United States)

    Weingart, Mike; Moller, Paul


    Thermal-barrier layers covered with self-lubricating surface layers. Zirconia thermal-barrier coat applied to surface of combustion chamber in engine by plasma-arc spraying. Then PS-200 plasma-arc sprayed onto zirconia. Self-lubricating coat prevents sliding contact between thermal barrier and piston ring, effectively preventing both wear and production of additional heat via friction. Other combinations of thermal-barrier and self-lubricating, wear-resistant coating materials used as long as two materials adhere to each other, applied by use of similar or compatible processes, have similar coefficients of thermal expansion, sufficiently strong at high temperatures, and affordable.

  6. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.


    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  7. Monitoring thermally grown oxides under thermal barrier coatings using photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS)

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    Del Corno, A.; De Maria, L.; Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Nalin, L.; Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre


    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on cooled components in industrial gas turbine has enabled higher inlet gas temperatures to be used and hence higher efficiencies to be achieved, without increasing component metal temperatures. However TBCs have a complex coating structure that during high temperature exposure and thermal cycling modifies until TBC spalling which can result in dangerous over-heating of components. This paper reports the results of a TBC exposure programme planned to monitor TGOs development in an example TBC system in terms of both stress evolution within the TGOs and TGO growth. The COST538 reference TBC system was used: an yttria stabilised zirconia TBC applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat on an CMSX-4 substrate. Samples were in the form of 10 mm diameter bars, with the TBC applied to their curved surface. Coated samples were exposed in simulated combustion gases at temperatures 850, 900 and 950 C for periods of up to 10,000 hours. Every 1000 hours samples were cooled and weighed to monitor the progression of the oxidation: selected samples NDT inspected using PLPS and/or destructive examination. Cross-sections were prepared and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at multiple locations to determine TGO thickness distributions. PLPS spectra were measured and elaborated with a system self developed in ERSE, able to calculate and map the TGO residual stress values under columnar TBCs. So the positions could be evidenced where the damage of the TBC /TGO/BC interface is higher on the exposed bars. The data of TGO thickness distributions and PLPS stress measurement distributions were compared to the exposures carried out on samples to identify and quantify trends in their development. Metallography confirmed that the PLPs technique can reliably detect interface cracking before visible EB-PVD TBC spalling. (orig.)

  8. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  9. Thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine and diesel engines (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Bailey, M. Murray


    The present state of development of thin thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines is assessed. Although current thermal barrier coatings are flying in certain gas turbine engines, additional advances will be needed for future engines. Thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines have advanced to the point where they are being seriously considered for the next generation of engine. Since coatings for truck engines is a young field of inquiry, continued research and development efforts will be required to help bring this technology to commercialization.

  10. Thermal barrier coatings for heat engine components (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E.


    A comprehensive NASA-Lewis program of coating development for aircraft gas turbine blades and vanes is presented. Improved ceramic layer compositions are investigated, along the MCrAlY bond films and the methods of uniform deposition of the coatings; the thermomechanical and fuel impurity tolerance limits of the coatings are being studied. Materials include the ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY system; the effects of the bond coat and zirconia composition on coating life and Mach 1 burner rig test results are discussed. It is concluded that Diesel engines can also utilize thermal barrier coatings; they have been used successfully on piston crowns and exhaust valves of shipboard engines to combat lower grade fuel combustion corrosion.

  11. Thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades: Chemical vapor deposition (Review) (United States)

    Igumenov, I. K.; Aksenov, A. N.


    Schemes are presented for experimental setups (reactors) developed at leading scientific centers connected with the development of technologies for the deposition of coatings using the CVD method: at the Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany), the French Aerospace Research Center, the Materials Research Institute (Tohoku University, Japan) and the National Laboratory Oak Ridge (USA). Conditions and modes for obtaining the coatings with high operational parameters are considered. It is established that the formed thermal barrier coatings do not fundamentally differ in their properties (columnar microstructure, thermocyclic resistance, thermal conductivity coefficient) from standard electron-beam condensates, but the highest growth rates and the perfection of the crystal structure are achieved in the case of plasma-chemical processes and in reactors with additional laser or induction heating of a workpiece. It is shown that CVD reactors can serve as a basis for the development of rational and more advanced technologies for coating gas turbine blades that are not inferior to standard electron-beam plants in terms of the quality of produced coatings and have a much simpler and cheaper structure. The possibility of developing a new technology based on CVD processes for the formation of thermal barrier coatings with high operational parameters is discussed, including a set of requirements for industrial reactors, high-performance sources of vapor precursors, and promising new materials.

  12. Technical and Economical Aspects of Current Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Gas Turbine Engines by Thermal Spray and EBPVD: A Review (United States)

    Feuerstein, Albert; Knapp, James; Taylor, Thomas; Ashary, Adil; Bolcavage, Ann; Hitchman, Neil


    The most advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for aircraft engine and power generation hot section components consist of electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) applied yttria-stabilized zirconia and platinum modified diffusion aluminide bond coating. Thermally sprayed ceramic and MCrAlY bond coatings, however, are still used extensively for combustors and power generation blades and vanes. This article highlights the key features of plasma spray and HVOF, diffusion aluminizing, and EBPVD coating processes. The coating characteristics of thermally sprayed MCrAlY bond coat as well as low density and dense vertically cracked (DVC) Zircoat TBC are described. Essential features of a typical EBPVD TBC coating system, consisting of a diffusion aluminide and a columnar TBC, are also presented. The major coating cost elements such as material, equipment and processing are explained for the different technologies, with a performance and cost comparison given for selected examples.

  13. Thermophysical properties of selected powders for thermal barrier coatings


    M. Drajewicz; M. Góral; M. Pytel; J. Sieniawski


    Purpose: Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings often have the problems of spallation and cracking in service owing to their poor bond strength and high residual stresses. Functionally graded thermal barrier coatings with a gradual compositional variation from heat resistant ceramics to fracture-resistant metals are proposed to mitigate these problems.Design/methodology/approach: The results of measurements of thermal diffusivity by using one of the most modern experimental sets LFA 427 (Las...

  14. Multilayer Microlaminated Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Charles


    .... Both thermal and mechanical characteristics of the coatings can be potentially optimized, and the coating will be more tolerant towards strain damage, have better thermal insulation and provide...

  15. Effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, immune function and physical barrier function in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after challenged with Flavobacterium columnare. (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu


    The effects of dietary protein levels on the disease resistance, gill immune function and physical barrier function of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were investigated in this study. A total of 540 grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Flavobacterium columnare for 3 days. The results indicated that optimal levels of dietary protein had the following effects: (1) the production of antibacterial components increased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, IκB kinase (IKK) α, IKKβ, IKKγ, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 4E-BP2 were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P dietary protein; (2) the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content increased, the contents of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased, and NF-E2-related factor 2, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and tight junction complexes mRNA levels were up-regulated, whereas Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein (Keap) 1a, Keap1b, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 3, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mRNA levels were down-regulated in the gills of grass carp (P dietary protein. Finally, based on the gill rot morbidity, ACP activity and PC content, the optimal levels of dietary protein for grass carp were estimated to be 286.65 g kg(-1) diet (253.73 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet), 290.46 g kg(-1) diet (257.76

  16. Are thermal barriers "higher" in deep sea turtle nests?


    Santidri?n Tomillo, Pilar; Fonseca, Luis; Paladino, Frank V.; Spotila, James R.; Oro, Daniel


    Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. W...

  17. Simulation of thermo-Elastics Properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray ...

  18. Experimental-calculation study of ion-plasma thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades made of intermetallic nickel superalloys (United States)

    Budinovskii, S. A.; Matveev, P. V.; Zhivushkin, A. A.; Tikhomirova, E. A.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Balakin, S. M.


    The ion-plasma thermal barrier coatings deposited onto samples and blades made of intermetallic VKNA-1V and VKNA-25 alloys are tested in a laboratory. The external ceramic layer of the thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is formed by magnetron sputtering of zirconium alloy targets and has a columnar structure. The influence of NiCrAlY(Re, Ta, Hf) + AlNiY(Hf) + ZrYGdO TBC on the long-term strength at a test temperature of 1200°C and on the high-cycle fatigue at a temperature of 900°C is studied. Blades with TBC are subjected to thermal cycling tests in the temperature range 950 ↔ 400°C and 1050 ↔ 400°C during air cooling and in the range 950 ↔ 200°C during water cooling at 500 cycles. The temperature fields in the cross section of a blade airfoil during thermal cycling are calculated. The laws of formation of fracture zones and the development of thermal fatigue cracks under the conditions that are close to the operating conditions of nozzle TBC-containing blades are investigated.

  19. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.


    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  20. Are thermal barriers "higher" in deep sea turtle nests? (United States)

    Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Fonseca, Luis; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Oro, Daniel


    Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were "high" when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and "low" when the effects were small. Mean temperature was lower and fluctuated less in species that dig deeper nests. Thermal barriers were comparatively "higher" in leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nests, which were the deepest, as embryo mortality increased at lower "high" temperatures than in olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests. Sea turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and embryo mortality increased as temperature approached the upper end of the transitional range of temperatures (TRT) that produces both sexes (temperature producing 100% female offspring) in leatherback and olive ridley turtles. As thermal barriers are "higher" in some species than in others, the effects of climate warming on embryo mortality is likely to vary among sea turtles. Population resilience to climate warming may also depend on the balance between temperatures that produce female offspring and those that reduce embryo survival.

  1. Are thermal barriers "higher" in deep sea turtle nests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Santidrián Tomillo

    Full Text Available Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were "high" when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and "low" when the effects were small. Mean temperature was lower and fluctuated less in species that dig deeper nests. Thermal barriers were comparatively "higher" in leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea nests, which were the deepest, as embryo mortality increased at lower "high" temperatures than in olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea and green turtle (Chelonia mydas nests. Sea turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD and embryo mortality increased as temperature approached the upper end of the transitional range of temperatures (TRT that produces both sexes (temperature producing 100% female offspring in leatherback and olive ridley turtles. As thermal barriers are "higher" in some species than in others, the effects of climate warming on embryo mortality is likely to vary among sea turtles. Population resilience to climate warming may also depend on the balance between temperatures that produce female offspring and those that reduce embryo survival.

  2. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.


    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Advanced Thermal Barrier and Environmental Barrier Coating Development at NASA GRC (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Robinson, Craig


    This presentation summarizes NASA's advanced thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, and the coating performance improvements that has recently been achieved and documented in laboratory simulated rig test conditions. One of the emphases has been placed on the toughness and impact resistance enhancements of the low conductivity, defect cluster thermal barrier coating systems. The advances in the next generation environmental barrier coatings for SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites have also been highlighted, particularly in the design of a new series of oxide-silicate composition systems to be integrated with next generation SiC-SiC turbine engine components for 2700F coating applications. Major technical barriers in developing the thermal and environmental barrier coating systems are also described. The performance and model validations in the rig simulated turbine combustion, heat flux, steam and calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) environments have helped the current progress in improved temperature capability, environmental stability, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability of the advanced thermal and environmental barrier coating systems.

  4. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.


    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  5. Thermal barrier coating experience in the gas turbine engine (United States)

    Bose, S.; Demasi-Marcin, J.


    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), provide thermal insulation and oxidation resistance in an environment consisting of hot combustion gases. TBC's consist of a two layer system. The outer ceramic layer provides good thermal insulation due to the low thermal conductivity of the ceramic coatings used, while the inner metallic bond coat layer provides needed oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy. Pratt & Whitney has over a decade of experience with several generations of TBC systems on turbine airfoils. This paper will focus on the latest TBC field experience along with a proposed durability model.

  6. Thermal-barrier coatings for utility gas turbines (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.


    The potential of thermal barrier coatings for use in utility gas turbines was assessed. Pressurized passage and ambient pressure doped fuel burner rig tests revealed that thermal barrier coatings are not resistant to dirty combustion environments. However, present thermal barrier coatings, such as duplex partially stabilized zirconia and duplex Ca2SiO4 have ample resistance to the thermo-mechanical stress and temperature levels anticipated for heavy duty gas turbines firing clean fuel as revealed by clean fuel pressurized passage and ambient pressure burner rig tests. Thus, it is appropriate to evaluate such coatings on blades, vanes and combustors in the field. However, such field tests should be backed up with adequate effort in the areas of coating application technology and design analysis so that the field tests yield unequivocal results.

  7. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  8. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines (United States)

    Miller, R. A.


    Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

  9. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for commercial gas turbine engines (United States)

    Meier, Susan Manning; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Sheffler, Keith D.


    The paper provides an overview of the short history, current status, and future prospects of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines. Particular attention is given to plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited yttria-stabilized (7 wt pct Y2O3) zirconia systems. Recent advances include improvements in the spallation life of thermal barrier coatings, improved bond coat composition and spraying techniques, and improved component design. The discussion also covers field experience, life prediction modeling, and future directions in ceramic coatings in relation to gas turbine engine design.

  10. Hypersonic propulsion - Breaking the thermal barrier (United States)

    Weidner, J. P.


    The challenges of hypersonic propulsion impose unique features on the hypersonic vehicle - from large volume requirements to contain cryogenic fuel to airframe-integrated propulsion required to process sufficient quantities of air. Additional challenges exist in the design of the propulsion module that must be capable of efficiently processing air at very high enthalpies, adding and mixing fuel at supersonic speeds and expanding the exhaust products to generate thrust greater than drag. The paper explores the unique challenges of the integrated hypersonic propulsion system, addresses propulsion cycle selection to cope with the severe thermal environment and reviews the direction of propulsion research at hypervelocity speeds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Petrova


    Full Text Available Article deals with the impact of workpiece surface quality on adhesive strength and durability of thermal barrier coating. The result revealed that the roughness of metal layer influences on the adhesion of ceramic coating and depends the thickness of ceramic crystals when using method of Electron beam deposition.

  12. Ceramic Thermal Barriers For Dirty-Fuel Turbines (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.


    Report discusses performances of ceramic thermal-barrier coating materials for use in electric-utility gas-turbine engines. Variations of standard coating evaluated in search for coating resistant to dirty fuel. Variations included alterations of level of yttria, replacement of yttria by other stabilizers, controlling surface density (by plasma spray processing, infiltration, laser glazing, or sputtering), and interface treatments.

  13. Erosion Performance of Gadolinium Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Processed by Suspension Plasma Spray (United States)

    Mahade, Satyapal; Curry, Nicholas; Björklund, Stefan; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per; Vaßen, Robert


    7-8 wt.% Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the standard thermal barrier coating (TBC) material used by the gas turbines industry due to its excellent thermal and thermo-mechanical properties up to 1200 °C. The need for improvement in gas turbine efficiency has led to an increase in the turbine inlet gas temperature. However, above 1200 °C, YSZ has issues such as poor sintering resistance, poor phase stability and susceptibility to calcium magnesium alumino silicates (CMAS) degradation. Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as one of the promising top coat candidates for TBC applications at high temperatures (>1200 °C) due to its low thermal conductivity, good sintering resistance and CMAS attack resistance. Single-layer 8YSZ, double-layer GZ/YSZ and triple-layer GZdense/GZ/YSZ TBCs were deposited by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process. Microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A columnar microstructure was observed in the single-, double- and triple-layer TBCs. Phase analysis of the as-sprayed TBCs was carried out using XRD (x-ray diffraction) where a tetragonal prime phase of zirconia in the single-layer YSZ TBC and a cubic defect fluorite phase of GZ in the double and triple-layer TBCs was observed. Porosity measurements of the as-sprayed TBCs were made by water intrusion method and image analysis method. The as-sprayed GZ-based multi-layered TBCs were subjected to erosion test at room temperature, and their erosion resistance was compared with single-layer 8YSZ. It was shown that the erosion resistance of 8YSZ single-layer TBC was higher than GZ-based multi-layered TBCs. Among the multi-layered TBCs, triple-layer TBC was slightly better than double layer in terms of erosion resistance. The eroded TBCs were cold-mounted and analyzed by SEM.

  14. Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices (United States)

    Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari


    Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.

  15. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)


    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  16. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Haven, Victor E.


    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings extend the operating temperature range of actively cooled gas turbine components, therefore increasing thermal efficiency. Performance and lifetime of existing ceram ic coatings are limited by spallation during heating and cooling cycles. Spallation of the ceramic is a function of its microstructure, which is determined by the deposition method. This research is investigating metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of yttria stabilized zirconia to improve performance and reduce costs relative to electron beam physical vapor deposition. Coatings are deposited in an induction-heated, low-pressure reactor at 10 microns per hour. The coating's composition, structure, and response to the turbine environment will be characterized.

  17. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim


    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  18. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim


    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  19. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. To meet the aggressive Advanced Turbine Systems goals for efficiency, durability and the environment, it will be necessary to employ thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils and other hot section components. For The successful application of TBCs to ATS engines with 2600{degrees}F turbine inlet temperatures and required component lives 10 times greater than those for aircraft gas turbine engines, it is necessary to develop quantitative assessment techniques for TBC coating integrity with time and cycles in ATS engines. Thermal barrier coatings in production today consist of a metallic bond coat, such as an MCrAlY overlay coating or a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) diffusion coating. During heat treatment, both these coatings form a thin, tightly adherent alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film. Failure of TBC coatings in engine service occurs by spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the bond coat to alumina or the alumina to zirconia bonds. Thus, it is the initial strength of these bonds and the stresses at the bond plane, and their changes with engine exposure, that determines coating durability. The purpose of this program is to provide, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of TBC bond strength and bond plane stresses as a function of engine time and cycles.

  20. Residual stress evolution regularity in thermal barrier coatings under thermal shock loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin Chen


    Full Text Available Residual stress evolution regularity in thermal barrier ceramic coatings (TBCs under different cycles of thermal shock loading of 1100°C was investigated by the microscopic digital image correlation (DIC and micro-Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The obtained results showed that, as the cycle number of the thermal shock loading increases, the evolution of the residual stress undergoes three distinct stages: a sharp increase, a gradual change, and a reduction. The extension stress near the TBC surface is fast transformed to compressive one through just one thermal cycle. After different thermal shock cycles with peak temperature of 1100°C, phase transformation in TBC does not happen, whereas the generation, development, evolution of the thermally grown oxide (TGO layer and micro-cracks are the main reasons causing the evolution regularity of the residual stress.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIAŁ


    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are increasingly often applied in civil engineering as a mean to reduce buildings energy demand for heating. One of the ways to reduce HVAC energy demand is to limit heat transfer and excessive solar gain through building's glazed barriers. Preliminary results of the research conducted on organic PCM-modified transparent barrier are presented in this paper. Multiple publications concerning PCMs application in structural materials have recently appeared. Most of them are focused on modification of structure of non-transparent sections of buildings' envelope. Augmenting a glazed barrier with PCMs increases its heat capacity and thermal resistance. The most important feature of the assembly is the thermal buffer, a product of PCM's considerable value of specific latent heat. Research were conducted on a triple-pane transparent rectangular barrier, that constituted one of the faces of cubic chamber. Internal volume of the chamber was 1m3. The applied PCM was a mixture of saturated and non-saturated hydrocarbons. The described assembly was subjected to temperature and radiation that occur in Poland during winter. Glazing temperature, melted/total PCM ratio were measured, as well as energy demand for keeping internal temperature at constant level. Measurements were made in steady states, for various PCM layer thickness. The influence of the modification on energy demand was determined, along with the most effective and rational thickness of PCM layer to be applied. Conducted research enabled to develop a basis for further investigation of PCMs application in civil engineering.

  2. Thermal Conductivity in Suspension Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Modeling and Experiments (United States)

    Ganvir, Ashish; Kumara, Chamara; Gupta, Mohit; Nylen, Per


    Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) can generate microstructures with higher porosity and pores in the size range from submicron to nanometer. ASPS thermal barrier coatings (TBC) have already shown a great potential to produce low thermal conductivity coatings for gas turbine applications. It is important to understand the fundamental relationships between microstructural defects in ASPS coatings such as crystallite boundaries, porosity etc. and thermal conductivity. Object-oriented finite element (OOF) analysis has been shown as an effective tool for evaluating thermal conductivity of conventional TBCs as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent microstructure in the model. The objective of this work was to analyze the thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs using experimental techniques and also to evaluate a procedure where OOF can be used to predict and analyze the thermal conductivity for these coatings. Verification of the model was done by comparing modeling results with the experimental thermal conductivity. The results showed that the varied scaled porosity has a significant influence on the thermal conductivity. Smaller crystallites and higher overall porosity content resulted in lower thermal conductivity. It was shown that OOF could be a powerful tool to predict and rank thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs.

  3. Perspective on thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbine applications (United States)

    Mutasim, Zaher; Brentnall, William


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used in high thrust aircraft engines for many years, and have proved to be very effective in providing thermal protection and increasing engine efficiencies. TBC life requirements for aircraft engines are typically less than those required for industrial gas turbines. This paper describes current and future applications of TBC's in industrial gas turbine engines. Early testing and applications of TBC's is reviewed. Areas of concern from the engine designer's and materials engineer's perspective are identified and evaluated. This paper focuses on the key factors that are expected to influence utilization of TBC's in advanced industrial gas turbine engines. It is anticipated that reliable, durable and highly effective coating systems will be produced that will ultimately improve engine efficiency and performance.

  4. The Lattice and Thermal Radiation Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings: Models and Experiments (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Spuckler, Charles M.


    The lattice and radiation conductivity of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was evaluated using a laser heat flux approach. A diffusion model has been established to correlate the coating apparent thermal conductivity to the lattice and radiation conductivity. The radiation conductivity component can be expressed as a function of temperature, coating material scattering, and absorption properties. High temperature scattering and absorption of the coating systems can be also derived based on the testing results using the modeling approach. A comparison has been made for the gray and nongray coating models in the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The model prediction is found to have a good agreement with experimental observations.

  5. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma


    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  6. Indentation methods for adhesion measurement in thermal barrier coating systems (United States)

    Ma, Qin

    This thesis investigates the fundamentals of indentation-induced delamination of electron beam physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coatings (EB-PVD TBCs). Thermal barrier coatings are thin ceramic coatings used to insulate gas turbine components. In the as-processed state, TBCs are well-bonded to the metallic substrate they are deposited upon. However, as these coatings are exposed to high temperatures during turbine operation, they lose their adhesion. The goal of this thesis is to determine how to use indentation testing techniques, coupled with fracture mechanics principles, to track this loss of adhesion and to identify mechanisms causing it. This thesis addresses four primary topics. First, a detailed fracture mechanics analysis of indentation-induced delamination is made, including the quantification of energy release rates, interfacial toughnesses and mode mix. The second topic addressed is application of the indentation test to track toughness losses in TBC systems subjected to a variety of thermal exposures. Three subtopics are included: (1) mechanism-based tests for the isothermal dry air exposures; (2) mechanism-based tests for exposures with water vapor and (3) mechanism-based tests for cyclic thermal exposures. In the first subtopic, TGO thickening and TBC sintering are modeled. Various mechanisms that lead to toughness degradation are discussed and analyzed quantitatively. An Arrhenius analysis has been performed to understand accelerated testing methods. The second subtopic presents the results of toughness degradation and the evolution of microstructures due to isothermal exposure with water vapor. The third subtopic investigates the toughness degradation for cyclic thermal exposures in dry air. Piezospectroscopy method has been applied to track the evolution of residual stresses in the TGO layer with thermal cycles. Quantitative analysis has been provided to give insights into the effects of oxide damage during thermal cycling. The final two

  7. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria


    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  8. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry


    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  9. Optical Diagnostics for High-Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments, such as in jet turbine engines. Taking advantage of the translucent nature of TBCs, optical diagnostics have been developed that can provide an informed assessment of TBC health that will allow mitigating action to be taken before TBC degradation threatens performance or safety. In particular, rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers have been integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence that monitors TBC erosion, delamination, and temperature gradients. Erosion monitoring of TBC-coated specimens is demonstrated by utilizing visible luminescence that is excited from a sublayer that is exposed by erosion. TBC delamination monitoring is achieved in TBCs with a base rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer by the reflectance-enhanced increase in luminescence produced in regions containing buried delamination cracks. TBC temperature monitoring is demonstrated using the temperature-dependent decay time for luminescence originating from the specific coating depth associated with a rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayer. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers is discussed, including co-doping strategies to produce more penetrating near-infrared luminescence. It is demonstrated that integration of the rare-earth-doped sublayers is achieved with no reduction in TBC life. In addition, results for multilayer TBCs designed to also perform as radiation barriers are also presented.

  10. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim


    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  11. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.


    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  12. Study on Preparation Technologies of Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Yang; Wang, Hao; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yunshan

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the main key technology for the high-pressure turbine blades which are the main components of the high-performance aerospace engines. It offers protection for underline metallic components from corrosion, oxidation and localized melting by insulating the metal from hot gases in the engine core. The properties and lifetime of TBCs are greatly influenced by the preparation technology, which includes plasma spraying (PS), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and laser re-melting (LM). In this paper, three technologies used to prepare the TBCs are reviewed. Resulting features of coating fabricated by each technology are also discussed such as: the porosity, the thermally grown oxide (TGO), the erosion resistance, the thermal shock and so on. Especially, it is pointed out that the performances of gradient coating and nano-coating are better than the traditional coatings. In addition, it is widely accepted that laser can be applied to re-melt the PS coating and even directly clad the gradient coating. In the future, the traditional preparation technology should be improved continually in order to enhance the coating lifetime, enhance the properties of coating and lower the cost of process. Moreover, the researches on gradient-nano-structured coatings preparation are absent and should be done with emphasis since the nano-structure and gradient structure can both benefit the lifetime and properties of coatings.

  13. Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Modulus Evolution of Thermal Barrier Coatings under High Heat Flux Conditions (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.

  14. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    The last 30 years materials engineers have been under continual pressure to develop materials with a greater temperature potential or to produce configurations that can be effectively cooled or otherwise protected at elevated temperature conditions. Turbines and thrust chambers produce some of the harshest service conditions for materials which lead to the challenges engineers face in order to increase the efficiencies of current technologies due to the energy crisis that the world is facing. The key tasks for the future of gas turbines are to increase overall efficiencies to meet energy demands of a growing world population and reduce the harmful emissions to protect the environment. Airfoils or blades tend to be the limiting factor when it comes to the performance of the turbine because of their complex design making them difficult to cool as well as limitations of their thermal properties. Key tasks for space transportation it to lower costs while increasing operational efficiency and reliability of our space launchers. The important factor to take into consideration is the rocket nozzle design. The design of the rocket nozzle or thrust chamber has to take into account many constraints including external loads, heat transfer, transients, and the fluid dynamics of expanded hot gases. Turbine engines can have increased efficiencies if the inlet temperature for combustion is higher, increased compressor capacity and lighter weight materials. In order to push for higher temperatures, engineers need to come up with a way to compensate for increased temperatures because material systems that are being used are either at or near their useful properties limit. Before thermal barrier coatings were applied to hot-section components, material alloy systems were able to withstand the service conditions necessary. But, with the increased demand for performance, higher temperatures and pressures have become too much for those alloy systems. Controlled chemistry of hot

  15. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  16. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.


    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  17. Thermal barrier and support for nuclear reactor fuel core (United States)

    Betts, Jr., William S.; Pickering, J. Larry; Black, William E.


    A thermal barrier/core support for the fuel core of a nuclear reactor having a metallic cylinder secured to the reactor vessel liner and surrounded by fibrous insulation material. A top cap is secured to the upper end of the metallic cylinder that locates and orients a cover block and post seat. Under normal operating conditions, the metallic cylinder supports the entire load exerted by its associated fuel core post. Disposed within the metallic cylinder is a column of ceramic material, the height of which is less than that of the metallic cylinder, and thus is not normally load bearing. In the event of a temperature excursion beyond the design limits of the metallic cylinder and resulting in deformation of the cylinder, the ceramic column will abut the top cap to support the fuel core post.

  18. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines (United States)

    Nissley, David M.


    Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas turbine engines are presented. Electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: metal oxidation at the ceramic-metal interface, ceramic-metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, ceramic-metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and interface roughness, material properties and mechanical behavior, temperature gradients, component design features and object impact damage. TBC spalling life analytical models are proposed based on observations of TBC spalling and plausible failure theories. TBC spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic-metal interface). TBC failure knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimental evidence and analytical understanding are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC failure trends.

  19. Thermal Barrier/Seal for Extreme Temperature Applications (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room temperature vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas temperature and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.

  20. Waste Package Outer Barrier Stress Due to Thermal Expansion with Various Barrier Gap Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Lewis


    The objective of this activity is to determine the tangential stresses of the outer shell, due to uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer shells of the current waste package (WP) designs. Based on the results of the calculation ''Waste Package Barrier Stresses Due to Thermal Expansion'', CAL-EBS-ME-000008 (ref. 10), only tangential stresses are considered for this calculation. The tangential stresses are significantly larger than the radial stresses associated with thermal expansion, and at the WP outer surface the radial stresses are equal to zero. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the tangential stresses the waste package outer shell is subject to due to the interference fit, produced by having two different shell coefficients of thermal expansions. The inner shell has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the outer shell, producing a pressure between the two shells. This calculation is associated with Waste Package Project. The calculations are performed for the 21-PWR (pressurized water reactor), 44-BWR (boiling water reactor), 24-BWR, 12-PWR Long, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF - Short (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel), 2-MCO/2-DHLW (multi-canister overpack), and Naval SNF Long WP designs. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the types of WPs considered in this calculation. This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for SR (Ref.7). The calculation is documented, reviewed, and approved in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref.1).

  1. The Numerical Modeling of Thermal Stress Distribution in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasik A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical calculations of temperature and thermal stress distribution in thermal barrier coatings deposited by thermal spraying process on the nickel based superalloy. An assumption was made to apply conventional zirconium oxide modified with yttrium oxide (8YSZ and apply pyrochlore type material with formula La2Zr2O7. The bond coat was made of NiCoCrAlY. Analysis of the distribution of temperature and stresses in ceramic coatings of different thicknesses was performed in the function of bond-coat thickness and the type of ceramic insulation layer. It was revealed that the thickness of NiCrAlY bond-coat has not significant influence on the stress distribution, but there is relatively strong effect on temperature level. The most important factor influenced on stress distribution in TBC system is related with type and properties of ceramic insulation layer.

  2. Analysis of Thermal Radiation Effects on Temperatures in Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Spuckler, Charles M.


    Thermal barrier coatings are important, and in some instances a necessity, for high temperature applications such as combustor liners, and turbine vanes and rotating blades for current and advanced turbine engines. Some of the insulating materials used for coatings, such as zirconia that currently has widespread use, are partially transparent to thermal radiation. A translucent coating permits energy to be transported internally by radiation, thereby increasing the total energy transfer and acting like an increase in thermal conductivity. This degrades the insulating ability of the coating. Because of the strong dependence of radiant emission on temperature, internal radiative transfer effects are increased as temperatures are raised. Hence evaluating the significance of internal radiation is of importance as temperatures are increased to obtain higher efficiencies in advanced engines.

  3. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.


    The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature

  4. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.


    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  5. Thermomechanical behaviour of thermal barrier coatings. Thermal Barrier Coatings II - interim report; Haltbarkeit thermomechanisch belasteter Waermedaemmschichtsysteme. Waermedaemmschichtsysteme II - Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Schmidt, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW); Scholz, A.; Stamm, W. [Siemens Power AG, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)


    The thermomechanical behaviour of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is being investigated by strain controlled service-type thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests in order to simulate creep fatigue life of coatings on gas turbine blades. A first service-type cycle with a cycle period of 20 min, a maximum temperature of 930 C and a minimum temperature of 60 C for industrial gas turbines and a second cycle with a cycle period of 8 min, a maximum temperature of 1050 C and a minimum temperature of 300 C for aero engine gas turbines are applied. A special test technique was developed for hollow test pieces with a component typical wall thickness of 1.8 mm made of a single crystal alloy. Different bondcoats (MCrAIY and PtAI) and an air plasma sprayed (APS-) topcoat as well as electron beam (EB-PVD) topcoat are under investigation. After each specific experiment microstructural investigation is used for damage characterisation. The growth of oxides together with thermal mismatch could be identified as the most important damaging effects. Data from long-term Pre-Oxidation experiments allows to adjust the thickness of the TGO for each specific TMF-experiment. The main objective is to ideal with the influence of different bond coat morphologies on the durability of the thermal barrier coating (TBC-) system. The influence of surface roughness, grain size in the bond coat as well as different bond coats (MCrAIY and PtAI) are investigated. First results show that the surface roughness may have a larger influence on the durability of the TBC-system than initially expected. In order to gain deeper understanding of the damaging mechanisms, finite elements calculations are performed to simulate critical local deformation in the TBC-system. The experiments allow deep insight into the damaging mechanisms governing TBC-systems under service-type conditions and thus are suitable for life time prediction TBC-systems. Although a lot of research has been done on this topic. The influence of

  6. Thermal modelling of various thermal barrier coatings in a high heat flux rocket engine (United States)

    Nesbitt, James A.


    Traditional Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) ZrO2-Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) and Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed (LPPS) ZrO2-Y2O3/Ni-Cr-Al-Y cermet coatings were tested in a H2/O2 rocked engine. The traditional ZrO2-Y2O3 (TBC's) showed considerable metal temperature reductions during testing in the hydrogen-rich environment. A thermal model was developed to predict the thermal response of the tubes with the various coatings. Good agreement was observed between predicted temperatures and measured temperatures at the inner wall of the tube and in the metal near the coating/metal interface. The thermal model was also used to examine the effect of the differences in the reported values of the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramic coatings, the effect of 100 micron (0.004 in.) thick metallic bond coat, the effect of tangential heat transfer around the tube, and the effect or radiation from the surface of the ceramic coating. It was shown that for the short duration testing in the rocket engine, the most important of these considerations was the effect of the uncertainty in the thermal conductivity of temperatures (greater than 100 C) predicted in the tube. The thermal model was also used to predict the thermal response of the coated rod in order to quantify the difference in the metal temperatures between the two substrate geometries and to explain the previously-observed increased life of coatings on rods over that on tubes. A thermal model was also developed to predict heat transfer to the leading edge of High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) blades during start-up of the space shuttle main engines. The ability of various TBC's to reduce metal temperatures during the two thermal excursions occurring on start-up was predicted. Temperature reductions of 150 to 470 C were predicted for 165 micron (0.0065 in.) coatings for the greater of the two thermal excursions.

  7. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  8. Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitin Padture


    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, in the case of syngas-fired engines, fly ash particulate impurities that may be present in syngas can melt on the hotter TBC surfaces and form glassy deposits. These deposits can penetrate the TBCs leading to their failure. In experiments using lignite fly ash to simulate these conditions we show that conventional TBCs of composition 93wt% ZrO{sub 2} + 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7YSZ) fabricated using the air plasma spray (APS) process are completely destroyed by the molten fly ash. The molten fly ash is found to penetrate the full thickness of the TBC. The mechanisms by which this occurs appear to be similar to those observed in degradation of 7YSZ TBCs by molten calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) sand and by molten volcanic ash in aircraft engines. In contrast, APS TBCs of Gd{sub 2Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition are highly resistant to attack by molten lignite fly ash under identical conditions, where the molten ash penetrates ~25% of TBC thickness. This damage mitigation appears to be due to the formation of an impervious, stable crystalline layer at the fly ash/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBC interface arresting the penetrating moltenfly- ash front. Additionally, these TBCs were tested using a rig with thermal gradient and simultaneous accumulation of ash. Modeling using an established mechanics model has been performed to illustrate the modes of delamination, as well as further opportunities to optimize coating microstructure. Transfer of the technology was developed in this program to all interested parties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devoino


    Full Text Available The paper presents optimization of  processes for obtaining maximum content of tetragonal phase in the initial material and thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide and hafnium oxide.  Results of the investigations on phase composition of oxide HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3  system have been given in the paper. The system represents  a microstructure which is similar to  zirconia dioxide and  transformed for its application at 1300 °C. The paper explains a mechanism of hafnium oxide influence on formation of the given microstructure. The research methodology has been based on complex metallography, X – ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of  structural elements of the composite plasma coating HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O system.In order to stabilize zirconium dioxide  dopant oxide should not only have an appropriate size of  metal ion, but also form a solid solution with the zirconia. This condition severely limits the number of possible stabilizers. In fact, such stabilization is possible only with the help of rare earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, CeO2, HfO2. Chemical purity of the applied materials plays a significant role for obtaining high-quality thermal barrier coatings. Hafnium oxide has been selected as powder for thermal barrier coatings instead of zirconium dioxide due to their similarities in structural modification, grating, chemical and physical properties and its high temperature structural transformations. It has been established that plasma thermal barrier HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3 coatings consist of  one tetragonal phase. This phase is equivalent to a non-equilibrium tetragonal t' phase in the “zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide” system. Affinity of  Hf+4 and Zr+4 cations leads to the formation of identical metastable phases during rapid quenching.

  10. Environmental/Thermal Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Thermal Tradeoff Studies (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. M.; Brewer, David; Shah, Ashwin R.


    Recent interest in environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBCs) has prompted research to develop life-prediction methodologies for the coating systems of advanced high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Heat-transfer analysis of EBC/TBCs for CMCs is an essential part of the effort. It helps establish the resulting thermal profile through the thickness of the CMC that is protected by the EBC/TBC system. This report documents the results of a one-dimensional analysis of an advanced high-temperature CMC system protected with an EBC/TBC system. The one-dimensional analysis was used for tradeoff studies involving parametric variation of the conductivity; the thickness of the EBC/TBCs, bond coat, and CMC substrate; and the cooling requirements. The insight gained from the results will be used to configure a viable EBC/TBC system for CMC liners that meet the desired hot surface, cold surface, and substrate temperature requirements.

  11. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating with Bond Coat Species in Cyclic Thermal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungyu Paik


    Full Text Available The effects of the bond coat species on the delamination or fracture behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was investigated using the yclic thermal fatigue and thermal-shock tests. The interface microstructures of each TBC showed a good condition without cracking or delamination after flame thermal fatigue (FTF for 1429 cycles. The TBC with the bond coat prepared by the air-plasma spray (APS method showed a good condition at the interface between the top and bond coats after cyclic furnace thermal fatigue (CFTF for 1429 cycles, whereas the TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS methods showed a partial cracking (and/or delamination and a delamination after 780 cycles, respectively. The TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the APS, HVOF and LPPS methods were fully delaminated (>50% after 159, 36, and 46 cycles, respectively, during the thermal-shock tests. The TGO thickness in the TBCs was strongly dependent on the both exposure time and temperature difference tested. The hardness values were found to be increased only after the CFTF, and the TBC with the bond coat prepared by the APS showed the highest adhesive strength before and after the FTF.

  12. Deterioration of Thermal Barrier Coated Turbine Blades by Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Swar


    Full Text Available A combined experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the erosion of thermal barrier coated (TBC blade surfaces by alumina particles ingestion in a single-stage turbine. In the experimental investigation, tests were performed to determine the erosion rates and particle restitution characteristics under different impact conditions. The experimental results show that the erosion rates increase with increased impingement angle, impact velocity, and temperature. In the computational simulations, an Euler-Lagrangian two-stage approach is used in obtaining numerical solutions to the three-dimensional compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the particles equations of motion in each blade passage reference frame. User defined functions (UDFs were developed to represent experimentally based correlations for particle surface interaction models and TBC erosion rates models. UDFs were employed in the three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations to determine the particle rebound characteristics and TBC erosion rates on the blade surfaces. Computational results are presented in a commercial turbine and a NASA-designed automotive turbine. The similarities between the erosion patterns in the two turbines are discussed for uniform particle ingestion and for particle ingestion concentrated in the inner and outer 5% of the stator blade span to represent the flow cooling of the combustor liner.

  13. Method of producing a barrier in a thermally insulated container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.H.; Le Hardy Guiton, J.D.


    The Netherlands' Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. has developed an essentially pinhole-free barrier for LNG storage/transport tanks. The barrier consists of layers of an expoxy-resin formulation and a glass-fiber material, applied in a special sequence to produce a barrier of superior quality.

  14. Thermal Modelling of Various Thermal Barrier Coatings in a High Flux Rocket Engine (United States)

    Nesbitt, James A.


    A thermal model was developed to predict the thermal response of coated and uncoated tubes tested in a H2/O2 rocket engine. Temperatures were predicted for traditional APS ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings, as well as APS and LPPS ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY cermet coatings. Good agreement was observed between predicted and measured metal temperatures at locations near the tube surface or at the inner tube wall. The thermal model was also used to quantitatively examine the effect of various coating system parameters on the temperatures in the substrate and coating. Accordingly, the effect of the presence a metallic bond coat and the effect of radiation from the surface of the ceramic layer were examined. In addition, the effect of a variation in the values of the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer was also investigated. It was shown that a variation in the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer, on the order of that reported in the literature for plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings, can result in temperature differences in the substrate greater than 100 C, a much greater effect than that due to the presence of a bond coat or radiation from the ceramic layer. The thermal model was also used to predict the thermal response of a coated rod in order to quantify the difference in the metal temperatures between the two substrate geometries in order to explain the previously-observed increased life of coatings on rods over that on tubes. It was shown that for the short duration testing in the rocket engine, the temperature in a tube could exceed that in a rod by more than 100 C. Lastly, a two-dimensional model was developed to evaluate the effect of tangential heat transfer around the tube and its impact on reducing the stagnation point temperature. It was also shown that tangential heat transfer does not significantly reduce the stagnation point temperature, thus allowing application of a simpler, one-dimensional model for comparing measured and predicted stagnation point

  15. Life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines (United States)

    Miller, R. A.


    Thermal barrier coating life models developed under the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hot Section Technology (HOST) Program are summarized. An initial laboratory model and three design-capable models are discussed. Current understanding of coating failure mechanisms are also summarized. The materials and structural aspects of thermal barrier coatings have been successfully integrated under the HOST program to produce models which may now or in the near future be used in design. Efforts on this program continue at Pratt and Whitney Aircraft where their model is being extended to the life prediction of physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings.

  16. Thermal Barrier For Vented O-Ring Seal (United States)

    Schick, H.; Shadlesky, Philip S.; Perry, Mark C.; Ketner, Donald M.; Salita, Mark


    Barrier allows gases to seat seal without damaging it. Ring of tungsten-wire mesh forms protective barrier between hot, pressurized combustion gases and O-rings. Mesh cools and depressurizes gases so they safely push on and thereby help to seat primary O-ring or secondary O-ring if primary O-ring fails to form seals. Barrier devised for use in rocket motor. Potential terrestrial applications includes aircraft engines, furnaces, and ducts carrying hot gases.

  17. Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Eric [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Gell, Maurice [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are crucial to improved energy efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. The use of traditional topcoat materials, e.g. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is limited at elevated temperatures due to (1) the accelerated undesirable phase transformations and (2) corrosive attacks by calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) deposits and moisture. The first goal of this project is to use the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process to further reduce the thermal conductivity of YSZ TBCs by introducing a unique microstructural feature of layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs). Extensive process optimization accompanied with hundreds of spray trials as well as associated SEM cross-section and laser-flash measurements, yielded a thermal conductivity as low as 0.62 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹ in SPPS YSZ TBCs, approximately 50% reduction of APS TBCs; while other engine critical properties, such as cyclic durability, erosion resistance and sintering resistance, were characterized to be equivalent or better than APS baselines. In addition, modifications were introduced to SPPS TBCs so as to enhance their resistance to CMAS under harsh IGCC environments. Several mitigation approaches were explored, including doping the coatings with Al₂O₃ and TiO₂, applying a CMAS infiltration-inhibiting surface layer, and filling topcoat cracks with blocking substances. The efficacy of all these modifications was assessed with a set of novel CMAS-TBC interaction tests, and the moisture resistance was tested in a custom-built high-temperature moisture rig. In the end, the optimal low thermal conductivity TBC system was selected based on all evaluation tests and its processing conditions were documented. The optimal coating consisted on a thick inner layer of YSZ coating made by the SPPS process having a thermal conductivity 50% lower than standard YSZ coatings topped with a high temperature tolerant CMAS resistant gadolinium

  18. Investigations of thermal barrier coatings of turbine parts using gas flame heating (United States)

    Lepeshkin, A. R.; Bichkov, N. G.; Ilinskaja, O. I.; Nazarov, V. V.


    The development of methods for the calculated and experimental investigations thermal barrier coatings and thermal state of gas-turbine engine parts with a thermal barrier coatings is actual work. The gas flame heating was demonstrated to be effectively used during investigations of a thermal ceramic barrier coatings and thermal state of such gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC as the cooled turbine blades and vanes and combustion liner components. The gas-flame heating is considered to be preferable when investigating the gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC in the special cases when both the convective and radiant components of thermal flow are of great importance. The small-size rig with gas-flame flow made it possible to conduct the comparison investigations with the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of thermal protection of the ceramic deposited thermal barrier coatings on APS and EB techniques. The developed design-experiment method was introduced in bench tests of turbine blades and combustion liner components of gas turbine engines.

  19. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.


    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  20. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.


    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes selection of oxides and describes in details a majority of oxide systems which are applicable for stabilization of zirconium dioxide while obtaining thermal barrier coatings with maximum amount of tetragonal phase. Methodology of investigation is based on a review of analytical information on the current state of thermal barrier coatings on the basis of zirconium dioxide stabilized by oxides of rare-earth metals. The method used for application of  zirconium dioxide thermal barrier coatings is plasma spraying. Positive results have been also obtained while applying e-beam sputtering, ion-plasma deposition and magnetron sputtering. Nevertheless preferred plasma spraying application for thermal barrier coatings still continues due to its high productivity and versatility that permits to deposit metallic and ceramic materials of the ordered chemical and phase composition.Ytterbium and cerium oxides have been selected as oxides for stabilization of zirconium dioxide in order to obtain thermal barrier coatings. The paper also considers аn oxide system of zirconium dioxide: “hafnium oxide – yttrium oxide”, representing in itself the structure which is similar to zirconium dioxide.

  2. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others


    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  3. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel (United States)

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James


    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  4. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma


    Chunjing Hao; Zehua Xiao; Di Xu; Chengbo Zhang; Jian Qiu; Kefu Liu


    Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, ...

  5. Mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Silvério


    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH30 on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH30 nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH30, formation of a continuous network of WSH30 linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix.

  6. Potential benefits of a ceramic thermal barrier coating on large power generation gas turbine (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Nainiger, J. J.


    Thermal barrier coating design option offers benefit in terms of reduced electricity costs when used in utility gas turbines. Options considered include: increased firing temperature, increased component life, reduced cooling air requirements, and increased corrosion resistance (resulting in increased tolerance for dirty fuels). Performance and cost data were obtained. Simple, recuperated and combined cycle applications were considered, and distillate and residual fuels were assumed. The results indicate that thermal barrier coatings could produce large electricity cost savings if these coatings permit turbine operation with residual fuels at distillate-rated firing temperatures. The results also show that increased turbine inlet temperature can result in substantial savings in fuel and capital costs.

  7. Mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Silva, Ingrid Souza Vieira da; Rosa, Joyce Rover; Pasquini, Daniel, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Uberlandia (USU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Assuncao, Rosana Maria Nascimento de [Universidade de Uberlandia (USU), Ituiutaba, MG (brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica


    In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH{sub 30}) on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC) nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH{sub 30} nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH{sub 30}, formation of a continuous network of WSH{sub 30} linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix. (author)

  8. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  9. Investigation on the Interface Characteristics of the Thermal Barrier Coating System through Flat Cylindrical Indenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wen


    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coating (TBC systems are highly advanced material systems and usually applied to insulate components from large and prolonged heat loads by utilizing thermally insulating materials. In this study, the characteristics of the interface of thermal barrier coating systems have been simulated by the finite-element method (FEM. The emphasis was put on the stress distribution at the interface which is beneath the indenter. The effect of the interface roughness, the thermally grown oxide (TGO layer's thickness, and the modulus ratio (η of the thin film with the substrate has been considered. Finite-element results showed that the influences of the interface roughness and the TGO layer's thickness on stress distribution were important. At the same time, the residual stress distribution has been investigated in detail.

  10. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars (United States)

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,


    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  11. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)


    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu


    Full Text Available The paper presents several types of thermal barrier type ceramic layers and the variations concerningtheir porosity and adherence related with their chemical composition. The structural and compositionalcharacterization of the obtained layers was performed by electron microscopy, one of the most relevantinvestigation methods in order to choose the optimum composition for the external layer deposited on copperdevices. The effect of quick thermal shock on the samples porosity and on chemical elements distribution alongthe layer’s thickness was also taken into account.

  13. Loadings in thermal barrier coatings of jet engine turbine blades an experimental research and numerical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz


    This book discusses complex loadings of turbine blades and protective layer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), under real working airplane jet conditions. They obey both multi-axial mechanical loading and sudden temperature variation during starting and landing of the airplanes. In particular, two types of blades are analyzed: stationary and rotating, which are widely applied in turbine engines produced by airplane factories.

  14. Current status and future trends in turbine application of thermal barrier coatings (United States)

    Sheffler, Keith D.; Gupta, Dinesh K.


    This paper provides an overview of the current status and future trends in application of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to turbine components, and in particular to high turbine airfoils. Included are descriptions of the favorable results achieved to date with bill-of-material applications of plasma deposited TBC, and recent experience with developmental coatings applied by electron beam-physical vapor deposition.

  15. Progress toward life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines (United States)

    Miller, R. A.


    Progress toward developing life models for simulating the behavior of thermal barrier coatings in aircraffft gas turbine engines is discussed. A preliminary laboratory model is described as are current efforts to develop engine-capable models. Current understanding of failure mechanisms is also summarized.

  16. GaN on Diamond with Ultra-Low Thermal Barrier Resistance (United States)


    GaN-on-Diamond with Ultra -Low Thermal Barrier Resistance Xing Gu1, Cathy Lee1, Jinqiao Xie1, Edward Beam1, Michael Becker2, Timothy A. Grotjohn2...previously reported best data, and close to the limit predicted by theoretical models for GaN-diamond interfaces Keywords: GaN-on-Diamond; ultra yet to be realized, mainly due to thermal limitations. Diamond, which offers superior thermal conductivity of ~ 2000 W/ mK , is a natural choice

  17. Thermal barrier coating by electron beam-physical vapor deposition of zirconia co-doped with yttria and niobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soares de Almeida


    Full Text Available The most usual ceramic material for coating turbine blades is yttria doped zirconia. Addition of niobia, as a co-dopant in the Y2O3-ZrO2 system, can reduce the thermal conductivity and improve mechanical properties of the coating. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of niobia on the microstructure and thermal properties of the ceramic coatings. SEM on coatings fractured cross-section shows a columnar structure and the results of XRD show only zirconia tetragonal phase in the ceramic coating for the chemical composition range studied. As the difference NbO2,5-YO1,5 mol percent increases, the tetragonality increases. A significant reduction of the thermal conductivity, measured by laser flash technique in the zirconia coating co-doped with yttria and niobia when compared with zirconia-yttria coating was observed.

  18. A combined approach for determining the thermal performance of radiant barriers under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranville, Frederic; Boyer, Harry; Lauret, Philippe; Lucas, Franck [University of La Reunion, Building and Systems Physics Laboratory, 117 rue du General Ailleret, 97 430 Le Tampon (France)


    This paper deals with a combined approach for assessing the thermal performance of radiant barriers under field conditions, based both on dynamic simulations and field measurements. The methodology involves the combination of model predictions and experimental results of a complex roof including a radiant barrier installed on a dedicated test cell. During the empirical validation of the building thermal model and more particularly thanks to the results of sensitivity analysis, simplifications of the model were made. These considerations lead to successive simplified versions of the model and finally a very simplified one, which is used to determine the thermal resistance of the complex roof. We first present the detailed thermal model, elaborated with a prototype of building simulation code. We then describe the experimental test cell and put the emphasis on the details of the roof. The simplification of the detailed model is then explained and the results presented. A value of the thermal resistance is finally obtained and confirms the potential of radiant barriers for a tropical climate. (author)

  19. Flyweight 3D Graphene Scaffolds with Microinterface Barrier-Derived Tunable Thermal Insulation and Flame Retardancy. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Hao, Menglong; Xu, Xiang; Xiong, Guoping; Li, Hui; Fisher, Timothy S


    In this article, flyweight three-dimensional (3D) graphene scaffolds (GSs) have been demonstrated with a microinterface barrier-derived thermal insulation and flame retardancy characteristics. Such 3D GSs were fabricated by a modified hydrothermal method and a unidirectional freeze-casting process with hierarchical porous microstructures. Because of high porosity (99.9%), significant phonon scattering, and strong π-π interaction at the interface barriers of multilayer graphene cellular walls, the GSs demonstrate a sequence of multifunctional properties simultaneously, such as lightweight density, thermal insulating characteristics, and outstanding mechanical robustness. At 100 °C, oxidized GSs exhibit a thermal conductivity of 0.0126 ± 0.0010 W/(m K) in vacuum. The thermal conductivity of oxidized GSs remains relatively unaffected despite large-scale deformation-induced densification of the microstructures, as compared to the behavior of reduced GSs (rGSs) whose thermal conductivity increases dramatically under compression. The contrasting behavior of oxidized GSs and rGSs appears to derive from large differences in the intersheet contact resistance and varying intrinsic thermal conductivity between reduced and oxidized graphene sheets. The oxidized GSs also exhibit excellent flame retardant behavior and mechanical robustness, with only 2% strength decay after flame treatment. In a broader context, this work demonstrates a useful strategy to design porous nanomaterials with a tunable heat conduction behavior through interface engineering at the nanoscale.

  20. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide. (United States)

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K


    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of reliable thermal barrier coatings for high-loaded turbine and combustor parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, Hans-Peter; Witz, Gregoire; Baumann, Robert [Alstom (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)


    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), mainly consisting of 7 % Yttria stabilised Zirconia (7YSZ), have been used for decades in gas turbines. A variety of MCrAIY have been developed as bondcoat (BC), where M represents Ni, Co or a combination of both. Further elements have been added to improve BC behaviour. For application of BC/TBC, thermal spraying of fine metallic/ceramic powder is state of the art. TBC is applied by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), BC either by vacuum or low pressure plasma spraying or APS. (orig.)

  2. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990 (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.


    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.

  3. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys (United States)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)


    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  4. Expanding of the fatigue life of thermal barrier coating by mixing MoSl{sub 2} to thermal sprayed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoya, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tobe, S. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Ashikaga-shi, Tochigi-ken (Japan)


    Recent trends of turbine blades of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines are to increase output power of the engines, to increase engine efficiency and to reduce environmental emission, and thus, higher operating temperatures of the engines are required. One of the technologies for increasing the operating temperature is a thermal barrier splayed coating [1,2]. The coating usually consists of a bonding coating layer of an alloy of NiCrAlY on the turbine blade and a top layer of ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, namely, partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). However, conventional coating systems deteriorate during turbine operation due to thermal and mechanical stresses imposed and corrosion actions by combustion gas coming from combustion chambers. Thus, the main issue is to develop measures against high oxidation rate and low fatigue life of the bonding coating layer. An idea for enhancing oxidation resistance and fatigue life as well of thermal barrier coatings consisting of a zirconia-based coating is to provide with a self-healing capability to the coating by diffusing a suitable substance to fatigue crack surfaces formed in the coating. Excessive oxidation of the NiCrAlY layer beneath is prevented for extending fatigue life of the splayed barrier coating. Several investigations have been conducted on the matter, and a research paper [3] claims that MoSi{sub 2} in a splayed coating has a self-healing capability for cracks formed in the coating by embedding the cracks with SiO{sub 2} formed from MoSi{sub 2} at high temperatures. Thus, a new coating system containing NiCrAlY, MoSi{sub 2}, and PSZ is expected to be developed instead of a two-layer coating system of NiCrAlY and PSZ.

  5. Novel Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings in Coal-Fired Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)


    This project presents a detailed investigation of a novel functionally graded coating material, pyrochlore oxide, for thermal barrier coating (TBC) in gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Thermal barrier coatings are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a manufacturing process to produce the novel low thermal conductivity and high thermal stability pyrochlore oxide based coatings with improved high-temperature durability. The current standard TBC, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), has service temperatures limited to <1200°C, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In contrast, pyrochlore oxide, e.g., lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ), has demonstrated lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability, which are crucial to high temperature applications, such as gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has collaborated with Praxair Surface Technologies (PST), and Changwon National University in South Korea to perform the proposed research. The research findings are critical to the extension of current TBCs to a broader range of high-temperature materials and applications. Several tasks were originally proposed and accomplished, with additional new opportunities identified during the course of the project. In this report, a description of the project tasks, the main findings and conclusions are given. A list of publications and presentations resulted from this research is listed in the Appendix at the end of the report.

  6. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars (United States)

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.


    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  7. The oxidation behavior of classical thermal barrier coatings exposed to extreme temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBC are designed to protect metal surfaces from extreme temperatures and improve their resistance to oxidation during service. Currently, the most commonly used systems are those that have the TBC structure bond coat (BC / top coat (TC layers. The top coat layer is a ceramic layer. Oxidation tests are designed to identify the dynamics of the thermally oxide layer (TGO growth at the interface of bond coat / top coat layers, delamination mechanism and the TBC structural changes induced by thermal conditions. This paper is a short study on the evolution of aluminum oxide protective layer along with prolonged exposure to the testing temperature. There have been tested rectangular specimens of metal super alloy with four surfaces coated with a duplex thermal barrier coating system. The specimens were microscopically and EDAX analyzed before and after the tests. In order to determine the oxide type, the samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The results of the investigation are encouraging for future studies. The results show a direct relationship between the development of the oxide layer and long exposure to the test temperature. Future research will focus on changing the testing temperature to compare the results.

  8. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  9. Very Tough, Erosion-Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings Developed (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.


    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are receiving increased attention for advanced gas turbine engine applications. These coatings are considered to be technologically important because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus achieving higher engine efficiency, lower emissions, and increased performance goals. To take full advantage of the capabilities of these coatings, researchers need to use an aggressive design approach whenever possible--one that allows greater temperature reductions through the coating systems and less cooling air to the components. Advanced TBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability than current coatings have been developed for future ultra-efficient, low-emission engine systems. Multicomponent-doped, defect-clustered TBCs have been shown to offer the low conductivity and high stability required for future high-temperature engine applications.

  10. Symbiotic bacterial communities of corals across two thermally distinct environments on the Belize Barrier Reef System (United States)

    Speare, L.


    Corals maintain symbiotic relationships with complex communities of algae, other eukaryotes, and bacteria, collectively called the `holobiont'. Studies suggest that differences in bacterial communities may affect coral holobiont nutrition, defense capabilities, and susceptibility to disease. Using next-generation metabarcoding of the 16S rRNA we will examine how bacterial communities differ between three coral host species (Siderastrea siderea, S. radians, and Pseudodiploria strigosa) from two distinct thermal environments of the Belize Barrier Reef System. These thermal environments differ in both mean annual temperature and thermal variation characterized here as: 1) `extreme' sites exhibiting high mean temperatures and high thermal variation, and 2) `low' sites exhibiting low mean temperatures and low thermal variation. Our results will help elucidate the complex dynamics that exist between coral-specific bacterial communities across different thermal environments. Characterizing the bacterial component of the coral holobiont can help us better recognize how species-level differences may affect overall holobiont physiology across a range of temperatures and lead to a more thorough understanding of coral disease susceptibility and overall fitness.

  11. Development of Reliability Based Life Prediction Methods for Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin


    Literature survey related to the EBC/TBC (environmental barrier coating/thermal barrier coating) fife models, failure mechanisms in EBC/TBC and the initial work plan for the proposed EBC/TBC life prediction methods development was developed as well as the finite element model for the thermal/stress analysis of the GRC-developed EBC system was prepared. Technical report for these activities is given in the subsequent sections.

  12. Thermal Cycling and High-Temperature Corrosion Tests of Rare Earth Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Gitzhofer, François


    Lutetium and yttrium silicates, enriched with an additional secondary zirconia phase, environmental barrier coatings were synthesized by the solution precursor plasma spraying process on silicon carbide substrates. A custom-made oven was designed for thermal cycling and water vapor corrosion testing. The oven can test four specimens simultaneously and allows to evaluate environmental barrier performances under similar corrosion kinetics compared to turbine engines. Coatings structural evolution has been observed by SEM on the polished cross sections, and phase composition has been analyzed by XRD. All coatings have been thermally cycled between 1300 °C and the ambient temperature, without spallation, due to their porosity and the presence of additional secondary phase which increases the thermal cycling resistance. During water vapor exposure at 1200 °C, rare earth disilicates showed a good stability, which is contradictory with the literature, due to impurities—such as Si- and Al-hydroxides—in the water vapor jets. The presence of vertical cracks allowed the water vapor to reach the substrate and then to corrode it. It has been observed that thin vertical cracks induced some spallation after 24 h of corrosion.

  13. Thermal Cycling and High-Temperature Corrosion Tests of Rare Earth Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Gitzhofer, François


    Lutetium and yttrium silicates, enriched with an additional secondary zirconia phase, environmental barrier coatings were synthesized by the solution precursor plasma spraying process on silicon carbide substrates. A custom-made oven was designed for thermal cycling and water vapor corrosion testing. The oven can test four specimens simultaneously and allows to evaluate environmental barrier performances under similar corrosion kinetics compared to turbine engines. Coatings structural evolution has been observed by SEM on the polished cross sections, and phase composition has been analyzed by XRD. All coatings have been thermally cycled between 1300 °C and the ambient temperature, without spallation, due to their porosity and the presence of additional secondary phase which increases the thermal cycling resistance. During water vapor exposure at 1200 °C, rare earth disilicates showed a good stability, which is contradictory with the literature, due to impurities—such as Si- and Al-hydroxides—in the water vapor jets. The presence of vertical cracks allowed the water vapor to reach the substrate and then to corrode it. It has been observed that thin vertical cracks induced some spallation after 24 h of corrosion.

  14. Life Prediction Issues in Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Brewer, David N.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.


    Issues and design requirements for the environmental barrier coating (EBC)/thermal barrier coating (TBC) life that are general and those specific to the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) development program have been described. The current state and trend of the research, methods in vogue related to the failure analysis, and long-term behavior and life prediction of EBCITBC systems are reported. Also, the perceived failure mechanisms, variables, and related uncertainties governing the EBCITBC system life are summarized. A combined heat transfer and structural analysis approach based on the oxidation kinetics using the Arrhenius theory is proposed to develop a life prediction model for the EBC/TBC systems. Stochastic process-based reliability approach that includes the physical variables such as gas pressure, temperature, velocity, moisture content, crack density, oxygen content, etc., is suggested. Benefits of the reliability-based approach are also discussed in the report.

  15. Failures of the thermal barriers of 900 MWe reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrouty, P.


    This report describes the anomalies encountered in the thermal barriers of the reactor coolant pumps in French 900 MWe PWR power stations. In addition to this specific problem, it demonstrates how the fortuitous discovery of a fault during a sampling test enabled faults of a generic nature to be revealed in components which were not subject to periodic inspection, the failure of which could seriously affect safety. This example demonstrates the risk which can be associated with the deterioration in areas which are not examined periodically and for which there are no preceding signs which would make early detection of deterioration possible.

  16. Mixed Mode Fracture of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Effects of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis L.


    The combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of anisotropic ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the microsplat coating material was modeled using Finite Element approach to account for anisotropy and micro cracked structures, and predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  17. Linear laser fast scanning thermography NDT for artificial disbond defects in thermal barrier coatings. (United States)

    Liu, Zhanwei; Jiao, Dacheng; Shi, Wenxiong; Xie, Huimin


    Interface disbond in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key issues that cause their premature failure. In general, blind hole defects are often used as substitutes in transient thermography. The linear laser fast scanning thermography (LLFST) method was developed in this study and combined with several post-processing algorithms to accurately detect blind hole defects in TBCs. Through numerical simulation and experimental verification, a unique thermal response characteristic of blind holes in the cooling phase, namely a distinct "tailing" phenomenon, was summarized and utilized to recognize small defects. Validation tests indicated that blind holes with diameters of 1, 2, and 3 mm and artificial disbonds with diameters of 2 and 3 mm in TBCs are detected with high efficiency.

  18. Luminescence-Based Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coating Health and Performance (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or safety. In particular, it is shown that rare-earth-doped luminescent sublayers can be integrated into the TBC structure to produce luminescence emission that can be monitored to assess TBC erosion and delamination progression, and to map surface and subsurface temperatures as a measure of TBC performance. The design and implementation of these TBCs with integrated luminescent sublayers are presented.

  19. Study on Stress Development in the Phase Transition Layer of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Chai


    Full Text Available Stress development is one of the significant factors leading to the failure of thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. In this work, stress development in the two phase mixed zone named phase transition layer (PTL, which grows between the thermally grown oxide (TGO and the bond coat (BC, is investigated by using two different homogenization models. A constitutive equation of the PTL based on the Reuss model is proposed to study the stresses in the PTL. The stresses computed with the proposed constitutive equation are compared with those obtained with Voigt model-based equation in detail. The stresses based on the Voigt model are slightly higher than those based on the Reuss model. Finally, a further study is carried out to explore the influence of phase transition proportions on the stress difference caused by homogenization models. Results show that the stress difference becomes more evident with the increase of the PTL thickness ratio in the TGO.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available MechanicaJ properties of high performance ceramics have been improved to the point where their use in heat engines is possible. The high temperature strength and low thermal expansion properties of bigh performance ceramics offer an advantage over metals in the development of non-water cooling engine. However, because bard environment in diesel engine combustion chamber, solving the problem of durabiUty of TBC is important. DurabiUty of thermal barrier coatings(TBC is liınited by two main failure mechanisms: Therınal expansion nlİsmatch betwcen bond coat and top coat and bond coat oxidation. Both of these can cause failure of the ceramic top coat. Developments of recent years sholv that bond coats \\Vith higher oxidation resistance tend to have better coating system cyclic lives

  1. Some recent trends in research and technology of advanced thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, U.; Leyens, Ch.; Fritscher, K.; Peters, M.; Saruhan-Brings, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR, Institute of Mateirals Research, Koln (Germany); Lavigne, O.; Dorvaux, J.M.; Poulain, M.; Mevrel, R.; Caliez, M. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. of Metallic Materials and Processing, 92 - Chatillon (France)


    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts temperature gradients of the order of 100 to 150 deg. C can be achieved. Today, state-of-the-art TBCs, typically consisting of an yttria-stabilised zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which, in turn, requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. Presently, TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapour deposition are favoured for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R and D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. (authors)

  2. Effects of Thermal Barrier Coatings on Approaches to Turbine Blade Cooling (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.


    Reliance on Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) to reduce the amount of air used for turbine vane cooling is beneficial both from the standpoint of reduced NOx production, and as a means of improving cycle efficiency through improved component efficiency. It is shown that reducing vane cooling from 10 to 5 percent of mainstream air can lead to NOx reductions of nearly 25 percent while maintaining the same rotor inlet temperature. An analysis is given which shows that, when a TBC is relied upon in the vane thermal design process, significantly less coolant is required using internal cooling alone compared to film cooling. This is especially true for small turbines where internal cooling without film cooling permits the surface boundary layer to remain laminar over a significant fraction of the vane surface.

  3. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.


    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  4. Columnar structure of SV40 minichromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward N Trifonov


    Full Text Available Like the sequence of the strongest 601 clone nucleosome of Lowary and Widom, the SV40 genome sequence contains tracks of YR dinucleotides separated by small integers of the 10.4n base series (10, 11, 21 and 30 bases. The tracks, however, substantially exceed the nucleosome DNA size and, thus, correspond to more extended structure - columnar chromatin. The micrococcal nuclease digests of the SV40 chromatin do not show uniquely positioned individual nucleosomes. This confirms the columnar structure of the minichromosome, as well as earlier electron microscopy studies.

  5. Splenectomy attenuates severe thermal trauma-induced intestinal barrier breakdown in rats. (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-dong; Chen, Zhen-yong; Yang, Peng; Huang, Wen-guang; Jiang, Chun-fang


    The severe local thermal trauma activates a number of systemic inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, NF-κB, resulting in a disruption of gut barrier. The gastrointestinal tight junction (TJ) is highly regulated by membrane-associated proteins including zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which can be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. As splenectomy has been shown to reduce secretion of cytokines, we hypothesized that (1) severe scald injury up-regulates TNF-α and NF-κB, meanwhile down-regulates expression of ZO-1 and occludin, leading to the increased intestinal permeability, and (2) splenectomy can prevent the burn-induced decrease in ZO-1 and occludin expression, resulting in improved intestinal barrier. Wistar rats undergoing a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) thermal trauma were randomized to receive an accessorial splenectomy meanwhile or not. Intestinal injury was assessed by histological morphological analysis, and serum endotoxin levels, TNF-α, NF-κB, ZO-1 and occludin levels were detected by Western blotting in the terminal ileum mucosal tissue. 30% TBSA burn caused a significant increase in serum endotoxin levels, but NF-κB, and TNF-α, and the average intestinal villus height and mucosal thickness were decreased significantly. Burn injury could also markedly decrease the levels of ZO-1 and occludin in terminal ileum mucosal tissue (all PSplenectomy at 7th day after burn significantly reversed the burn-induced breakdown of ZO-1 and occludin (all PSplenectomy may provide a therapeutic benefit in restoring burn-induced intestinal barrier by decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and recovering TJ proteins.

  6. Thermal stability of amorphous tungsten/tungsten nitride synthesis using HFCVD as a diffusion barrier for copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgary, Somayeh; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood [Islamic Azad University, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Boochani, Arash [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The amorphous W/WN bi-layer with excellent thermal stability was successfully prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. It was found that the W/WN bi-layer is technological importance because of its low resistivity and good diffusion barrier properties between Cu and Si up to 700 C for 30 min. The thermal stability was evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The XRD results show that the Cu{sub 3}Si phase was formed by Cu diffusion through W/WN barrier for the 800 C annealed sample. The formation of the Cu-Si compounds denotes the failure of the W/WN diffusion barrier with rapid increase in sheet resistance of the film. The microstructure of the interface between W/WN and Cu reflects the stability and breakdown of the barriers. The failure of this amorphous barrier occurs with heat treatment when the deposited amorphous barrier material crystallizes. The major part of Cu diffusion in polycrystalline structure with disordered grain boundaries is controlled by grain boundaries. AFM results indicated a rapid increase in surface roughness at the diffusion barrier failure temperature. It was found that the grain size plays an important factor to control the thermally stability of the W/WN bi-layer. (orig.)

  7. Recent results on some columnar paramagnetic metallomesogens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The liquid crystalline and selected physical properties of some vanadyl and manganese(III)-porphyrin-TCNE complexes are discussed. These materials form linear chains from a magnetic point of view and columnar discotic LC phases. Some of the manganese complexes ex- hibit a bulk magnetic phase below 20 ...

  8. NDE of degradation of thermal barrier coating by means of impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Minkov, Dorian; Shoji, Tetsuo [Tohoku Univ., Research Inst. for Fracture Technology, Sendai (Japan); Sato, Minoru; Hashimoto, Hideo [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)


    Nondestructive evaluation of thermal barrier coating (TBC) degradation during service operation has received a wide attention for service life prediction of advanced gas turbines. In this work, TBC on nickel base superalloy degraded at various degrees by thermal aging is investigated. Particularly, TBC and Metal-Chromium-Aluminum-Yttrium alloy (MCrAlY) (M indicates iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) or these combinations) bond coating interface where a detrimental reaction takes place and forms various reaction products during thermal aging, is studied in detail. Formation kinetics and physical properties of the reaction layer are evaluated by means of Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). Specimens aged at higher temperature and a longer aging time shows larger impedance. The impedance behavior of TBC and bond coating is found to be markedly changed by the formation of the reaction layer. Physical properties and thickness of the reaction layer are evaluated using the change of the impedance. A mechanistic interpretation of the cause of change in the physical properties and IS behavior are described. (Author)

  9. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines (United States)

    Parks, William P.; Hoffman, Eugene E.; Lee, Woo Y.; Wright, Ian G.


    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is aimed at fostering the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS machines will emphasize different criteria in the selection of materials for the critical components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. In fact, the goals of the ATS will require significant improvements in TBC technology, since these turbines will be totally reliant on TBC's, which will be required to function on critical components such as the first stage vanes and blades for times considerably in excess of those experienced in current applications. Issues that assume increased importance are the mechanical and chemical stability of the ceramic layer and of the metallic bond coat; the thermal expansion characteristics and compliance of the ceramic layer; and the thermal conductivity across the thickness of the ceramic layer. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology. A significant TBC development effort is planned in the ATS program which will address these key issues.

  10. Utility of Photochemical Traits as Diagnostics of Thermal Tolerance amongst Great Barrier Reef Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Nitschke


    Full Text Available Light availability is considered a key factor regulating the thermal sensitivity of reef building corals, where excessive excitation of photosystem II (PSII further exacerbates pressure on photochemical pathways already compromised by heat stress. Coral symbionts acclimate to changes in light availability (photoacclimation by continually fine-tuning the photochemical operating efficiency of PSII. However, how this process adjusts throughout the warmest months in naturally heat-tolerant or sensitive species is unknown, and whether this influences the capacity to tolerate transient heat stress is untested. We therefore examined the PSII photophysiology of 10 coral species (with known thermal tolerances from shallow reef environments at Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in spring (October-November, 2015 vs. summer (February-March, 2016. Corals were maintained in flow-through aquaria and rapid light curve (RLC protocols using pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometry captured changes in the PSII photoacclimation strategy, characterized as the minimum saturating irradiance (Ek, and the extent of photochemical ([1 – C], operating efficiency vs. non-photochemical ([1 – Q] energy dissipation. Values of Ek across species were >2-fold higher in all coral species in spring, consistent with a climate of higher overall light exposure (i.e., higher PAR from lower cloud cover, rainfall and wind speed compared with summer. Summer decreases in Ek were combined with a shift toward preferential photochemical quenching in all species. All coral species were subsequently subjected to thermal stress assays. An equivalent temperature-ramping profile of 1°C increase per day and then maintenance at 32°C was applied in each season. Despite the significant seasonal photoacclimation, the species hierarchy of thermal tolerance [maximum quantum yields of PSII (Fv/Fm, monitored at dawn and dusk] did not shift between seasons, except for Pocillopora

  11. Mesoscopic Nonlinear Elastic Modulus of Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by Cylindrical Punch Indentation (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.


    Cylindrical punch indentations are performed to determine the effective modulus of a plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8Wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coating (TBC) as a function of coating depth. Cylindrical punch indentations offer significant advantages over pointed (Vickers, Berkovich, or Knoop) indentations for materials that do not exhibit linear elastic behavior. Cyclic loading with a cylindrical punch clearly shows the TBCs to exhibit nonlinear elastic behavior with significant hysteresis that is related to the compaction and internal sliding within the plasma-spray splat microstructure. In addition, the effect of a high heat flux laser treatment was shown to produce a gradient both in the effective TBC modulus and degree of loading/unloading hysteresis with depth.

  12. Deposition stress effects on the life of thermal barrier coatings on burner rigs (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.


    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  13. High Temperature Damping Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier and Protective Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Ghosn, Louis J.


    A high temperature damping test apparatus has been developed using a high heat flux CO 2 laser rig in conjunction with a TIRA S540 25 kHz Shaker and Polytec OFV 5000 Vibrometer system. The test rig has been successfully used to determine the damping performance of metallic and ceramic protective coating systems at high temperature for turbine engine applications. The initial work has been primarily focused on the microstructure and processing effects on the coating temperature-dependence damping behavior. Advanced ceramic coatings, including multicomponent tetragonal and cubic phase thermal barrier coatings, along with composite bond coats, have also been investigated. The coating high temperature damping mechanisms will also be discussed.

  14. Constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocks, A.C.F., E-mail: [Department of Engineering Science, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Fleck, N.A. [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)


    A micromechanical model is presented for the constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed, thermal barrier coating upon a thick superalloy substrate. The coating comprises random splats with intervening penny-shaped cracks. The crack faces make contact at asperities, which progressively sinter in-service by interfacial diffusion, accommodated by bulk creep. Diffusion is driven by the reduction in interfacial energy at the developing contacts and by the local asperity contact stress. At elevated operating temperature, both sintering and creep strains accumulate within the plane of the coating. The sensitivities of sintering rate and microstructure evolution rate to the kinetic parameters and thermodynamic driving forces are explored. It is demonstrated that the sintering response is governed by three independent timescales, as dictated by the material and geometric properties of the coating. Finally, the role of substrate constraint is assessed by comparing the rate of constrained sintering with that for free sintering.

  15. Use of indentation technique to measure elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Ferber, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Elastic modulus of an yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated with a Knoop indentation technique. The measured elastic modulus values for the coating ranged from 68.4 {+-} 22.6 GPa at an indentation load of 50 g to 35.7 {+-} 9.8 at an indentation load of 300 g. At higher loads, the elastic modulus values did not change significantly. This steady-state value of 35.7 GPa for ZrO{sub 2} TBC agreed well with literature values obtained by the Hertzian indentation method. Furthermore, the measured elastic modulus for the TBC is lower than that reported for bulk ZrO{sub 2} ({approx} 190 GPa). This difference is believed to be due to the presence of a significant amount of porosity and microcracks in the TBCs. Hardness was also measured.

  16. Morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of graphene oxide/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Woo; Choi, Hyun Muk [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    To improve the physical and gas barrier properties of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film, two graphene nanosheets of highly functionalized graphene oxide (0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%) and low-functionalized graphene oxide (0.5 wt%) were incorporated into PLA resin via solution blending method. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of material parameters such as loading level and degree of functionalization for the graphene nanosheets on the morphology and properties of the resultant nanocomposites. The highly functionalized graphene oxide (GO) caused more exfoliation and homogeneous dispersion in PLA matrix as well as more sustainable suspensions in THF, compared to low-functionalized graphene oxide (LFGO). When loaded with GO from 0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%, the glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, tensile strength and modulus increased steadily. The GO gave rise to more pronounced effect in the thermal and mechanical reinforcement, relative to LFGO. In addition, the preparation of fairly transparent PLA-based nanocomposite film with noticeably improved barrier performance achieved only when incorporated with GO up to 0.7wt%. As a result, GO may be more compatible with hydrophilic PLA resin, compared to LFGO, resulting in more prominent enhancement of nanocomposites properties.

  17. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Hao


    Full Text Available Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, and the intermediate products between gas and liquid phase before and after treatment were investigated. The results showed that DBD plasma could maintain the efficient adsorption performance of resins while degrading the indigo carmine adsorbed by resins. The degradation rate of indigo carmine reached 88% and the regeneration efficiency (RE can be maintained above 85% after multi-successive regeneration cycles. The indigo carmine contaminants were decomposed by a variety of reactive radicals leading to fracture of exocyclic C=C bond, which could cause decoloration of dye solution. Based on above results, a possible degradation pathway for the indigo carmine by resin adsorption/DBD plasma treatment was proposed.

  18. Review of hot corrosion of thermal barrier coatings of gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yongbao


    Full Text Available The review was done in order to make clear the problem of the hot corrosion of the Thermal Barrier Coatings(TBCsduring gas turbine serving. This paper summarizes the factors resulting from the hot corrosion of TBCs during turbine service and classifies methods for enhancing the corrosive resistance of TBCs. A prospective methodology for improving corrosion resistance is also formulated. The main types of corrosion coating include phase reaction, oxidizing of the bond coating, salt-fog corrosion, CMAS corrosion and fuel impurity corrosion. So far, methods for improving the corrosion resistance of TBCs include developing new coating materials, anticorrosive treatment on the surface of TBCs, modifying the stacking configuration and improving the cleansing functions of the gas turbines. In the future, developing new materials with excellent performance will still be the main direction for boosting the improvement of the hot corrosion resistance of TBCs. Simultaneously, improving the tacking configuration and nanotechnology of TBC coatings are potential approaches for improving corrosion resistance. With the development of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC, the focus of the hot corrosion of TBCs may turn to that of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs.

  19. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampath, Sanjay [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  20. Liquid Feedstock Plasma Spraying: An Emerging Process for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Markocsan, Nicolaie; Gupta, Mohit; Joshi, Shrikant; Nylén, Per; Li, Xin-Hai; Wigren, Jan


    Liquid feedstock plasma spraying (LFPS) involves deposition of ultrafine droplets of suspensions or solution precursors (typically ranging from nano- to submicron size) and permits production of coatings with unique microstructures that are promising for advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. This paper reviews the recent progress arising from efforts devoted to development of high-performance TBCs using the LFPS approach. Advancements in both suspension plasma spraying and solution precursor plasma spraying, which constitute the two main variants of LFPS, are presented. Results illustrating the different types of the microstructures that can be realized in LFPS through appropriate process parameter control, model-assisted assessment of influence of coating defects on thermo-mechanical properties and the complex interplay between pore coarsening, sintering and crystallite growth in governing thermal conductivity are summarized. The enhancement in functional performances/lifetime possible in LFPS TBCs with multilayered architectures and by incorporating new pyrochlore chemistries such as gadolinium zirconate, besides the conventional single 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia insulating ceramic layer, is specifically highlighted.

  1. Depth-Penetrating Temperature Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings Incorporating Thermographic Phosphors (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Bencic, Timothy J..; Allison, Stephen W.; Beshears, David L.


    Thermographic phosphors have been previously demonstrated to provide effective non-contact, emissivity-independent surface temperature measurements. Because of the translucent nature of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), thermographic phosphor-based temperature measurements can be extended beyond the surface to provide depth-selective temperature measurements by incorporating the thermographic phosphor layer at the depth where the temperature measurement is desired. In this paper, thermographic phosphor (Y2O3:Eu) fluorescence decay time measurements are demonstrated to provide through-the-coating thickness temperature readings up to 1100 C with the phosphor layer residing beneath a 100 micron thick TBC (plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia). With an appropriately chosen excitation wavelength and detection configuration, it is shown that sufficient phosphor emission is generated to provide effective temperature measurements, despite the attenuation of both the excitation and emission intensities by the overlying TBC. This depth-penetrating temperature measurement capability should prove particularly useful for TBC diagnostics where a large thermal gradient is typically present across the TBC thickness. The fluorescence decay from the Y2O3:Eu layer exhibited both an initial short-term exponential rise and a longer-term exponential decay. The rise time constant was demonstrated to provide better temperature indication below 500 C while the decay time constant was a better indicator at higher temperatures.

  2. A Robot Trajectory Optimization Approach for Thermal Barrier Coatings Used for Free-Form Components (United States)

    Cai, Zhenhua; Qi, Beichun; Tao, Chongyuan; Luo, Jie; Chen, Yuepeng; Xie, Changjun


    This paper is concerned with a robot trajectory optimization approach for thermal barrier coatings. As the requirements of high reproducibility of complex workpieces increase, an optimal thermal spraying trajectory should not only guarantee an accurate control of spray parameters defined by users (e.g., scanning speed, spray distance, scanning step, etc.) to achieve coating thickness homogeneity but also help to homogenize the heat transfer distribution on the coating surface. A mesh-based trajectory generation approach is introduced in this work to generate path curves on a free-form component. Then, two types of meander trajectories are generated by performing a different connection method. Additionally, this paper presents a research approach for introducing the heat transfer analysis into the trajectory planning process. Combining heat transfer analysis with trajectory planning overcomes the defects of traditional trajectory planning methods (e.g., local over-heating), which helps form the uniform temperature field by optimizing the time sequence of path curves. The influence of two different robot trajectories on the process of heat transfer is estimated by coupled FEM models which demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented optimization approach.

  3. Temperature measurement involving nanostructured thermal barrier coating using a multiwavelength pyrometer (United States)

    Ng, Daniel


    It has been reported that erroneous results were obtained when a conventional pyrometer was used to measure the surface temperature of turbine engine components. Temperatures discrepancies were observed in components which were identical, except that one had its measured surface covered by a nanostructured thermal barrier coating (TBC) whereas the other component's surface was not so coated. These components were placed in an identical environment, receiving identical heat fluxes. A pyrometer measured the TBC covered surface hundreds degrees lower. These coatings were about 25 (mu)m thick, consisting of hundreds of layers of finer structures. The TBC's had very low thermal conductivity, heat flux calculations indicated that the temperatures of the coated surface should exhibit much higher temperature than the uncoated surface. Because these coatings were transparent to radiation from the visible to the infrared region, the temperatures measured by the pyrometer should be the temperature of the covered surface. Turbo components' performance and service life depend critically on the temperatures that it would experience; it is therefore important to know accurately and confidently the real surface temperature. Out of these concerns, an investigation into the measurement of nanostructured material surface temperature was carried out.

  4. Overview on Recent Developments of Bondcoats for Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Naumenko, D.; Pillai, R.; Chyrkin, A.; Quadakkers, W. J.


    The performance of MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) bondcoats for atmospheric plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (APS-TBCs) is substantially affected by the contents of Co, Ni, Cr, and Al as well as minor additions of Y, Hf, Zr, etc., but also by manufacturing-related properties such as coating thickness, porosity, surface roughness, and oxygen content. The latter properties depend in turn on the exact technology and set of parameters used for bondcoat deposition. The well-established LPPS process competes nowadays with alternative technologies such as HVOF and APS. In addition, new technologies have been developed for bondcoats manufacturing such as high-velocity APS or a combination of HVOF and APS for application of a flashcoat. Future developments of the bondcoat systems will likely include optimization of thermal spraying methods for obtaining complex bondcoat roughness profiles required for extended APS-TBC lifetimes. Introduction of the newest generation single-crystal superalloys possessing low Cr and high Al and refractory metals (Re, Ru) contents will require definition of new bondcoat compositions and/or multilayered bondcoats to minimize interdiffusion issues. The developments of new bondcoat compositions may be substantially facilitated using thermodynamic-kinetic modeling, the vast potential of which has been demonstrated in recent years.

  5. Numerical investigation of damage protective oxide mechanisms in thermal barrier system for aeronautical turbine blade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khelifa hocine


    Full Text Available The choice of a material for a given application requires insuring a good durability in its conditions of employment, in particular environmental. It is especially true for the systems destined to work in corrosive hot atmospheres. For it, the knowledge and the understanding of the corrosion phenomena, oxidization, ageing and damage are indispensable in order to anticipate the life period of the structures and to propose the adapted protective solutions. The study of the corrosion in high temperature is therefore a greatly interdisciplinary topic, into the interface of the physico-chemistry, metallic and ceramic materials and mechanics. We propose in this work a finite element method for the simulation of EBPVD TBCs spallation. Our studies concern one of several systems that we call thermal barrier coatings, which are a Composite materials deposited in layers on the hot components to isolate them chemically and thermally at high temperatures. This is the last operational technology adapted on aircraft engines but it is still studied and not fully exploited.This comprehensive article describes the systems currently used and the problem of interaction between mechanical and environment in the turbine.

  6. Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings Induced by Volcanic Ash Deposition (United States)

    Arai, Masayuki


    Thermal stress generated on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by volcanic ash (VA) deposition was assessed measuring the tip deflection of a multilayered beam structure as a function of temperature. The TBC in this study was deposited onto the surface of a blade utilized in a land-based gas turbine which is composed of 8 wt.%Y2O3-ZrO2/CoNiCrAlY on a Ni-based superalloy. The VA-deposited TBC sample was heated at 1453 K, and the effect of VA deposition on TBC delamination was examined in comparison with a TBC sample without VA deposition as a reference. On the basis of the VA attack damage mechanism which was investigated via the tip deflection measurement and a comprehensive microstructure examination, a damage-coupled constitutive model was proposed. The proposed model was based on the infiltration of the molten VA inside pores and phase transformations of yttria -tabilized zirconia in the TBC system. The numerical analysis results, which were simulated utilizing the finite element code installing the developed constitutive model, showed us that VA attack on the TBC sample induced near-interfacial cracks because of a significant increasing in the coating stress.

  7. Characterization of a rapid thermal anneal TiNxOy/TiSi2 contact barrier (United States)

    Ho, V. Q.


    In this paper, the physical and electrical properties of a TiNxOy/TiSi2 dual layer contact barrier are reported. The TiNxOy/TiSi2 barrier was formed by rapidly annealing a Ti thin film on Si in an N2 ambient. During this process, the Ti film surface reacts with N2 to form a TiNxOy skin layer and the bulk of the Ti film reacts with Si to form an underlying TiSi2 layer. The influences of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) conditions on the TiNxOy layer were investigated by varying the RTA temperature from 600 to 1100° C and cycle duration from 30 to 100 s. It is found that the resulting TiNxOy and TiSi2 layer thicknesses are dependent on RTA temperature and the starting Ti thickness. For a starting Ti thickness of 500Å, 150Å thick TiNxOy and 800Å thick TiSi2 are obtained after an RTA at 900° C for 30 s. The TiNxOy thickness is limited by a fast diffusion of Si into Ti to form TiSi2. When a Ti film is deposited on SiO2, Ti starts to react with SiO2 from 600° C and a significant reduction of the SiO2 thickness is observed after an RTA at 900° C. The resulting layer is composed of a surface TiNxOy layer followed by a complex layer of titanium oxide and titanium suicide. In addition, when Ti is depos-ited on TiSi2, thicker TiNxOy and TiSi2 layers are obtained after RTA. This is because the TiSi2 layer retards the diffusion of Si from the underlying substrate into the Ti layer. NMOSFETs were fabricated using the TiNxOy/TiSi2 as a contact barrier formed by RTA at 900° C for 30 s and a significant reduction of contact resistance was obtained. In addition, electromigration test at a high current density indicated that a significant improvement in mean time to failure (MTF) has been obtained with the barrier.

  8. Visualization of columnar defects in superconductors (United States)

    Bauer, P.; Rossel, C.; Williams, E. J.; Berger, R.; Daniel, J.; Irmer, B.; Kraus, M.; Kreiselmeyer, G.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.; Karpinski, J.


    Columnar defects in single crystals of superconductors were investigated using scanning probe microscopy. We show that the observable topography strongly depends on the crystal structure as well as on the type of the interaction with the probe. In scanning tunneling microscopy studies, the low conductance of the amorphous tracks leads to tip-surface contact. Owing to this contact, the defects are imaged as hollows having a depth that primarily reflects the tunneling distance. For the high transition temperature materials, atomic force microscopy images the real defect structure as hillocks growing out of the surface. This outgrowth of amorphous material is time dependent and produced by the relaxation of irradiation-induced stress. The dynamic outgrowth of the columnar defects is discussed in terms of a so-called “tooth paste” model.

  9. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony


    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  10. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James


    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  11. Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook


    The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings

  12. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux


    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  13. A Numerical Procedure to Obtain the Creep Parameters of the Thermal Barrier Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wen


    Full Text Available Three-point bending creep test was used to understand the creep behavior of typical thin film/substrate systems—thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. Firstly, a simplified model, which does not consider the local effect, has been set up to get an analytical relationship. The important result is that creep stress exponent of materials is equal to the creep load exponent of the steady-state deflection rate of BC specimens. Secondly, in order to consider the local effect of bending, the finite element method (FEM has been carried out. FEM calculation shows that there is a steady stage of the creep deflection under a constant applied load. And the exponent of the steady-state creep deflection rate to the applied load is found to be equal to the creep stress exponent of materials. The creep constant of the materials can be obtained by a set of trials with assumed creep constants of materials and can be finally determined by the best fit method. Finally, the finite element results show that the influences of the friction, the thickness of TBCs, and the modulus ratio of TBC to the substrate on stress distribution are important.

  14. Role of algal eukaryotes in subtidal columnar stromatolite formation


    Awramik, Stanley M.; Riding, Robert


    Columnar stromatolites were abundant and widespread in the Proterozoic but are exceedingly rare in modern seas. Consequently, the stromatolites at Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been widely interpreted as unique modern analogs of ancient stromatolites constructed by complex communities of cyanobacteria. However, the Shark Bay columnar stromatolites contain sediment that is unusually coarse for stromatolites both ancient and modern, and the subtidal columnar stromatolites h...

  15. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. (United States)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian


    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  16. Effect of thermal barrier coating with various blends of pumpkin seed oil methyl ester in DI diesel engine (United States)

    Karthickeyan, V.; Balamurugan, P.


    The rise in oil prices, dependency on fossil fuels, degradation of non-renewable energy resources and global warming strives to find a low-carbon content alternative fuel to the conventional fuel. In the present work, Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) was used as a thermal barrier coating in piston head, cylinder head and intake and exhaust valves using plasma spray technique, which provided a rise in combustion chamber temperature. With the present study, the effects of thermal barrier coating on the blends of Pumpkin Seed Oil Methyl Ester (PSOME) were observed in both the coated and uncoated engine. Performance and emission characteristics of the PSOME in coated and uncoated engines were observed and compared. Increased thermal efficiency and reduced fuel consumption were observed for B25 and diesel in coated and uncoated engine. On comparing with the other biodiesel samples, B25 exhibited lower HC, NOx and smoke emissions in thermally coated engine than uncoated engine. After 100 h of operation, no anamolies were found in the thermally coated components except minor cracks were identified in the edges of the piston head.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KWON


    Full Text Available Adequate design of engineered barriers, including canister, buffer and backfill, is important for the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out under different condition to examine the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers and rock mass. The research looked at five areas of importance, the effect of the swelling pressure, water content of buffer, density of compacted bentonite, emplacement type and the selection of failure criteria. The results highlighted the need to consider tensile stress in the outer shell of a canister due to thermal expansion of the canister and the swelling pressure from the buffer for a more reliable design of an underground repository system. In addition, an adequate failure criterion should be used for the buffer and backfill.

  18. Thermal damping effect due to a green barrier which includes Arundo donax as bioclimatic element in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodríguez-Salinas


    Full Text Available Among the main environmental impacts of the operation of residential buildings are those due to greenhouse gases generation as a result of electric consumption of air conditioning systems. The use of vegetation systems in residential buildings represents an alternative to reduce this energy consumption. Green vegetation systems barriers are often used as protection against winds, but recently they are also being used as acoustic dampers. This work explores their use as thermal insulation systems for buildings. Specifically, we report the behavior of an Arundo donax green barrier as a bioclimatic element. The results are analyzed based on indoor and outdoor temperature measurement in prototype buildings, in function of the green barrier presence. Additionally Arundo donax transpiration under extreme environmental conditions was determined.

  19. Phase Stability and Thermal Conductivity of Composite Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Benkel, Samantha; Zhu, Dongming


    Advanced environmental barrier coatings are being developed to protect SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites in harsh combustion environments. The current coating development emphasis has been placed on the significantly improved cyclic durability and combustion environment stability in high-heat-flux and high velocity gas turbine engine environments. Environmental barrier coating systems based on hafnia (HfO2) and ytterbium silicate, HfO2-Si nano-composite bond coat systems have been processed and their stability and thermal conductivity behavior have been evaluated in simulated turbine environments. The incorporation of Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNT) into high stability (HfO2) and/or HfO2-silicon composite bond coats, along with ZrO2, HfO2 and rare earth silicate composite top coat systems, showed promise as excellent environmental barriers to protect the SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites.

  20. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal in non-thermal plasma double dielectric barrier discharge reactor. (United States)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Fu, Xindi; Liu, Yanjun; Abbas, Yawar; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing


    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) an emerging technology to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in unhygienic point source air streams. In present study, double dielectric barrier discharge (DDBD) reactors were used for the first time to evaluate the removal efficiency of VOCs mixture of different nature at constant experimental conditions (input power 16-65.8 W, VOCs mixture feeding rate 1-6 L/min, 100-101 ppm inlet concentration of individual VOC). Reactor A and B with discharge gap at 6 mm and 3 mm respectively, were used in current study. When treated at an input power of 53.7 W with gas feeding rate of 1 L/min in DDBD reactor A, removal efficiency of the VOCs were: tetrachloroethylene (100%), toluene (100%), trichloroethylene (100%), benzene (100%), ethyl acetate (100%) and carbon disulfide (88.30%); whereas in reactor B, the removal efficiency of all VOCs were 100%. Plasma-catalyst (Pt-Sn/Al 2 O 3 , BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5) synergistic effect on VOCs removal efficiency was also investigated. Highest removal efficiency i.e 100% was observed for each compound with BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5 at an input power 65.8 W. However, integrating NTP with BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5 leads to enhanced removal performance of VOCs mixture with high activity, increase in energy efficiency and suppression of unwanted byproducts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Elastically cooperative activated barrier hopping theory of relaxation in viscous fluids. II. Thermal liquids. (United States)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S


    Building on the elastically collective nonlinear Langevin equation theory developed for hard spheres in Paper I, we propose and implement a quasi-universal theory for the alpha relaxation of thermal liquids based on mapping them to an effective hard sphere fluid via the dimensionless compressibility. The result is a zero adjustable parameter theory that can quantitatively address in a unified manner the alpha relaxation time over 14 or more decades. The theory has no singularities above zero Kelvin, and relaxation in the equilibrium low temperature limit is predicted to be of a roughly Arrhenius form. The two-barrier (local cage and long range collective elastic) description results in a rich dynamic behavior including apparent Arrhenius, narrow crossover, and deeply supercooled regimes, and multiple characteristic or crossover times and temperatures of clear physical meaning. Application of the theory to nonpolar molecules, alcohols, rare gases, and liquids metals is carried out. Overall, the agreement with experiment is quite good for the temperature dependence of the alpha time, plateau shear modulus, and Boson-like peak frequency for van der Waals liquids, though less so for hydrogen-bonding molecules. The theory predicts multiple growing length scales upon cooling, which reflect distinct aspects of the coupled local hopping and cooperative elastic physics. Calculations of the growth with cooling of an activation volume, which is strongly correlated with a measure of dynamic cooperativity, agree quantitatively with experiment. Comparisons with elastic, entropy crisis, dynamic facilitation, and other approaches are performed, and a fundamental basis for empirically extracted crossover temperatures is established. The present work sets the stage for addressing distinctive glassy phenomena in polymer melts, and diverse liquids under strong confinement.

  2. Combined Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Thermal Barrier Coated Turbine Blades Erosion (United States)

    Hamed, Awate; Tabakoff, Widen; Swar, Rohan; Shin, Dongyun; Woggon, Nthanial; Miller, Robert


    A combined experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the erosion of thermal barrier coated (TBC) blade surfaces by alumina particles ingestion in a single stage turbine. In the experimental investigation, tests of particle surface interactions were performed in specially designed tunnels to determine the erosion rates and particle restitution characteristics under different impact conditions. The experimental results show that the erosion rates increase with increased impingement angle, impact velocity and temperature. In the computational simulations, an Euler-Lagrangian two stage approach is used in obtaining numerical solutions to the three-dimensional compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the particles equations of motion in each blade passage reference frame. User defined functions (UDF) were developed to represent experimentally-based correlations for particle surface interaction models which were employed in the three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations to determine the particle rebound characteristics after each surface impact. The experimentally based erosion UDF model was used to predict the TBC erosion rates on the turbine blade surfaces based on the computed statistical data of the particles impact locations, velocities and angles relative to the blade surface. Computational results are presented for the predicted TBC blade erosion in a single stage commercial APU turbine, for a NASA designed automotive turbine, and for the NASA turbine scaled for modern rotorcraft operating conditions. The erosion patterns in the turbines are discussed for uniform particle ingestion and for particle ingestion concentrated in the inner and outer 5 percent of the stator blade span representing the flow cooling the combustor liner.

  3. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger


    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  4. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.


    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  5. Multiplex PCR for rapid genotyping of Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the leading causes of disease losses to the catfish industry in the Southeast USA. Recent research in our laboratory has deciphered the genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates through whole genome seq...

  6. Columnar phases exhibited by some polycatenar ligands and a few ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 61; Issue 2. Columnar phases exhibited by some polycatenar ligands and a few related metal complexes. B K Sadashiva V A Raghunathan. Volume 61 Issue 2 August 2003 pp 219-229 ... Keywords. Columnar phase; cubic phase; polycatenar; metal complex.

  7. Effect of Damage Processes on Spallation Life in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newaz, Golam M


    .... TBCs consist of an outer ceramic layer that provides good thermal insulation due to the low thermal conductivity of the ceramic used, and the inner metallic bond coat layer that provides needed...

  8. Combined Effects of JP-8 Fuel and Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings on the Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klett, David


    .... The experiments were conducted on a Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder DI diesel engine. Thin ceramic thermal barrier coatings were applied to various combustion chamber surfaces including the piston crown, cylinder head, and cylinder liner...

  9. Combined Effects of JP-8 Fuel and Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings on the Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klett, David


    An experimental study was conducted on the combined effects of using JP-8 Fuel in conjunction with thin thermal barrier coatings on the specific fuel consumption and emissions of UHC, NO, and smoke of a DI diesel engine...

  10. Coral Symbiodinium Community Composition Across the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System is Influenced by Host Species and Thermal Variability. (United States)

    Baumann, J H; Davies, S W; Aichelman, H E; Castillo, K D


    Reef-building corals maintain a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and this symbiosis is vital for the survival of the coral holobiont. Symbiodinium community composition within the coral host has been shown to influence a coral's ability to resist and recover from stress. A multitude of stressors including ocean warming, ocean acidification, and eutrophication have been linked to global scale decline in coral health and cover in recent decades. Three distinct thermal regimes (highTP, modTP, and lowTP) following an inshore-offshore gradient of declining average temperatures and thermal variation were identified on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). Quantitative metabarcoding of the ITS-2 locus was employed to investigate differences and similarities in Symbiodinium genetic diversity of the Caribbean corals Siderastrea siderea, S. radians, and Pseudodiploria strigosa between the three thermal regimes. A total of ten Symbiodinium lineages were identified across the three coral host species. S. siderea was associated with distinct Symbiodinium communities; however, Symbiodinium communities of its congener, S. radians and P. strigosa, were more similar to one another. Thermal regime played a role in defining Symbiodinium communities in S. siderea but not S. radians or P. strigosa. Against expectations, Symbiodinium trenchii, a symbiont known to confer thermal tolerance, was dominant only in S. siderea at one sampled offshore site and was rare inshore, suggesting that coral thermal tolerance in more thermally variable inshore habitats is achieved through alternative mechanisms. Overall, thermal parameters alone were likely not the only primary drivers of Symbiodinium community composition, suggesting that environmental variables unrelated to temperature (i.e., light availability or nutrients) may play key roles in structuring coral-algal communities in Belize and that the relative importance of these

  11. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo


    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier (United States)

    Burton, III, Robert S.


    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  13. Close Columnar Packing of Triangulenium Ions in Langmuir Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens B.; Kjær, Kristian; Howes, Paul


    Three new tris(dialkylamino)trioxatriangulenium (ATOTA(+)) salts rendered amphiphilic by attachment of two (5a center dot PF6 and 5b center dot PF6) or four (5c center dot PF6) n-decyl chains have been synthesized, and their Langmuir films have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction...... moiety itself (similar to 17 angstrom), while the repeat distance along the columnar aggregates is only 3.45 angstrom, implicating a near cofacial columnar structure with only a small tilt of the planar carbenium ions relative to the columnar axis. A detailed Bragg rod analysis confirmed an 8-9 degrees...

  14. Acetylated rice starches films with different levels of amylose: Mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties. (United States)

    Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Biduski, Bárbara; Prietto, Luciana; Castilhos, Danilo Dufech; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra


    Biodegradable films from native or acetylated starches with different amylose levels were prepared. The films were characterized according to the mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties. The films from acetylated high amylose starches had higher moisture content and water solubility than the native high amylose starch film. However, the acetylation did not affect acid solubility of the films, regardless of the amylose content. Films made from high and medium amylose rice starches were obtained; however low amylose rice starches, whether native or acetylated, did not form films with desirable characteristics. The acetylation decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation of the films. The acetylated starch-based films had a lower decomposition temperature and higher thermal stability than native starch films. Acetylated starches films exhibited more rapid degradation as compared with the native starches films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum-polyvinyl alcohol biodegradable composite film: Physicochemical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. (United States)

    Monjazeb Marvdashti, Leila; Koocheki, Arash; Yavarmanesh, Masoud


    Films made from Alyssum homolocarpum seeds gum (AHSG) have poor mechanical and barrier (to oxygen) properties. In the present study poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of AHSG films. Results indicated that the addition of PVA significantly increased the moisture content, solubility, elongation at break (EB) and transparency while it decreased the density, oxygen permeability, chroma, water contact angle and Young modulus of AHSG based films. Films with higher AHSG to PVA ratios had lower water vapor permeability (WVP). The light barrier measurements presented low values of transparency at 600nm for PVA/AHSG films, indicating that films were very transparent while they had excellent barrier properties against UV light. Results for FTIR, DSC and SEM showed a clear interaction between PVA and AHSG, forming a new material. These results indicated that PVA/AHSG blend films had good compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  17. Delamination Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.


    Advanced ceramic thermal harrier coatings will play an increasingly important role In future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability issue remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. In this paper, thermal cyclic response and delamination failure modes of a ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS thermaVenvironmenta1 barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated using a laser high-heat-flux technique. The coating degradation and delamination processes were monitored in real time by measuring coating apparent conductivity changes during the cyclic tests under realistic engine temperature and stress gradients, utilizing the fact that delamination cracking causes an apparent decrease in the measured thermal conductivity. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces under the cyclic thermal loads, in conjunction with the mechanical testing results, will be discussed.

  18. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mark L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in cultured and wild fish populations worldwide. Columnaris is the second most prevalent bacterial disease of commercial channel catfish industry in the United States. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the expressed proteins and virulence mechanisms of F. columnare. Here, we report the first high throughput proteomic analysis of F. columnare using 2-D LC ESI MS/MS and 2-DE MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Results Proteins identified in this study and predicted from the draft F. columnare genome were clustered into functional groups using clusters of orthologous groups (COGs, and their subcellular locations were predicted. Possible functional relations among the identified proteins were determined using pathway analysis. The total number of unique F. columnare proteins identified using both 2-D LC and 2-DE approaches was 621, of which 10.95% (68 were identified by both methods, while 77.29% (480 and 11.76% (73 were unique in 2-D LC and 2-DE, respectively. COG groupings and subcellular localizations were similar between our data set and proteins predicted from the whole genome. Twenty eight pathways were significantly represented in our dataset (P Conclusion Results from this study provide experimental evidence for many proteins that were predicted from the F. columnare genome annotation, and they should accelerate functional and comparative studies aimed at understanding virulence mechanisms of this important pathogen.

  20. Processing and Deposition of Nanocrystalline Oxide Composites for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying, Jackie


    .... Electrophoretic deposition was used to coat the nanocomposite powders onto nickel substrates. The effect of alumina content, powder calcination temperature, and film thickness on the thermal stability of zirconia-based coatings was examined...

  1. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  2. Columnar aerosol characterization over Scandinavia and Svalbard (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Bennouna, Y.; Berjón, A.; Torres, B.; Fuertes, D.; González, R.; de Frutos, A. M.


    An overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard was provided by Toledano et al. (2012) thanks to the collaborative effort of various research groups from different countries that maintain a number of observation sites in the European Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. The spatial coverage of this kind of data has remarkably improved in the last years, thanks, among other things, to projects carried out within the framework of the International Polar Year 2007-08. The data from a set of operational sun photometer sites belonging either to national or international measurement networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) were evaluated. The direct sun observations provided spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE), that are parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first characterization at all sites. At the AERONET sites, microphysical properties derived from inversion of sun-sky radiance data were also examined. AOD (500nm) ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites whereas the aerosol load was higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (average AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols showed larger mean size than in continental areas. Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters were used to evaluate aerosol volume efficiencies. The aerosol optical depth characterization revealed that the seasonal patterns in the high Arctic (with the typical hazy spring), in the sub-Arctic region and Southern Scandinavia are all different. The clean continental, polluted continental and maritime aerosols constitute the three main aerosol types, although persistent (Asian) dust was also detected in Svalbard.

  3. Experimental investigation of thermal barrier (8YSZ-TiO2-Al2O3 coated piston used in direct injection compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy Jayaram


    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are becoming increasingly important in providing protection from high temperature degradation for heat engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. The main objective of this research work is to experimentally investigate the air plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia with addition of titanium oxide and aluminum oxide thermal barrier coating on Al-13% Si piston material. The mechanical properties of the coated and uncoated samples were comparatively analyzed. The test revealed that hardness values of coated samples are ten times higher than the hardness values of uncoated samples. The microstructure and surface morphology of the coating were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The delamination behaviour of thermal barrier coating was evaluated by thermal cycle test. Finally, the performance test of the coated and uncoated engine was evaluated with the same engine operating conditions. The brake thermal efficiency is increased by 5.99%. The brake specific fuel consumption was decreased by 0.06 kg/kWh, in TBC engine with 8YSZ + Al2O3 + TiO2. The CO and HC was greatly decreased in thermal barrier coating engine. There was the greater reduction of NOx is observed due to coating because of nitrogen has absorbed by zirconia.

  4. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  5. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Fiedler


    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  6. High-temperature stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bustor and vehicle acreage applications [19–21]. However, silicide coatings are generally used for oxidation ... Since, Nb alloys are being used for these applications, TBC with a prior bond coat is essential for better ..... ing; notwithstanding the bond coat mitigates the thermal mis- match between the metal substrate and YSZ ...

  7. The Solar Vortex: Electric Power Generation using Anchored, Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices (United States)

    Glezer, Ari


    Naturally-occurring, buoyancy-driven columnar vortices (``dust devils'') that are driven by the instability of thermally stratified air layers and sustained by the entrainment of ground- heated air, occur spontaneously in the natural environment with core diameters of 1-50 m and heights up to 1 km. These vortices convert low-grade waste heat in the air layer overlying the warm surface into a solar-induced wind with significant kinetic energy. Unlike dust devil vortices that are typically free to wander laterally, the Solar Vortex (SoV) is deliberately triggered and anchored within a cylindrical domain bounded by an azimuthal array of stationary ground-mounted vertical vanes and sustained by continuous entrainment of the ground-heated air through these vanes. The mechanical energy of the anchored vortex is exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. This simple, low-cost electric power generating unit is competitive in cost, intermittency, and capacity factor with traditional solar power technologies. The considerable kinetic energy of the vortex column cannot be explained by buoyancy alone, and the fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex were investigated experimentally and numerically with specific emphasis on flow manipulation for increasing the available kinetic energy and therefore the generated power. These investigations have also considered the dependence of the vortex scaling and strength on the thermal resources and on the flow enclosure in the laboratory and in the natural environment. Preliminary outdoor tests of a two-meter scale prototype successfully demonstrated the ability to engender and anchor a columnar vortex using only solar radiation and couple the flow to a vertical axis wind turbine. A kilowatt-scale outer door prototype will be tested during the summer of 2015.

  8. Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumm, Daniel


    The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive

  9. Thermal stability of tungsten-boron-nitride thin film as diffusion barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y K; Kim, Y T; Lee, C W


    The electrical and the structural properties of tungsten boron nitride (W-B-N) thin films were studied to investigate the effects of boron and nitrogen in the 10000 A W-B-N diffusion barrier. The W-B-N thin films were deposited by using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The impurities provided a stuffing effect that was very effective for preventing interdiffusion between the interconnection metal and the silicon during the subsequent high-temperature annealing process. The resistivities of the W-B-N thin films were in the range of 140 - 406 mu OMEGA-cm, depending on the partial pressure ratio of the N sub 2 gas and the RF power density of the W sub 2 B sub 5 target. XRD and electrical property analyses showed that the W-B-N barrier did not react with Si during the annealing in N sub 2 gas ambient, even for annealing at 1000 .deg. C for 30 min.

  10. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress (United States)



    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components. PMID:26573561


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglong; Sheng, Zhizhi; Tarwater, Emily; Zhang, Xingxing; Dasgupta, Sudip; Fergus, Jeffrey


    Rare earth zirconates are promising materials for use as thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engines. Among the lanthanide zirconate materials, Sm2Zr2O7 with the pyrochlore structure has lower thermal conductivity and better corrosion resistance against calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicon oxide (CMAS). In this work, after reaction with CMAS, the pyrochlore structure transforms to the cubic fluorite structure and Ca2Sm8(SiO4)6O2 forms in elongated grain.

  12. Analysis of the energetic/environmental performances of gas turbine plant: Effect of thermal barrier coatings and mass of cooling air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ion V.


    Full Text Available Zirconia stabilized with 8 wt.% Y2O3 is the most common material to be applied in thermal barrier coatings owing to its excellent properties: low thermal conductivity, high toughness and thermal expansion coefficient as ceramic material. Calculation has been made to evaluate the gains of thermal barrier coatings applied on gas turbine blades. The study considers a top ceramic coating Zirconia stabilized with 8 wt.% Y2O3 on a NiCoCrAlY bond coat and Inconel 738LC as substrate. For different thickness and different cooling air flow rates, a thermodynamic analysis has been performed and pollutants emissions (CO, NOx have been estimated to analyze the effect of rising the gas inlet temperature. The effect of thickness and thermal conductivity of top coating and the mass flow rate of cooling air have been analyzed. The model for heat transfer analysis gives the temperature reduction through the wall blade for the considered conditions and the results presented in this contribution are restricted to a two considered limits: (1 maximum allowable temperature for top layer (1200ºC and (2 for blade material (1000ºC. The model can be used to analyze other materials that support higher temperatures helping in the development of new materials for thermal barrier coatings.

  13. Moisture-Induced Delamination Video of an Oxidized Thermal Barrier Coating (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.


    PVD TBC coatings were thermally cycled to near-failure at 1150 C. Normal failure occurred after 200 to 300 1-hr cycles with only moderate weight gains (0.5 mg/sq cm). Delamination and buckling was often delayed until well after cooldown (desktop spallation), but could be instantly induced by the application of water drops, as shown in a video clip which can be viewed by clicking on figure 2 of this report. Moisture therefore plays a primary role in delayed desktop TBC failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is proposed as the underlying mechanism.

  14. Emission reduction in SI engine using ethanol – gasoline blends on thermal barrier coated pistons


    C.Ananda Srinivasan and C.G.Saravanan


    In this study, the effects of ethanol and unleaded gasoline with Isoheptanol blends on multi- cylinder SI engine were investigated. The test fuels were prepared using 99.9% pure ethanol and unleaded gasoline with Isoheptanol blend, in the ratio of E 60 + 2.0 Isoheptanol, E 50 + 1.0 Isoheptanol. In this work the performance, emission and combustion tests were conducted in multi-cylinder petrol engine. The experimental results reveal an increase in brake thermal efficiency on the use of test fu...

  15. Development and evaluation of aerogel-filled BMI sandwich panels for thermal barrier applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dineshkumar


    Full Text Available This study details a fabrication methodology envisaged to manufacture Glass/BMI honeycomb core aerogel-filled sandwich panels. Silica aerogel granules are used as core fillers to provide thermal insulation properties with little weight increase. Experimental heat transfer studies are conducted on these panels to study the temperature distribution between their two surfaces. Numerical studies are also carried out to validate the results. Despite exhibiting good thermal shielding capabilities, the Glass/BMI sandwich panels are found to oxidise at 180 ºC if exposed directly to heat. In order to increase the temperature bearing capacity and the operating temperature range for these panels, a way of coating them from outside with high temperature spray paint was tried. With a silicone-based coating, the temperature sustainability of these sandwich panels is found to increase to 350 ºC. This proved the effectiveness of the formed manufacturing process, selected high temperature coating, the coating method as well as the envisaged sandwich panel concept.

  16. Durability and Design Issues of Thermal/environmental Barrier Coatings on Sic/sic Ceramic Matrix Composites Under 1650 C Test Conditions (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.


    Ceramic thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Currently, advanced T/EBC systems, which typically include a high temperature capable zirconia- (or hahia-) based oxide top coat (thermal barrier) on a less temperature capable mullite/barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS)/Si inner coat (environmental barrier), are being developed and tested for higher temperature capability Sic combustor applications. In this paper, durability of several thermal/environmental barrier coating systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites was investigated under laser simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic, and 1650 C (3000 F) test conditions. The coating cracking and delamination processes were monitored and evaluated. The effects of temperature gradients and coating configurations on the ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation were analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA) models based on the observed failure mechanisms, in conjunction with mechanical testing results. The environmental effects on the coating durability will be discussed. The coating design approach will also be presented.

  17. Microstructure and creep behaviour of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, R.; Coyle, T.W.; Mostaghimi [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)


    The purpose of this study was to determine the creep/sintering characteristics of thermally sprayed zirconia coatings and attempt to understand the influence of microstructure on the creep resistance of deposits. The major modification, compared with more typical practice, was employment of powder feedstock with agglomerated sub-micron size particles (Nanox), which is compared to one of the best commercially available powders (HOSP). Thick plasma sprayed coatings were prepared and their physical and mechanical properties were characterized. Creep/sintering experiments were then conducted to investigate the response of the materials when exposed to high temperatures under load. The results showed that it could be possible to correlate the splat thickness to the creep behaviour of the coatings. (orig.)

  18. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses (United States)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S. G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S. C.


    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 μm to 1000 μm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed.

  19. Application of thermal barrier coating for improving the suitability of Annona biodiesel in a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil


    Full Text Available The Annona biodiesel was produced from Annona oil through transesterification process. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using a annona methyl ester as a fuel. They are blended together with the Neat diesel fuel such as 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and Neat biodiesel. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption. The emission constituents such as carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke were recorded. Then the piston and both exhaust and intake valves of the test engine were coated with 100 µm of NiCrAl as lining layer. Later the same parts were coated with 400 µm material of coating that was the mixture of 88% of ZrO2, 4% of MgO, and 8% of Al2O3. After the engine coating process, the same fuels is tested in the engine at the same engine operation. The same performance and emission parameters were evaluated. Finally, these parameters are compared with uncoated engine in order to find out the changes in the performance and emission parameters of the coated engine. It is concluded that the coating engine resulting in better performance, especially in considerably lower brake specific fuel consumption values. The engine emissions are lowered both through coating and annona methyl ester biodiesel expect the nitrogen oxides emission.

  20. Precambrian columnar stromatolites in australia: morphological and stratigraphic analysis. (United States)

    Glaessner, M F; Preiss, W V; Walter, M R


    The stratigraphic distribution in Australian Precambrian rocks of columnar stromatolites, organosedimentary structures formed by blue-green algae, has been investigated. Their morphology is being studied according to methods developed in Russia. The discovery of successive different assemblages supports not only regional but also intercontinental stratigraphic correlations which are in agreement with available isotopic datings.

  1. Antibacterial activity of acylglucinol derivatives against Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most common bacterial diseases of pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern United States of America. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Flavobacterium columnare is the cause of columnaris disease. Direct economic losses to catfish pr...

  2. Columnar Radio Refractivity Of The Troposphere At Ashodi And Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial-temporal, distributions of columnar radio refractive index in the troposphere of two tropical stations – Kano and Oshodi are considered. Monthly means of radio refractivity have been shown for the atmospheric columns, 0 – 3km (the lower atmosphere), 0- 10km (the first 10km column), and 3-10km (the upper ...

  3. Walleye Autochthonous Bacteria as Promising Probiotic Candidates against Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Seghouani


    Full Text Available Walleye (Sander vitreus is the second most fished freshwater species in Canada. While much sought by anglers, walleye also supports substantial commercial fisheries. To cope with the recent decline of wild walleye populations, fish farmers produce juveniles for lake stocking. However, walleye breeding is particularly tedious, mostly due to high disease susceptibility at larval and juvenile developmental stages. The main threat is the columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacteria. As F. columnare strains exhibit increasing antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to develop efficient and sustainable alternative strategies to control columnaris disease. Bacterial probiotics have been shown to mitigate infections either by enhancing host immune response or by inhibiting pathogen growth. Being successfully assessed in many fish/pathogen combinations, we developed a tailored probiotic strategy for walleye to prevent and treat columnaris disease. Thirty-seven endogenous bacterial strains were isolated from healthy walleye’s skin and gut, were tested in vitro against F. columnare. Significant antagonistic effect against F. columnare was measured for 2 out of 37 endogenous strains. These two probiotic strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antagonistic effect of these two successful probiotics was further validated in vivo during a 2-month stress trial: groups receiving probiotic treatments showed on average 53.74% survival improvement.

  4. Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on intestinal barrier function and immune variables in young pigs. (United States)

    Liu, P; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Chen, C; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C


    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally oxidized lipids on metabolic oxidative status, gut barrier function, and immune response of young pigs, 108 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were assigned to 12 dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement in addition to a corn-soybean meal control diet. Main effects were 4 lipid sources (corn oil [CN], canola oil [CA], poultry fat [PF], and tallow [TL]) and 3 oxidation levels (original lipids [OL], slow oxidation [SO] of lipids heated for 72 h at 95°C, or rapid oxidation [RO] of lipids heated for 7 h at 185°C). Pigs were provided ad libitum access to diets for 28 d followed by controlled feed intake for 10 d. After a 24-h fast on d 38, serum was collected and analyzed for α-tocopherol (α-T), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), endotoxin, haptoglobin, IgA, and IgG. On the same day following serum collection, lactulose and mannitol were fed and subsequently measured in the urine to evaluate gut permeability. There was a source × peroxidation interaction for serum α-T concentration where pigs fed SO or RO had decreased (P < 0.05) serum α-T concentration compared with pigs fed OL in CA and CN diets but not in pigs fed PF and TL diets. There was no source × peroxidation interaction for serum TBARS, but among all lipid sources, pigs fed SO or RO lipids had increased (P < 0.05) serum TBARS compared with pigs fed OL. In addition, pigs fed CN or CA had greater (P < 0.05) serum TBARS compared with pigs fed PF or TL diets. There were no lipid source × peroxidation level interaction or lipid source or peroxidation level effects on serum endotoxin, haptoglobin, IgA, or IgG. Pigs fed lipid supplemented diets tended to have increased serum endotoxin (P = 0.06), IgA (P = 0.10), and IgG (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed the control diet. There were no lipid source × peroxidation level interaction or lipid source or peroxidation level effects on urinary TBARS and lactulose to mannitol ratio. Compared with pigs

  5. Effect of thermal treatment on the characteristics of iridium Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge (1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawanda, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Midlands State University, Bag 9055, Gweru (Zimbabwe); Coelho, S.M.M.; Auret, F.D.; Mtangi, W. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Nyamhere, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nel, J.M.; Diale, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) Schottky diodes were characterized using I-V, C-V and SEM techniques under various annealing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The variation of the electrical and structural properties can be due to effects phase transformation during annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of these diodes is maintained up to 500 Degree-Sign C anneal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM results depicts that the onset temperature for agglomeration in 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: Iridium (Ir) Schottky barrier diodes were deposited on bulk grown (1 0 0) Sb-doped n-type germanium by using the electron beam deposition system. Electrical characterization of these contacts using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements was performed under various annealing conditions. The variation of the electrical properties of these Schottky diodes can be attributed to combined effects of interfacial reaction and phase transformation during the annealing process. Thermal stability of the Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) was observed up to annealing temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Furthermore, structural characterization of these samples was performed by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different annealing temperatures. Results have also revealed that the onset temperature for agglomeration in a 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C.

  6. Delamination evaluation of thermal barrier coating on turbine blade owing to isothermal degradation using ultrasonic C-scan image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Girl; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is an essential element consisting of a super-alloy base and ceramic coating designed to achieve long operational time under a high temperature and pressure environment. However, the top coat of TBC can be delaminated at certain temperatures with long operation time. As the delamination of TBC is directly related to the blade damage, the coupling status of the TBC should be assured for reliable operation. Conventional studies of nondestructive evaluation have been made for detecting generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) or qualitatively evaluating delamination in TBC. In this study, the ultrasonic C-scan method was developed to obtain the damage map inside TBC by estimating the delamination in a quantitative way. All specimens were isothermally degraded at 1,100°C with different time, having different partial delamination area. To detect partial delamination in TBC, the C-scan was performed by a single transducer using pulse-echo method with normal incidence. Partial delamination coefficients of 1 mm to 6 mm were derived by the proportion of the surface reflection signal and flaw signal which were theoretical signals using Rogers-Van Buren and Kim's equations. Using the partial delamination coefficients, the partial delamination maps were obtained. Regardless of the partial delamination coefficient, partial delamination area was increased when degradation time was increased in TBC. In addition, a decrease in partial delamination area in each TBC specimen was observed when the partial delamination coefficient was increased. From the portion of the partial delamination maps, the criterion for delamination was derived.

  7. Development of a thermal fatigue test method for thermal barrier coatings by laser excitation using a laser thermal shock facility; Entwicklung eines Pruefverfahrens zur laserinduzierten thermischen Ermuedung thermischer Schutzschichten mittels einer Laser-Thermoschockpruefeinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, Daniel


    The finite nature of fossil fuel supply and the growing environmental awareness become increasingly stronger motivations for the development of efficient gas turbines and jet engines for power generation or as engines for land-, sea- and water-based vehicles. One concept developed for this purpose are thermal barrier coatings, where the thermal load of components is reduced by applying a ceramic coating onto the components. In this work the possibility to use a laser thermal shock facility for thermo-cyclic testing of thermal barrier coatings is examined. A focused laser beam is used for heating the sample and a homogeneous temperature distribution on the sample surface is achieved by the used trajectory and radial adjusted laser power. The required improvements of the existing testing facility are explained, including the development of a new sample holder and of the testing and evaluation routines for the experiments. For the assessment of the initiation and evolution of damages, acoustic emission and thermographic methods are used. The possibilities and limits of these methods are assessed during the experiments. The work also includes an extensive temperature dependent characterisation of the ceramic material used for the thermal barrier coating. In this part, the measurement of the Young's modulus by a dynamic method is to be highlighted, as this is a rarely used technique. The characterisations show the expected values, except for a lower porosity as expected by the manufacturer and no significant phase changes during isothermal heat treatments. To reach sample surface temperatures above 1000 C, it is necessary to increase the absorption by an additional coating of magnetite. The temperature distribution on the surface is measured by an infrared camera, which is calibrated for this purpose. With the incorporated active air cooling of the sample backside, the temperature gradient can be controlled, but still leaves room for improvements. Already without

  8. Nano-MgO reinforced chitosan nanocomposites for high performance packaging applications with improved mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. (United States)

    De Silva, R T; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Ratnayake, S P; Amaratunga, G A J; de Silva, K M Nalin


    Chitosan nanocomposite thin films were fabricated by incorporating MgO nanoparticles to significantly improve its physical properties for potential packaging applications. A novel in-situ method was developed to synthesise spherical shaped MgO nanoparticles by heat-treating magnesium carbonate/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite precursor. Optimum mechanical properties of chitosan composites were yielded at 5 (w/w%) of MgO concentration, where tensile stress and elastic modulus significantly improved by 86% and 38%, respectively, compared to those of pure chitosan films. These improvements are due to the interaction of hydroxyl and amine groups of chitosan with MgO as confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Fracture surface morphology indicated the interplay between MgO dispersion and aggregation on the mechanical properties at different MgO concentrations. Furthermore, the chitosan/MgO nanocomposites displayed remarkable thermal stability, flame retardant properties (satisfied V0 rating according to the UL-94 standards), UV shielding and moisture barrier properties, which could certainly add value to the packaging material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical Study of the Effects of Thermal Barrier Coating and Turbulence Intensity on Cooling Performances of a Nozzle Guide Vane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Prapamonthon


    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical investigation of the combined effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC with mainstream turbulence intensity (Tu on a modified vane of the real film-cooled nozzle guide vane (NGV reported by Timko (NASA CR-168289. Using a 3D conjugate heat transfer (CHT analysis, the NGVs with and without TBC are simulated at three Tus (Tu = 3.3%, 10% and 20%. The overall cooling effectiveness, TBC effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate the following three interesting phenomena: (1 TBC on the pressure side (PS is more effective than that on the suction side (SS due to a fewer number of film holes on the SS; (2 for all three Tus, the variation trends of the overall cooling effectiveness are similar, and TBC plays the positive and negative roles in heat flux at the same time, and significantly increases the overall cooling effectiveness in regions cooled ineffectively by cooling air; (3 when Tu increases, the TBC effect is more significant, for example, at the highest Tu (Tu = 20% the overall cooling effectiveness can increase as much as 24% in the film cooling ineffective regions, but near the trailing edge (TE and the exits and downstream of film holes on the SS, this phenomenon is slight.

  10. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Activation of CO2in a Packed-Bed Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor. (United States)

    Mei, Danhua; Tu, Xin


    Direct conversion of CO 2 into CO and O 2 is performed in a packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor at low temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The maximum CO 2 conversion of 22.6 % is achieved when BaTiO 3 pellets are fully packed into the discharge gap. The introduction of γ-Al 2 O 3 or 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst into the BaTiO 3 packed DBD reactor increases both CO 2 conversion and energy efficiency of the plasma process. Packing γ-Al 2 O 3 or 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 upstream of the BaTiO 3 bed shows higher CO 2 conversion and energy efficiency compared with that of mid- or downstream packing modes because the reverse reaction of CO 2 conversion-the recombination of CO and O to form CO 2 -is more likely to occur in mid- and downstream modes. Compared with the γ-Al 2 O 3 support, the coupling of the DBD with the Ni catalyst shows a higher CO 2 conversion, which can be attributed to the presence of Ni active species on the catalyst surface. The argon plasma treatment of the reacted Ni catalyst provides extra evidence to confirm the role of Ni active species in the conversion of CO 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Phosphor-Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray for In-Depth Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Peng


    Full Text Available Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ-based thermal barrier coating (TBC has been integrated with thermographic phosphors through air plasma spray (APS for in-depth; non-contact temperature sensing. This coating consisted of a thin layer of Dy-doped YSZ (about 40 µm on the bottom and a regular YSZ layer with a thickness up to 300 µm on top. A measurement system has been established; which included a portable; low-cost diode laser (405 nm; a photo-multiplier tube (PMT and the related optics. Coating samples with different topcoat thickness were calibrated in a high-temperature furnace from room temperature to around 900 °C. The results convincingly showed that the current sensor and the measurement system was capable of in-depth temperature sensing over 800 °C with a YSZ top layer up to 300 µm. The topcoat thickness was found to have a strong effect on the luminescent signal level. Therefore; the measurement accuracy at high temperatures was reduced for samples with thick topcoats due to strong light attenuation. However; it seemed that the light transmissivity of YSZ topcoat increased with temperature; which would improve the sensor’s performance at high temperatures. The current sensor and the measurement technology have shown great potential in on-line monitoring of TBC interface temperature.

  12. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.


    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  13. Active perioperative patient warming using a self-warming blanket (BARRIER EasyWarm) is superior to passive thermal insulation: a multinational, multicenter, randomized trial. (United States)

    Torossian, Alexander; Van Gerven, Elke; Geertsen, Karin; Horn, Bengt; Van de Velde, Marc; Raeder, Johan


    Incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is still high; therefore, present guidelines advocate "prewarming" for its prevention. Prewarming means preoperative patient skin warming, which minimizes redistribution hypothermia caused by induction of anesthesia. In this study, we compared the new self-warming BARRIER EasyWarm blanket with passive thermal insulation regarding mean perioperative patient core body temperature. Multinational, multicenter randomized prospective open-label controlled trial. Surgical ward, operation room, postanesthesia care unit at 4 European hospitals. A total of 246 adult patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists class I to III undergoing elective orthopedic; gynecologic; or ear, nose, and throat surgery scheduled for 30 to 120 minutes under general anesthesia. Patients received warmed hospital cotton blankets (passive thermal insulation, control group) or BARRIER EasyWarm blanket at least 30 minutes before induction of general anesthesia and throughout the perioperative period (intervention group). The primary efficacy outcome was the perioperative mean core body temperature measured by a tympanic infrared thermometer. Secondary outcomes were hypothermia incidence, change in core body temperature, length of stay in postanesthesia care unit, thermal comfort, patient satisfaction, ease of use, and adverse events related to the BARRIER EasyWarm blanket. The BARRIER EasyWarm blanket significantly improved perioperative core body temperature compared with standard hospital blankets (36.5°C, SD 0.4°C, vs 36.3, SD 0.3°C; Pthermal comfort scores, preoperatively and postoperatively. No serious adverse effects were observed in either group. Perioperative use of the new self-warming blanket improves mean perioperative core body temperature, reduces the incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, and improves patients' thermal comfort during elective adult surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.


    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  15. Ti-thickness-dependent electromigration resistance for Ti/Al-Cu-Si metallization with and without barrier rapid-thermal-anneal in an ammonia ambient (United States)

    Fu, Kuan Y.; Kawasaki, Hisao; Olowolafe, Johnson O.; Pyle, Ronald E.


    The electromigration resistance for Al-Cu-Si alloy over a Ti underlayer as a function of the initial Ti thickness in the range of 0 angstroms - 1000 angstroms is investigated. After the Ti deposition, test structures have been divided into groups with and without a rapid thermal anneal (RTA) in an ammonia ambient to form a TiN barrier. The electromigration resistance of these barrier metallization systems, in general, increases with the initial Ti thickness, except when the initial Ti thickness is less than 600 angstroms for the RTA TiN/Al-Cu-Si system. A model is proposed to explain this electromigration characteristic as a function of the initial Ti thickness for these barrier metallization systems, with the support of texture analysis of the Al-alloy surface and stress measurements of barrier layers using X-ray diffraction and wafer curvature. This study highlights a direction of how a Ti-based barrier metallization system should be processed in order to optimize its electromigration resistance.

  16. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miranville, Frédéric; Guichard, Stéphane; Boyer, Harry; Praene, Jean Philippe; Bigot, Dimitri


    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer

  17. Construction of two selectable markers for integrative/conjugative plasmids in Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zou, Hong; Wang, Liangfa; Huang, Bei; Li, Nan; Wang, Guitang; Nie, Pin


    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most important and widespread bacterial pathogens of freshwater fish. In this study, we constructed two artificial selectable markers (chloramphenicol and spectinomycin resistance) for gene transfer in F. columnare. These two new artificial selectable markers, which were created by placing the chloramphenicol or spectinomycin resistance gene under the control of the native acs regulatory region of F. columnare, were functional in both F. columnare and Escherichia coli. The integrative/conjugative plasmids constructed by using these markers were introduced into F. columnare G4 via electroporation or conjugation. The integrated plasmid DNA was confirmed by Southern blotting and PCR analysis. These two markers can be employed in future investigations into gene deletion and the pathogenicity of virulence factors in F. columnare.

  18. Thermochemistry of Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminum-Silicate (CMAS) and Components of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Acosta, Waldo A.; Zhu, Dongming; Ghoshal, Anindya


    There is increasing interest in the degradation mechanism studies of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) of gas turbines by molten CaO-MgO-Al(exp. 2)O(exp. 3)-SiO(exp. 2) CMAS). CMAS minerals are usually referred as silicon-containing sand dust and volcano ash materials that are carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. in aircraft engines, and their deposits often react at high temperatures (greater than 1200 degrees C) with the engine turbine coating systems and components. The high temperature reactions causes degradation and accelerated failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some results of the reactions between the CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE = Y, Yb, Dy, Gd, Nd and Sm) - oxide stabilized ZrO(exp. 2) or HfO(exp. 2) systems, and the stability of the resulting oxides and silicates. Plasma sprayed hollow tube samples (outside diameter = 4.7 mm, wall thickness = 0.76 mm and = 26 mm height) were half filled with CMAS powder, wrapped and sealed with platinum foil, and heat treated at 1310 degrees C for 5h. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and cross-section electron microscopy analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that CMAS penetrated the samples at the grain boundaries and dissolved the TEBC materials to form silicate phases containing the rare-earth elements. Furthermore, it was found that apatite crystalline phases were formed in the samples with total rare-earth content higher than 12 mol% in the reaction zone for the ZrO(exp. 2) system. In general, samples with the nominal compositions (30YSZ), HfO(exp. 2)-7Dy(exp. 2)O(exp. 2) and ZrO(exp. 2)-9.5Y(exp. 2)O(exp. 3)-2.25Gd(exp. 2)O(exp. 3)-2.25Yb(exp. 2)O(exp. 3) exhibited lower reactivity or more resistance to CMAS than the other coating compositions of this work.

  19. Reproductive biology and the process of domestication of the columnar cactus Stenocereus Stellatus in Central Mexico. (United States)

    Casas, A; Valiente-Banuet, A; Rojas-Martínez, A; Dávila, P


    Pollination biology, breeding system, and floral phenology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus were studied in wild, wild managed in situ and cultivated populations of central Mexico, in order to examine whether these aspects have been modified under domestication and whether they determine reproductive barriers between wild and manipulated individuals. Individuals of both wild and manipulated populations are self-incompatible, indicating that artificial selection has not modified the breeding system. Their pollination biology is also similar. Anthesis is mainly nocturnal, with a peak of nectar production between 0200 and 0400 when the stigma presents maximum turgidity. Nocturnal visitors are the effective pollinators. Nearly 75% of flowers exposed for nocturnal pollination set fruit, while none of the flowers exposed for diurnal pollination produced fruits. The bats Leptonycteris curasoae, L. nivalis, and Choeronycteris mexicana (Glossophaginae) are the most likely pollinators, and their time of foraging is synchronized with the time of nectar production and stigma receptivity in S. stellatus. Bats potentially move pollen over a considerable distance, so there is apparently no spatial isolation to prevent pollen exchange between wild and cultivated populations. Phenological studies showed that there are also no apparent temporal barriers. However, manual cross pollination failed between some domesticated and wild phenotypes, suggesting that gene flow between wild and cultivated populations might be limited by pollen incompatibility.

  20. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft (United States)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Briehl, D. C.


    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  1. Electron Barrier Formation at the Organic-Back Contact Interface is the First Step in Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sachs-Quintana, I. T.


    Long-term stability of polymer solar cells is determined by many factors, one of which is thermal stability. Although many thermal stability studies occur far beyond the operating temperature of a solar cell which is almost always less than 65 °C, thermal degradation is studied at temperatures that the solar cell would encounter in real-world operating conditions. At these temperatures, movement of the polymer and fullerenes, along with adhesion of the polymer to the back contact, creates a barrier for electron extraction. The polymer barrier can be removed and the performance can be restored by peeling off the electrode and depositing a new one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a larger amount of polymer adhered to electrodes peeled from aged devices than electrodes peeled from fresh devices. The degradation caused by hole-transporting polymer adhering to the electrode can be suppressed by using an inverted device where instead of electrons, holes are extracted at the back metal electrode. The problem can be ultimately eliminated by choosing a polymer with a high glass transition temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.


    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  3. Simulation of thermal stress in Er2O3 and Al2O3 tritium penetration barriers by finite-element analysis (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Guogang; He, Anping; Wang, Ling


    The physical vapor deposition method is an effective way to deposit Al2O3 and Er2O3 on 316L stainless steel substrates acting as tritium permeation barriers in a fusion reactor. The distribution of residual thermal stress is calculated both in Al2O3 and Er2O3 coating systems with planar and rough substrates using finite element analysis. The parameters influencing the thermal stress in the sputter process are analyzed, such as coating and substrate properties, temperature and Young’s modulus. This work shows that the thermal stress in Al2O3 and Er2O3 coating systems exhibit a linear relationship with substrate thickness, temperature and Young’s modulus. However, this relationship is inversed with coating thickness. In addition, the rough substrate surface can increase the thermal stress in the process of coating deposition. The adhesive strength between the coating and the substrate is evaluated by the shear stress. Due to the higher compressive shear stress, the Al2O3 coating has a better adhesive strength with a 316L stainless steel substrate than the Er2O3 coating. Furthermore, the analysis shows that it is a useful way to improve adhesive strength with increasing interface roughness.

  4. Does CDX2 expression predict Barrett's metaplasia in oesophageal columnar epithelium without goblet cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kerkhof (Marjon); D.A. Bax (Dorine); L.M.G. Moons (Leon); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); H. van Dekken (Herman); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes); P.D. Siersema (Peter)


    textabstractBackground: Intestinal metaplasia (Barrett's oesophagus), but not cardiac-type mucosa in columnar-lined oesophagus, is regarded as premalignant. As intestinal metaplasia and cardiac-type mucosa are endoscopically indiscernible, it is difficult to take targeted samples from columnar-lined

  5. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains infecting fishes inhabiting the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, causes significant losses in fish worldwide. In this study, F. columnare infection prevalence was assessed in representative Great Lakes fish species. Over 2,000 wild, feral, and hatchery-propagated salmonids, percids, centrarc...

  6. Effect of Gd2O3 on the microstructure and thermal properties of nanostructured thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Wang


    Full Text Available The nanostructured 4–8 mol% Gd2O3−4.5 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (4–8 mol% GdYSZ coatings were developed by the atmospheric plasma spraying technique. The microstructure and thermal properties of plasma-sprayed 4–8 mol% GdYSZ coatings were investigated. The experimental results indicate that typical microstructure of the as-sprayed coatings were consisted of melted zones, nano-zones, splats, nano-pores, high-volume spheroidal pores and micro-cracks. The porosity of the 4, 6 and 8 mol% GdYSZ coatings was about 9.3%, 11.7% and 13.3%, respectively. It was observed that the addition of gadolinia to the nano-YSZ could significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of nano-YSZ. The thermal conductivity of GdYSZ decreased with increasing Gd2O3 addition. And the reduction in thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the addition of Gd2O3, which results in the increase in oxygen vacancies, lattice distortion and porosity.

  7. Thermal Fatigue Testing of ZrO2-Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coating Systems using a High Power CO2 Laser (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure, under thermal loads that simulate diesel engine conditions, are investigated. The surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*(sub NCF), which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 microns/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 microns/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*(sub NCF) about 20,000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that HCF damage effect increases with increasing surface temperature swing, the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. A good agreement has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence.

  8. Spin Relaxation in InAs Columnar Quantum Dots (United States)

    Umi, Takehiko; Nosho, Hidetaka; Lu, Shulong; Li, Lianhe; Fiore, Andrea; Tackeuchi, Atsushi


    We have investigated carrier spin dynamics in InAs columnar quantum dots (CQDs) by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The CQDs were formed by depositing a 1.8 monolayer InAs seed dot layer and a short-period GaAs/InAs superlattice (SL). The spin relaxation time was found to be prolonged from 1.6 to 5.3 ns by increasing the number of SL periods from 3 to 35. The PL decay time also increased from 0.93 to 1.9 ns, indicating a decrease in the spatial overlap of electron and hole wave functions. The changes in both the spin relaxation time and the PL decay time suggest that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the main spin relaxation mechanism.

  9. Interobserver reproducibility in pathologist interpretation of columnar-lined esophagus. (United States)

    Mastracci, Luca; Piol, Nataniele; Molinaro, Luca; Pitto, Francesca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Fiocca, Roberto; Grillo, Federica


    Confirmation of endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) requires histology, but confusion in the histological definition of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) is a longstanding problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate interpathologist variability in the interpretation of CLE. Thirty pathologists were invited to review three ten-case sets of CLE biopsies. In the first set, the cases were provided with descriptive endoscopy only; in the second and the third sets, ESEM extent using Prague criteria was provided. Moreover, participants were required to refer to a diagnostic chart for evaluation of the third set. Agreement was statistically assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa. While substantial agreement in recognizing columnar epithelium (K = 0.76) was recorded, the overall concordance in clinico-pathological diagnosis was low (K = 0.38). The overall concordance rate improved from the first (K = 0.27) to the second (K = 0.40) and third step (K = 0.46). Agreement was substantial when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus (BE) with intestinal metaplasia or inlet patch (K = 0.65 and K = 0.89), respectively, in the third step, while major problems in interpretation of CLE were observed when only cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium was present (K = 0.05-0.29). In conclusion, precise endoscopic description and the use of a diagnostic chart increased consistency in CLE interpretation of esophageal biopsies. Agreement was substantial for some diagnostic categories (BE with intestinal metaplasia and inlet patch) with a well-defined clinical profile. Interpretation of cases with cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium, with or without ESEM, was least consistent, which reflects lack of clarity of definition and results in variable management of this entity.

  10. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C., E-mail:


    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the <200> direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  11. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coatings; Mechanische Eigenschaften von EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Carolin


    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  12. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  13. Fluctuations and interactions of semi-flexible polyelectrolytes in columnar assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D J [Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Leikin, S [Section of Physical Biochemistry, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Wynveen, A, E-mail:, E-mail: leikins@mail.nih.go [Institute for Theoretical Physics II: Soft Matter, Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)


    We have developed a statistical theory for columnar aggregates of semi-flexible polyelectrolytes. The applicability of previous, simplified theories was limited to polyelectrolytes with unrealistically high effective charge and, hence, with strongly suppressed thermal undulations. To avoid this problem, we utilized more consistent approximations for short-range image-charge forces and steric confinement, resulting in new predictions for polyelectrolytes with more practically important, lower effective linear charge densities. In the present paper, we focus on aggregates of wormlike chains with uniform surface charge density, although the same basic ideas may also be applied to structured polyelectrolytes. We find that undulations effectively extend the range of electrostatic interactions between polyelectrolytes upon decreasing aggregate density, in qualitative agreement with previous theories. However, in contrast to previous theories, we demonstrate that steric confinement provides the dominant rather than a negligible contribution at higher aggregate densities and significant quantitative corrections at lower densities, resulting in osmotic pressure isotherms that drastically differ from previous predictions. (fast track communication)

  14. Gene expression analysis between planktonic and biofilm states of Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease ...

  15. A New Phase of Liquid Crystal with Quenched Disorder: The Columnar Elastic Glass (United States)

    Toner, John; Saunders, Karl; Ettouhami, A. M.; Radzihovsky, Leo


    The properties of the columnar liquid crystal phase confined in random porous media, e.g. aerogel, are studied. It is found that the quenched disorder leads to a complete destruction of the long-ranged columnar translational order. Nevertheless, dislocations remain bound in the resulting phase, which therefore retains columnar topological and orientational order, and is referred to as a columnar elastic glass (CEG). The elasticity of the CEG is found to be anomalous, i.e. wavevector dependent, and is characterized by universal anomalous exponents, which are calculated using an ɛ = 7/2 - d expansion. The CEG also exhibits a negative universal Poisson ratio which is calculated. Furthemore, the recently predicted spontaneous vortex lattice in dirty ferromagnetic superconductors falls into the CEG universality class [1]. [1] Leo Radzihovsky, A. M. Ettouhami, Karl Saunders, John Toner, Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 27001 (2001).

  16. Innovative Columnar Type of Grid Array SJ BIST HALT Method Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop will develop a superior method for testing and qualifying columnar type of grid arrays such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) packaged in column...

  17. The carbohydrate L-rhamnose promotes biofilm formation which enhances Flavobacterium columnare virulence (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry, continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease...

  18. Sickeningly sweet: L-rhamnose stimulates Flavobacterium columnare biofilm formation and virulence (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease ...

  19. Modelling apical columnar epithelium mechanics from circumferential contractile fibres. (United States)

    Boyd, A R B; Moore, S; Sader, J E; Lee, P V S


    Simple columnar epithelia are formed by individual epithelial cells connecting together to form single cell high sheets. They are a main component of many important body tissues and are heavily involved in both normal and cancerous cell activities. Prior experimental observations have identified a series of contractile fibres around the circumference of a cross section located in the upper (apical) region of each cell. While other potential mechanisms have been identified in both the experimental and theoretical literature, these circumferential fibres are considered to be the most likely mechanism controlling movement of this cross section. Here, we investigated the impact of circumferential contractile fibres on movement of the cross section by creating an alternate model where movement is driven from circumferential contractile fibres, without any other potential mechanisms. In this model, we utilised a circumferential contractile fibre representation based on investigations into the movement of contractile fibres as an individual system, treated circumferential fibres as a series of units, and matched our model simulation to experimental geometries. By testing against laser ablation datasets sourced from existing literature, we found that circumferential fibres can reproduce the majority of cross-sectional movements. We also investigated model predictions related to various aspects of cross-sectional movement, providing insights into epithelium mechanics and demonstrating the usefulness of our modelling approach.

  20. Growth of modern branched columnar stromatolites in Lake Joyce, Antarctica. (United States)

    Mackey, T J; Sumner, D Y; Hawes, I; Jungblut, A D; Andersen, D T


    Modern decimeter-scale columnar stromatolites from Lake Joyce, Antarctica, show a change in branching pattern during a period of lake level rise. Branching patterns correspond to a change in cyanobacterial community composition as preserved in authigenic calcite crystals. The transition in stromatolite morphology is preserved by mineralized layers that contain microfossils and cylindrical molds of cyanobacterial filaments. The molds are composed of two populations with different diameters. Large diameter molds (>2.8 μm) are abundant in calcite forming the oldest stromatolite layers, but are absent from younger layers. In contrast, stromatolites layers. Loss of large diameter molds corresponds to the transition from smooth-sided stromatolitic columns to branched and irregular columns. Mold diameters are similar to trichome diameters of the four most abundant living cyanobacteria morphotypes in Lake Joyce: Phormidium autumnale morphotypes have trichome diameters >3.5 μm, whereas Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. fragilis, and Pseudanabaena frigida morphotypes have diameters stromatolite growth, but disappeared from the community through time. We hypothesize that the mat-smoothing behavior of P. autumnale morphotypes inhibited nucleation of stromatolite branches. When P. autumnale morphotypes were excluded from the community, potentially reflecting a rise in lake level, short-wavelength roughness provided nuclei for stromatolite branches. This growth history provides a conceptual model for initiation of branched stromatolite growth resulting from a change in microbial community composition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Thickness independence of the vortex pinning by columnar defects. (United States)

    Indenbom, Mikhail; van der Beek, Kees; Konczykowski, Marcin


    Direct magneto-optical imaging of the flux penetration into high-Tc superconductors with inclined columnar defects revealed that the vortices slide along the columns easier than they move across them footnote Th. Schuster et al., Phys Rev. B 50, 660 (1955); 51, 16358 (1995); 53, 2257 (1996). For the atomically smooth defects a very high value of the anisotropy might be expected but the observed one was rather moderate. To explain this fact it was supposed that the vortex drift may be controlled by their depinning at the surface with further easy motion of the vortex kinks deep to the crystal, contrary to the common belief of the dominating bulk double kink depinning. We checked the immediate consequences of the supposition: the critical current flowing only in the surface layer and thickness independents of the magnetic hysteresis, by observations of the flux penetration into YBCO crystals with varying thickness irradiated with 6 GeV Pb ions. A surprisingly regular penetration like it would be for a sample with homogeneous thickness has been observed. Additional qualitative experiments to verify this model are in progress.

  2. Radon, helium and uranium survey in some thermal springs located in NW Himalayas, India: mobilization by tectonic features or by geochemical barriers? (United States)

    Walia, V; Quattrocchi, F; Virk, H S; Yang, T F; Pizzino, L; Bajwa, B S


    Radon, helium and uranium measurements have been carried out in hot water springs in the Parbati and Beas valleys of Himachal Himalaya. Most of these hot springs are known as famous pilgrimage centers. The activity of dissolved radon in the liquid phase is found to vary widely, by an order of magnitude, between 10 and 750 Bq L(-1), whereas, the dissolved helium content in these thermal springs varies between 10 and 100 ppm. The uranium contents are low and vary from geochemical barriers cause the mobilization of uranile ions in solution (UO2+); the most plausible hypothesis is when the conditions are oxidising, confirming the importance of physico-chemical conditions up to the supergenic environment, to control the fluid geochemistry of the U-He-222Rn system. Some evidence is available from both geothermometric considerations and geochemical data which will be reported elsewhere, whereas the present study is focused on U decay series-noble gas geochemistry. The first analysis of collected 3He/4He data is consistent with a crustal signature at the studied thermal springs.

  3. Effects of Laser Remelting and Oxidation on NiCrAlY/8Y2O3-ZrO2 Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Xu, S. Q.; Zhu, C.; Zhang, Y.


    In this study, three groups of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) samples were remelted by CO2 laser with different laser energy densities (1, 5 and 10 J/mm2) to seal the surface of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. Microscopic observations showed that the cracks size and the remelted depth in YSZ coatings increased. A 50-μm-thick dense layer was formed on the surface of YSZ coating in samples with 1 J/mm2 energy density. Microindentation tests showed that the Vickers hardness of YSZ coatings increases with the increase in laser energy density. After isothermal oxidation at 1200 °C for 200 h, thinner thermally growth oxides were found in laser remelted YSZ samples under energy density of 1 J/mm2 (6.32 ± 0.28 μm). Cyclic oxidation results showed that the weight gain per unit area of low energy density laser remelted TBCs was smaller than that of the high energy density laser remelted and as-sprayed TBCs.

  4. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Tensile, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed L. Sanyang


    Full Text Available The use of starch based films as a potential alternative choice to petroleum derived plastics is imperative for environmental waste management. This study presents a new biopolymer (sugar palm starch for the preparation of biodegradable packaging films using a solution casting technique. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol (G, sorbitol (S and glycerol-sorbitol (GS combination with varying concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45, w/w% on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of sugar palm starch (SPS films was evaluated. Regardless of plasticizer types, the tensile strength of plasticized SPS films decreased, whereas their elongation at break (E% increased as the plasticizer concentrations were raised. However, the E% for G and GS-plasticized films significantly decreased at a higher plasticizer concentration (45% w/w due to the anti-plasticization effect of plasticizers. Change in plasticizer concentration showed an insignificant effect on the thermal properties of S-plasticized films. The glass transition temperature of SPS films slightly decreased as the plasticizer concentration increased from 15% to 45%. The plasticized films exhibited increased water vapor permeability values from 4.855 × 10−10 to 8.70 × 10−10 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1, irrespective of plasticizer types. Overall, the current study manifested that plasticized sugar palm starch can be regarded as a promising biopolymer for biodegradable films.

  5. Experimental study on the mechanical properties of simulated columnar jointed rock masses (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-min; Deng, Rong-gui; Zhong, Zhi-bin; Fu, Xiao-min; Wang, Cong-yan


    Columnar jointed rock mass is a kind of structural rock mass commonly encountered in igneous rocks. Due to the effects of columnar joint networks, anisotropy is the typical mechanical property of columnar jointed rock mass, i.e. deformation and strength varying with loading direction. Correct understanding of the mechanical anisotropy of columnar jointed rock mass is a key problem that should be solved for demonstration and design of large scale rock mass projects such as dams and underground cavern excavations constructed in it. Plaster simulated columnar jointed rock mass specimens at dip angles varying from 0° to 90° with respect to the axial stress were tested under uniaxial compression conditions to investigate the mechanical anisotropy and failure modes. Based on analyses of experimental results, it was found that the strength and deformation of columnar jointed rock masses had pronounced ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy. In the anisotropic curves, the maximum and minimum values occurred at β = 90° and β = 45°, respectively. It was also shown that the lateral strain ratio was relatively high, especially when the dip angle was close to (45° - φj/2), where φj was the joint friction angle. An empirical expression was adopted to predict the ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy of deformation and strength and the predicted anisotropic curves agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Furthermore, four types of failure modes were summarized based on experimental results and corresponding mechanisms were also discussed.

  6. Multiple regression analysis in modeling of columnar ozone in Peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Tan, K C; Lim, H S; Mat Jafri, M Z


    This study aimed to predict monthly columnar ozone (O3) in Peninsular Malaysia by using data on the concentration of environmental pollutants. Data (2003-2008) on five atmospheric pollutant gases (CO2, O3, CH4, NO2, and H2O vapor) retrieved from the satellite Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) were employed to develop a model that predicts columnar ozone through multiple linear regression. In the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R = 0.811 for the southwest monsoon, R = 0.803 for the northeast monsoon) with predicted columnar ozone. The results of the validation of columnar ozone with column ozone from SCIAMACHY showed a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.752-0.802), indicating the model's accuracy and efficiency. Statistical analysis was utilized to determine the effects of each atmospheric pollutant on columnar ozone. A model that can retrieve columnar ozone in Peninsular Malaysia was developed to provide air quality information. These results are encouraging and accurate and can be used in early warning of the population to comply with air quality standards.

  7. Breaking through the Solid/Liquid Processability Barrier: Thermal Conductivity and Rheology in Hybrid Graphene-Graphite Polymer Composites. (United States)

    Varenik, Maxim; Nadiv, Roey; Levy, Idan; Vasilyev, Gleb; Regev, Oren


    Thermal conductivity (TC) enhancement of an insulating polymer matrix at low filler concentration is possible through the loading of a high aspect ratio, thermally conductive single filler. Unfortunately, the dispersion of high-aspect-ratio particles greatly influences the rheological behavior of the polymer host at relatively low volume fractions, which makes further polymer processing or mixing difficult. A possible remedy is using two (hybrid) fillers, differing in their aspect ratios: (1) a plate-like filler, which sharply increases both viscosity and TC, and (2) an isotropic filler, which gradually increases these properties. We examine this hypothesis in a thermosetting silicone rubber by loading it with different ratios, (1)/(2), of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) (1) and graphite powder (2). We constructed a "phase diagram" delineating two composite processability regions: solid-like (moldable) or fluid-like (pourable). This diagram may be employed to tailor the mixture's viscosity to a desired TC value by varying the fillers' volume fraction. The phase diagram highlights the low volume fraction value, above which the composite is solid-like (low processability) for a single high-aspect-ratio nanofiller. By using hybrid filling, one can overcome this limit and prepare a fluid-like composite at a desired TC, not accessible by the single nanofiller. Thus, it provides an indicative tool for polymer processing, especially in applications such as the encapsulation of electronic devices. This approach was demonstrated for a heat source (resistor) potted by silicon rubber graphene-graphite composites, for which a desired TC was obtained in both solid- and liquid-like regions.

  8. Design of Thermochromic Polynorbornene Bearing Spiropyran Chromophore Moieties: Synthesis, Thermal Behavior and Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Ahmed


    Full Text Available A new class of thermochromic polynorbornene with pendent spiropyran moieties has been synthesized. Functionalization of norbornene monomers with spirobenzopyran moieties has been achieved using Steglich esterification. These new monomeric materials were polymerized via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP. In spite of their poor solubility, polynorbornenes with spirobenzopyran exhibited thermochromic behavior due to the conversion of their closed spiropyran moieties to the open merocyanine form. Moreover, these polymers displayed bathochromic shifts in their optical response, which was attributed to the J-aggregation of the attached merocyanine moieties that were associated with their high concentration in the polymeric chain. The surface of the obtained polymers was exposed to atmospheric pressure air Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma system, which resulted in the reduction of the surface porosity and converted some surface area into completely non-porous regions. Moreover, the plasma system created some areas with highly ordered J-aggregates of the merocyanine form in thread-like structures. This modification of the polymers’ morphology may alter their applications and allow for these materials to be potential candidates for new applications, such as non-porous membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or molecular separation in the gas phase.

  9. Type I restriction-modification system and its resistance in electroporation efficiency in Flavobacterium columnare. (United States)

    Li, N; Zhang, L Q; Zhang, J; Liu, Z X; Huang, B; Zhang, S H; Nie, P


    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, infects freshwater fish worldwide. However, the pathogenicity of this bacterium is poorly understood due possibly to the lack of an efficient in-frame knockout technique. In order to improve electroporation efficiency, the type I restriction-modification system (R-M system) was cloned and its role in electroporation was examined in F. columnare G(4) strain. The complete sequence of type I R-M system in the bacterium, designated as Fcl, contains all three subunits of type I R-M system, named as fclM, fclS, fclR, respectively, with the identification of a hypothetical gene, fclX. Constitutive transcription of the three genes was observed in F. columnare G(4) by RT-PCR. The ORF of fclM and fclS was cloned into the plasmid pACYC184 and transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10. The resultant E. coli strain, designated as E. coli TOPmt, was transformed with the integrative plasmid pGL006 constructed for F. columnare G(4). The integrative plasmid was re-isolated from TOPmt and incubated with the lysate of F. columnare G(4). The re-isolated integrative plasmid, designated as pGL006', showed higher resistance than pGL006. With pGL006', the electroporation efficiency of the strain G(4) increased 2.6 times, while that of F. columnare G(18) was not obviously improved. Furthermore, a method to improve the electroporation efficiency of F. columnare G(4) was developed using the integrative plasmid methylated by E. coli TOPmt which contains the fclM and fclS gene of F. columnare G(4). Further analyses showed that the fcl gene cluster may be a unique type I R-M system in F. columnare G(4). It will be of significant interest to examine the composition and diversity of R-M systems in strains of F. columnare in order to set up a suitable genetic manipulation system for the bacterium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling of current distribution on smooth and columnar platinum structures. (United States)

    Zinola, Carlos F


    Studying the growth and stability of anisotropic or isotropic disordered surfaces in electrodeposition is of importance in catalytic electrochemistry. In some cases, the metallic nature of the electrode defines the topography and roughness, which are also controlled by the experimental time and applied external potential. Because of the experimental restrictions in conventional electrochemical techniques and ex situ electron microscopies, a theoretical model of the surface geometry could aid in understanding the electrodeposition process and current distributions. In spite of applying a complex theory such as dynamic scaling method or perturbation theories, the resolution of mixed mass-/charge-transfer equations (tertiary distribution) for the electrodeposition process would give reliable information. One of the main problems with this type of distribution is the mathematics when solving the spatial n-dimensional differential equations. Use of a primary current distribution is proposed here to simplify the differential equations; however it limits wide application of the first assumption. Distributions of concentration profile, current density, and electrode potential are presented here as a function of the distance normal to the surface for the cases of smooth and rough platinum growth. In the particular case of columnar surfaces, cycloid curves are used to model the electrode, from which the concentration profile is presented in a parameterized form after solving a first-type curvilinear integral. The concentration contour results in a combination of a trigonometric inverse function and a linear distribution leading to a negative concavity curve. The calculation of the current density and electrode potential contours also show trigonometric shapes exhibiting forbidden imaginary values only at the minimal values of the trochoid curve. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.


    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  12. Effect of thermally growth oxides (TGO) on adhesion strength for high purity yitria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and rare - Earth lanthanum zirconates (LZ) multilayer thermal barrier coating before and after isothermal heat treatment (United States)

    Yunus, Salmi Mohd; Johari, Azril Dahari; Husin, Shuib


    Investigation on the effect of Thermally Growth Oxides (TGO) on the adhesion strength for thermal barrier coating (TBC) was carried out. The TBC under studied was the multilayer systems which consist of NiCrAlY bond coat and YSZ/LZ ceramic coating deposited on Ni-based superalloy substrates. The development of thermally growth oxides (TGO) for both TBC systems after isothermal heat treatment was measured. Isothermal heat treatment was carried out at 1100 ˚C for 100 hours to age the samples. ASTM D4541: Standard Test Method for Pull-off Strength of Coatings using Portable Adhesion Tester was used to measure the adhesion strength of both TBC systems before and after heat treatment. The effect of the developed TGO on the measured adhesion strength was examined and correlation between them was established individually for both TBC systems. The failure mechanism of the both system was also identified; either cohesive or adhesive or the combination of both. The results showed that TGO has more than 50% from the bond coat layer for rare-earth LZ system compared to the typical YSZ system, which was less than 10 % from the bond coat layer. This leads to the lower adhesion strength of rare-earth LZ coating system compared to typical YSZ system. Failure mechanism during the pull-off test also was found to be different for both TBC systems. The typical YSZ system experienced cohesive failure whereas the rare-earth LZ system experienced the combination of cohesive and adhesive failure.

  13. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido


    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  14. Carcinogenic HPV infection in the cervical squamo-columnar junction. (United States)

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Howitt, Brooke E; Roncarati, Patrick; Demoulin, Stephanie; Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Hubert, Pascale; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Li, Anita; Delvenne, Philippe; Crum, Christopher P; Herfs, Michael


    Recent studies have suggested the involvement of a unique population of cells at the cervical squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) in the pathogenesis of early (squamous intraepithelial lesion or SIL) and advanced (squamous cell and adeno-carcinomas) cervical neoplasia. However, there is little evidence to date showing that SCJ cells harbour carcinogenic HPV or are instrumental in the initial phases of neoplasia. This study was designed to (1) determine if normal-appearing SCJ cells contained evidence of carcinogenic HPV infection and (2) trace their transition to early SIL. Sections of cervix from high-risk reproductive age women were selected and SCJ cells were analysed by using several techniques which increasingly implicated HPV infection: HPV DNA (genotyping and in situ hybridization)/RNA (PCR), immunostaining for HPV16 E2 (an early marker of HPV infection), p16(ink4), Ki67, and HPV L1 protein. In 22 cases with a history of SIL and no evidence of preneoplastic lesion in the excision specimen, HPV DNA was isolated from eight of ten with visible SCJ cells, six of which were HPV16/18 DNA-positive. In five of these latter cases, the SCJ cells were positive for p16(ink4) and/or HPV E2. Transcriptionally active HPV infection (E6/E7 mRNAs) was also detected in microdissected SCJ cells. Early squamous atypia associated with the SCJ cells demonstrated in addition diffuse p16(ink4) immunoreactivity, elevated proliferative index, and rare L1 antigen positivity. We present for the first time direct evidence that normal-appearing SCJ cells can be infected by carcinogenic HPV. They initially express HPV E2 and their progression to SIL is heralded by an expanding metaplastic progeny with increased proliferation and p16(ink4) expression. Whether certain SCJs are more vulnerable than others to carcinogenic HPV genotypes and what variables determine transition to high-grade SIL remain unresolved, but the common event appears to be a vulnerable cell at the SCJ. Copyright © 2015

  15. Review on novel concepts of columnar lined esophagus. (United States)

    Lenglinger, Johannes; See, Stephanie Fischer; Beller, Lukas; Cosentini, Enrico P; Asari, Reza; Wrba, Fritz; Riegler, Martin; Schoppmann, Sebastian F


    Columnar lined esophagus (CLE) is a marker for gastroesophageal reflux and associates with an increased cancer risk among those with Barrett's esophagus. Recent studies fostered the development of integrated CLE concepts. Using PubMed, we conducted a review of studies on novel histopathological concepts of nondysplastic CLE. Two histopathological concepts-the squamo-oxyntic gap (SOG) and the dilated distal esophagus (DDE), currently model our novel understanding of CLE. As a consequence of reflux, SOG interposes between the squamous lined esophagus and the oxyntic mucosa of the proximal stomach. Thus the SOG describes the histopathology of CLE within the tubular esophagus and the DDE, which is known to develop at the cost of a shortened lower esophageal sphincter and foster increased acid gastric reflux. Histopathological studies of the lower end of the esophagus indicate, that the DDE is reflux damaged, dilated, gastric type folds forming esophagus and cannot be differentiated from proximal stomach by endoscopy. While the endoscopically visible squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) defines the proximal limit of the SOG, the assessment of the distal limit requires the histopathology of measured multilevel biopsies. Within the SOG, CLE types distribute along a distinct zonation with intestinal metaplasia (IM; Barrett's esophagus) and/or cardiac mucosa (CM) at the SCJ and oxyntocardiac mucosa (OCM) within the distal portion of the SOG. The zonation follows the pH-gradient across the distal esophagus. Diagnosis of SOG and DDE includes endoscopy, histopathology of measured multi-level biopsies from the distal esophagus, function, and radiologic tests. CM and OCM do not require treatment and are surveilled in 5 year intervals, unless they associate with life quality impairing symptoms, which demand medical or surgical therapy. In the presence of an increased cancer risk profile, it is justified to consider radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of IM within clinical studies in order to

  16. Thermochemistry of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) and Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Zhu, Dongming


    CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) oxides are constituents in a broad number of materials and minerals which have recently inferred to discussions in materials science, planetary science, geochemistry and cosmochemistry communities. In materials science, there is increasing interest in the degradation studies of thermal (TBC) and environmental (EBC) barrier coatings of gas turbines by molten CMAS. CMAS minerals usually are carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. in aircraft engines, and their deposits react at high temperatures (1000C) with the coating materials. This causes degradation and accelerated failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some preliminary results of the reactions between CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE Y, Yb, Dy, Gd, Nd and Sm) oxide stabilized ZrO2 or HfO2 systems, and the stability of the resulting oxides and silicates. Plasma sprayed hollow tube samples ( 2.2 mm and 26 mm height) were half filled with CMAS powder, wrapped and sealed with platinum foil, and heat treated at 1310 C for 5h. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and cross section electron microscopy analysis.

  17. Real-Time Thermographic-Phosphor-Based Temperature Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coating Surfaces Subjected to a High-Velocity Combustor Burner Environment (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Allison, Stephen W.; Cruzen, Scott; Condevaux, J. J.; Senk, J. R.; Paul, A. D.


    Surface temperature measurements were conducted on metallic specimens coated with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) with a YAG:Dy phosphor layer that were subjected to an aggressive high-velocity combustor burner environment. Luminescence-based surface temperature measurements of the same TBC system have previously been demonstrated for specimens subjected to static furnace or laser heating. Surface temperatures were determined from the decay time of the luminescence signal of the YAG:Dy phosphor layer that was excited by a pulsed laser source. However, the furnace and laser heating provides a much more benign environment than that which exists in a turbine engine, where there are additional challenges of a highly radiant background and high velocity gases. As the next step in validating the suitability of luminescence-based temperature measurements for turbine engine environments, new testing was performed where heating was provided by a high-velocity combustor burner rig at Williams International. Real-time surface temperature measurements during burner rig heating were obtained from the decay of the luminescence from the YAG:Dy surface layer. The robustness of several temperature probe designs in the sonic velocity, high radiance flame environment was evaluated. In addition, analysis was performed to show whether the luminescence decay could be satisfactorily extracted from the high radiance background.

  18. Hot corrosion behavior of nanostructured Gd2O3 doped YSZ thermal barrier coating in presence of Na2SO4 + V2O5 molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Wang


    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloy DZ125 was first sprayed with a NiCrAlY bond coat and followed with a nanostructured 2 mol% Gd2O3−4.5 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (2GdYSZ topcoat using air plasma spraying (APS. Hot corrosion behavior of the as-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs were investigated in the presence of 50 wt% Na2SO4 + 50 wt% V2O5 as the corrosive molten salt at 900 °C for 100 h. The analysis results indicate that Gd doped YVO4 and m-ZrO2 crystals were formed as corrosion products due to the reaction of the corrosive salts with stabilizers (Y2O3, Gd2O3 of zirconia. Cross-section morphology shows that a thin layer called TGO was formed at the bond coat/topcoat interface. After hot corrosion test, the proportion of m-ZrO2 phase in nanostructured 2GdYSZ coating is lower than that of nano-YSZ coating. The result reveals that nanostructured 2GdYSZ coating exhibits a better hot corrosion resistance than nano-YSZ coating.

  19. A synchrotron X-ray diffraction deconvolution method for the measurement of residual stress in thermal barrier coatings as a function of depth. (United States)

    Li, C; Jacques, S D M; Chen, Y; Daisenberger, D; Xiao, P; Markocsan, N; Nylen, P; Cernik, R J


    The average residual stress distribution as a function of depth in an air plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia top coat used in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems was measured using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on station I15 at Diamond Light Source, UK, employing a series of incidence angles. The stress values were calculated from data deconvoluted from diffraction patterns collected at increasing depths. The stress was found to be compressive through the thickness of the TBC and a fluctuation in the trend of the stress profile was indicated in some samples. Typically this fluctuation was observed to increase from the surface to the middle of the coating, decrease a little and then increase again towards the interface. The stress at the interface region was observed to be around 300 MPa, which agrees well with the reported values. The trend of the observed residual stress was found to be related to the crack distribution in the samples, in particular a large crack propagating from the middle of the coating. The method shows promise for the development of a nondestructive test for as-manufactured samples.

  20. High Temperature Degradation of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings (TEBCs) by CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Zhu, Dongming


    There is increasing interest in the degradation studies of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) of gas turbines by molten CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS). CMAS minerals are usually referred as silica-containing sand dust and volcano ash materials that are carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. aircraft engines. The low-melting deposits react at high temperatures (1000C) with the coating materials. This causes degradation and accelerated coating failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some preliminary results of the reactions between CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE Y, Yb, Dy, Gd, Nd and Sm) oxide stabilized ZrO2 or HfO2 systems, and the stability of the resulting oxides and silicates. Plasma sprayed hollow tube samples (outer diameter 4.7 mm, wall thickness 0.76 mm and 26 mm height) were half filled with CMAS powder, wrapped and sealed with platinum foil, and heat- treated at 1310 C for 5h. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and cross section electron microscopy analysis.

  1. 3D structure of nematic and columnar phases of hard colloidal platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Op Reinink, A B G M Leferink; Meijer, J M; Kleshchanok, D; Byelov, D V; Vroege, G J; Petukhov, A V; Lekkerkerker, H N W, E-mail: [Van' t Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.051, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We present small angle x-ray scattering data of single-domain nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases in suspensions of sterically stabilized gibbsite platelets. The measurements are performed with different sample orientations to obtain information about the three-dimensional structure of the liquid crystalline phases. With the x-ray beam incident along the director of the nematic phase a strong correlation peak is observed corresponding to the side-to-side interparticle correlations, which suggests a columnar nematic structure. Upon sample rotation this side-to-side correlation peak of the nematic shifts to higher Q-values, suggesting the presence of strong fluctuations of small stacks of particles with different orientations, while the overall particle orientation is constant. In the hexagonal columnar phase, clear Bragg intercolumnar reflections are observed. Upon rotation, the Q-value of these reflections remains constant while their intensity monotonically decreases upon rotation. This indicates that the column orientation fluctuates together with the particle director in the columnar phase. This difference between the behaviour of the columnar and the nematic reflections upon sample rotation is used to assign the liquid crystal phase of a suspension consisting of larger platelets, where identification can be ambiguous due to resolution limitations.

  2. Optical and structural properties of cobalt-permalloy slanted columnar heterostructure thin films (United States)

    Sekora, Derek; Briley, Chad; Schubert, Mathias; Schubert, Eva


    Optical and structural properties of sequential Co-column-NiFe-column slanted columnar heterostructure thin films with an Al2O3 passivation coating are reported. Electron-beam evaporated glancing angle deposition is utilized to deposit the sequential multiple-material slanted columnar heterostructure thin films. Mueller matrix generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry data is analyzed with a best-match model approach employing the anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium approximation formalism to determine bulk-like and anisotropic optical and structural properties of the individual Co and NiFe slanted columnar material sub-layers. Scanning electron microscopy is applied to image the Co-NiFe sequential growth properties and to verify the results of the ellipsometric analysis. Comparisons to single-material slanted columnar thin films and optically bulk solid thin films are presented and discussed. We find that the optical and structural properties of each material sub-layer of the sequential slanted columnar heterostructure film are distinct from each other and resemble those of their respective single-material counterparts.

  3. Mucocele-like tumor and columnar cell hyperplasia of the breast occurring in a morphologic continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadare Oluwole


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucocele-like tumor was originally described in 1986 as a benign breast proliferation consisting of multiple dilated cysts lined by cytologically bland, flat to cuboidal cells. Subsequent reports described the coexistence of, including the morphologic inter-transitions between, mucocele-like tumor and a variety of other breast proliferations, including intraductal carcinoma, invasive carcinoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and hyperplasia of the usual type. The spectrum of breast alterations characterized by variably enlarged terminal-ductal lobular units lined by variably hyperplastic and variably atypical columnar cells has been the subject of significant discussion in the recent literature. In one scheme, these lesions may be classified into four groups, that is, columnar cell change with and without atypia and columnar cell hyperplasia with and without atypia. Morphologic and molecular observations suggest an association, perhaps in a nonobligate precursor role, between some columnar cell lesions and a variety of other neoplastic lesions. Case presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old woman whose breast tumor contained areas diagnostic of mucocele-like tumor and columnar cell hyperplasia, with morphologic transitions in between. Conclusion Our case represents the second broadly similar case that has been reported, and suggests a potential relationship between these two enigmatic lesions.

  4. A theoretical study of CsI:Tl columnar scintillator image quality parameters by analytical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyvas, N., E-mail:; Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.


    Medical X-ray digital imaging systems such as mammography, radiography and computed tomography (CT), are composed from efficient radiation detectors, which can transform the X-rays to electron signal. Scintillators are materials that emit light when excited by X-rays and incorporated in X-ray medical imaging detectors. Columnar scintillator, like CsI:T1 is very often used for X-ray detection due to its higher performance. The columnar form limits the lateral spread of the optical photons to the scintillator output, thus it demonstrates superior spatial resolution compared to granular scintillators. The aim of this work is to provide an analytical model for calculating the MTF, the DQE and the emission efficiency of a columnar scintillator. The model parameters were validated against published Monte Carlo data. The model was able to predict the overall performance of CsI:Tl scintillators and suggested an optimum thickness of 300 μm for radiography applications. - Highlights: • An analytical model for calculating MTF, DQE and Detector Optical Gain (DOG) of columnar phosphors was developed. • The model was fitted to published efficiency and MTF Monte Carlo data. • A good fit was observed for 300 µm columnar CsI:Tl thickness. • The performance of the 300 µm column thickness CsI:Tl was better in terms of MTF and DOG for radiographic applications.

  5. Simulation of vortex matter two-step melting in an anisotropic superconductor with columnar defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Leonardo P. [Laboratorio de Metodos Numericos e Simulacao Computacional, Departamento de Tecnologia da Informacao, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio, AL 57072-970 (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Raposo, E.P. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Coutinho-Filho, M.D. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Columnar defects in high-temperature superconductors have been object of recent intense experimental and theoretical investigations. We report on the observation of a melting in two steps in a 3D vortex line system with randomly-placed columnar defects. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation using the Lawrence-Doniach model, with Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} parameters, in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the CuO{sub 2} planes and parallel to the columnar defects. The Bose glass phase observed at low temperatures melts, as the temperature increases, through two steps: first it depins to a distorted Abrikosov lattice, in which the vortex matter presents some degree of hexatic order; in the sequence, further increment in the temperature causes the fusion of this distorted lattice.

  6. A 3-phase model for mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification in DC casting of bronze (United States)

    Hao, J.; Grasser, M.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.; Riedle, J.; Eberle, R.


    A three-phase Eulerian approach is used to model the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) during solidification in DC casting of technical bronze. The three phases are the melt, the solidifying columnar dendrites and the equiaxed grains. They are considered as spatially interpenetrating and interacting continua by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, species and enthalpy for all three phases. The so defined solidification model is applied to a binary CuSn6 DC casting process as a benchmark to demonstrate the model potentials. Two cases are studied: one considering only feeding flow and one including both feeding flow and equiaxed sedimentation. The simulated results of mixed columnar and equiaxed solidification are presented and discussed including the occurrence of CET, phase distribution, feeding flow, equiaxed sedimentation and their influence on macrosegregation.

  7. Application of D-CRDM Method in Columnar Jointed Basalts Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu Jin


    Full Text Available Columnar jointed basalt is a type of joint rock mass formed by the combined cutting effect of original joints and aphanitic microcracks. After excavation unloading, such rock mass manifested distinct mechanical properties including discontinuity, anisotropy, and proneness of cracking. On the basis of former research findings, this paper establishes a D-CRDM method applicable to the analysis of columnar jointed basalt, which not only integrates discrete element and equivalent finite-element methods, but also takes into account the coupling effect of original joints and aphanitic microcracks. From the comparative study of field monitoring data and strain softening constitutive model calculated results, it can be found that this method may well be used for the simulation of mechanical properties of columnar jointed basalts and the determination of rock failure mechanism and failure modes, thus providing references for the selection of supporting measures for this type of rock mass.

  8. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Columnar Liquid-Crystalline Assembly Directed by Quadruple Hydrogen Bonds. (United States)

    Soberats, Bartolome; Hecht, Markus; Würthner, Frank


    A diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) dye self-assembles via a unique hydrogen-bonding motif into an unprecedented columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) structure. X-ray and polarized FTIR experiments reveal that the DPPs organize into a one-dimensional assembly with the chromophores oriented parallel to the columnar axis. This columnar structure is composed of two π-π-stacked DPP dimers with mirror-image configurations that stack alternately through quadruple hydrogen bonding by 90° rotation. This exotic packing is dictated by the complementarity between H-bonds and the steric demands of the wedge-shaped groups attached at the core. This novel LC supramolecular material opens a new avenue of research on DPP dye assemblies with photofunctional properties tailored by H-bonding networks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thermal conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films with a zigzag microstructure (United States)

    Amaya, C.; Prías-Barragán, J. J.; Aperador, W.; Hernández-Landaverde, M. A.; Ramírez-Cardona, M.; Caicedo, J. C.; Rodríguez, L. A.; Snoeck, E.; Gómez, M. E.; Zambrano, G.


    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most common material used as a thermal barrier in several engineering applications. In order to improve the insulator potential of these thin films, an oblique-angle deposition approach was used to grow YSZ with tilted columnar structures. Initially, the period (n) was defined as the repetition unit composed of two layers each with different columnar growth directions, and then, n was increased (n = 1, 2, 10, 30, and 50), keeping constant the total thickness (˜3.50 μm). The influence of (n) on the structure, roughness, grain size, microstructure, and thermal conductivity (κ) of thin films deposited was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and hot-plate technique, respectively. For all the samples, XRD patterns indicate the presence of the characteristic 8YSZ tetragonal phase peaks. Through AFM analysis, it was established that the roughness of the films deposited decreases from (4.0 ± 0.6) to (2.0 ± 0.6) nm when n is increased. Cross-sectional images recorded by SEM corroborate the formation of marked interfaces when growth direction changes occur, allowing to identify a multilayer system with a "zigzag" microstructure and an evolution towards more refined and isolated columns. Moreover, the SEM images reveal that for n = 10, 30, 50, and 70, the growth direction of the column is perpendicular to the substrate plane, losing its tilted form and the "zigzag" behavior becomes intra-columnar, reaching nanometer scale. Finally, analyses by hot-plate technique for different n repetition units showed that the thermal conductivity of YSZ films decreases from 0.151 W/m K to 0.064 W/m K, establishing the direct influence of the "zigzag" microstructure on the κ value. This study shows the potential of growing YSZ thin films by oblique-angle deposition as an effective method to improving the thermal insulator potential of this

  10. Identification of mould influence on columnar-to-equiaxial-transition zone position in Al-Si alloys castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak


    Full Text Available The course of process validation of CAFE-Calcosoft (ESI-Group models was presented. It was shown the short description of Cellular Automaton Finite Element (CAFE-3D method which was applied to system to solidification process identification and to predict the structure of chosen Al-Si alloy. It was determined the sensitivity of thermal model and model to forecast the microstructure on the variabiity of particular parameters applied to the models taking into consideration the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET zone. The cylindrical casts which solidified in homogenous silica (quartz-Q sand mould (A and also in high insulation (HI mould with chill (B which coerces high axial temperature gradient, was investigated. The experiment gave the basis to the validation test of CAFE model considering the CET zone which was preceded by two corresponding cases of solidification in respect to thermal conditions of cast-mould system. The virtual structures of studied casts were compared with real structures. It was shown the satisfactory agreement of both structures.

  11. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo


    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi...

  12. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)


    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  13. Vulnerabilidad de los sistemas de polinización de cactáceas columnares de México Vulnerability of pollination systems of columnar cacti of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Valiente-Banuet


    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis geográfico sobre el grado de vulnerabilidad de los sistemas de polinización de cactáceas columnares de México que muestran un síndrome de polinización quiropterófila. Se partió del supuesto que sistemas especializados de polinización serían más vulnerables a la perturbación humana que los generalistas. Los resultados indican que las especies que se ubican en el límite norte de la distribución de las cactáceas columnares muestran patrones generalistas de polinización que las hace menos vulnerables a las perturbaciones que las que habitan el centro de México que presentan sistemas de interacción especializados. Este patrón contrastante podría estar relacionado con los movimientos migratorios de los murciélagos en el norte de la distribución de las cactáceas que pudo haber restringido la respuesta hacia la especialización, en tanto que poblaciones residentes de murciélagos en el centro de México podrían haber favorecido la especialización localAn analysis of the degree of vulnerability of the pollination systems of Mexican columnar cacti showing a chiropterophyllous pollination syndrome was conducted, assuming that specialized pollination interactions would be more vulnerable to human perturbations. The results indicate that the species inhabiting the northern distribution limit of the columnar cacti show generalized pollination systems whereas species inhabiting central Mexico showing specialized pollination interactions would be more vulnerable to perturbations. This contrasting geographic pattern might be related to the migratory movements of the nectar-feeding bats in the northern limit of distribution of the columnar cacti that restricted local specialization, whereas resident nectar-feeding bat populations in south-central Mexico probably favored local specialization

  14. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, Grethe


    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε=0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron...

  15. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost wh...

  16. Interplay between columnar and smectic stability in suspensions of polydisperse colloidal platelets. (United States)

    Velasco, Enrique; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri


    The phase behavior of a model suspension of colloidal polydisperse platelets is studied using density-functional theory. Platelets are modelled as parallel rectangular prisms of square section l(2) and height h, with length and height distributions given by different polydispersities δ(l) and δ(h). The model is intended to qualitatively represent experimental colloidal platelet suspensions at high densities with a high degree of orientational ordering. We obtain the phase behavior of the model, including nematic, smectic and columnar phases and its dependence on the two polydispersities δ(l) and δ(h). When δ(l) > δ(h) we observe that the smectic phase stabilises first with respect to the columnar. If δ(h) > δ(l) we observe the opposite behavior. Other more complicated cases occur, e.g. the smectic stabilises from the nematic first but then exists a first-order transition to the columnar phase. Our model assumes plate-rod symmetry, but the regions of stability of smectic and columnar phases are non-symmetric in the δ(l) - δ(h) plane due to the different dimensionality of ordering in the two phases. Microsegregation effects, i.e. different spatial distribution for different sizes within the periodic cell, take place in both phases and, in each case, is more apparent in the variable associated with ordering.

  17. Behaviors of Deformation, Recrystallization and Textures Evolution of Columnar Grains in 3%Si Electrical Steel Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yuan-yuan


    Full Text Available The behaviors of deformation and recrystallization and textures evolution of 3% (mass fraction Si columnar-grained electrical steel slabs were investigated by electron backscatter diffractometer technique and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the three columnar-grained samples have different initial textures with the long axes arranged along rolling, transverse and normal directions. Three shear orientations can be obtained in surface layer after hot rolling, of which Goss orientation is formed easily. The α and γ fibre rolling orientations are obtained in RD sample, while strong γ fibre orientations in TD sample and sharp {100} orientations in ND sample are developed respectively. In addition, cube orientation can be found in all the three samples. The characteristics of hot rolled orientations in center region reveal distinct dependence on initial columnar-grained orientations. Strong {111}〈112〉 orientation in RD and TD samples separately comes from Goss orientation of hot rolled sheets, and sharp rotated cube orientation in ND sample originates from the initial {100} orientation of hot rolled sheets after cold rolling. Influenced by initial deviated orientations and coarse grain size, large orientation gradient of rotated cube oriented grain can be observed in ND sample. The coarse {100} orientated grains of center region in the annealed sheets show the heredity of the initial columnar-grained orientations.

  18. Novel findings in the pathogenesis of esophageal columnar metaplasia or Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnadath, Kausilia K.


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In esophageal metaplasia the transdifferentiation of the epithelium is the result of longstanding gastroesophageal reflux disease that causes inflammation of the esophageal squamous mucosa, and occasionally is followed by replacement of the squamous epithelium by a columnar type

  19. The stress hormone cortisol: a (co)regulator of biofilm formation in Flavobacterum columnare? (United States)

    Previously, we demonstrated a direct effect of cortisol on Flavobacterium columnare, a notorious fish pathogenic bacterium, engendering a new perspective to bacteria-host communication in aquaculture. As stressed fish harbour increased cortisol levels in the skin and gill mucus, highly virulent F. c...

  20. Loss to follow-up of cervical smears without endocervical columnar cells is not disturbing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Mulder, J.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Grol, R.P.T.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the six-month recommended follow-up after mass screening of Pap smears because of the absence of endocervical columnar cells (ECC-) or ECC+ smears with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined origin (ASCUS/AGUS) or low-grade squamous or glandular

  1. Core charge distribution and self assembly of columnar phases: the case of triphenylenes and azatriphenylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardi Roberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation betweeen the structure of discotic molecules and columnar properties, a crucial point for the realization of new advanced materials, is still largely unknown. A paradigmatic case is that hexa-alkyl-thio substituted triphenylenes present mesogenic behavior while the corresponding azatriphenylenes, similar in shape and chemical structure, but with a different core charge distribution, do not form any liquid crystalline mesophase. This study is aimed at investigating, with the help of computer simulations techniques, the effects on phase behaviour of changes of the charge distribution in the discotic core. Results We described the shape and the pair, dispersive and electrostatic, interactions of hexa alkyl triphenylenes by uniaxial Gay-Berne discs with embedded point charges. Gay-Berne parameters were deduced by fitting the dispersive energies obtained from an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of a small sample of hexa-octyl-thio triphenylene molecules in columnar phase, while a genetic algorithm was used to get a minimal set of point charges that properly reproduces the ab anitio electrostatic potential. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of three molecular models: the pure Gay-Berne disc, used as a reference, the Gay-Berne disc with hexa-thio triphenylene point charges, the Gay-Berne disc with hexa-thio azatriphenylene point charges. The phase diagram of the pure model evidences a rich polymorphism, with isotropic, columnar and crystalline phases at low pressure, and the appearance of nematic phase at higher pressure. Conclusion We found that the intermolecular electrostatic potential among the cores is fundamental in sta-bilizing/destabilizing columnar phases; in particular the triphenylene charge distribution stabilizes the columnar structure, while the azatriphenylene distribution suppresses its formation in favor of the nematic phase. We believe the present model could be successfully employed as the

  2. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric


    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P feeding. Collectively, these findings highlight putative roles for RBL in the context of columnaris disease and reveal new aspects linking RBL regulation to feed availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Fibroblasts Are Primary Mediated by Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Balzer

    Full Text Available The proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblast differentiation are crucial in wound healing and wound closure. Impaired wound healing is often correlated with chronic bacterial contamination of the wound area. A new promising approach to overcome wound contamination, particularly infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens, is the topical treatment with non-thermal "cold" atmospheric plasma (CAP. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD devices generate CAP containing active and reactive species, which have antibacterial effects but also may affect treated tissue/cells. Moreover, DBD treatment acidifies wound fluids and leads to an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide products, such as nitrite and nitrate, in the wound. Thus, in this paper, we addressed the question of whether DBD-induced chemical changes may interfere with wound healing-relevant cell parameters such as viability, proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of primary human fibroblasts. DBD treatment of 250 μl buffered saline (PBS led to a treatment time-dependent acidification (pH 6.7; 300 s and coincidently accumulation of nitrite (~300 μM, nitrate (~1 mM and H2O2 (~200 μM. Fibroblast viability was reduced by single DBD treatments (60-300 s; ~77-66% or exposure to freshly DBD-treated PBS (60-300 s; ~75-55%, accompanied by prolonged proliferation inhibition of the remaining cells. In addition, the total number of myofibroblasts was reduced, whereas in contrast, the myofibroblast frequency was significantly increased 12 days after DBD treatment or exposure to DBD-treated PBS. Control experiments mimicking DBD treatment indicate that plasma-generated H2O2 was mainly responsible for the decreased proliferation and differentiation, but not for DBD-induced toxicity. In conclusion, apart from antibacterial effects, DBD/CAP may mediate biological processes, for example, wound healing by accumulation of H2O2. Therefore, a clinical DBD treatment must be well

  4. Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Fibroblasts Are Primary Mediated by Hydrogen Peroxide (United States)

    Demir, Erhan; Hoffmanns, Martin A.; Baldus, Sabrina; Fuchs, Paul C.; Awakowicz, Peter; Suschek, Christoph V.; Opländer, Christian


    The proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblast differentiation are crucial in wound healing and wound closure. Impaired wound healing is often correlated with chronic bacterial contamination of the wound area. A new promising approach to overcome wound contamination, particularly infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens, is the topical treatment with non-thermal “cold” atmospheric plasma (CAP). Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices generate CAP containing active and reactive species, which have antibacterial effects but also may affect treated tissue/cells. Moreover, DBD treatment acidifies wound fluids and leads to an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide products, such as nitrite and nitrate, in the wound. Thus, in this paper, we addressed the question of whether DBD-induced chemical changes may interfere with wound healing-relevant cell parameters such as viability, proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of primary human fibroblasts. DBD treatment of 250 μl buffered saline (PBS) led to a treatment time-dependent acidification (pH 6.7; 300 s) and coincidently accumulation of nitrite (~300 μM), nitrate (~1 mM) and H2O2 (~200 μM). Fibroblast viability was reduced by single DBD treatments (60–300 s; ~77–66%) or exposure to freshly DBD-treated PBS (60–300 s; ~75–55%), accompanied by prolonged proliferation inhibition of the remaining cells. In addition, the total number of myofibroblasts was reduced, whereas in contrast, the myofibroblast frequency was significantly increased 12 days after DBD treatment or exposure to DBD-treated PBS. Control experiments mimicking DBD treatment indicate that plasma-generated H2O2 was mainly responsible for the decreased proliferation and differentiation, but not for DBD-induced toxicity. In conclusion, apart from antibacterial effects, DBD/CAP may mediate biological processes, for example, wound healing by accumulation of H2O2. Therefore, a clinical DBD treatment must be well

  5. An experimental study on columnar vortex structures in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection (United States)

    Tasaka, Yuji; Fujita, Kodai; Murai, Yuichi; Yanagisawa, Takatoshi


    A scanning PIV system was developed to investigate columnar vortex structures in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection in a range of Taylor number, 6 . 0 ×106 motor driven stage of a laser light sheet allows capturing quasi-instantaneous 3D vortex structures. Vortex distributions at each scanning plane were represented by contour of stream function calculated from a planner velocity vector field measured by PIV with assuming quasi-two dimensional flow field at the planes. 3D structure at each Ta number was visualized by iso-surface of the stream function and the vertical velocity component was estimated from the planner velocity fields via equation of continuity for incompressible fluids. These results suggested that the flow transportation is emphasized by straightening of the columnar vortices with increasing Ta . This may correspond to improvement of Nusselt number with background rotation at the present range of Ta .

  6. Smectic and columnar liquid crystals concepts and physical properties illustrated by experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oswald, Patrick


    Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The book examines lamellar (smectic) and columnar liquid crystals, which, in addition to orientational order, possess 1D, 2D or 3D positional order. This volume illustrates original physical concepts using methodically numerous experiments, theoretical developments, and diagrams. Topics include rheology and plasticity, ferroelectricity, analogies with superconductors, hexatic order and 2D-melting, equilibrium shapes, facetting, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability, as well as phase transitions in free films and membrane vibration...

  7. Retaining {1 0 0} texture from initial columnar grains in 6.5 wt% Si electrical steels (United States)

    Liang, Ruiyang; Yang, Ping; Mao, Weimin


    6.5 wt% Si electrical steel is a superior soft magnetic material with excellent magnetic properties which highly depends on texture. In this study, based on the heredity of orientation in columnar grains, columnar grains are used as the initial material to prepare non-oriented 6.5 wt% Si electrical steel with excellent magnetic properties. EBSD and XRD techniques are adopted to explore the structure and texture evolution during hot rolling, warm rolling, cold rolling and annealing. The results show that, due to the heredity of ;structure and texture; from the initial strong {1 0 0} columnar grains, annealed sheet with {1 0 0} texture had better magnetic properties, which can be used as non-oriented high-silicon electrical steel. Both preferred cube grain nucleation in deformed {1 1 3} grains in subsurface and coarse {1 0 0} deformed grains in center layer show the effect of initial columnar grains with {1 0 0} texture.

  8. A case of foregut gastric duplication cyst with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. (United States)

    Hosomura, Naohiro; Kono, Hiroshi; Kawaida, Hiromichi; Amemiya, Hidetake; Itakura, Jun; Fujii, Hideki


    Gastrointestinal duplication is a congenital rare disease. Duplication cyst of the stomach with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is extremely rare. A 44-year-old Japanese woman visited University of Yamanashi Hospital for evaluation of an abnormal tumor detected by abdominal ultrasonography at an annual general health examination. Abdominal computed tomography indicated a subserosal cystic lesion 6 cm in diameter on the posterior wall of the stomach. The cystic lesion was resected through partial resection of the stomach. Histopathology showed that the cyst did not communicate with the gastric lumen, was covered with gastric epithelium and pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with circular muscle layers, and did not contain cartilaginous tissue. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as having foregut duplication cyst of the stomach. Gastrointestinal duplication can occur in any region of the gastrointestinal tract, but foregut duplication cyst of the stomach is rare. The present case was a subserosal cyst on the greater curvature that did not communicate with the gastric lumen and was covered with gastric epithelium and pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium, suggesting a foregut cyst caused by an aberrant respiratory organ.

  9. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabibi


    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  10. White bass Morone chrysops is less susceptible than its hybrid to experimental infection with Flavobacterium columnare. (United States)

    Fuller, S Adam; Farmer, Bradley D; Beck, Benjamin H


    Hybrid striped bass (HSB) and white bass (WB) were evaluated for their susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, in 3 fundamental studies. In the first experiment, we determined whether columnaris disease could be developed by experimental challenge in HSB. This challenge consisted of 3 levels of F. columnare (10, 30, and 60 ml volumes) determined to be 2.25 × 10(7), 6.75 × 10(7), and 1.35 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1), respectively. Each treatment group exhibited significantly different survival rates: 0, 3.3, and 13.3% in the 60, 30, and 10 ml groups, respectively. In Expt 2, using the 30 ml dose, both HSB and WB had a 0% survival rate, with WB taking significantly longer to reach 100% mortality. In Expt 3, using the 10 ml dose, no HSB survived, whereas 33% of WB survived (p mortality observed in HSB; in contrast, WB gills showed noticeably less damage. From these series of experiments, it is clear that HSB are more sensitive to F. columnare, having lower survival and more extensive histological damage compared to WB following challenge.

  11. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin


    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  12. Building barriers. (United States)

    Turksen, Kursad


    Formation of tissue barriers starts in early development where it is critical for normal cell fate selection, differentiation and organogenesis. Barrier maintenance is critical to the ongoing function of organs during adulthood and aging. Dysfunctional tissue barrier formation and function at any stage of the organismal life cycle underlies many disease states.

  13. Photoirradiation Caused Controllable Wettability Switching of Sputtered Highly Aligned c-Axis-Oriented Zinc Oxide Columnar Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Chi


    Full Text Available This study presents the microstructure morphology and UV photoirradiation coupling effects of the c-axis-oriented zinc oxide (ZnO columnar films. Highly aligned c-axis-oriented films have been deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature by radio-frequency (RF magnetron sputtering without introducing any oxygen source under different sputtering powers ranging from 50 to 150 W. Self-assembled ZnO columnar structures that were successfully obtained belong to wurtzite structure, and the corresponding columnar structures and crystalline orientation were confirmed by the FE-SEM and XRD, respectively. All the ZnO columnar films exhibit good transparency with a visible light averaged transmittance over 82%. According to water contact angle (CA measurement, ZnO columnar films exhibit hydrophobic behavior. After exposing to photoirradiation under ultraviolet (UV environment, all the ZnO samples showed remarkable transition from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic surfaces and could return to their original hydrophobicity after being placed in the dark. It is demonstrated that the controllable wettability of ZnO columnar films under changing between the UV photoirradiation and dark storage is due to the surface charges accumulation and discharging processes. As a result, this study could provide important applications for many fields such as ZnO-based hybrid sensors/solar cells functional devices with photoirradiation disinfection surfaces accompanied with reversible wettability switches.

  14. Growth and survival of the fish pathogenic bacterium, Flavobacterium columnare, in tilapia mucus and porcine gastric mucin. (United States)

    Shoemaker, Craig A; LaFrentz, Benjamin R


    Flavobacterium columnare, an economically important Gram-negative bacterium of freshwater farmed fish, colonizes the skin and gills in the initial steps of pathogenesis. The surface of fish is coated with mucus made up of high molecular weight glycoproteins. Limited studies have described the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in fish mucus. Our objective was to determine if F. columnare isolates could grow and survive in formulated water (FW) containing autoclaved tilapia mucus or porcine gastric mucin. We demonstrated the ability of F. columnare genomovars I, II, II-B and III to replicate (2-3 logs) and survive (21 to >100 days) in FW containing tilapia mucus. In a second experiment, genomovar I and II isolates were found to replicate in FW containing tilapia mucus or porcine mucin but not in FW only. From a practical standpoint, fish handling and/or hauling results in stress that leads to mucus sloughing often with subsequent F. columnare infection. Flavobacterium columnare utilizes fish mucus as a nutrient source, and studies are underway to determine if growth in mucus or mucin results in differential protein expression and/or increased virulence of F. columnare towards fish. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  15. Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant (United States)

    Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador


    A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

  16. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab


    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  17. Involvement of two glycoside hydrolase family 19 members in colony morphotype and virulence in Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin


    Flavobacterium columnare is the pathogenic agent of columnaris disease in aquaculture. Using a recently developed gene deletion strategy, two genes that encode the Glyco_hydro_19 domain (GH19 domain) containing proteins, ghd-1 and ghd-2, were deleted separately and together from the F. columnare G4 wild type strain. Surprisingly, the single-, Δ ghd-1 and Δ ghd-2, and double-gene mutants, Δ ghd-1 Δghd -2, all had rhizoid and non-rhizoid colony morphotypes, which we named Δ ghd-1, Δ ghd-2, Δ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2, and NΔ ghd-1, NΔ ghd-2, and NΔ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2. However, chitin utilization was not detected in either these mutants or in the wild type. Instead, skimmed milk degradation was observed for the mutants and the wild type; the non-rhizoid strain NΔ ghd-2 exhibited higher degradation activity as revealed by the larger transparent circle on the skimmed milk plate. Using zebrafish as the model organism, we found that non-rhizoid mutants had higher LD50 values and were less virulent because zebrafish infected with these survived longer. Transcriptome analysis between the non-rhizoid and rhizoid colony morphotypes of each mutant, i.e., NΔ ghd -1 versus (vs) Δ ghd-1, NΔ ghd-2 vs Δ ghd-2, and NΔ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2 vs Δ ghd-1 Δ ghd-2, revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes, among which 39 genes were common in three of the pairs compared. Although most of these genes encode hypothetical proteins, a few molecules such as phage tail protein, rhs element Vgr protein, thiol-activated cytolysin, and TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor precursor, expression of which was down-regulated in non-rhizoid mutants but up-regulated in rhizoid mutants, may play a role F. columnare virulence.

  18. Polarization-state-dependent attenuation and amplification in a columnar thin film (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    We numerically investigated the plane-wave reflection-transmission characteristics of a columnar thin film (CTF) whose columns are made from a dissipative material but whose void regions are filled with an active material. By computing the reflectances and transmittances, we found that the CTF can simultaneously amplify s-polarized incident light and attenuate p-polarized incident light, or vice versa. This polarization-state-dependent attenuation and amplification phenomenon depends upon the angle of incidence and the thickness of the CTF.

  19. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically-Aligned Columnar Grains


    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Dekkers, Jan M.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.


    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d 31f) and ferroelec...

  20. Application of the Prague C and M criteria for endoscopic description of columnar-lined esophagus in South Korea. (United States)

    Choe, Jung Wan; Kim, Young Choon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae


    To ascertain whether the Prague circumferential (C) length and maximal (M) length criteria for grading the extent of Barrett's esophagus can be applied prior to its widespread application in South Korea. Two hundred and thirteen consecutive cases with endoscopic columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were included and classified according to the Prague C and M criteria. Of 213 cases with CLE, the distribution of maximum CLE lengths was: 0.5-0.9 cm in 99 cases (46.5%); 1.0-1.4 cm in 63 cases (29.6%); 1.5-1.9 cm in 15 cases (7.0%); 2.0-2.4 cm in 14 cases (6.6%); 2.5-2.9 cm in 1 case (0.5%); and 7.0 cm in 1 case (0.5%). Twenty cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. Two hundred and eight cases (97.7%) lacked the circumferential CLE component (C0Mx). Columnar islands were found in 70 cases (32.9%), of which 20 cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. In regions where most CLE patients display short or ultrashort tongue-like appearance, more detailed descriptions of CLE's in < 1.0 cm lengths and columnar islands, as well as avoidance of repeating the prefix "C0" need to be considered in parallel with the widespread application of the Prague system in South Korea.

  1. Mixed columnar cell and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid: a case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Putti, T C; Bhuiya, T A


    Columnar cell and tall cell carcinomas are newly described variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with aggressive clinical behaviour. Although several cases of tall cell and columnar cell variants have been reported, only a single detailed case report of a mixed tall cell and columnar cell variant has been described in the English-language literature. We report another such composite tumour with predominant columna cell features in an elderly female. The tumour showed extrathyroidal extension with intraluminal superior thyroid vein invasion and lymph node metastasis. DNA ploidy analysis showed a diploid DNA content with no increase of S-phase fraction. Immunohistochemistry showed focal positivity for p53 and Ki-67 at the infiltrating margins of the tumour and diffuse positivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The adverse clinical course warrants aggressive treatment and careful follow-up.

  2. Does Cell Lineage in the Developing Cerebral Cortex Contribute to its Columnar Organization? (United States)

    Costa, Marcos R.; Hedin-Pereira, Cecilia


    Since the pioneer work of Lorente de Nó, Ramón y Cajal, Brodmann, Mountcastle, Hubel and Wiesel and others, the cerebral cortex has been seen as a jigsaw of anatomic and functional modules involved in the processing of different sets of information. In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. Although it has been suggested that much of the anatomical substrate for such organization would be already specified at early developmental stages, before activity-dependent mechanisms could take place, it is still unclear whether gene expression in the ventricular zone (VZ) could play a role in the development of discrete functional units, such as minicolumns or columns. Cell lineage experiments using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have shown that the progeny of a single neuroepithelial/radial glial cell in the dorsal telencephalon is organized into discrete radial clusters of sibling excitatory neurons, which have a higher propensity for developing chemical synapses with each other rather than with neighboring non-siblings. Here, we will discuss the possibility that the cell lineage of single neuroepithelial/radial glia cells could contribute for the columnar organization of the neocortex by generating radial columns of sibling, interconnected neurons. Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell–cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits. PMID:20676384

  3. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.


    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500–1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  4. A Columnar Storage Strategy with Spatiotemporal Index for Big Climate Data (United States)

    Hu, F.; Bowen, M. K.; Li, Z.; Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Lee, T. J.; Yang, C. P.


    Large collections of observational, reanalysis, and climate model output data may grow to as large as a 100 PB in the coming years, so climate dataset is in the Big Data domain, and various distributed computing frameworks have been utilized to address the challenges by big climate data analysis. However, due to the binary data format (NetCDF, HDF) with high spatial and temporal dimensions, the computing frameworks in Apache Hadoop ecosystem are not originally suited for big climate data. In order to make the computing frameworks in Hadoop ecosystem directly support big climate data, we propose a columnar storage format with spatiotemporal index to store climate data, which will support any project in the Apache Hadoop ecosystem (e.g. MapReduce, Spark, Hive, Impala). With this approach, the climate data will be transferred into binary Parquet data format, a columnar storage format, and spatial and temporal index will be built and attached into the end of Parquet files to enable real-time data query. Then such climate data in Parquet data format could be available to any computing frameworks in Hadoop ecosystem. The proposed approach is evaluated using the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. Experimental results show that this approach could efficiently overcome the gap between the big climate data and the distributed computing frameworks, and the spatiotemporal index could significantly accelerate data querying and processing.

  5. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan


    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  6. Unloading performances and stabilizing practices for columnar jointed basalt: A case study of Baihetan hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan


    Full Text Available The columnar jointed rock mass (CJR, composed of polygonal cross-sectional columns cut by several groups of joints in various directions, was exposed during the excavations of the Baihetan hydropower station, China. In order to investigate the unloading performances and the stability conditions during excavation of the columns, an experimental field study was performed. Firstly, on-site investigations indicated that the geotechnical problems, including rock relaxation, cracking and collapse, were the most prominent for the CJR Class I that contains intensive joint network and the smallest column sizes. Comprehensive field tests, including deformation measurement by multi-point extensometers, ultrasonic wave testing, borehole television observation and stress monitoring of rock anchors, revealed that the time-dependent relaxation of the CJRs was marked. The practical excavation experiences for the Baihetan columnar jointed rock masses, such as blasting scheme, supporting time of shotcrete and rock bolts, were presented in the excavations of the diversion tunnels. These detailed investigations and practical construction experiences can provide helpful information for similar geotechnical works in jointed rock mass.

  7. Does cell lineage in the developing cerebral cortex contribute to its columnar organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Costa


    Full Text Available Since the pioneer work of Lorente de Nó, Ramón y Cajal, Brodmann, Mountcastle, Hubel and Wiesel and others, the cerebral cortex has been seen as a jigsaw of anatomic and functional modules involved in the processing of different sets of information. In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. Although it has been suggested that much of the anatomical substrate for such organization would be already specified at early developmental stages, before activity-dependent mechanisms could take place, it is still unclear whether gene expression in the ventricular zone could play a role in the development of discrete functional units, such as minicolumns or columns. Cell lineage experiments using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have shown that the progeny of a single neuroepithelial/radial glial cell in the dorsal telencephalon is organized into discrete radial clusters of sibling excitatory neurons, which have a higher propensity for developing chemical synapses with each other rather than with neighbouring non-siblings. Here, we will discuss the possibility that the cell lineage of single neuroepithelial/radial glia cells could contribute for the columnar organization of the neocortex by generating radial columns of sibling, interconnected neurons. Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell-cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits.

  8. A New Columnar CsI(Tl) Scintillator for iQID detectors. (United States)

    Han, Ling; Miller, Brian W; Barber, H Bradford; Nagarkar, Vivek V; Furenlid, Lars R


    A 1650 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator for upgrading iQID detectors, which is a high-resolution photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray detector recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging (CGRI), has been studied in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and depth-of-interaction effects. To facilitate these studies, a new frame-parsing algorithm for processing raw event data is also proposed that has more degrees of freedom in data processing and can discriminate against a special kind of noise present in some low-cost intensifiers. The results show that in comparison with a 450 μm-thickness columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, the 1650 μm thick CsI(Tl) scintillator provides more than twice the sensitivity at the expense of some spatial resolution degradation. The depth-of-interaction study also shows that event size and amplitude vary with scintillator thickness, which can assist in future detector simulations and 3D-interaction-position estimation.

  9. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost...... which is one of the major concerns in the western world especially in the Scandinavian countries. Although columnar trees fulfill many of the desired traits for mechanization, limited knowledge is available on the physiology and production abilities of such trees. In this study a detailed understanding...

  10. Mechanical Properties and Real-Time Damage Evaluations of Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC CMCs Subjected to Tensile Loading Under Thermal Gradients (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory


    SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require new state-of-the art environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to withstand increased temperature requirements and high velocity combustion corrosive combustion gasses. The present work compares the response of coated and uncoated SiC/SiC CMC substrates subjected to simulated engine environments followed by high temperature mechanical testing to asses retained properties and damage mechanisms. Our focus is to explore the capabilities of electrical resistance (ER) measurements as an NDE technique for testing of retained properties under combined high heat-flux and mechanical loading conditions. Furthermore, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were performed to determine material damage onset and accumulation.

  11. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell. (United States)

    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo


    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka; Kuokka, Reetta


    We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.

  13. Leaf micro-environment influence the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo


    Columnar apple trees (CATs) have radically-altered architecture (significantly shorter internodes and lateral branches) when compared to standard apple trees, attributed to a mutation of the Co gene involved in apical dominance. These changes in architecture have been associated with changes...... in the phenotype of the leaves in the leaf clusters that subtend the fruits of CATs, compared to their standard counterparts. This initial investigation considers standard and columnar trees at different levels of genetic relatedness and records significant increases in leaf area, leaf mass per unit area......, chlorophyll content and competitive shading in the fruiting leaf clusters of columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in intercepted light have been shown to be associated with the columnar structure, and carbon fixation is also increased. We propose that leaf micro-environment of columnar...

  14. Nanodots induced columnar growth of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikheenko, P., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Tanner, J.L. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sarkar, A.; Dang, V.-S.; Abell, J.S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Crisan, A. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest 077125 (Romania)


    We report columnar growth of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) films by pulsed laser deposition using nanodots of Au, Ag and Pd deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} substrate prior to the growth of the film. The nanodots initiate formation of densely packed YBCO columns with c-axis along the length of the columns. The obtained columnar structure offers enhanced pinning of magnetic flux and provides high critical current density in a magnetic field directed along the c-axis of YBCO while keeping high critical current density for other directions of magnetic field. The evidence of columnar structure is given by the planar and cross-sectional atomic force microscopy, transmissional election microscopy and rotational transport measurements of critical current. By creating the columnar structure, an improvement of critical current up to about 200% is achieved comparable to the reference samples without nanodots in a wide range of magnetic field and thickness of the samples. The largest increase in critical current is observed in magnetic fields close to the matching field calculated from the density of nanoparticles or density of YBCO columns.

  15. Experimental test of the postulate that continuous columnar pinning centers produce the highest J{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)]. E-mail:; Gandini, Alberto [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Mayes, Bill [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)


    Continuous columnar pinning centers, created by energetic ions, have been usefully studied theoretically and experimentally to investigate vortex physics in high T{sub c} superconductors. However, along the way, in error, their discontinuities have been downplayed, and they have been anointed as the way to produce high J{sub c}.

  16. Frustration of the isotropic-columnar phase transition of colloidal hard platelets by a transient cubatic phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, M.A.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831751; patti, A; Dennison, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339588349; Dijkstra, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123538807


    Using simulations and theory, we show that the cubatic phase is metastable for three model hard platelets. The locally favored structures of perpendicular particle stacks in the fluid prevent the formation of the columnar phase through geometric frustration resulting in vitrification. Also, we find

  17. Extremophile extracts and enhancement techniques show promise for the development of a live vaccine against Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Powell, D.B.; Palm, R.C.; MacKenzie, A.P.; Winton, J.R.


    The effects of temperature, ionic strength, and new cryopreservatives derived from polar ice bacteria were investigated to help accelerate the development of economical, live attenuated vaccines for aquaculture. Extracts of the extremophile Gelidibacter algens functioned very well as part of a lyophilization cryoprotectant formulation in a 15-week storage trial. The bacterial extract and trehalose additives resulted in significantly higher colony counts of columnaris bacteria (Flavobacterium columnare) compared to nonfat milk or physiological saline at all time points measured. The bacterial extract combined with trehalose appeared to enhance the relative efficiency of recovery and growth potential of columnaris in flask culture compared to saline, nonfat milk, or trehalose-only controls. Pre-lyophilization temperature treatments significantly affected F. columnare survival following rehydration. A 30-min exposure at 0 ??C resulted in a 10-fold increase in bacterial survival following rehydration compared to mid-range temperature treatments. The brief 30 and 35 ??C pre-lyophilization exposures appeared to be detrimental to the rehydration survival of the bacteria. The survival of F. columnare through the lyophilization process was also strongly affected by changes in ionic strength of the bacterial suspension. Changes in rehydration constituents were also found to be important in promoting increased survival and growth. As the sodium chloride concentration increased, the viability of rehydrated F. columnare decreased. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Development of a culture independent method to characterize the chemotactic response of Flavobacterium columnare to fish mucus (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, is a significant pathogen of many freshwater fish species worldwide and is considered one of the most important pathogens impacting the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque) industry in the United States. Recent researc...

  19. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4 (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  20. Intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of Flavobacterium columnare and standard protocol for genomovar assignment (United States)

    Genetic variability in 16S rRNA gene sequences has been demonstrated among isolates of Flavobacterium columnare and a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay is available for genetic typing this important fish pathogen. Interpretation of restriction patterns can be difficult due to th...

  1. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.


    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for the fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmo...

  2. Anisotropic and non-heterogeneous continuum percolation in titanium oxynitride thin columnar films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreguette, F. [LPUB, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); LRRS, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Maglione, M.; Sacilotti, M. [LPUB, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Clerc, J.P. [IUSTI, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France); Bourgeois, S. [LRRS, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)


    We report the percolation behaviour of the conductivity of titanium oxynitride films grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, composed of TiN{sub x}O{sub y} mixed with TiO{sub 2}. The usual DC parameters (t, s and {phi}{sub c}), obtained from the effective media theory equations, are compared to the universal values (s=s{sub un} while tcolumnar films with chemically similar conducting and insulating units (non-heterogeneous percolation) whose mixing is based upon the growth temperature during the film growth. (author)

  3. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal


    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  4. Comparison of two methods for inferring total columnar ozone amount and aerosol optical depth (United States)

    Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, M. P.; Tena, Fernando; Cachorro, Victoria E.


    Mean daily values of the total atmospheric optical depth have been obtained from measurements of spectral solar irradiance at ground level in Valencia, Spain. These measurements have been taken during ten days in the years 1993 and 1994. The total columnar ozone amount and aerosol optical depths have been calculated using both King and Byrne and by Flittner at al. methods. The results obtained show that these algorithms lead to big errors if they are employed to determine instantaneous values of total ozone content. If they are used to calculate mean daily values, both methods give similar results either for the total ozone content or the aerosol optical depth, with quite acceptable errors. Considering the errors introduced by any one of the two methods, King's algorithm leads to higher imprecision in the aerosol optical depth determinations. This imprecision is particularly significant when the curve of the aerosol optical depth as a function of wavelength differs from the exponential law proposed by Angstrom.

  5. Columnar islands in Barrett's esophagus: Do they impact Prague C&M criteria and dysplasia grade? (United States)

    Epstein, Jeremy A; Cosby, Hilary; Falk, Gary W; Khashab, Mouen A; Kiesslich, Ralf; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Wang, Jean S; Canto, Marcia Irene


    The standard for classifying Barrett's metaplasia on endoscopy, the Prague C&M criteria, ignores all islands of metaplastic-appearing tissue. The aims of the present study were to measure the prevalence of columnar islands, quantify their impact on metaplasia extent, and determine if they harbor advanced dysplasia. Data from two prospective patient cohorts were retrospectively analyzed. They included adults who underwent upper endoscopy to evaluate for gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma between 2003 and 2012 at tertiary care centers in the USA and Germany. The BE pattern, location, and pathology were examined. The extent of BE as defined by the Prague criteria (disregarding the location of islands) was compared with the complete maximal extent of BE (incorporating the location of islands). A total of 555 patients underwent endoscopy (mean age 60.1 years, 67.2% male, 91.9% white). Among those patients, 191 (34.4%) showed metaplastic-appearing mucosa in islands. Endoscopically, in 101 (52.9%) cases, islands were proximal to the farthest segment of BE as defined by the Prague M location. Histologically, intestinal metaplasia was confirmed in 60 (58.8%) of the 102 esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGDs) where islands were biopsied. In 41 (40.2%) cases, the histologically confirmed BE islands extended farther than the maximal segment based on the Prague criteria. Pathology from biopsies of islands either changed the diagnosis or worsened the BE dysplasia grade in 16 (15.7%) of the 102 patients. Columnar islands are commonly seen on EGD. The Prague C&M criteria may underestimate the maximal extent of BE and overlook the area of highest dysplasia grade. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Pollination system of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus (tribe Cereeae) in eastern Mexico. (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, M A; Sosa, V J; Jácome-Flores, M E


    It has been suggested that there is a geographic dichotomy in the pollination systems of chiropterophilous columnar cacti: in intra-tropical areas they are pollinated almost exclusively by bats, whereas in extratropical areas they are pollinated by bats, birds and bees. However, currently the studies are clumped both taxonomically (mainly Pachycereeae species) and geographically (mainly in the Tehuacan Valley and the Sonoran Desert). This clumping limits the possibility of generalising the pattern to other regions or cactus tribes. Only four of the 36 chiropterophilous cacti in Pilosocereus have been studied. Despite the tropical distribution of two Pilosocereus species, bees account for 40-100% of their fruit set. We examined how specialised is the pollination system of P. leucocephalus in eastern Mexico. As we studied tropical populations, we expected a bat-specialised pollination system. However, previous studies of Pilosocereus suggest that a generalised pollination system is also possible. We found that this cactus is mainly bat-pollinated (bats account for 33-65% of fruit set); although to a lesser degree, diurnal visitors also caused some fruit set (7-15%). Diurnal visitors were more effective in populations containing honeybee hives. P. leucocephalus is partially self-compatible (14-18% of fructification) but unable to set fruit without visitors. Despite the variation in pollination system, P. leucocephalus shows more affinity with other columnar cacti from tropical regions than with those from extratropical regions. Although we report here that a new species of tropical Pilosocereus is relatively bat-specialised, this Cereeae genus is more flexible in its pollination system than the Pachycereeae genera.

  7. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains. (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Rijnders, Guus


    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d 31f ) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (P r ), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33f ) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average P r and d 33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d 33f = 408 pm V -1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5-5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V -1 was deduced in the 3.5-4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness.

  8. Long term analysis of the columnar and surface aerosol relationship at an urban European coastal site (United States)

    Segura, S.; Estellés, V.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.


    Simultaneous PM2.5, PM10 and columnar (ground and satellite based) AOD measurements have been analyzed at Burjassot site in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain) during the period 2007-2016. The site is representative of a south European city in the Western Mediterranean coastal area, influenced by local urban pollution but also from frequent Saharan dust events. First, multiannual statistics were performed to characterize the main aerosol burden characteristics. The averages and standard deviations resulted 18 ± 9 μg m-3, 25 ± 19 μg m-3, 0.15 ± 0.11, 0.23 ± 0.17, 0.19 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3 for PM2.5, PM10, AERONET AOD, MODIS Terra AOD, MODIS Aqua AOD, and AERONET Ångström exponent AE, respectively. The AOD is always referred to 550 nm. PM10 and AOD showed seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minima in winter. However, PM2.5 and AE did not show such an evident seasonality. The relationship between surface and columnar measurements show a poor correlation (r down to 0.30) for daily values, although the correlation increases to r up to 0.90 for yearly averages. The relationship between PM and AOD becomes more consistent when the databases are binned in intervals of 0.05 AOD. Results for AERONET and MODIS AOD are very similar, although for daily averages is slightly worse for satellite than ground based measurements. In order to explain some seasonality effects found, the mixing layer height has been included in the analysis. Results show that the correlation is maximum when PM2.5 is used and the mixing layer height is greater than 1 000 m (r > 0.90).

  9. Dynamics of energy coupling and thermalization in barrier discharges over dielectric and weakly conducting surfaces on µs to ms time scales (United States)

    Leonov, Sergey B.; Petrishchev, Vitaly; Adamovich, Igor V.


    The paper presents experiments characterizing discharge development and energy coupling in a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD), atmospheric air plasmas over dielectric and weakly conducting surfaces, over a wide range of time scales and electrical conductivities. The experiments are done using nanosecond pulse (NS) both single polarity and alternating polarity) and ac voltage waveforms. Discharge development and mechanisms of coupling with quiescent air are analysed using nanosecond gate camera imaging, schlieren imaging, and laser differential interferometry. It is shown that NS SDBD plasmas generate stochastic, localized, near-surface perturbations on a long time scale (>100 μs) after the discharge pulse. These perturbations, entirely different from compression waves generated on a short time scale (~1-10 μs), are caused by discharge contraction and originate from the ends of the filaments. Surface conductivity has almost no effect on discharge behaviour if RC time of the conducting surface layer is much longer compared to the characteristic time of NS or ac voltage waveforms. In the opposite limit of short RC time, the conducting layer acts as an extension of the high-voltage electrode. Discharge contraction significantly increases energy stored on the dielectric surface, which in this case exceeds energy dissipated as Joule heat. The stored energy is dissipated if the discharge pulse is followed by an opposite polarity pulse. In a single polarity discharge, on the other hand, surface charge accumulation limits energy coupled to the plasma by subsequent pulses. The results demonstrate that surface plasma actuator control authority may be significantly increased by using an alternating polarity pulse waveform, which is more effective than the removal of surface charge between the pulses using a weakly conducting surface.

  10. Columnar and Equiaxed Solidification of Al-7 wt.% Si Alloys in Reduced Gravity in the Framework of the CETSOL Project (United States)

    Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Li, Y. Z.; Gandin, C.-A.; Fleurisson, R.; Guillemot, G.; McFadden, S.; Mooney, R. P.; Voorhees, P.; Roosz, A.; Ronaföldi, A.; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Warnken, N.; Saad, A.; Grün, G.-U.; Grohn, M.; Poitrault, I.; Pehl, T.; Nagy, I.; Todt, D.; Minster, O.; Sillekens, W.


    During casting, often a dendritic microstructure is formed, resulting in a columnar or an equiaxed grain structure, or leading to a transition from columnar to equiaxed growth (CET). The detailed knowledge of the critical parameters for the CET is important because the microstructure affects materials properties. To provide unique data for testing of fundamental theories of grain and microstructure formation, solidification experiments in microgravity environment were performed within the European Space Agency Microgravity Application Promotion (ESA MAP) project Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification Processing (CETSOL). Reduced gravity allows for purely diffusive solidification conditions, i.e., suppressing melt flow and sedimentation and floatation effects. On-board the International Space Station, Al-7 wt.% Si alloys with and without grain refiners were solidified in different temperature gradients and with different cooling conditions. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the grain structure showed purely columnar growth for nonrefined alloys. The CET was detected only for refined alloys, either as a sharp CET in the case of a sudden increase in the solidification velocity or as a progressive CET in the case of a continuous decrease of the temperature gradient. The present experimental data were used for numerical modeling of the CET with three different approaches: (1) a front tracking model using an equiaxed growth model, (2) a three-dimensional (3D) cellular automaton-finite element model, and (3) a 3D dendrite needle network method. Each model allows for predicting the columnar dendrite tip undercooling and the growth rate with respect to time. Furthermore, the positions of CET and the spatial extent of the CET, being sharp or progressive, are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  11. Organizational barriers (United States)

    Kenneth S. Blonski


    One of the traditional roles that prescribed fire has played in the fire management arena is reduction of hazardous fuel buildups under controlled, well-defined environmental conditions. However, our ability to use this tool effectively is blocked by many barriers. The preceding panel discussion about the causes of limited success in implementing prescribed burning...

  12. Air Plasma-Sprayed La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 Composite Thermal Barrier Coating Subjected to CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) (United States)

    Cai, Lili; Ma, Wen; Ma, Bole; Guo, Feng; Chen, Weidong; Dong, Hongying; Shuang, Yingchai


    La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were prepared by air plasma spray (APS). The La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs covered with calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) powder, as well as the powder mixture of CMAS and spray-dried La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite powder, were heat-treated at 1250 °C in air for 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. The phase constituents and microstructures of the reaction products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that the La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs had higher CMAS resistance than 8YSZ coating. A dense new layer developed between CMAS and La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs during interaction, and this new layer consisted mostly of apatite (Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2) and c-ZrO2. The newly developed layer effectively protected the La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs from further CMAS attack.

  13. Influence of bondcoat composition and manufacturing parameters on the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings under cyclic temperature loading; Einfluss der Bondcoatzusammensetzung und Herstellungsparameter auf die Lebensdauer von Waermedaemmschichten bei zyklischer Temperaturbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subanovic, Marko


    In the present study the influence of the bond coat composition on the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings during thermal cycling was investigated. The knowledge, that the reactive elements (RE), which are essential for the improvement of the oxide scale adhesion, are ''lost'', during the bond coat processing, made it necessary to investigate systematically the influence of the different manufacturing stages on the RE distribution. After VPS (vacuum plasma spraying) with a high oxygen partial pressure in the spraying chamber, the reactive elements in the NiCoCrAl-coating were tied up in oxide precipitates, and thus their beneficial effect on the scale adhesion was inhibited. Another important observation is that the RE's are depleted during the bondcoat vacuum heat-treatment. The degree of Y-depletion depends not only on the Y-reservoir in the coating (Y-content and thickness) but also on the heat-treatment parameters, such as vacuum quality and temperature. A thin, dense alumina oxide scale with a smooth interface between bond coat and TGO doesn't necessary lead to a lifetime extension of the EB-PVD TBC's. TBC's with such oxide morphology typically failed due to crack formation and propagation along the interface between the TGO and the bondcoat. By addition of zirconium it was possible to shift the failure initiation from the interface TGO/bondcoat to the interface TBC/TGO, which can apparently accommodate more thermal strain energy before failure. The shift of the failure location was achieved by a change of the oxide morphology, which mainly relies on adjusting a non-even wavy interface between the TGO and the bond coat and formation of defected oxide layers. In contrast, a defected oxide scale with a high growth rate shortened the life time of APSTBC's. Porosity and spinel formation weakened the mechanical integrity of the oxide scale, and facilitated the crack formation and propagation of the already existing

  14. Comparison of the columnar-thin-film and vacuum-metal-deposition techniques to develop sebaceous fingermarks on nonporous substrates. (United States)

    Williams, Stephanie F; Pulsifer, Drew P; Shaler, Robert C; Ramotowski, Robert S; Brazelle, Shelly; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Both the columnar-thin-film (CTF) and the vacuum-metal-deposition (VMD) techniques for visualizing sebaceous fingermarks require the deposition of a material thereon in a vacuum chamber. Despite that similarity, there are many differences between the two techniques. The film deposited with the CTF technique has a columnar morphology, but the film deposited with the VMD technique comprises discrete islands. A split-print methodology on a variety of fingermarked substrates was used to determine that the CTF technique is superior for developing fingermarks on clear sandwich bags and partial bloody fingermarks on stainless steel. Both techniques are similar in their ability to develop fingermarks on glass but the CTF technique yields higher contrast. The VMD technique is superior for developing fingermarks on white grocery bags and the smooth side of Gloss Finish Scotch Multitask(™) tape. Neither technique worked well for fingermarks on black garbage bags. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Adhesive hydrophobicity of Cu2O nano-columnar arrays induced by nitrogen ion irradiation. (United States)

    Dhal, Satyanarayan; Chatterjee, Sriparna; Manju, Unnikrishnan; Tribedi, Lokesh C; Thulasiram, K V; Fernandez, W A; Chatterjee, Shyamal


    Low energy nitrogen ions are used in this work to manipulate wetting properties of the surface of the array of Cu2O nano-columns, which yields remarkable results. The nano-columnar thin films were grown on a highly conductive silicon surface by a sputter deposition technique. The films were irradiated at two different fluences of 5 × 10(15) and 1 × 10(16) ions per cm(2), respectively. With increasing fluence the shape of column tip changes, columns are bent and porous channels between columns are clogged up. While the surface of the pristine sample is hydrophilic, the irradiated surface turns into hydrophobic but having adhesion properties. We have analysed the structural and chemical properties of the surface in detail to understand the initial and modified wetting properties. Furthermore, the temporal evolutions of different droplet parameters are investigated to realize the interactions between the water droplet, the sample surface and the atmosphere. We envisage that such modified surfaces can be beneficial for transport of a small volume of liquids with minimum loss and spectroscopic studies, where a small amount of water droplet is available for measurements.

  16. Analysis of growth directions of columnar stromatolites from Walker Lake, western Nevada. (United States)

    Petryshyn, V A; Corsetti, F A


    Samples of digitate, branching, columnar stromatolites were collected from the steep sides and near horizontal top of four in situ boulders located on the southwestern side of Walker Lake, Nevada, to test the widely held assumption that stromatolite column formation represents a phototropic response. We would predict that the columns on the steeply dipping sides of the boulder would bend upwards toward the light during growth if phototropism was significant during stromatolite morphogenesis. Angle of growth measurements on >300 stromatolites demonstrate that the stromatolites grew nearly normal to their growth surface, regardless of the inclination of their growth surface. No significant differences in the distribution of growth angles between north-, south-, east-, or west-facing samples were observed, and stromatolite lamina thickness did not systematically vary with position on the boulder. The lack of a strong phototropic response does not rule out a biological origin for the Walker Lake structures, but it does suggest that phototropic growth was not a dominant factor controlling stromatolite morphogenesis in these stromatolites and that column formation cannot be uniquely attributed as a phototropic response in stromatolites. It is interesting to note that the morphology of the stromatolites on the top of the boulder is identical to stromatolites on the steep sides. Stromatolite morphogenetic models that predict branching typically require a vertically directed sedimentary component, a feature that would have likely affected the stromatolites on the tops of the boulders, but not the sides, suggesting that other factors may be important in stromatolite morphogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan


    Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l-1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.

  18. Single crystal to single crystal polymerization of a columnar assembled diacetylene macrocycle (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei

    Organic tubular materials have attracted lots of attentions for their potential applications as nanoscale fluidic transport systems, specific ion sensors, molecular sieves and confined molecular reaction containers. While conjugated polymers, due to delocalized Pi electrons, exhibit interesting solar cells and sensors applications. In this thesis, we developed a conjugated polymer which combines the attributes of conjugated polymers with tubular materials, which should have great potential to work as a sensing material. We reproduced and scaled-up the synthesis of a polymerizable macrocycle 1 that contains two rigidly separated diacetylene units. We found that, through hydrogen bonding, 1 can assemble into columnar crystals and can be polymerized under a single crystal to single crystal transformation process to afford porous polydiacetylene (PDA) crystals. We studied the assembly of the macrocycles 1 under different conditions to give three different crystalline forms and micro-phase crystals, and also investigated their subsequent polymerizations. The macrocycle assembly and polymerized materials were characterized by a variety of technique. Since the gas adsorption measurement exhibited PDA crystals still retained its porosity and the polymer should have ability to uptake suitable guest molecules, therefore the absorption of iodine for PDA crystals was investigated as well.

  19. A study of the endocervical columnar cells I - morphology and frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitel Duarte


    Full Text Available After the observation of many thousands of histological sections of the endocervical mucosa it became evident that its columnar cells present a great variety of aspects not only those of the surface of the canal but also those of the glands. A classification of these cells was made taking into account the staining affinity, the intensity staining of the cytoplasm, the presence or absence of cilia, the shape and location of the nucleus. The various combinations of these different data made possible the characterization of 26 types of cells which we labelled by the alphabetical letters. Two hundred and fifty cervices obtained by cervical amputation and by hysterectomy were studied. The uteri presented lesions in the course of routine laboratory examination. In each of the 250 histological sections there were specifically counted 2,000 columnar cells which cover the cervical canal and 2,000columnar cells which form the glands. A graphic representation of the frequency of both the superficial and glandular columnar cells was presented; this was given the name EPITHELIOGRAM. The variation of the cellular "composition" of each epithelium is discussed and the frequency of the various cellular types after the count of one million of cells is presented.O estudo minucioso do epitélio da mucosa endocervical possibilitou o reconhecimento de vinte e seis tipos de células cilíndricas, tanto na superfície de revestimento do canal, como nas chamadas glândulas endocervicais. Para a classificação destas 26 células, que tomaram, cada uma, uma letra do alfabeto, foram levados em consideração a intensidade de coloração, a apresença ou não de cílios, a forma e dimensões dos núcleos e sua posição na célula. Foram analisados inicialmente 250 cortes histológicos, sendo contadas especìficamente, em cada corte, 2000 células cilíndricas de revestimento e 2000 células cilíndricas das glândulas. Em cada caso foram anotados, nas tabelas, além dos

  20. Nanostructure and crystallography of aberrant columnar vaterite in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca). (United States)

    Frenzel, Max; Harrison, Richard J; Harper, Elizabeth M


    Both the crystallographic and nanostructural organisation of aberrant columnar vaterite occurring in Corbicula fluminea were characterised in detail for the first time using electron microscopic and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. At the millimetre scale, only a confinement of the otherwise randomly oriented c-axis to the growth surface is observed. Domains of 100 or more individual vaterite columns with common c-axis orientation exist within this disordered material. Each column behaves as a single crystal on the scale of EBSD measurements, but is internally composed of smaller irregularly shaped and slightly misaligned crystalline units (0.3-1.3μm in dimension). These are in turn partitioned by porous boundaries into rounded nanodomains, up to 600nm in size. The geometry of the nanodomains and their respective boundaries might suggest formation by the accretion of vesicles. In addition to crystallographic textures, this observation indicates formation under significant biological control with wider implications for possible causes of the condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Metal-Matrix Composites Reinforced with Silicon Carbide Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia E. Ares


    Full Text Available The present work is focused on the study of the effect of directional heat extraction on the silicon-carbide (SiC distribution in zinc-aluminum matrix composites (MMCs and on the columnar-to-equiaxed (CET position in directionally solidified samples. To this end, a ZA-27 alloy matrix was reinforced with ceramic particles of SiC and vertically directionally solidified. The cooling rates, temperature gradients, and interphase velocities were then measured, and their influence on the solidification microstructure of the MMCs was analyzed. The recalescence detected and measured during the equiaxed transition was of the order of 3.5°C to 1.1°C. The values of the temperature gradients reached a minimum during the CET and were even negative in most cases (between −3.89 K and 0.06 K. The interphase velocities varied between 0.07 mm/s and 0.44 mm/s at the transition. Also, the presence of ceramic particles in ZA-27 alloys affected the thermodynamic local conditions and the kinetics of nucleation, producing a finer microstructure.

  2. Anisotropic propagation imaging of elastic waves in oriented columnar thin films (United States)

    Coffy, E.; Dodane, G.; Euphrasie, S.; Mosset, A.; Vairac, P.; Martin, N.; Baida, H.; Rampnoux, J. M.; Dilhaire, S.


    We report on the observation of strongly anisotropic surface acoustic wave propagation on nanostructured thin films. Two kinds of tungsten samples were prepared by sputtering on a silicon substrate: a conventional thin film with columns normal to the substrate surface, and an oriented columnar architecture using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Pseudo-Rayleigh waves (PRWs) were imaged as a function of time in x and y directions for both films thanks to a femtosecond heterodyne pump-probe setup. A strong anisotropic propagation as well as a high velocity reduction of the PRWs were exhibited for the GLAD sample. For the wavevector k/2π  =  3  ×  105 m‑1 the measured group velocities v x and v y equal 2220 m s‑1 for the sample prepared with conventional sputtering, whereas a strong anisotropy appears (v x   =  1600 m s‑1 and v y   =  870 m s‑1) for the sample prepared with the GLAD process. Using the finite element method, the anisotropy is related to the structural anisotropy of the thin film’s architecture. The drop of PRWs group velocities is mainly assigned to the porous microstructure, especially favored by atomic shadowing effects which appear during the growth of the inclined columns. Such GLAD thin films constitute a new tool for the control of the propagation of surface elastic waves and for the design of new devices with useful properties.

  3. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro


    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of columnar porous Si thin films and Si nanowires (United States)

    Fodor, Bálint; Defforge, Thomas; Agócs, Emil; Fried, Miklós; Gautier, Gaël; Petrik, Péter


    Columnar mesoporous Si thin films and dense nanowire (SiNW) carpets were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible-near-infrared wavelength range. Porous Si layers were formed by electrochemical etching while structural anisotropy was controlled by the applied current. Layers of highly oriented SiNWs, with length up to 4.1 μm were synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching. Ellipsometric spectra were fitted with different multi-layered, effective medium approximation-based (EMA) models. Isotropic, in-depth graded, anisotropic and hybrid EMA models were investigated with the help of the root mean square errors obtained from the fits. Ellipsometric-fitted layer thicknesses were also cross-checked by scanning electron microscopy showing an excellent agreement. Furthermore, in the case of mesoporous silicon, characterization also revealed that, at low current densities (100 mA/cm2) this behavior turns around, and anisotropy becomes the dominant feature describing the spectra. Characterization of SiNW layers showed a very high geometrical anisotropy. However, the highest fitted geometrical anisotropy was obtained for the layer composed of ∼1 μm long SiNWs indicating that for thicker layers, collapse of the nanowires occurs.

  5. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  6. Control of slanting angle, porosity, and anisotropic optical constants of slanted columnar thin films via in situ nucleation layer tailoring (United States)

    Rice, Charles; Mock, Alyssa; Sekora, Derek; Schmidt, Daniel; Hofmann, Tino; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias


    Electron-beam evaporation at a glancing angle of 85° is utilized to fabricate highly ordered, spatially coherent titanium slanted columnar thin films. Prior to deposition of the slanted columnar thin films, a titanium nucleation layer is deposited using electron-beam deposition at normal incidence with various intended nucleation layer thicknesses of 0 nm, 5 nm, 7.5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm. Structural and optical properties of the anisotropic porous thin films are studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Mueller matrix generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in the near infrared to ultra-violet spectral regions. An anisotropic effective medium approximation is employed for analysis of the ellipsometry data in order to determine slanting angle and porosity model parameters. We find that the slanting angle and titanium volume fraction are strongly influenced by the nucleation layer thickness. Structural parameters of SCTFs deposited on 50 nm nucleation layers are similar to those from SCTFs with no nucleation layer. For small nucleation layer thicknesses, the corresponding SCTF slanting angle and titanium volume fraction decrease reaching a minimum of ≈33° and ≈12%, respectively, at 10 nm nucleation layer thickness. In accordance with the strong decrease in volume fraction we observe substantial reduction of the effective anisotropic thin film optical constants. We find the slanting angle and porosity variation reproducible and suggest use of a nucleation layer for control of slanting angle and porosity of slanted columnar thin films.

  7. Carcinoid tumor associated with adjacent dysplastic columnar epithelium in the renal pelvis: A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Kim, Sung Sun; Choi, Chan; Kang, Taek Won; Choi, Yoo Duk


    Carcinoid tumors are well documented in the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, but very rare in the urinary tract, especially in the renal pelvis. We report on a 60-year-old female patient who presented with left flank pain and fever. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the left renal pelvis and a stone at the left proximal ureter. Multiple parenchymal lesions were also observed, which were identified as uneven caliectasis displaying air-fluid levels and renal parenchymal atrophy. The patient underwent simple nephro-ureterectomy. Macroscopically, a polypoid mass was observed in the renal pelvis. Microscopically, the tumor revealed acinar, tubular, and solid pattern and was composed of small, monotonous and hyperchromatic cells. Lining epithelia in renal pelvis and ureter revealed columnar epithelia with dysplastic change. The tumor cells were positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD56, and focally positive for cytokeratin. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin and chromogranin A highlighted the neuroendocrine cells in the columnar epithelium. Ki-67 (1:50; MIB-1) labeling index was less than 1% in the area with highest uptake. We report here a case of carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis that was associated with adjacent dysplastic columnar epithelium. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Sub-0.1 mu m line fabrication by Focused ion beam and columnar structural Se-Ge resist

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Chung, H B


    As a method to enhance the sensitivity (S) of an inorganic resist for focused-ion-beam (FIB), lithography, sub-0.1 mu m patterning properties of a columnar structural alpha-Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 resist have been investigated using 30 keV low-energy Ga sup + -FIB exposure and CF sub 4 reactive-ion etching (RIE). development. The Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 thin films were 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited on Si substrate and parts of the films were annealed for several minutes at the glass transition temperature (T sub g =approx 220 .deg. C). Columnar structures with the angles of approximately 40 .deg. and 65 .deg. are observed in 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited films, respectively, and they disappear after annealing. Despite the disappearance of the columnar structures, a critical decrease in thickness is not observed. For the FIB exposures with a beam diameter of approx 0.1 mu m and around the threshold dose, the negative-type fine patterns with linewidth of about 0.06 approx 0...

  9. High-optical-quality ferroelectric film wet-processed from a ferroelectric columnar liquid crystal as observed by non-linear-optical microscopy. (United States)

    Araoka, Fumito; Masuko, Shiori; Kogure, Akinori; Miyajima, Daigo; Aida, Takuzo; Takezoe, Hideo


    The self-organization of ferroelectric columnar liquid crystals (FCLCs) is demonstrated. Columnar order is spontaneously formed in thin films made by the wet-process due to its liquid crystallinity. Electric-field application results in high optical quality and uniform spontaneous polarization. Such good processability and controllability of the wet-processed FCLC films provide us with potential organic ferroelectric materials for device applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Study of Their Normal Histology With Emphasis on Glandular Depth, Presence of Columnar Epithelial Cells, and Distribution of Elastic Fibers. (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Belousova, Irena E; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kerl, Katrin; Kazakov, Dmitry V


    The normal histology of anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) has been studied previously, but some aspects, including glandular depth, presence of columnar epithelium resembling columnar cell change/hyperplasia as defined in mammary pathology, and distribution of elastic fibers, have not been previously investigated. To address these issues, we studied 148 AGMLG identified in 133 paraffin blocks sampled from 64 vulvar wide excision or vulvectomy specimens (64 patients, various indications for surgery). The depth of AGMLG ranged from 0.64 to 3.9 mm. Epithelial columnar cell change was noted in 33.1% of all AGMLG, whereas columnar cell hyperplasia was detected in 10.1%. Occasionally, combinations of cuboidal epithelium and columnar cell change were seen within 1 histological section. Of 22 specimens stained for elastic fibers, in only 6 (27.3%) cases were elastic fibers found around glands. Periductal elastic fibers were demonstrated around 3 of the only 5 ducts, which were available for analysis in slides stained for elastic fibers. The depth of AGMLG should be taken into account when planning topical and surgical therapies for lesions derived or evolving from AGMLG. Alterations identical to columnar cell change may represent a normal variation of AGMLG.

  11. Stiffness of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiladitya Paul


    .... In this paper, the Young’s modulus of TBC top coat, measured using different techniques, such as four-point bending, indentation and impulse excitation is reported, along with a brief description of how the techniques probe...

  12. Radiative Transport Modelling of Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)


    Figure 1. Schematic of multiple scatter events inside a TBC D l1 l2 l3 l4l5 5 Two random walk simulation codes were adapted and improved upon, particular n = 2 scatter event. l1 lb 1 2 l2 db DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 11 The solution to Eq. (13...development of the new model (Task 2) and in testing it (Task 3). Some model parameter definitions are shown in Figure 1. The scattering medium is

  13. Effect of hiatal hernia size and columnar segment length on the success of radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's esophagus: a single-center, phase II clinical trial. (United States)

    Korst, Robert J; Santana-Joseph, Sobeida; Rutledge, John R; Antler, Arthur; Bethala, Vivian; DeLillo, Anthony; Kutner, Donald; Lee, Benjamin E; Pazwash, Haleh; Pittman, Robert H; Rahmin, Michael; Rubinoff, Mitchell


    Hiatal hernia is common in patients with Barrett's esophagus. We sought to evaluate the effect of hiatal hernia size and initial columnar segment length on the success of radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus. A phase II clinical trial was conducted aimed at evaluating the success of radiofrequency ablation in eradicating Barrett's esophagus. Success was defined as complete replacement of the columnar lining with squamous mucosa and lack of intestinal metaplasia using light microscopy. Hiatal hernia size and columnar segment length were measured endoscopically. Sixty-seven patients were accrued to the protocol. In the 55 patients who completed radiofrequency ablation (43 successes, 12 failures), the mean hiatal hernia size was 3.3 cm (range, 0-10 cm), and the mean columnar segment length was 5.4 cm (range, 1-18 cm). The median length of the columnar segment was 3 cm in the successful cases and 8.5 cm in the failed cases (P = .002). Although the median hiatal hernia size was identical in the successful and failed cases (3 cm, P = .38), the median hiatal hernia size was 7 cm (P = .001) in the 6 patients who experienced nonhealing after the initial ablation. Patients who were successfully ablated but had larger hiatal hernias and longer columnar segment lengths required significantly more radiofrequency ablation sessions than those with smaller hernias and shorter segments (P = .003 and P = .007, respectively). Patients with larger hiatal hernias and longer columnar segments are more likely to experience failure or nonhealing after radiofrequency ablation. These patients also require more radiofrequency ablation treatments to achieve successful eradication of Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity (United States)

    Liu, D. R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen Thi, H.; Billia, B.


    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement.

  15. An Efficient 3D Stochastic Model for Predicting the Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Alloy 718 (United States)

    Nastac, L.


    A three-dimensional (3D) stochastic model for simulating the evolution of dendritic crystals during the solidification of alloys was developed. The model includes time-dependent computations for temperature distribution, solute redistribution in the liquid and solid phases, curvature, and growth anisotropy. The 3D model can run on PCs with reasonable amount of RAM and CPU time. 3D stochastic mesoscopic simulations at the dendrite tip length scale were performed to simulate the evolution of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition in alloy 718. Comparisons between simulated microstructures and segregation patterns obtained with 2D and 3D stochastic models are also presented.

  16. Microstructure analysis and comparison of tungsten alloy rod and [001] oriented columnar-grained tungsten rod ballistic penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappu, S.; Kennedy, C.; Murr, L.E. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Magness, L.S. [US Army Research Lab., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Kapoor, D. [US Army Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)


    Tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) penetrator rods (93% W particles in a matrix of 4.9% Ni and 2.1% Fe) were compared with [001] columnar-grained W penetrator rods in the as-fabricated condition, and after penetration into thick targets at impact velocities of 1 and 1.5 km s{sup -1}, respectively. Light metallography and transmission electron microscopy revealed the initial W microstructures to be similar arrangements of predominantly a left angle 111 right angle /2 screw dislocations. The in-target (deformed) microstructures were characterized by recovered and elongated sub-grains having misorientations ranging from 1 to 5 . (orig.) 22 refs.

  17. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja


    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  18. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  19. Optimization of APS-ZrO{sub 2}-thermal barrier coatings by variations of creep strength and interface roughness; Optimierung von APS-ZrO{sub 2}-Waermedaemmschichten durch Variationen der Kriechfestigkeit und der Grenzflaechenrauhigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweda, Mario


    Gas turbines operate at combustion chamber temperatures up to 1400 C. Therefore the blades and the combustion chamber lining, which consist of Ni-superalloys for highest loads, are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) of zirconium oxide and an underlying oxidation protection coating of MCrAlY-alloys (M=Ni, Co). At high temperature the MCrAlY-coating oxidizes and an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-scale (thermally grown oxide, TGO) forms between MCrAlY-coating and TBC, what constrains the oxidation of the base material. At plasma sprayed TBCs, the MCrAlY-coating provides a bond coat (BC) for the TBC at the same time and therefore is roughened by sandblasting before the deposition of the TBC. By the growth of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-scale and the start up and run down of the gas turbine, stresses arise in the TBC, which lead to lateral crack formation in the field of the TBC-BC-interface and finally to the spallation of the TBC. Thereby other parts of the turbine can be damaged, what causes high costs. Therefrom the aim is to delay the crack growth as strong as possible or rather to maximize the lifetime of the TBC. For this purpose the material properties of the coating components have to be optimized. In the present work, the influence of creep strength of BC and TGO and the influence of TBC-BC-interface-roughness on the lifetime and damage evolution of plasma sprayed ZrO{sub 2}-TBCs are investigated. To determine the lifetime, cylindrical specimens with plasma sprayed ZrO{sub 2}-TBC were produced and thermally cycled with a minimum and maximum temperature of 60 C and 1050 C and a dwell time at maximal temperature of 2h. To exclude the interdiffusion and thermal mismatch between BC and Ni-superalloy, a model system was used: The Ni-superalloy was left and the substrate material consists completely of a BC-like FeCrAlY-alloy. The model system was simulated by the project partner TU Braunschweig with the FE-method. The TBC-BC-interface-roughness was abstracted by a 2

  20. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Umanoff


    Full Text Available Background: Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP features. Case Report: A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion: Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance.

  1. Dust events in Beijing, China (2004–2006: comparison of ground-based measurements with columnar integrated observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu


    Full Text Available Ambient particle number size distributions spanning three years were used to characterize the frequency and intensity of atmospheric dust events in the urban areas of Beijing, China in combination with AERONET sun/sky radiometer data. Dust events were classified into two types based on the differences in particle number and volume size distributions and local weather conditions. This categorization was confirmed by aerosol index images, columnar aerosol optical properties, and vertical potential temperature profiles. During the type-1 events, dust particles dominated the total particle volume concentration (<10 μm, with a relative share over 70%. Anthropogenic particles in the Aitken and accumulation mode played a subordinate role here because of high wind speeds (>4 m s−1. The type-2 events occurred in rather stagnant air masses and were characterized by a lower volume fraction of coarse mode particles (on average, 55%. Columnar optical properties showed that the superposition of dust and anthropogenic aerosols in type-2 events resulted in a much higher AOD (average: 1.51 than for the rather pure dust aerosols in type-1 events (average AOD: 0.36. A discrepancy was found between the ground-based and column integrated particle volume size distributions, especially for the coarse mode particles. This discrepancy likely originates from both the limited comparability of particle volume size distributions derived from Sun photometer and in situ number size distributions, and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of particles during dust events.

  2. Multiplex-PCR for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and Aeromonas hydrophila. (United States)

    Panangala, Victor S; Shoemaker, Craig A; Van Santen, Vicky L; Dybvig, Kevin; Klesius, Phillip H


    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. The m-PCR to amplify target DNA fragments from Flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), Edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and Aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. The lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-PCR reaction mixture. The sensitivity threshold for detection of the 3 bacteria in tissues ranged between 3.4 x 10(2) and 2.5 x 10(5) cells g(-1) of tissue (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the m-PCR was evaluated with 10 representative isolates of each of the 3 bacteria and 11 other Gram-negative and 2 Gram-positive bacteria that are taxonomically related or ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Except for a single species (A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), each set of primers specifically amplified the target DNA of the cognate species of bacteria. m-PCR was compared with bacteriological culture for identification of bacteria in experimentally infected fish. The m-PCR appears promising for the rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium columnare, E. ictaluri and A. hydrophila in infected fish compared to the time-consuming traditional bacteriological culture techniques.

  3. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures; Modelisation de la solidification colonnaire et equiaxe de melanges binaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, P


    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  4. What controls the seasonal cycle of columnar methane observed by GOSAT over different regions in India? (United States)

    Chandra, Naveen; Hayashida, Sachiko; Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.


    Methane (CH4) is one of the most important short-lived climate forcers for its critical roles in greenhouse warming and air pollution chemistry in the troposphere, and the water vapor budget in the stratosphere. It is estimated that up to about 8 % of global CH4 emissions occur from South Asia, covering less than 1 % of the global land. With the availability of satellite observations from space, variability in CH4 has been captured for most parts of the global land with major emissions, which were otherwise not covered by the surface observation network. The satellite observation of the columnar dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) is an integrated measure of CH4 densities at all altitudes from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. Here, we present an analysis of XCH4 variability over different parts of India and the surrounding cleaner oceanic regions as measured by the Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT) and simulated by an atmospheric chemistry-transport model (ACTM). Distinct seasonal variations of XCH4 have been observed over the northern (north of 15° N) and southern (south of 15° N) parts of India, corresponding to the peak during the southwestern monsoon (July-September) and early autumn (October-December) seasons, respectively. Analysis of the transport, emission, and chemistry contributions to XCH4 using ACTM suggests that a distinct XCH4 seasonal cycle over northern and southern regions of India is governed by both the heterogeneous distributions of surface emissions and a contribution of the partial CH4 column in the upper troposphere. Over most of the northern Indian Gangetic Plain regions, up to 40 % of the peak-to-trough amplitude during the southwestern (SW) monsoon season is attributed to the lower troposphere ( ˜ 1000-600 hPa), and ˜ 40 % to uplifted high-CH4 air masses in the upper troposphere ( ˜ 600-200 hPa). In contrast, the XCH4 seasonal enhancement over semi-arid western India is attributed mainly ( ˜ 70 %) to the

  5. What controls the seasonal cycle of columnar methane observed by GOSAT over different regions in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chandra


    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is one of the most important short-lived climate forcers for its critical roles in greenhouse warming and air pollution chemistry in the troposphere, and the water vapor budget in the stratosphere. It is estimated that up to about 8 % of global CH4 emissions occur from South Asia, covering less than 1 % of the global land. With the availability of satellite observations from space, variability in CH4 has been captured for most parts of the global land with major emissions, which were otherwise not covered by the surface observation network. The satellite observation of the columnar dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4 is an integrated measure of CH4 densities at all altitudes from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. Here, we present an analysis of XCH4 variability over different parts of India and the surrounding cleaner oceanic regions as measured by the Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT and simulated by an atmospheric chemistry-transport model (ACTM. Distinct seasonal variations of XCH4 have been observed over the northern (north of 15° N and southern (south of 15° N parts of India, corresponding to the peak during the southwestern monsoon (July–September and early autumn (October–December seasons, respectively. Analysis of the transport, emission, and chemistry contributions to XCH4 using ACTM suggests that a distinct XCH4 seasonal cycle over northern and southern regions of India is governed by both the heterogeneous distributions of surface emissions and a contribution of the partial CH4 column in the upper troposphere. Over most of the northern Indian Gangetic Plain regions, up to 40 % of the peak-to-trough amplitude during the southwestern (SW monsoon season is attributed to the lower troposphere ( ∼  1000–600 hPa, and  ∼  40 % to uplifted high-CH4 air masses in the upper troposphere ( ∼  600–200 hPa. In contrast, the XCH4 seasonal enhancement over semi

  6. Dielectric relaxation, structural and thermal studies of 95 MeV O6+ ion irradiated conducting polymer polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol (United States)

    Himanshu, A. K.; Ray, Rajyavardhan; El-Sayed, S.; Hassen, A.; Bandyopadhayay, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.


    Polyaniline (PANI) film prepared from using water-soluble support polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been irradiated with 95 MeV oxygen (O6+) ions at the fluences from 1011 to 1012 ions/cm2. The thermal, dielectric, structural and microstructural properties of the samples are investigated by differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis, LCR meter, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The structural studies reveal that amorphization on irradiation which may be due to the scission of polymer bonds as there is a signature of columnar tracts and the appearance of voids in the sample increases with increasing O6+ ions irradiation-dose. Frequency-dependent spectra of the imaginary electric modulus suggest that long-range conduction in pristine sample changes to short-range, i.e. localized conduction in 95 MeV O6+ ion-irradiation PANI-PVA. The behaviour of the ac conductivity reveals that the conduction mechanism in both pristine and irradiated sample is correlated to the barrier hopping model.

  7. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.


    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  8. Differential Induction of Long-Term Potentiation in the Horizontal versus Columnar Superficial Connections to Layer II Cells of the Entorhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton T. Dickson


    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is a nodal and independent mnemonic element of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit as it forms a bidirectional interface between the neocortex and hippocampus. Within the EC, intra- and inter-lamellar associational connections occur via horizontal and columnar projections, respectively. We undertook a comparative study of these two inputs as they converge upon EC layer II cells using whole-cell patch techniques in an adult rat EC horizontal slice preparation in which the deepest layers (V-VI had been dissected out. Electrical stimulation of layers I and III during GABA blockade allowed us to study excitatory synaptic properties and plasticity in the horizontal and columnar fibre systems, respectively. Both pathways exhibited AMPA- and NMDA-receptor mediated transmission and both exhibited long-term potentiation (LTP after high-frequency (tetanic stimulation. LTP in the horizontal, but not in the columnar pathway, was blocked by NMDA receptor antagonism. Intriguingly, LTP in both appeared to be mediated by post synaptic increases in Ca2+ that may be coupled to differing second messenger pathways. Thus, the superficial excitatory horizontal and columnar associative pathways to layer II have divergent mechanisms for LTP which may endow the EC with even more complex and dynamic processing characteristics than previously thought.

  9. Bioassay-directed isolation and evaluation of Harmine from the terrestrial plant Peganum harmala L. for antibacterial activity against Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    The antibacterial activities of crude extracts obtained from the aerial portions and roots of Peganum harmala L. were evaluated against the common fish pathogenic bacteria species Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare, and Streptococcus iniae using a rapid bioassay. Enteric septicemia of c...

  10. Activation of the BMP4 Pathway and Early Expression of CDX2 Characterize Non-specialized Columnar Metaplasia in a Human Model of Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, Daniel; Puig, Sonia; Iglesias, Mar; Seoane, Agustín; de Bolós, Carme; Munitiz, Vicente; Parrilla, Pascual; Comerma, Laura; Poulsom, Richard; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Grande, Luís; Pera, Manuel


    Background A human model of gastroesophageal reflux disease was used to examine the contribution of a non-specialized columnar type of metaplasia (NSCM) and key molecular events (BMP4 and CDX2) in the development of Barrett's esophagus. Methods Biopsies of the remnant esophagus from 18 patients

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of a Columnar Jointed Rock Mass: Observations from Laboratory-Based Physical Modelling (United States)

    Ji, H.; Zhang, J. C.; Xu, W. Y.; Wang, R. B.; Wang, H. L.; Yan, L.; Lin, Z. N.


    Because of the complex geological structure, determination of the field mechanical parameters of the columnar jointed rock mass (CJRM) was a challenging task in the design and construction of the Baihetan hydropower plant. To model the mechanical behaviour of the CJRM, uniaxial compression tests were conducted on artificial CJRM specimens with geological structure similar to that found in the actual CJRM. Based on the test results, the anisotropic deformation and strength were mainly analysed. The empirical correlations of evaluating the field mechanical parameters were derived based on the joint factor approach and the modulus reduction factor method. The findings of the physical model tests were then used to estimate the field moduli and unconfined compressive strengths of the Baihetan CJRM. The results predicted by physical model tests were compared with those obtained from the field tests and the RMR classification system. It is concluded that physical model tests were capable of providing valuable estimations on the field mechanical parameters of the CJRM.

  12. hybridMANTIS: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators. (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo


    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code MANTIS, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fastDETECT2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the MANTIS code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify PENELOPE (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in MANTIS) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fastDETECT2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybridMANTIS approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to MANTIS and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybridMANTIS, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical tox-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than MANTIS and, asa result, allows us to efficiently simulate large area detectors.

  13. Interactions of highly and low virulent Flavobacterium columnare isolates with gill tissue in carp and rainbow trout. (United States)

    Declercq, Annelies Maria; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Dewulf, Jeroen; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Cornelissen, Maria; Bossier, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Decostere, Annemie


    The interactions of Flavobacterium columnare isolates of different virulence with the gills of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) were investigated. Both fish species were exposed to different high (HV) or low virulence (LV) isolates and sacrificed at seven predetermined times post-challenge. Histopathological and ultrastructural examination of carp and rainbow trout inoculated with the HV-isolate disclosed bacterial invasion and concomitant destruction of the gill tissue, gradually spreading from the filament tips towards the base, with outer membrane vesicles surrounding most bacterial cells. In carp, 5-10% of the fish inoculated with the LV-isolate became moribund and their gill tissue displayed the same features as described for the HV-isolate, albeit to a lesser degree. The bacterial numbers retrieved from the gill tissue were significantly higher for HV- compared to LV-isolate challenged carp and rainbow trout. TUNEL-stained and caspase-3-immunostained gill sections demonstrated significantly higher apoptotic cell counts in carp and rainbow trout challenged with the HV-isolate compared to control animals. Periodic acid-Schiff/alcian blue staining demonstrated a significantly higher total gill goblet cell count for HV- and LV-isolate challenged compared to control carp. Moreover, bacterial clusters were embedded in a neutral matrix while being encased by acid mucins, resembling biofilm formation. Eosinophilic granular cell counts were significantly higher in the HV-isolate compared to LV-isolate inoculated and control carp. The present data indicate a high colonization capacity, and the destructive and apoptotic-promoting features of the HV-isolate, and point towards important dynamic host mucin-F. columnare interactions warranting further research.

  14. Thermal conductivity of titanium aluminum silicon nitride coatings deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, M.K., E-mail: [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Surface Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); CINTRA-CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ding, X.Z. [Surface Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Amini, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering. Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore (Singapore); Khosravian, N.; Cheong, J.Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, G. [BC Photonics Technological Company, 5255 Woodwards Rd., Richmond, BC V7E 1G9 (Canada); Tay, B.K. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CINTRA-CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)


    A series of physical vapour deposition titanium aluminum silicon nitride nanocomposite coating with a different (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio, with a thickness of around 2.5 μm were deposited on stainless steel substrate by a lateral rotating cathode arc process in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The composition and microstructure of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy observation. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating shows a clear columnar structure with a predominant (111) preferential orientation. With the incorporation of Al and Si, the crystallite size in the coatings decreased gradually, and the columnar structure and (111) preferred orientation disappeared. Thermal conductivity of the as-deposited coating samples at room temperature was measured by using pulsed photothermal reflectance technique. Thermal conductivity of the pure TiN coating is about 11.9 W/mK. With increasing the (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio, the coatings' thermal conductivity decreased monotonously. This reduction of thermal conductivity could be ascribed to the variation of coatings' microstructure, including the decrease of grain size and the resultant increase of grain boundaries, the disruption of columnar structure, and the reduced preferential orientation. - Highlights: • A series of titanium aluminum silicon nitride with different (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio were deposited on Fe304. • The composition and microstructure of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed. • Thermal conductivity of the samples was measured by pulsed photothermal reflectance. • With increasing the (Al + Si)/Ti atomic ratio, thermal conductivity decreased. • Reduction of thermal conductivity is ascribed to the variation of its microstructure.


    Water temperature is a key driver of ecological processes in aquatic environments and can influence biological connectivity among riverine habitats. Riverine fish and other mobile aquatic species often must navigate a variety of physical barriers such as dams and culverts. For Pacific salmon, warm water can also pose barriers to migration, but the presence of patches of cooler water within rivers can serve as important refuges and potentially as stepping stones at times of day when temperatures are elsewhere unsuitable along the migratory corridor. Rising water temperature associated with climate change has become a major conservation concern for freshwater species and poses challenges for natural resource managers who must consider multiple factors in addition to uncertainty in climate predictions. Thermal refuges can contribute to watershed-scale thermal resilience and are increasingly considered in water quality regulations; however, monitoring such refuges and effectively operationalizing the concept for management has proved difficult. We review what is known about use of thermal refuges by coldwater fishes in natural systems, and then we present two case study applications in which we characterize thermal patterns in rivers (e.g., the frequency, size, spacing, and location of thermal patches) and consider effects on salmon in a management context. In our first example, we illustrate methods for quantifying spatial heterogeneity in stream temperatures at bi

  16. Inflammation and the Intestinal Barrier: Leukocyte–Epithelial Cell Interactions, Cell Junction Remodeling, and Mucosal Repair (United States)

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma


    The intestinal tract is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells that forms a dynamic, permeable barrier allowing for selective absorption of nutrients, while restricting access to pathogens and food-borne antigens. Precise regulation of epithelial barrier function is therefore required for maintaining mucosal homeostasis and depends, in part, on barrier-forming elements within the epithelium and a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the mucosa. Pathologic states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, are associated with a leaky epithelial barrier, resulting in excessive exposure to microbial antigens, recruitment of leukocytes, release of soluble mediators, and ultimately mucosal damage. An inflammatory microenvironment affects epithelial barrier properties and mucosal homeostasis by altering the structure and function of epithelial intercellular junctions through direct and indirect mechanisms. We review our current understanding of complex interactions between the intestinal epithelium and immune cells, with a focus on pathologic mucosal inflammation and mechanisms of epithelial repair. We discuss leukocyte–epithelial interactions, as well as inflammatory mediators that affect the epithelial barrier and mucosal repair. Increased knowledge of communication networks between the epithelium and immune system will lead to tissue-specific strategies for treating pathologic intestinal inflammation. PMID:27436072

  17. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...... barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...

  18. Columnar Aerosol Properties from Sun-and-star Photometry: Statistical Comparisons and Day-to-night Dynamic (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Alados-Arboledas, L.


    This work presents the first analysis of longterm correlative day-to-night columnar aerosol optical properties. The aim is to better understand columnar aerosol dynamic from ground-based observations, which are poorly studied until now. To this end we have used a combination of sun-and-star photometry measurements acquired in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) from 2007 to 2010. For the whole study period, mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) around 440 nm (+/-standard deviation) is 0.18 +/- 0.10 and 0.19 +/- 0.11 for daytime and nighttime, respectively, while the mean Angstr¨om exponent (alpha ) is 1.0 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 for daytime and nighttime. The ANOVA statistical tests reveal that there are no significant differences between AOD and obtained at daytime and those at nighttime. Additionally, the mean daytime values of AOD and obtained during this study period are coherent with the values obtained in the surrounding AERONET stations. On the other hand, AOD around 440 nm present evident seasonal patterns characterised by large values in summer (mean value of 0.20 +/- 0.10 both at daytime and nighttime) and low values in winter (mean value of 0.15 +/- 0.09 at daytime and 0.17 +/- 0.10 at nighttime). The Angstr¨om exponents also present seasonal patterns, but with low values in summer (mean values of 0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 at dayand night-time) and relatively large values in winter (mean values of 1.2 +/- 0.4 and 1.0 +/- 0.3 at daytime and nighttime). These seasonal patterns are explained by the differences in the meteorological conditions and by the differences in the strength of the aerosol sources. To take more insight about the changes in aerosol particles between day and night, the spectral differences of the Angstrom exponent as function of the Angstr¨om exponent are also studied. These analyses reveal increases of the fine mode radius and of the fine mode contribution to AOD during nighttime, being more

  19. Microstructure Control of Columnar-Grained Silicon Substrate Solidified from Silicon Melts Using Gas Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Kyu Lee


    Full Text Available A silicon substrate with the dimensions of 100 × 140 × 0.3 mm was grown directly from liquid silicon with gas pressure. The silicon melt in the sealed melting part was injected into the growth part at applied pressure of 780–850 Torr. The solidified silicon substrate was then transferred by the pull of the cooled dummy bar. A desirable structure with a liquid-solid interface perpendicular to the pulling direction was formed when the mold temperature in the solidification zone of the growth part was much higher than that of the dummy bar, as this technique should be able to overcome thermal loss through the molds and the limited heat flux derived from the very narrow contact area between the silicon melt and the dummy bar. In addition, because the metallic impurities and expansion of volume during solidification are preferably moved to a liquid phase, a high-quality silicon substrate, without defects such as cracks and impurities in the substrate, could be manufactured in the interface structure. The present study reports the experimental findings on a new and direct growth system for obtaining silicon substrates characterized by high quality and productivity, as a candidate for alternate routes for the fabrication of silicon substrates.

  20. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (United States)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz


    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  1. Tunnel barrier schottky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Rongming; Cao, Yu; Li, Zijian; Williams, Adam J.


    A diode includes: a semiconductor substrate; a cathode metal layer contacting a bottom of the substrate; a semiconductor drift layer on the substrate; a graded aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor barrier layer on the drift layer and having a larger bandgap than the drift layer, the barrier layer having a top surface and a bottom surface between the drift layer and the top surface, the barrier layer having an increasing aluminum composition from the bottom surface to the top surface; and an anode metal layer directly contacting the top surface of the barrier layer.

  2. Laboratory challenges with the bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare and infection of juvenile lost river suckers (Deltistes luxatus) during their exposure to sublethal ammonia concentrations at pH 9.5 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three Flavobacterium columnare isolates which had been obtained from dying adult suckers at Upper Klamath Lake during a fish kill in August, 1996 and stored by...

  3. Angular dependence of magnetotransport properties in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films with columnar defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, G.L.; Divakar, Ujjual; Trigunayat, G.C.; Kumar, Ravi; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K


    Vortex dynamics of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films with controlled columnar defects (CD) were investigated using angle resolved resistivity measurements. The Bose Glass Temperature T{sub BG} is found to decrease with increasing angle between the applied field and CDs. The Critical exponent {nu}(z-2), where {nu} is the static exponent and z is the dynamic exponent, were found to be angle independent.

  4. Initial validation of ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY columnar CO by FTIR profile retrievals at the Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann


    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide vertical profile retrievals from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at the Permanent Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2964m a.s.l., Germany are used to validate columnar CO retrieved from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY spectra (WFM-DOAS version 0.4. The WFM-DOAS retrievals of CO include an empirical column scaling factor of 0.5. Therefore, not absolute column levels are validated, but the proper response of the SCIAMACHY retrievals to the atmospheric inter-annual variability is quantitatively assessed in comparison to the Zugspitze FTIR results. Although CO WFM-DOAS data for only 33 days were available for this study (data covering January-October 2003, it is possible to retrieve information on the CO annual cycle (≈10% amplitude in a statistically significant fit out of the scatter of the SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS data. To obtain this, all pixels within a minimum radius of 2000km around Zugspitze had to be averaged for each day.

  5. Dry deposition of NO2 over China inferred from OMI columnar NO2 and atmospheric chemistry transport model (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Lu, X. H.; Liu, L.; Chen, D. M.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, X. J.; Zhang, Y.


    The NO2 dry deposition over China was estimated based on an inferential model, in which the surface NO2 concentrations and deposition velocities were derived from OMI columnar NO2 and the simulation results from atmospheric chemistry transport models. Nationally, the annual NO2 dry deposition fluxes ranged from 0.0005 to 8.54 kg N ha-1, with an average of 0.48 kg N ha-1. The total NO2 dry deposition over China was 0.46 Tg N yr-1, mainly contributed by northern and southeast China. Due to contrary seasonal trends of the NO2 concentrations (high in cold months) and deposition velocities (high in warm months), the estimated NO2 dry depositions did not show strong seasonal pattern, instead showing relatively high values from August to October and low ones in February. The annual NO2 dry deposition has an increasing trend from 2007 to 2014, with the highest deposition level achieved in 2011. This research conducts a thorough validation between estimated NO2 dry depositions with ground measurements of NO2 concentrations and provides an objective spatial perspective and insight on the existing NO2 dry deposition maps in China.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Spin Relaxation Time in InAs Columnar Quantum Dots at 10 to 150 K (United States)

    Nakanishi, Sota; Sasayama, Kazutoshi; Oyanagi, Yoshitsugu; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Lu, Shulong; Li, Lianhe; Fiore, Andrea; Tackeuchi, Atsushi


    We have investigated carrier spin relaxation in InAs columnar quantum dots (CQDs) using time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. The CQDs were formed by depositing a 1.8 monolayer InAs seed dot layer and a short-period GaAs/InAs superlattice (SL). The spin relaxations of the 3- and 35-period SL CQDs show double exponential decay up to 50 and 130 K, respectively. The spin relaxation times of the fast component, whose amplitudes are 4-11 times larger than that of the slow component, are around 100 ps for the two samples. For the 3-period SL CQDs, the fast spin relaxation time shows no temperature dependence up to around 50 K, indicating the relevance of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process. The slow spin relaxation time of the 35-period SL CQDs was found to decrease from 3.42 ns at 10 K to 0.849 ns at 130 K. This large change may be explained by the Elliott-Yafet process considering acoustic phonon scattering.

  7. Thermal stress fracture of ceramic coatings (United States)

    Andersson, C. A.


    Thermal stress failures of ceramic coatings are discussed in terms of fracture mechanics concepts. The effects of transient and residual stresses on single and multiple cycle failure mechanisms are considered. A specific example of a zirconia thermal barrier coating is presented and its endurance calculated using the proposed relationships.

  8. Plasma Spray-CVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Produce Thin Films from Liquid or Gaseous Precursors (United States)

    Gindrat, M.; Höhle, H.-M.; von Niessen, K.; Guittienne, Ph.; Grange, D.; Hollenstein, Ch.


    New dedicated coating processes which are based on the well-known LPPS™ technology but operating at lower work pressure (100 Pa) are being actively developed. These hybrid technologies contribute to improve the efficiencies in the turbine industry such as aero-engines and land-based gas turbines. They also have a great potential in the domain of new energy concepts in applications like Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, membranes, and photovoltaic with the adoption of new ways of producing coatings by thermal spray. Such processes include Plasma Spray-Thin Film (PS-TF) which gives the possibility to coat thin and dense layers from splats through a classical thermal spray approach but at high velocities (400-800 m/s) and enthalpy (8000-15000 kJ/kg). Plasma Spray-PVD (PS-PVD) which allows producing thick columnar-structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (100-300 μm) from the vapor phase with the employment of the high enthalpy gun and specific powder feedstock material. On the other hand, the Plasma Spray-CVD (PS-CVD) process uses modified conventional thermal spray components operated below 100 Pa which allows producing CVD-like coatings (article, we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations encountered while producing thin film coatings using liquid and gaseous precursors with this new type of low pressure plasma spray equipment and point out the challenges faced to obtain efficient injection and mixing of the precursors in the plasma jet. In particular, SiO x thin films from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO or C6H18OSi2) can be deposited on wafers at deposition rates of up to 35 nm/s at an efficiency of about 50%. The process was also used for producing metal oxide coatings (Al2O3, ZnO, and SnO2) by evaporating different metals in combination with an oxygen gas flow. The effect of process parameters on the deposition rate, coating build up, uniformity, and quality of the coatings are discussed. An overview of different potential applications of this new technology

  9. Transforming Education: Overcoming Barriers. (United States)

    David, Jane L.; Goren, Paul D.

    Barriers to progress in educational reform exist inside and outside the education system. Some arise where new practices encounter traditional expectations and boundaries, but others go much deeper than education, such as poverty, racism, local political conflicts, and human resistance to change. The following five categories of barriers are…

  10. Penetration resistant barrier (United States)

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.


    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  11. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth


    Full Text Available In the preceding Papers I, II and III a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to model gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed, and simulation results of two synthetic nucleation scenarios (binary vs. ternary on new particle formation (NPF in the anthropogenically influenced CBL were presented and discussed. The purpose of the present finishing Paper IV is twofold: Firstly, an attempt is made to compile previous observational findings on NPF bursts in the CBL, obtained from a number of field experiments. Secondly, the scenario simulations discussed in Paper III will be evaluated with respect to the role of CBL turbulence in NPF burst evolution. It was demonstrated, that completely different nucleation mechanisms can lead to the occurrence of NPF bursts in the surface layer, but the corresponding evolution patterns strongly differ with respect to the origin, amplitude and phase of the NPF burst as well as with respect to the time-height evolution of turbulent vertical fluxes and double correlation terms of physicochemical and aerosoldynamical variables. The large differences between the binary and ternary case scenario indicate, that ammonia (NH3 can not be considered as a time-independent tuning parameter in nucleation modelling. Its contribution to the evolution of the NPF burst pattern is much more complicated and reflects the influence of CBL turbulence as well as the strong non-linearity of the ternary nucleation rate. The impact of water (H2O vapour on the nucleation rate is quite varying depending on the considered nucleation mechanism. According to the classical theory of binary nucleation involving H2O and sulphuric acid (H2SO4, H2O vapour favours NPF, according to the classical theory of ternary nuncleation involving H2O, H2SO4 and NH3 and according to organic nucleation via chemical reactions involving stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs, H2O vapour disfavours nucleation, and

  12. Synthesis and structural investigation of a unique columnar phase in the Bi2O3–TeO2–V2O5 System. (United States)

    Thakral, Vaishali; Bhardwaj, Neha; Uma, S


    A new columnar phase Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(5)O(34-δ) (δ ∼ 1.3) containing VO(4) tetrahedra has been identified for the first time in the Bi(2)O(3)-TeO(2)-V(2)O(5) system. The phase formation and the extent of substitution of Te(4+) for Bi(3+) ions in order to stabilize V(5+) in this composition have been confirmed by the single crystal analysis, combined with the powder X-ray diffraction of the solid state synthesized bulk crystalline samples. The oxide crystallizes in a monoclinic crystal system, space group P2/c, with unit cell parameters a = 11.4616(7) Å, b = 5.7131(3) Å, c = 23.5090(18) Å, β = 101.071° (6) (Z = 2). The structure retains the basic features of the columnar oxides with the presence of [Bi(10.65)Te(1.35)O(14)](n)(9.35n+) columns along the (010) direction, surrounded by (VO(4)) tetrahedra placed in the planes parallel to (100) and (001), with an isolated bismuth atom in between the columns. The composition with a limited Te(4+) substitution, Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(5)O(34-δ) (δ ∼ 1.3), exists with a surprisingly high oxygen deficiency as compared to the stoichiometrically known columnar oxides such as Bi(13)Mo(4)VO(34), Bi(12)Te(1)Mo(3)V(2)O(34), and Bi(11)Te(2)Mo(2)V(3)O(34). The structure of this interesting member of the columnar family of oxides based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction and the Raman spectroscopic studies indicates the possibility of the distribution of the oxygen vacancies among the VO(4) tetrahedral units. Further confirmation for the formation of vanadium stabilized columnar structures has been provided by the successful preparation of Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(4)CrO(34-δ) (δ ∼ 0.83) and Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(4)WO(34-δ) (δ ∼ 0.83) phases. Preliminary investigation of the photocatalytic efficiencies of the oxides Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(5)O(34-δ), Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(4)CrO(34-δ), and Bi(11.65)Te(1.35)V(4)WO(34-δ) revealed moderate photocatalytic activities for the decomposition of the dyes such as Rhodamine B under UV

  13. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.


    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  14. Ion assisted growth of B4C diffusion barrier layers in Mo/Si multilayered structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S.; Bruijn, S.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik


    We investigated the thermal stability of e-beam deposited Mo/B 4C/Si/B 4C layered systems, with and without ion assistance during the growth of the B 4C diffusion barrier layers. The thermal stability was investigated by in situ thermal annealing during grazing incidence X-ray reflection. By

  15. Geochemical barriers for environment protection and recovery of nonferrous metals. (United States)

    Chanturiya, Valentine; Masloboev, Vladimir; Makarov, Dmitriy; Nesterov, Dmitriy; Bajurova, Julia; Svetlov, Anton; Men'shikov, Yuriy


    A study of natural minerals, ore tailings and their products as materials for artificial geochemical barriers is presented. In particular, it focuses on interaction between calcite and dolomite and sulfate solutions containing nickel, copper and iron under static conditions. Calcite of -0.1 mm fraction has been shown to perform well as a barrier when added to water phases of tailing dumps and natural reservoirs. Experiments under dynamic conditions have revealed a high potential of thermally activated copper-nickel tailings as barriers. After a 500-day precipitating period on a geochemical barrier, the contents of nickel and copper in ore dressing tailings were found to increase 12- and 28-fold, respectively. An effective sorbent of copper, iron and nickel ions is a brucite-based product of hydrochloric acid treatment of vermiculite ore tailings. Its sorption capacity can be essentially increased through thermal activation.

  16. Improved Aerosol Optical Thickness, Columnar Water Vapor, and Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Combined CASI and SASI Airborne Hyperspectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yang


    Full Text Available An increasingly common requirement in remote sensing is the integration of hyperspectral data collected simultaneously from different sensors (and fore-optics operating across different wavelength ranges. Data from one module are often relied on to correct information in the other, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT and columnar water vapor (CWV. This paper describes problems associated with this process and recommends an improved strategy for processing remote sensing data, collected from both visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared modules, to retrieve accurate AOT, CWV, and surface reflectance values. This strategy includes a workflow for radiometric and spatial cross-calibration and a method to retrieve atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance based on a radiative transfer function. This method was tested using data collected with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI and SWIR Airborne Spectrographic Imager (SASI from a site in Huailai County, Hebei Province, China. Various methods for retrieving AOT and CWV specific to this region were assessed. The results showed that retrieving AOT from the remote sensing data required establishing empirical relationships between 465.6 nm/659 nm and 2105 nm, augmented by ground-based reflectance validation data, and minimizing the merit function based on AOT@550 nm optimization. The paper also extends the second-order difference algorithm (SODA method using Powell’s methods to optimize CWV retrieval. The resulting CWV image has fewer residual surface features compared with the standard methods. The derived remote sensing surface reflectance correlated significantly with the ground spectra of comparable vegetation, cement road and soil targets. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable enough for integrated atmospheric correction and surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing data. This study provides a good reference for surface

  17. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E


    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Facile synthesis of tetragonal columnar-shaped TiO2 nanorods for the construction of sensitive electrochemical glucose biosensor. (United States)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Tang, Yan; Li, Juan; Zhang, Yongcai; Hu, Xiaoya


    A tetragonal columnar-shaped TiO2 (TCS-TiO2) nanorods are synthesized via a facile route for the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor is constructed based on the direct electrochemistry of GOx at TCS-TiO2 modified glassy carbon electrode. The fabricated biosensor is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The immobilized enzyme molecules on TCS-TiO2 nanorods retain its native structure and bioactivity and show a surface controlled, quasi-reversible and fast electron transfer process. The TCS-TiO2 nanorods have large surface area and provide a favorable microenvironment for enhancing the electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. The constructed glucose biosensor shows wide linear range from 5.0×10(-6) to 1.32×10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 23.2 mA M(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit is calculated to be 2.0×10(-6) M at signal-to-noise of 3. The proposed glucose biosensor also exhibits excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, and acceptable operational stability. Furthermore, the biosensor can be successfully applied in the detection of glucose in serum sample at the applied potential of -0.50 V. The TCS-TiO2 nanorods provide an efficient and promising platform for the immobilization of proteins and development of excellent biosensors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  20. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L


    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  1. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer


    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  2. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer


    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  3. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab


    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  4. Role of the Structural and Thermal Peclet Numbers in the Brass Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwapisiński P.


    Full Text Available The Structural Peclet Number has been estimated experimentally by analyzing the morphology of the continuously cast brass ingots. It allowed to adapt a proper development of the Ivantsov’s series in order to formulate the Growth Law for the columnar structure formation in the brass ingots solidified in stationary condition. Simultaneously, the Thermal Peclet Number together with the Biot, Stefan, and Fourier Numbers is used in the model describing the heat transfer connected with the so-called contact layer (air gap between an ingot and crystallizer. It lead to define the shape and position of the s/l interface in the brass ingot subjected to the vertical continuous displacement within the crystallizer (in gravity. Particularly, a comparison of the shape of the simulated s/l interface at the axis of the continuously cast brass ingot with the real shape revealed at the ingot axis is delivered. Structural zones in the continuously cast brass ingot are revealed: FC - fine columnar grains, C - columnar grains, E - equiaxed grains, SC - single crystal situated axially.

  5. Structure and Thermal Stability of Copper Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangan Zhang


    Full Text Available Copper nitride (Cu3N thin films were deposited on glass via DC reactive magnetron sputtering at various N2 flow rates and partial pressures with 150°C substrate temperature. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and morphology. The results show that the films are composed of Cu3N crystallites with anti-ReO3 structure. The microstructure and morphology of the Cu3N film strongly depend on the N2 flow rate and partial pressure. The cross-sectional micrograph of the film shows typical columnar, compact structure. The thermal stabilities of the films were investigated using vacuum annealing under different temperature. The results show that the introducing of argon in the sputtering process decreases the thermal stability of the films.

  6. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. As an introduction of this type of gas discharge, the main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidal-driven DBDs (transient, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) will be described, and plasmachemical reaction pathways for the generation of ozone will be briefly discussed. The generation of atomic oxygen for ozone synthesis leads inevitably to the second application of DBDs, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in dry and humid air. Another application of DBDs is the generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent (V)UV/visible light. The last and latest application of DBDs is the surface processing near atmospheric pressures. As an example, results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers in an oxygen plasma will be shown as function of gas pressure, gap spacing, and applied frequency. The surface of the etched photoresist is characterized by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possibility of material deposition with DBDs will also be presented, where DBDs in acetylene lead to fast substrate deposition. Here, only the effects of the gas pressure and gap distance are explored.

  7. California highway barrier aesthetics (United States)


    This report will familiarize designers with current barrier design options, and encourage appropriate aesthetic considerations to develop visually pleasing context sensitive solutions for highway projects. Technical guidelines allow integral color, p...

  8. Thermal stability of quaternary alloy (InAlGaAs)-capped InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum dot heterostructures with variation in growth rate, barrier thickness, seed quantum dot monolayer coverage, and post-growth annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A.; Chakrabarti, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Verma, U. [Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India)


    Strain-driven influences on the structural and optoelectronic properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum dot (MQD) heterostructures prompted our research into the growth of thermally stable MQD samples that were functional in an emission range technically favorable for communication lasers and intermediate band gap solar cells. We also studied parameter optimization by varying growth rate, capping layer thickness, seed quantum dot (QD) monolayer coverage, and post-growth annealing. A capping combination of InAlGaAs and i-GaAs was used. This combination helps in strain compensation, favors growth of multiple QD layers, functions as a strain-driven phase separation alloy, and helps increase QD stability. Photoluminescence results showed MQD sample emissions in the technologically significant range of 1.1-1.3 {mu}m. Post-growth annealing at high temperatures led to inter-diffusion of the constituent QD materials, generation of low minimum energy states, and greater carrier involvement in intermediate band gap structures, thereby showing that annealing is a suitable method for post-growth manipulation. For one MQD sample, the annealing temperature was found to affect structural and optoelectronic properties as well as the presence of intermediate energy states. Heterostructure stability at annealing temperatures up to 750 {sup circle} C was found for the other samples. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence results supported these findings. (orig.)

  9. Permeation barrier for lightweight liquid hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, D.


    For the future usage of hydrogen as an automotive fuel, its on-board storage is crucial. One approach is the storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2, 20 K) in double-walled, vacuum insulated tanks. The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structural material enables a high potential of reducing the weight in comparison to the state-of-the-art stainless steel tanks. The generally high permeability of hydrogen through plastics, however, can lead to long-term degradation of the insulating vacuum. The derived objective of this dissertation was to find and apply an adequate permeation barrier (liner) on CFRP. The investigated liners were either foils adhered on CFRP specimens or coatings deposited on CFRP specimens. The coatings were produced by means of thermal spraying, metal plating or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The materials of the liners included Al, Au, Cu, Ni and Sn as well as stainless steel and diamond-like carbon. The produced liners were tested for their permeation behavior, thermal shock resistance and adherence to the CFRP substrate. Additionally, SEM micrographs were used to characterize and qualify the liners. The foils, although being a good permeation barrier, adhered weakly to the substrate. Furthermore, leak-free joining of foil segments is a challenge still to be solved. The metal plating liners exhibited the best properties. For instance, no permeation could be detected through a 50 {mu}m thick Cu coating within the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. This corresponds to a reduction of the permeation gas flow by more than factor 7400 compared to uncoated CFRP. In addition, the metal platings revealed a high adherence and thermal shock resistance. The coatings produced by means of thermal spraying and PVD did not show a sufficient permeation barrier effect. After having investigated the specimens, a 170 liter CFRP tank was fully coated with 50 {mu}m Cu by means of metal plating. (orig.)

  10. Thermally stable diamond brazing (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX


    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  11. Thermal conductivity anisotropy and grain structure in Ge2Sb2Te5 films (United States)

    Lee, Jaeho; Li, Zijian; Reifenberg, John P.; Lee, Sangchul; Sinclair, Robert; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E.


    Although lateral thermal conduction in Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films can influence the performance of phase change memory (PCM), there are no data available for the in-plane thermal conductivity. This work measures both the in-plane and the out-of-plane thermal conductivities for the amorphous, face-centered-cubic, and hexagonal-close-packed phases of GST using two independent techniques. For crystalline GST, we report anisotropy favoring out-of-plane conduction by up to 54%, which varies with annealing time. Scaling arguments indicate that the anisotropy may be due to the thermal resistance of amorphous regions near grain boundaries. This explanation is consistent with transmission electron microscopy images showing columnar grains and amorphous phase at grain boundaries.

  12. Variation between near-surface and columnar aerosol characteristics during the winter and summer at Delhi in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (United States)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, S.; Kanawade, V. P.; Bisht, D. S.


    Aerosol characteristics were studied over Delhi, a typical urban station in the Ganga basin in Northern India, during two contrasting weather conditions: winter and summer, to explain the changes in columnar and surface aerosol characteristics with the help of ground based measurements and CALIPSO satellite data. The near-surface mean aerosol mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 (±standard deviation) were observed to be ˜200 (±24) and 118 (±33) μg m-3, respectively, during the winter and ˜168 (±31) and 55 (±12) μg m-3, respectively, during the summer. PM2.5 was found to be about two times higher than the PM10 concentration during the winter period. Aerosol mass size distribution showed bi-modal nature during both the periods, with relative dominance of fine-particle mass concentrations during the winter, having low Reff value (0.63±0.05 μm) and coarse-particle mass concentrations during the summer, having large Reff value (1.52±0.60 μm). The concurrent measurement of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed high values (>0.60 at 500 nm) during both the periods. The Ångström exponent (α) over the station, however, also suggests relatively large contribution of fine-mode particles during the winter (α˜1.02) and coarse-mode dust particles during the summer (α˜0.51). The observed features in the surface and columnar measured aerosol characteristics during two different seasons are explained using the vertical winds coupled with the vertical profile of aerosols.

  13. Conduction heat transfer in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, H. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)], E-mail:; Dubus, N. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Pinard, L.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Barrault, J. [Laboratoire en catalyse et chimie organique, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)


    The thermal behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor is studied. The experimental tests are performed on a laboratory reactor with two working fluids: helium and air. A simple heat conduction model for calculating the heat loss is developed. By using temperature measurements in the internal and external electrodes, a thermal resistance of the reactor is defined. Finally, the percentage of the input power that is dissipated to the environment is given.

  14. Ultrasonic Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructure: Discrimination between Equiaxed- and Columnar-Grain Material – An Interim Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Good, Morris S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Watson, Bruce E.; Peters, Timothy J.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.


    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components used in the nuclear power industry is neither as effective nor reliable as is needed due to detrimental effects upon the interrogating ultrasonic beam and interference from ultrasonic backscatter. The root cause is the coarse-grain microstructure inherent to this class of materials. Some ultrasonic techniques perform better for particular microstructural classifications and this has led to the hypothesis that an ultrasonic inspection can be optimized for a particular microstructural class, if a technique exists to reliably classify the microstructure for feedback to the inspection. This document summarizes scoping experiments of in-situ ultrasonic methods for classification and/or characterization of the material microstructures in CASS components from the outside surface of a pipe. The focus of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic methods and provide an interim report that documents results and technical progress. An initial set of experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that in-service characterization of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) is feasible, and that, if reliably performed, such data would provide real-time feedback to optimize in-service inspections in the field. With this objective in mind, measurements for the experiment were restricted to techniques that should be robust if carried forward to eventual field implementation. Two parameters were investigated for their ability to discriminate between different microstructures in CASS components. The first parameter was a time-of-flight ratio of a normal incidence shear wave to that of a normal incidence longitudinal wave (TOFRSL). The ratio removed dependency on component thickness which may not be accurately reported in the field. The second parameter was longitudinal wave attenuation. The selected CASS specimens provided five equiaxed-grain material samples and five columnar

  15. Hedging Double Barriers with Singles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.


    Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges

  16. Generation of Biotechnology-Derived Flavobacterium columnare Ghosts by PhiX174 Gene E-Mediated Inactivation and the Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Infection in Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Zhu


    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial pathogen causing high mortality rates for many freshwater fish species. Fish vaccination with a safe and effective vaccine is a potential approach for prevention and control of fish disease. Here, in order to produce bacterial ghost vaccine, a specific Flavobacterium lysis plasmid pBV-E-cat was constructed by cloning PhiX174 lysis gene E and the cat gene with the promoter of F. columnare into the prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. The plasmid was successfully electroporated into the strain F. columnare G4cpN22 after curing of its endogenous plasmid. F. columnare G4cpN22 ghosts (FCGs were generated for the first time by gene E-mediated lysis, and the vaccine potential of FCG was investigated in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by intraperitoneal route. Fish immunized with FCG showed significantly higher serum agglutination titers and bactericidal activity than fish immunized with FKC or PBS. Most importantly, after challenge with the parent strain G4, the relative percent survival (RPS of fish in FCG group (70.9% was significantly higher than FKC group (41.9%. These results showed that FCG could confer immune protection against F. columnare infection. As a nonliving whole cell envelope preparation, FCG may provide an ideal alternative to pathogen-based vaccines against columnaris in aquaculture.

  17. Barriers to effective teaching. (United States)

    DaRosa, Debra A; Skeff, Kelley; Friedland, Joan A; Coburn, Michael; Cox, Susan; Pollart, Susan; O'connell, Mark; Smith, Sandy


    Medical school faculty members are charged with the critical responsibility of preparing the future physician and medical scientist workforce. Recent reports suggest that medical school curricula have not kept pace with societal needs and that medical schools are graduating students who lack the knowledge and skills needed to practice effectively in the 21st century. The majority of faculty members want to be effective teachers and graduate well-prepared medical students, but multiple and complex factors-curricular, cultural, environmental, and financial-impede their efforts. Curricular impediments to effective teaching include unclear definitions of and disagreement on learning needs, misunderstood or unstated goals and objectives, and curriculum sequencing challenges. Student and faculty attitudes, too few faculty development opportunities, and the lack of an award system for teaching all are major culture-based barriers. Environmental barriers, such as time limitations, the setting, and the physical space in which medical education takes place, and financial barriers, such as limited education budgets, also pose serious challenges to even the most committed teachers. This article delineates the barriers to effective teaching as noted in the literature and recommends action items, some of which are incremental whereas others represent major change. Physicians-in-training, medical faculty, and society are depending on medical education leaders to address these barriers to effect the changes needed to enhance teaching and learning. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  18. Skin barrier in rosacea* (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna


    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  19. Health Barriers to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Gracy


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.

  20. A study of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of Fe(II)Fe(III)2O(CH3CO2)6L3, L=H2O or C5H5N. Direct observation of the thermal barrier to electron transfer in a mixed valence complex (United States)

    Dziobkowski, C. T.; Wrobleski, J. T.; Brown, D. B.


    The mixed-valence iron (2, 3, 3) acetates, (Fe3O(CH3CO2)6L3), where L = water or pyridine, have been prepared and studied by Mossbauer, infrared, and optical spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility methods. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for the aquo complex are interpreted on the basis of HDVV S2 = 2, S1 = S3 = 5/2 spin exchange model with J12 = j23 = 1/-50 cm and J13 = 1/14.5 cm. An intervalence transfer band is observed at 1/138000 cm in the room temperature electronic spectrum of the aquo complex. Mossbauer spectra of these compounds are markedly temperature dependent. At 17K absorptions due to distinct Fe(2) and Fe(3) sites are observed while at 300 K a single absorption is observed. Spectra at intermediate temperatures are modeled by assuming intratrimer electronic relaxation between pairs of iron ions. The activation energy for relaxation derived from this model is 1/470 cm for the aquo complex. This energy is equal to the barrier to intramolecular, intervalence thermal electron transfer.

  1. Barrier distributions and scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, H.; Leigh, J.R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Mein, J.C.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Austria); Rowley, N. [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX 2 (France); Stefanini, A.M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; He, J.H. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F. [Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)


    The extraction of representations of the fusion barrier distribution from backward-angle, quasi-elastic, elastic and transfer excitation functions is discussed. Such excitation functions have been measured for {sup 16}O, {sup 32}S and {sup 40}Ca projectiles incident on a variety of targets. The results are compared with representations obtained from fusion excitation functions. Varying in their sensitivity, all representations show evidence of the barrier structure. Differences between the scattering and the fusion representations can be related to the effects of coupling to residual, weak reaction channels. (author)

  2. Carrier Transfer between InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Wells Separated by Thick Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.


    We have studied the carrier transfer between two adjacent wells of different width separated by a 100 nm thick barrier. At low temperatures (T 30 K: the transfer strongly increases, denoting that the thermal escape out of the QW...

  3. Fabrication of field-effect transistor utilizing oriented thin film of octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine and its electrical anisotropy based on columnar structure (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Miyamoto, Ayano; Yoneya, Makoto; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori


    Field-effect transistors with molecularly oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which characteristically form a columnar structure, have been fabricated, and the electrical anisotropy of C6PcH2 has been investigated. The molecularly oriented thin films of C6PcH2 were prepared by the bar-coating technique, and the uniform orientation in a large area and the surface roughness at a molecular level were observed by polarized spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The field effect mobilities parallel and perpendicular to the column axis of C6PcH2 were estimated to be (1.54 ± 0.24) × 10‑2 and (2.10 ± 0.23) × 10‑3 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, respectively. The electrical anisotropy based on the columnar structure has been discussed by taking the simulated results obtained by density functional theory calculation into consideration.

  4. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Giamberini, Marta, E-mail: [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia-Valls, Ricard [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Reina, Jose Antonio [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Domingo s/n, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Gumi, Tania [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain)


    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion Registered-Sign N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  5. An analytical approach to the light transport in columnar phosphors. Detector Optical Gain, angular distribution and the CsI:Tl paradigm. (United States)

    Psichis, Konstantinos; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George


    An analytical model has been developed for the light propagation in columnar phosphors, based on the optical photon propagation physical and geometrical principles. This model accounts for the multiple reflections on the sides of the crystal column, as well as for the infinite forward and backward reflections of the propagated optical photon beams created in the crystal bulk. Additionally it considers the lateral propagated optical photon beams after multiple refractions from the neighbor columns and the optical photon attenuation inside the scintillator. The model was used to predict the Detector Optical Gain (DOG), and the angular distribution, of the columnar CsI:Tl scintillators, used in medical imaging. The model was validated against CsI:Tl optical photon transmission published results and good agreement was observed. It was, also, found that the DOG is affected by the length of the columns, as well as the incident X-ray energy spectrum. The results of the angular distribution are in accordance with the theory that the longer crystal columns have more directional light distribution. The results of DOG are in accordance with the use of short crystal columns for lower energies (mammography) and the use of long crystal columns for higher energies (general radiology). Angular distribution was found more directive for long crystal columns. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Z.


    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. Here, the application of DBDs for ozone synthesis, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, the generation of incoherent (V)UV radiation and surface processing (etching, ashing) is presented. The main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidally-driven DBDs (transient, filamented, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) are described, and a simple plasmachemical reaction pathway for ozone synthesis are give. Experimental results on the degradation of VOCs (2-propanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride), as well as byproduct formation is presented for stand-alone DBD treatment, as well as for simultaneous (V)UV illumination of the discharge. Illumination of the discharge with (V)UV can change the plasmachemistry by enhanced formation of certain species of radicals--and thereby change byproduct formation--but also can change the discharge physics, known as the Joshi effect. As an example for generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent UV light, experimental results on a XeBr* excimer UV light source are presented. Effects of the total and partial pressure of a Xe/Br{sub 2} system, the gap spacing and the applied driving frequency on the UV radiant efficiency are shown. For the application of DBDs for surface processing, experimental results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers using DBDs in oxygen are shown function of gas pressure, gap spacing and applied frequency.

  7. Great Barrier Reef (United States)


    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  8. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices emplo...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  9. GCR Transport in the Brain: Assessment of Self-Shielding, Columnar Damage, and Nuclear Reactions on Cell Inactivation Rates (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D. (Technical Monitor)


    Radiation shield design is driven by the need to limit radiation risks while optimizing risk reduction with launch mass/expense penalties. Both limitation and optimization objectives require the development of accurate and complete means for evaluating the effectiveness of various shield materials and body-self shielding. For galactic cosmic rays (GCR), biophysical response models indicate that track structure effects lead to substantially different assessments of shielding effectiveness relative to assessments based on LET-dependent quality factors. Methods for assessing risk to the central nervous system (CNS) from heavy ions are poorly understood at this time. High-energy and charge (HZE) ion can produce tissue events resulting in damage to clusters of cells in a columnar fashion, especially for stopping heavy ions. Grahn (1973) and Todd (1986) have discussed a microlesion concept or model of stochastic tissue events in analyzing damage from HZE's. Some tissues, including the CNS, maybe sensitive to microlesion's or stochastic tissue events in a manner not illuminated by either conventional dosimetry or fluence-based risk factors. HZE ions may also produce important lateral damage to adjacent cells. Fluences of high-energy proton and alpha particles in the GCR are many times higher than HZE ions. Behind spacecraft and body self-shielding the ratio of protons, alpha particles, and neutrons to HZE ions increases several-fold from free-space values. Models of GCR damage behind shielding have placed large concern on the role of target fragments produced from tissue atoms. The self-shielding of the brain reduces the number of heavy ions reaching the interior regions by a large amount and the remaining light particle environment (protons, neutrons, deuterons. and alpha particles) may be the greatest concern. Tracks of high-energy proton produce nuclear reactions in tissue, which can deposit doses of more than 1 Gv within 5 - 10 cell layers. Information on rates of

  10. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke


    and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow...

  11. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis (United States)

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka


    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  12. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony


    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  13. and use of barrier techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consistent use of barrier techniques. Key-words: Attitudes, Dentists, Hepatitis B vaccination,. Barrier techniques. Résumé. Objectif: Virus Hépatite B constitue une menace importante pour le bien ... vacination contre hépatite B ct l'utilisation des techniques do la barriere. .... to staff and rarely from dentist to patients However,.

  14. Can-Filled Crash Barrier (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.


    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  15. [The cultural barrier in care]. (United States)

    Djadaoudjee, Lisa


    French cultural diversity is evident within French hospitals, where nurses are confronted with communication problems resulting from the language barrier. While communication is indeed essential, there is another important aspect of caring for a patient for behind the language barrier lies a cultural barrier which must be taken into account in order to provide high-quality care.

  16. Development of ion-plated aluminide diffusion coatings for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection of a nickel-based superalloy and a stainless steel (United States)

    Elsawy, Abdel Raouf

    This project was carried out at the University of Toronto and Cametoid Ltd of Whitby, Ontario. Ohno continuous casting; a novel net shape casting technique, was used to generate, Al-Y, Al-Ce, Al-La, and Al-Si-Y, in form of 1.6 to 1.7 mm diameter alloy wires. These alloy wires exhibited suitable properties for use as feed materials to an Ion Vapor Deposition facility. The deposition parameters were optimized to provide coatings with a compact and cohesive columnar structure with reduced porosity and diffusion barriers that were essential to ensure the success of the diffusion process in the subsequent stage. Solid-state diffusion heat treatment processes were developed in order to form the stable aluminide phases, AlNi and FeAl, on IN738 and S310 substrates, respectively. Experiments simulating the coating service conditions and environments encountered during the prospective aerospace and fuel cell applications were conducted to evaluate the performance of each aluminide coating developed during this study. Thermal cyclic oxidation and molten sulfate corrosion studies were performed on coated IN738 pins at 1050°C and 900°C, respectively, simulating the service environment of turbine engine blades and other hot section components. Molten carbonate corrosion behavior was investigated for coated S310 coupons that were immersed in, or covered with a thin film of molten carbonate, at 650°C, in air plus 30%CO2, to simulate the operating conditions of the cathode-side separator plates of molten carbonate fuel cells. The behavior of the reactive elements, yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, and silicon in enhancing the adhesion of the protective aluminum oxide scale was determined by weight variation experiments, structural examination and compositional analysis. The influence of the base material elements, nickel, chromium, and iron, on the formation of protective oxides was investigated. All coatings were found to provide significant improvement for thermal cyclic oxidation

  17. Thermal Barrier Coatings (les Revetements anti-mur de chaleur) (United States)


    Coatings (les Revetements anti-mur de chaleur ) U:.j> ^ST^K^NT A Papers presented at the 85th Meeting of the AGARD Structures and Materials Panel...nations in aerospace research and development; — Exchange of scientific and technical information; — Providing assistance to member nations for the...Panels which are composed of experts appointed by the National Delegates, the Consultant and Exchange Programme and the Aerospace Applications Studies

  18. Comparative study on effect of blending, thermal barrier coating (LHR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    adiabatic will enhance the overall engine performance. ..... inlet cooling water temperature of 80°C. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was mounted ..... The differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils play an ...

  19. Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, Alyssa, E-mail:; Korlacki, Rafał; Briley, Chad; Sekora, Derek; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Hofmann, Tino [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Wilson, Peter; Sinitskii, Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)


    Highly ordered and spatially coherent cobalt slanted columnar thin films (SCTFs) were deposited by glancing angle deposition onto silicon substrates, and subsequently oxidized by annealing at 475 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering, generalized ellipsometry, and density functional theory investigations reveal shape-invariant transformation of the slanted nanocolumns from metallic to transparent metal-oxide core-shell structures with properties characteristic of spinel cobalt oxide. We find passivation of Co-SCTFs yielding Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core-shell structures produced by conformal deposition of a few nanometers of alumina using atomic layer deposition fully prevents cobalt oxidation in ambient and from annealing up to 475 °C.

  20. Effects of annealing and conformal alumina passivation on anisotropy and hysteresis of magneto-optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films (United States)

    Briley, Chad; Mock, Alyssa; Korlacki, Rafał; Hofmann, Tino; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias


    We present magneto-optical dielectric tensor data of cobalt and cobalt oxide slanted columnar thin films obtained by vector magneto-optical generalized ellipsometry. Room-temperature hysteresis magnetization measurements were performed in longitudinal and polar Kerr geometries on samples prior to and after a heat treatment process with and without a conformal Al2O3 passivation coating. The samples have been characterized by generalized ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy in conjuncture with density functional theory. We observe strongly anisotropic hysteresis behaviors, which depend on the nanocolumn and magnetizing field orientations. We find that deposited cobalt films that have been exposed to heat treatment and subsequent atmospheric oxidation into Co3O4, when not conformally passivated, reveal no measurable magneto-optical properties while cobalt films with passivation coatings retain highly anisotropic magneto-optical properties.

  1. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper


    differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said...

  2. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle


    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  3. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor


    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  4. [Barrier methods of contraception]. (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A


    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  5. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi


    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  6. Laser cooling of fast stored ions in barrier buckets

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbarth, U; Grieser, M; Grimm, R; Lauer, I; Lenisa, P; Luger, V; Mudrich, M; Schätz, T; Schramm, U; Schwalm, D; Weidemüller, M


    We apply novel bunch forms for efficient laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. sup 9 Be sup + ions are longitudinally confined in barrier buckets providing free motion of the cooled ions inside the bucket (quasi-coasting beam). The implementation of laser cooling in barrier buckets is described, and longitudinal dynamics of laser cooling is compared to electron cooling. With laser cooling, longitudinal temperatures far below 1 K are reached, corresponding to a momentum spread of DELTA p/p<10 sup - sup 6. When the thermal energy becomes sufficiently small, significant modifications of the ion distribution due to space-charge effects are observed.

  7. Melt Focusing Along Permeability Barriers in Various Tectonic Settings (United States)

    Montesi, L. G.; Hebert, L. B.


    The lithosphere, cold and rigid, acts as a barrier to the migration of melt from sources in the convecting mantle to the surface. In mid-ocean ridge settings in particular, the contrast between the width of the melt production zone at depths, reaching tens to hundreds of kilometer from the ridge axis, and the zone of crustal accretion, only one or two kilometers wide, points to the presence of an efficient focusing mechanism. The development of a zone impermeable to melt, or permeability barrier, at the base of the thermal boundary layer, and transport of melt in a high porosity channel at the base of this barrier provides a reasonable explanation for this focusing. Applied to various segmented and non-segmented mid-ocean ridges like the ultraslow Southwest Indian Ridge and the ultrafast East Pacific Rise at the Siqueiros transform, this process predicts along-strike variations in crustal thickness that compare favorably with observations. Although the concept of permeability barriers has been discussed mainly in the context of mid-ocean ridges, it may apply to other locations where melting in the upper mantle occurs. Permeability barriers form when ascending melt cools and crystallizes as it enters the thermal boundary layer at the base of the lithosphere. Such a setup is present at subduction zones as melts ascending from the mantle wedge interact with the overriding plate. Convection in the wedge introduces thermal gradients that may focus melt roughly to a point above the transition from a coupled to decoupled slab interface. This location is close to where volcanic arcs are observed. Above mantle plumes, a permeability barrier may develop coincident with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, allowing low-degree melts to stall and form a low-velocity layer that has been observed seismically. To date, the hypothesis of a permeability barrier has been thoroughly tested only in the context of mid-ocean ridges. Whether crystallization would be rapid enough in

  8. International Collaboration Activities on Engineered Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-scale heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-scale experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier system (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.

  9. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon


    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  10. Thermal defoliation (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  11. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.


    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  12. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst (United States)

    Steinfeld, David


    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  13. Ocean barrier layers' effect on tropical cyclone intensification. (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Leung, L Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan


    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are "quasi-permanent" features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  14. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.


    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  15. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  16. Smoldering and Flame Resistant Textiles via Conformal Barrier Formation. (United States)

    Zammarano, Mauro; Cazzetta, Valeria; Nazaré, Shonali; Shields, J Randy; Kim, Yeon Seok; Hoffman, Kathleen M; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Davis, Rick


    A durable and flexible silicone-based backcoating (halogen free) is applied to the backside of an otherwise smoldering-prone and flammable fabric. When exposed to fire, cyclic siloxanes (produced by thermal decomposition of the backcoating) diffuse through the fabric in the gas phase. The following oxidation of the cyclic siloxanes forms a highly conformal and thermally stable coating that fully embeds all individual fibers and shields them from heat and oxidation. As a result, the combustion of the fabric is prevented. This is a novel fire retardant mechanism that discloses a powerful approach towards textiles and multifunctional flexible materials with combined smoldering/flaming ignition resistance and fire-barrier properties.

  17. Thermal Clothing (United States)


    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  18. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.


    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials. (United States)


    ... mineral fiber insulation or an equivalent thermal barrier; or (3) The foam plastic insulating material has... thermal insulating materials. 3280.207 Section 3280.207 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.207 Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials. (a...

  20. Actin filaments growing against a barrier with fluctuating shape. (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala


    We study force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against a nonrigid obstacle, in the presence of an external load. The filaments polymerize by either moving the whole obstacle, with a large energy cost, or by causing local distortion in its shape which costs much less energy. The nonrigid obstacle also has local thermal fluctuations due to which its shape can change with time and we describe this using fluctuations in the height profile of a one-dimensional interface with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We find the shape fluctuations of the barrier strongly affect the force generation mechanism. The qualitative nature of the force-velocity curve is crucially determined by the relative time scale of filament and barrier dynamics. The height profile of the barrier also shows interesting variation with the external load. Our analytical calculations within mean-field theory show reasonable agreement with our simulation results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov


    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  2. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  3. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier (United States)

    Van Der Beck, Roland R.; Bond, James A.


    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  4. Heat transport of graphene-based normal metal-ferromagnetic barrier-superconductor junctions (United States)

    Zargar Shoushtari, M.; Hajati, Y.; Jafari Zadeh, B.


    In this paper, the effect of ferromagnetic barrier (FB) on the thermal conductance of graphene-based normal metal/ferromagnetic barrier/s- and d-wave superconductor junction has been studied theoretically. The results show that the exchange energy (h) in the ferromagnetic barrier has a strong effect on the amplitude, phase and period of the thermal conductance oscillations in terms of the FB length. Also, we have discussed novel thermal conductance oscillations in a graphene-based NFBS junction that happened for maximum superconducting orientation α=π/4. This finding is arisen from the quantum nature of interference between spin states, up and down quasiparticles in FB region. Interestingly, at α=π/4 the h has also the highest effect on the thermal conductance and by increasing the exchange energy h, the thermal conductance enhances at this angle. The exchange energy h also affects the thermal conductance as a function of temperature for both s- and d-wave superconductor. At last, we propose an experimental setup to detect our predicted effects.

  5. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.


    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  6. Direct and indirect estimates of gene flow among wild and managed populations of Polaskia chichipe, an endemic columnar cactus in Central Mexico. (United States)

    Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro; Hamrick, James L


    Microsatellite markers were used to obtain direct and indirect estimates of gene flow in populations of Polaskia chichipe under different management regimes, in order to understand the genetic consequences of gene flow in the evolutionary process of domestication. P. chichipe is a columnar cactus endemic to the Tehuacan Valley, Central Mexico, and has come under domestication for its edible fruit. Morphological, phenological, physiological, and reproductive differences, apparently attributable to artificial selection, exist between wild and managed populations, which grow sympatrically. However, strong gene flow may counteract the effects of this selection. In this study, we used paternity analysis to demonstrate that although most of the pollinations occur among individuals within the same population at distances < 40 m, pollen flow from other populations is considerable (27 +/- 5%). Heterogeneity in pollen clouds sampled by mother plants (FST = 0.12) indicated nonrandom mating, which is probably due to temporal heterogeneity in pollen movement. Spatial structure on local and regional scales is consistent with an isolation-by-distance model. The similarity of indirect, direct and demographic estimates of neighbourhood size (74-250 individuals) suggests that this genetic structure is representative of an equilibrium state. These results suggest that traditional management practices have conserved the genetic resources of this species in situ, but also that gene flow is counteracting the effect of domestication to some degree. We discuss our results in the general context of genetic exchange between cultivated and wild populations during the domestication process.

  7. Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition and Equiaxed Grain Alignment in Directionally Solidified Ni3Al Alloy Under an Axial Magnetic Field (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xuan, Weidong; Xie, Xinliang; Li, Chuanjun; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Jianbo; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming


    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the solidification structure in directionally solidified Ni-21.5Al-0.4Zr-0.1B (at. pct) alloy was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the application of a high magnetic field caused the deformation of dendrites and the occurrence of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The magnetic field tended to orient the 〈001〉 crystal direction of the equiaxed grains along the magnetic field direction. The bulk solidification experiment under a high magnetic field showed that the crystal exhibited magnetic crystalline anisotropy. Further, the thermoelectric (TE) magnetic force and TE magnetic convention were analyzed by three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations. The results showed that the maximum value of TE magnetic force localized in the vicinity of the secondary dendrite arm root, which should be responsible for the dendrite break and CET. Based on the high-temperature creep mechanism, a simple model was proposed to describe the magnetic field intensity needed for CET: B ≥ kG^{ - 1.5} R^{1.25} . The model is in good agreement with the experiment results. The experimental results should be attributed to the combined action of TE magnetic effects and the magnetic moment.

  8. Creation of Superheterojunction Polymers via Direct Polycondensation: Segregated and Bicontinuous Donor-Acceptor π-Columnar Arrays in Covalent Organic Frameworks for Long-Lived Charge Separation. (United States)

    Jin, Shangbin; Supur, Mustafa; Addicoat, Matthew; Furukawa, Ko; Chen, Long; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Irle, Stephan; Jiang, Donglin


    By developing metallophthalocyanines and diimides as electron-donating and -accepting building blocks, herein, we report the construction of new electron donor-acceptor covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with periodically ordered electron donor and acceptor π-columnar arrays via direct polycondensation reactions. X-ray diffraction measurements in conjunction with structural simulations resolved that the resulting frameworks consist of metallophthalocyanine and diimide columns, which are ordered in a segregated yet bicontinuous manner to form built-in periodic π-arrays. In the frameworks, each metallophthalocyanine donor and diimide acceptor units are exactly linked and interfaced, leading to the generation of superheterojunctions-a new type of heterojunction machinery, for photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We show that this polycondensation method is widely applicable to various metallophthalocyanines and diimides as demonstrated by the combination of copper, nickel, and zinc phthalocyanine donors with pyrommellitic diimide, naphthalene diimide, and perylene diimide acceptors. By using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and electron spin resonance, we demonstrated that the COFs enable long-lived charge separation, whereas the metal species, the class of acceptors, and the local geometry between donor and acceptor units play roles in determining the photochemical dynamics. The results provide insights into photoelectric COFs and demonstrate their enormous potential for charge separation and photoenergy conversions.

  9. Origin and pathways of the mineral dust transport to two Spanish EARLINET sites: Effect on the observed columnar and range-resolved dust optical properties (United States)

    Mandija, Florian; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Barragan, Ruben; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Lyamani, Hassan; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francisco; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Valenzuela, Antonio; García Vizcaíno, David


    In this paper, is presented a method for estimation of the effect of the transport process to aerosol optical properties. Aerosol optical data retrieved by lidars and sun-photometer measurements, are applied to Saharan dust events observed simultaneously at the two EARLINET/AERONET sites of Barcelona and Granada during the periods of June-September of 2012 and 2013. For this purpose, elastic lidar profiles and sun-photometer columnar retrievals are analyzed together with satellite observations and dust forecast models. Granada presents more than twice Saharan dust outbreaks compared to Barcelona. The scenarios favoring the Saharan dust outbreaks are identified in both places. The mineral dust originating in the Sahara region and arriving at both stations is usually transport wither over the Atlas Mountains or through an Atlantic pathway. Analyses of dust events affecting both stations reveal how differences in the transport process lead to differences in the aerosol optical properties measured at each station. Mean dust related Ångström exponent is 1.8 times higher in Barcelona than in Granada. This difference is a result of the additional contribution of anthropogenic aerosol, mainly in the aerosol fine mode, during the transport of the mineral dust plume over the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Seasonal and monthly variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from multi-year MODIS, LIDAR, and AERONET Sun/sky radiometer measurements (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Seung-Yeon

    Multi-year records of MODIS, micro-pulse lidar (MPL), and aerosol robotic network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer measurements were analyzed to investigate the seasonal, monthly and geographical variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia. Similar features of monthly and seasonal variations were found among the measurements, though the observational methodology and periods are not coincident. Seasonal and monthly cycles of MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over east Asia showed a maximum in spring and a minimum in autumn and winter. Aerosol vertical extinction profiles measured by MPL also showed elevated aerosol loads in the middle troposphere during the spring season. Seasonal and spatial distributions were related to the dust and anthropogenic emissions in spring, but modified by precipitation in July-August and regional atmospheric dispersion in September-February. All of the AERONET Sun/sky radiometers utilized in this study showed the same seasonal and monthly variations of MODIS-derived AOD. Interestingly, we found a peak of monthly mean AOD over industrialized coastal regions of China and the Yellow Sea, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, in June from both MODIS and AERONET Sun/sky radiometer measurements. Especially, the maximum monthly mean AOD in June is more evident at the AERONET urban sites (Beijing and Gwangju). This AOD June maximum is attributable to the relative contribution of various processes such as stagnant synoptic meteorological patterns, secondary aerosol formation, hygroscopic growth of hydrophilic aerosols due to enhanced relative humidity, and smoke aerosols by regional biomass burning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Ramírez-López


    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el desarrollo y la implementación de algoritmos computacionales basados en teoría del caos y autómatas celulares para la simulación del crecimiento de granos en secciones cuadradas de acero producidas por colada continua. Se desarrollaron tres algoritmos para la simulación de las estructuras de grano en las zonas perimetral, columnar y equiaxial; incluyen rutinas para estimular la nucleación y crecimiento del grano. Estas fueron compiladas separadamente al algoritmo principal con el objeto de hacer más eficiente el sistema de simulación. Los algoritmos analizan todos los nodos a cada paso, durante la simulación de cálculo y una interfase de despliegue gráfico muestra en la pantalla el proceso de solidificación. La teoría del caos fue empleada integrando un proceso aleatorio de selección. El resultado de este análisis es una imagen digital de celdas que representan a los granos (autómata celular y es desplegada en la pantalla en función a un código numérico asignado a las posiciones nodales.

  12. A new strategy to engineer polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with thick active layers via self-assembly of the tertiary columnar phase. (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Zhenhua; Pan, Cheng; Jiang, Naisheng; Satija, Sushil K; Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam H


    We report that the addition of a non-photoactive tertiary polymer phase in the binary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell leads to a self-assembled columnar nanostructure, enhancing the charge mobilities and photovoltaic efficiency with surprisingly increased optimal active blend thicknesses over 300 nm, 3-4 times larger than that of the binary counterpart. Using the prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend as a model BHJ system, we discover that the inert poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) added in the binary BHJ blend self-assembles into vertical columns, which not only template the phase segregation of electron acceptor fullerenes but also induce the out-of-plane rotation of the edge-on-orientated crystalline P3HT phase. Using complementary interrogation methods including neutron reflectivity, X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the enhanced charge transport originates from the more randomized molecular stacking of the P3HT phase and the spontaneous segregation of fullerenes at the P3HT/PMMA interface, driven by the high surface tension between the two polymeric components. The results demonstrate a potential method for increasing the thicknesses of high-performance polymer BHJ solar cells with improved photovoltaic efficiency, alleviating the burden of stringently controlling the ultrathin blend thickness during the roll-to-roll-type large-area manufacturing environment.

  13. Strain Effects in Epitaxial VO2 Thin Films on Columnar Buffer-Layer TiO2/Al2O3 Virtual Substrates. (United States)

    Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Burgess, Katherine; Charipar, Nicholas; Cheng, Shu-Fan; Stroud, Rhonda; Piqué, Alberto


    Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 thin film heterostructures were grown on (100) (m-cut) Al2O3 substrates via pulsed laser deposition. We have demonstrated the ability to reduce the semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) temperature of VO2 to ∼44 °C while retaining a 4 order of magnitude SMT using the TiO2 buffer layer. A combination of electrical transport and X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping studies help examine the specific strain states of VO2/TiO2/Al2O3 heterostructures as a function of TiO2 film growth temperatures. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the columnar microstructure present in TiO2 buffer films is responsible for the partially strained VO2 film behavior and subsequently favorable transport characteristics with a lower SMT temperature. Such findings are of crucial importance for both the technological implementation of the VO2 system, where reduction of its SMT temperature is widely sought, as well as the broader complex oxide community, where greater understanding of the evolution of microstructure, strain, and functional properties is a high priority.

  14. Nurse plants vs. nurse objects: effects of woody plants and rocky cavities on the recruitment of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus. (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel Angel; Sosa, Vinicio J


    Most studies on cactus recruitment have focused on the role of woody plants as seedling facilitators. Although the spatial association of cacti with objects had been described, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify which mechanisms facilitate the establishment of a columnar cactus under the shade and protection of objects and to compare these mechanisms with those involved in plant-plant facilitation. Three split-split-plot field experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two microhabitats (inside rocky cavities and beneath plant canopies) on seed removal, germination, seedling survivorship and dry weight. Flat, open spaces were used as the control. For each microhabitat, the effect of seed or seedling protection and substrate limitation were explored; aboveground microclimate and some soil properties were also characterized. The permanence of superficial seeds was greater inside rocky cavities than beneath woody plant canopies or on flat, open areas. Germination was similar in cavities and beneath plant canopies, but significantly higher than on flat, open areas. Seedling survivorship was greater beneath plant canopies than inside cavities or on flat, open spaces. The mechanisms of plant facilitation are different from those of object facilitation. There are seed-seedling conflicts involved in the recruitment of P. leucocephalus: nurse plants favour mainly seedling survivorship by providing a suitable microenvironment, while nurse objects mainly favour seed permanence, by protecting them from predators.

  15. Alpha-catenin-dependent recruitment of the centrosomal protein CAP350 to adherens junctions allows epithelial cells to acquire a columnar shape. (United States)

    Gavilan, Maria P; Arjona, Marina; Zurbano, Angel; Formstecher, Etienne; Martinez-Morales, Juan R; Bornens, Michel; Rios, Rosa M


    Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT)-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  16. Alpha-catenin-dependent recruitment of the centrosomal protein CAP350 to adherens junctions allows epithelial cells to acquire a columnar shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P Gavilan


    Full Text Available Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  17. Growth and reproductive characteristics of the columnar cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis and their relationships with environmental factors and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae. (United States)

    Pimienta-Barrios, Eulogio; Pimienta-Barrios, Enrique; Salas-Galván, Mariá Eugenia; Zañudo-Hernandez, Julia; Nobel, Park S


    Three natural populations of pitayo (Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum), a columnar arborescent cactus, were studied in their subtropical environments in western Mexico. All of the sites were characterized by shallow, nutrient-poor soils. Percentage of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi, stem growth, fruit mass, and percentage germination were greater in S. queretaroensis at Autlan, Jalisco (AJ) than at Zacoalco de Torres, Jalisco (ZTJ) or Santa Rosa, Zacatecas (SRZ). The onset of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae during the middle of the summer wet period preceded increases in stem extension rate and stem phosphorus concentration. Based on previous studies of effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis, climatic conditions were more favorable for photosynthesis at AJ than at SRZ and ZTJ, as indicated by the amount of summer rainfall, the amount of light, and the moderate air temperatures that prevailed during the fall and winter seasons. There was a significant positive correlation between stem growth and percentage of total root length colonized by arbuscules of AM fungi for S. queretaroensis at SRZ and AJ, but not at ZTJ. A negative significant correlation was observed between stem growth and maximal and minimal air temperatures at the three study sites. Stem growth was positively related to rainfall only at SRZ, and light was statistically related to stem growth only at ZTJ. Among sites, S. queretaroensis at AJ had the highest carbon gain and greatest AM colonization, creating physiological conditions that led to the highest stem growth, fruit mass and percentage of seed germination.

  18. Barriers to organic milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda


    Full Text Available This paper describes barriers to production of the organic milk. There was conducted a survey among conventional producers of cow’s milk. Based on the identified barriers to organic milk production and farmers’ opinions on them there were identified the most important barriers. The most important barrier to the production of organic milk in Vysočina region is considered to be the lack of price premiums for organic milk produced. The price premium is currently around 0.40 CZK per litre of organic milk. Farmers require a minimum price premium 1 CZK per litre, respectively 30 % increase of the price of milk. The higher price premium may serve as a motivation, which could eliminate the second major barrier - satisfaction with the current production. Problematic contact with suppliers has been identified as the third most important barrier by surveyed firms. Buyers do not respect the agreed purchase price (premium price. Partial barrier to organic milk production, according to surveyed farmers is the lack of the necessary amount of concentrated feed in the quality of organic milk.

  19. A composite vacuum barrier for the LHC short straight section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenny, B.; Rohmig, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Uriarte, J.M. [FIBERTECNIC, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)


    The lattice of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will contain 384 Short Straight Section (SSS) units, one in every 53 m half-cell. The SSS is composed of a twin aperture high-field superconducting quadrupole and of two combined-function corrector magnets operating in pressurized helium at 1.9 K. The SSS cryostat contains also a barrier for sectorisation of the insulation vacuum. The vacuum barrier is mounted between the helium vessel and the vacuum enclosure. Its functions are to limit the extent of eventual helium leaks and to facilitate the leak detection and the pumping-down from atmospheric pressure. During installation of the LHC, the vacuum barrier permits independent testing of the half-cells, thus enabling higher installation rates. In parallel to a conventional barrier made out of austenitic stainless steel, a barrier of composite material was developed, taking advantage of the lower thermal conductivity of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, and with the aim of reducing costs for LHC. The thermo-mechanical design together with the conception and the moulding techniques used for the manufacture of the prototype are described. Bonding techniques for the leak tight stainless steel composite interfaces are presented and test results shown. Results on the mechanical performance and on the helium tests carried out on the prototype are given.

  20. Australia's Great Barrier Reef (United States)


    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.